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The article considers a significant global issue - gender gap starting and developing own business. The field of business was for a long time reserved to men, thus, despite of an increasing number of female entrepreneurs during last decade, the number of female entrepreneurs in Europe, including Lithuania, remains lower than the one of male entrepreneurs. According to the data of various statistical sources, an average ratio of enterprises newly established by men and women in EU countries is about 70% and 30% (European Economic and Social Committee, 2007). Especially in developing countries where gender stereotypes formed through long decades (women's main role is to be wife and mother) are treated as one of the most important obstacles preventing women to start their own business. Business development, achievements in work environment such as successful carrier, increased personal influence and prestige in society, in contrast with simple job, require conditionally great personal commitment which according to various sources of literature (Nordic Innovation Centre (2007); M. Minniti (2003); P. Tominc, M. Rebernik (2006)) is more acceptable to men than women. Moreover, it is supposed that own business often puts to shade personal private life; therefore it is more associated to men than women. Going deep into the field was also encouraged by the discovery that the analysed literature lacks more detailed discussion of factors that determine the emergence of gender gap in perspective of business establishment. Scientists point out various factors, attach them to various groups, however, little attention is paid to the impact of those factors to existing gender gap. At present, literature does not have an answer to such questions as: "Why do differences exist?", "What causes them?". The aim of the article - to determine differences of gender gap in entrepreneurship - is to review the reasons provided in literature explaining the emergence of gender gap when starting own business, to analyse and point out the factors which positively or negatively influence the behaviour of men and women in business and also, on the grounds of expert evaluation, to perform a comparative study of gender gap in entrepreneurship in Lithuania. Having performed an analysis of scientific literature, the conclusion was made that the theories of feminism and discrimination, changes of demographic factors, different value systems and various other factors best explain the prevailing gender differences between men and women. In order to systemise different factors influencing gender gap, the article provides such factor groups as cultural, organisational, economic, demographic, psychological, technological, institutional and political factors. Also the factors that influence the differences of men and women in business in three ways (increase, decrease and neutral) are excluded. Having completed a comparative analysis of gender differences in entrepreneurship, the conclusion was made that the gender differences discussed and analysed in literature are relevant also to Lithuanian entrepreneurs. An expert survey revealed that enterprises managed by men are bigger, exist longer than the ones managed by women; however, the fields of business establishment of both men and women are very similar. It is important to note that the theory emphasises different value systems of genders in obvious practise.
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ISSN 1392-2785 ENGINEERING ECONOMICS. 2008. No 5 (60)
Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship
Gražina Startien÷, Rita Remeikien÷
Kauno technologijos universitetas
Laisv÷s al. 55, LT-44309 Kaunas
The article considers a significant global issue
gender gap starting and developing own business. The
field of business was for a long time reserved to men, thus,
despite of an increasing number of female entrepreneurs
during last decade, the number of female entrepreneurs in
Europe, including Lithuania, remains lower than the one
of male entrepreneurs. According to the data of various
statistical sources, an average ratio of enterprises newly
established by men and women in EU countries is about
70% and 30% (European Economic and Social Committee,
2007). Especially in developing countries where gender
stereotypes formed through long decades (women’s main
role is to be wife and mother) are treated as one of the
most important obstacles preventing women to start their
own business. Business development, achievements in work
environment such as successful carrier, increased personal
influence and prestige in society, in contrast with simple
job, require conditionally great personal commitment
which according to various sources of literature (Nordic
Innovation Centre (2007); M. Minniti (2003); P. Tominc,
M. Rebernik (2006)) is more acceptable to men than
women. Moreover, it is supposed that own business often
puts to shade personal private life; therefore it is more
associated to men than women.
Going deep into the field was also encouraged by the
discovery that the analysed literature lacks more detailed
discussion of factors that determine the emergence of
gender gap in perspective of business establishment.
Scientists point out various factors, attach them to various
groups, however, little attention is paid to the impact of
those factors to existing gender gap. At present, literature
does not have an answer to such questions as: “Why do
differences exist?“, “What causes them?“.
The aim of the article – to determine differences of
gender gap in entrepreneurship is to review the reasons
provided in literature explaining the emergence of gender
gap when starting own business, to analyse and point out
the factors which positively or negatively influence the
behaviour of men and women in business and also, on the
grounds of expert evaluation, to perform a comparative
study of gender gap in entrepreneurship in Lithuania.
Having performed an analysis of scientific literature,
the conclusion was made that the theories of feminism and
discrimination, changes of demographic factors, different
value systems and various other factors best explain the
prevailing gender differences between men and women. In
order to systemise different factors influencing gender gap,
the article provides such factor groups as cultural,
organisational, economic, demographic, psychological,
technological, institutional and political factors. Also the
factors that influence the differences of men and women in
business in three ways (increase, decrease and neutral) are
Having completed a comparative analysis of gender
differences in entrepreneurship, the conclusion was made
that the gender differences discussed and analysed in
literature are relevant also to Lithuanian entrepreneurs.
An expert survey revealed that enterprises managed by
men are bigger, exist longer than the ones managed by
women; however, the fields of business establishment of
both men and women are very similar. It is important to
note that the theory emphasises different value systems of
genders in obvious practise.
Keywords: gender gap, factors influencing gender gap in
entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship.
Actuality of the problem. Equal opportunities of men
and women and sexual equality are not fully implemented
either in Lithuania or in many other countries (N.
Daukantien÷, 2006). Inequality of men and women in the
world of business is a serious problem of entire European
society. A great gap between the salary of men and women
is still noticeable, a stereotypical view to woman’s role in
the family exists even today, which prevents women to
integrate into labour market and start their own business.
There is no doubt that the development of any
economic and social system is based, to large extent, on
the development of entrepreneurship, which stimulates
entrepreneurs to develop their companies and also motivate
and encourage the adult population to start their own
entrepreneurial careers (P. Tominc, M. Rebernik, (2006);
K. Kriščiūnas, J. Greblikaite (2007); V. Navickas, R.
Bagdonait÷, V. Juščius (2006)). Due to the globalization
and integration of the countries with transitional economics
into the global market, not only increases the degree of risk
for enterprises practicing economic activity, but there also
occur various ways of risk reduction in the level of the
enterprise and state.
(G. Startien÷, R. Remeikien÷ (2007);
R.Adamonien÷, J. Trifanova (2007)).
Entrepreneurship is clearly a complex and multifaceted
Changes in economy and the restructuring of
labor markets in terms of employee qualifications, the
nature of works contents and work contracts have raised
the profile and importance of entrepreneurship within the
global economy (M. Minniti (2003); A. Šileika, D.
Andriušaitien÷ (2007)). Female and male entrepreneurs
differ with respect to their personal and business profile:
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they start and run businesses in different sectors, develop
different products, pursue different goals and structure
their businesses in a different fashion (I. Verheul, A. Stel,
R. Thurik, 2004). Despite the rapid growth of women in
professional and managerial jobs and the economic
importance of female entrepreneurs, the gender gap in
entrepreneurship remains significant (M. Minniti (2003); I.
Verheul et al (2004)). Although according to the data of
“The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor“ (2007), the
participation of women in business is constantly
increasing, the systematically lower rate of female
participation indicates that some differences exist. Foreign
scientists maintain that women face lots of difficulties
developing their own business. Some of these hurdles have
been identified as being greater for women than men.
These challenges include (R. McKay, 2001): obtaining
capital, acquiring appropriate training, resistance from
relatives, friends and family, overcoming cultural
conditioning and discrimination. European Economic and
Social Committee (2007) agrees with the problems
mentioned and states that social and cultural hurdles, lack of
information about education and learning possibilities as
well as additional difficulties in finding financing for
business projects cause the fact that women starting business
face more problems than men. However, the analyses both
in theory and practice testify a successful activity of women
starting and developing enterprises.
Although strong interest in gender gap in
entrepreneurship came up only when the practice of women-
entrepreneurs became more active, i.e. in the last century.
The analysed literature is full of various micro, macro
analysis and studies performed in various countries. Having
the results of various studies the authors try to determine the
existing gender gap and more clearly perceive the reasons of
gender gap in business as well as determine and analyse
factors which influence different behaviour of men and
women when starting or developing business. Though
gender gap in entrepreneurship is widely discussed, there are
no clear definitions of the reasons for those differences.
Some authors (T. B. Levent et al., 2003) explain gender gap
by feminism theories, others (R. O. Kutanis, S.
Bayraktaroglu, 2003) – by changing demographical factor
tendencies and different value systems, and still others (I.
Verheul, A. Van Stel, R. Thurik (2006); G. Negru-Strauti,
M. Izvercian, M. Tion (2008)) – try to explain the existence
of gender gap in business by referring to various factors.
One more question that scientists do not find one unique
answer to is: “Do the same factors have similar influence on
gender gap?“ Such authors as M. Minniti (2003) state that
the same factors influence men and women making business
solutions; however, statistical data reveal a lower participation
of women in business, which allows us to presume that
gender gap exists. Unfortunately, the nature and reasons for
the differences are not fully presented in scientific literature.
Object of the article – gender gap.
Purpose of the article – to determine differences of
gender gap in entrepreneurship.
To achieve the purpose of the article, the following tasks
were set:
1) to point out the reasons which determined the
emergence of gender gap in perspective of starting
2) to classify the factors influencing gender gap in
3) to determine the factors which increase, decrease
or are neutral in producing a gender gap in
4) to perform a comparative analysis of gender gap
in entrepreneurship on the grounds of expert
Scientific methods: evaluation of scientific literature,
statistic data, secondary data, professional conclusion.
In the first part of the article the reasons of gender gap
emergence in entrepreneurship are discussed. In order to
perform a deeper analysis of factors which influence men
and women differences in entrepreneurship, the second
part of the article provides the classification of those
factors into certain groups and indicates the type of
influence – positive, negative or neutral, i. e the factor that
influences the behaviour of men and women in
establishing their own business. The third part of the
article is devoted to a comparative analysis of gender gap
in entrepreneurship, taking into consideration expert
Gender differences from the viewpoint of
business establishment
In the early literature entrepreneurship has been a man‘s
domain. The historical descriptions of the entrepreneur‘s
activities are strictly masculine. Bird and Brush (2002) in
their works provide the definitions of entrepreneurship of
such pioneers of entrepreneurship theory as Shumpeter,
Hebert and Link, Liebenstein and others. According to
Shumpeter (1934), the entrepreneur is as captain of industry,
while Hebert and Link (1982) celebrate the key man.
Liebenstein (1968) describes the hero who perceives the
gaps and connects markets, and Knight‘s (1921) was a
capitalist, a special social class and an active businessman
who directed economic activity. Not only in economic but
also in psychological and social literature scientists
describes entrepreneurs as men, therefore the question is:
what caused women’s participation in business? Scientific
interest in women entrepreneurs increased only recently in
XX century. Increased participation and success of women
in entrepreneurship could result in changes in certain
demographic variables, such as higher degrees of residential
mobility, new lifestyle and nutritional habits, increased
duration of work time, possible higher rates of divorce or of
never-married woman, postponement of childbearing,
overall increase of social stress or higher
emotion/psychological satisfaction and well-being (Kutanis,
Bayraktaroglu, 2003). Other sources of literature (Bid and
Brush, 2002) indicate that increasing number of women in
employment, politics, etc., including business, was
influenced by the second wave of feminism which emerged
at the end the 7
decade of XX century. According to
Levent et al (2003), gender differences in entrepreneurial
characteristics and performance sprang from liberal feminist
and social feminist theories, which attempt to explain the
basis of the lower status of women in society.
When analysing gender gap in entrepreneurship many
authors (Alsos, Isaksen, Ljunggren, 2006; J. Reingardien÷,
2004) in their studies maintain that entrepreneurship is still
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a male-dominated activity in the twenty-first century. This
attitude was formed not only because fewer women and
more men are inclined to start their own business, but the
few who take this step seem to achieve less growth in their
businesses than their male counterparts (Cliff, 1998). It is
also supported by the prediction of discrimination theory:
numerous women enter entrepreneurship but exit from it so
rapidly that traditional annual stock data (time series) fail
to capture the phenomenon (Rosti, Chelli, 2005).
In various sources of literature authors point out
different reasons for the emergence of gender gap in
entrepreneurship. Some authors (Alsos, Isaksen, Ljunggren,
2006; Rosti, Chelli, 2005) explain lower participation of
women in entrepreneurship by their limited possibilities of
financing. In many western countries funding for new
business start-up can be achieved through four main sources:
personal savings, debt financing, soft loans or grants
supported by government and equity funding from venture
capital institutions or informal investors (Borch et al.,
2002; Foss, Ljunggren, 2006; Jarvis, 2000; Pečiūrien÷,
2006). As it is known, women’s income is usually lower
then men’s, which also causes lower savings and less
possibilities getting a loan and consequently more
difficulties starting their own business (Manning,
Swaffiels, 2008). Alsos, Isaksen, Ljunggren (2006) in their
studies mention the statements of such authors as Greene,
Brush and Saparito (2001) that women‘s difficulties in
raising equity capital could be explained by three factors:
1) women experience structural barriers when trying to
acquire equity capital; 2) women do not want to use this
type of capital (strategic choice); 3) women do not possess
the necessary knowledge and capabilities to acquire equity
capital (human capital).
Other authors (Malaya, 2006) explain insufficient
participation of women in entrepreneurship by different
value systems. For example, women do not enter business
just for financial gain (Kuratko, Hornsby, 1997;
McClelland, Swail, Bell, Ibbotson, 2005) and economic
success may not be as important as personal satisfaction
and other nonfinancial goals (Kyro, 2001; Buttner and
Moore, 1997; Chaganti, 1986; Scott, 1986). In contrast to
men, the growth of profit and business for women is not
the most important factor determining success. They value
a harmonious microclimate of enterprise and employee
satisfaction, self-fulfillment, professional performance and
development, recognition and skills improving, balancing
work and family responsibility, social contribution, and so
on. Other sources of literature (Watson, 2002) explain
gender gap by two theories: liberal feminist theory and
social feminist theory. Watson (2002) proposes Fischer,
Reuber, Dyke (1993) presumptions of liberal feministic
theory that small and medium enterprises (SMEs) run by
women will exhibit poorer performance because women
are overtly discriminated, for example by lenders, or
because of other systematic factors that deprive women of
important resources (business education and experience).
Social feminist theory suggests that men and women are
inherently different by nature and emphasizes that women
are not less suitable for business than men; they only
choose different ways of developing entrepreneurship
which may be not so effective in comparison with
strategies employed by men.
Many scientists in their works mention various
advantages and differences of men and women in business
establishment. For example, Mirchandani (1999) quotes
Cromie (1987), who points out even 13 different factors
comparing reasons why men and women establish business.
Hisrich (1989), Birley (1989), Chaganti (1986) and others
performed a comparative analysis of men and women who
started their own business and assessed such factors as
motivation, source of funds, occupational background, and
reasons for occupational departure, personality, background,
support group and type of business or management style.
A tendency in analysed literature was observed that
some authors (Driga, Lafuente, Vaillant, 2005; Malaya,
2006; Mirchandani, 1999 and others) are inclined to
examine individual factors of entrepreneur’s success
associated with gender gap (for example, individual or
organizational characteristics), not attaching them to any
factor group. Other scientists (Verheul, Van Stel, Thurik,
2006) classify these factors. On the grounds of the
classifications of factors (Verheul et al, 2006 and other
authors, Levent et. al, 2003) influencing gender gap, we
provide a supplemented castigation of factor groups (Fig. 1).
Table 1 provides systemised factors that may have
positive, negative or neutral influence on gender gap.
Unemployment, as one of the mostly enlarging gender gap
in entrepreneurship, is excluded, because according to I.
Verheul and et. (2004), the general unemployment level
may be more likely to negatively affect female than male
employment as women are often involved in service-type
and part-time jobs and accordingly, may be particularly
vulnerable to the effects of unemployment.
In the group of demographic factors, marriage and the
presence of children have negative influence for female
entrepreneurs because women are more likely to withdraw
from employment or entrepreneurship after they get
married, or when they reach the child-rearing age.
Parenthood negatively influences female employment,
while is male employment positively influenced. Actually,
immigration also increases gender gap in entrepreneurship
(Portes and Zhou, 1998). Immigrant women are less likely
to be self-employed than immigrant men. For instance, for
women marriage reduces the likelihood of being an
entrepreneur because married men tend to employ their
wives in their company to reduce shirking behaviour of
employees. Experience is also a very important factor
negatively influencing gender gap. According to Brush
(1992), Cliff (1997), Fisher et al. (1993), men tend to have
more labour market and industry-specific experience in
terms of both wage- and self-employment and starting and
running a business. They have also more management
experience and experience with personnel, technical and
financial issues. On the contrary, female entrepreneurs tend
to have less industry, management and prior business start-
up experience.
In the group of institutional and government
intervention factors, such factors as availability of capital,
social security and business licensing have the most
important influence on gender gap. Several studies (Alsos,
Isaksen, Ljunggren, 2006; Rosti, Chelli, 2005) suggest that
acquiring capital is more difficult for women than for men
and that women have more difficulty in convincing
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Figure 1. Factor groups influencing gender gap in entrepreneurship
Table 1
Factors influencing gender gap in entrepreneurship
Author Factors
Factors increasing gender gap or “push“ (negative) factors
Brush, Carter, Gatewood, Greene and Hart (2004); Verheul,
R. Thurik (2001); S. Birley, C. Moss, P. Saunders (1987); I.
Verheul, A. Van Stel, R. Thurik (2006); M. Minniti (2003)
Funding gap for woman entrepreneurs; access to financial capital;
availability of financial capital
Start-up capital
Carter (2000); Carter&Rosa (1998); Marlow&Patton (2005) Undercapitalization
L. Rosti, F. Chelli (2005) Wage gap
Tuck (1985) Woman lack confidence in numerical skills; need the support of a partner
and lack managerial experience
Loscocco and et. (1991); Silver (1993);
I. Verheul, A. Van Stel, R. Thurik (2006) Lack of industry experience; family situation (in particular responsibility
for childcare); responsibility for domestic work; availability of maternity
Hisrich (1989) Inability to prioritize between organizational and family responsabilities;
lack of financial management by taking loans or managing family
finances; lack of occupational experience in middle-management; study
engineering science, technical or business-related subjects
I. Verheul, A. Van Stel, R. Thurik (2006) New technologies; unemployment; informal sector (i.e. shadow or
underground economy); economic transition; business licensing;
dissatisfaction with life
O. Driga, E. Lafuente, Y. Vaillant (2005); P. Tominc, M.
Rebernik (2007) Intolerance of risk; gender beliefs system existing in a country
M. Minniti (2003); J. Ruškus and etc. (2004) Customs of marriage, law, unemployment; child care
L. V. Still, E. A. Walker (2006) Obtaining finance, unemployment
E. McClelland, J. Swail, J. Bell, P. Ibbotson (2005) Redundancy, unemployment, frustration with previous employment
Factors decreasing gender gap or “pull“ (positive) factors
Alsos, Isaksen, Ljunggren (2006); Hisrich and O‘Brien
(1982); M. Minniti (2003); ML. Kourilsky, WB. Walstad
(1998); J. Ruškus and etc. (2004)
High participation in the labor force and high level of education, literacy
Verheul, R. Thurik (2001); Brush, Hisrich (1999); M.
Minniti (2003) The desire of woman to be economically independent; social structures,
social networks, family and organized life, mobility; population growth
Mukhtar (1998) Motivation, psychological traits
Ehlers and Main (1998) Location of businesses
I. Verheul et al (2006) Share of service sector
E. McClelland, J. Swail, J. Bell, P. Ibbotson (2005) The desire for entrepreneurial aspiration (independence, self-fulfillment,
autonomy, self-achievement, being one’s own boss, using creative skills,
doing enjoyable work, entrepreneurial drive and desire for wealth, social
status and power).
Neutral factors or factors having no or little influence
S. Birley, C. Moss, P. Saunders (1987); Mukhtar (1998) Motivation; backgrounds; past experience; industrial sector
K. Mirchandani (1999) Employment structure (firms size and industry focus)
O. Driga, E. Lafuente, Y. Vaillant (2005) Social stigma; social embarrassment
I. Verheul et al (2006) Per capita income; female/male labor force participation rate (employment
M. Minniti (2003) Age structure
Factor groups influencing
gender gap
Economic factors
development Institutional factors and
government intervention
Cultural factors
Psychological factors
Organizational factors
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Also social security system on labour force
participation differs between men and women (Reimers
and Honig, 1995). It appears that women and men have
different time horizons when making labour supply
decisions. Women take into account their social security
„wealth“ rather than their current earnings, while men are
more likely to respond to current earnings rather than to
future benefits. Business licensing may pose more
problems for female than male entrepreneurs. According to
Verheul and others (2004), women usually have less
previous experience with starting up business, they may
have less knowledge of government legislation and the
ways how to comply with it, posing particular problems or
even discouraging them to start business.
In the group of psychological factors, especially such
factors as motivation and personal value system tend to
increase gender gap in one way or another in entrepr-
eneurship (Buttner and Moore, 1997; Cliff, 1998; Verheul et
al., 2001). For example, male entrepreneurs are most
motivated by the need to improve their positions in society
for themselves and their families, while female
entrepreneurs are most motivated by the need for
achievement, self-fulfilment or because of dissatisfaction.
Female entrepreneurs are predisposed to personal
satisfaction, strong interpersonal relations, while men
entrepreneurs to status, wealth and success.
Among factors that have positive influence or
decreasing gender gap in entrepreneurship the following
factors are singled out: share of service sector, because the
growth of service industries has been a major factor in
increasing female labour force participation (Oppenheimer,
1970; Ward and Pampel, 1985) and educational level
(Kovalainen et al., 2002). The general level of education in
a country may be a development indicator, where a higher
level of education is accompanied by a higher level of
integration of women in the economic structure of the
country and accordingly, a higher level of female self-
employment. Though most authors allocate motivation and
psychological traits to the factor group that increases the
gender gap, Mukhtar (1998) in his study quotes such
authors as Smith, McCain and Warren (1982); Wadell
(1984) who claim that male and female entrepreneurs may
portray similar motivations and psychological traits.
In order to avoid the complexity of assigning factors to
analysed groups, the third group of neutral factors was
composed, i.e. the group describing factors having little or
no influence on the gender gap in entrepreneurship. There
is no one unique opinion in this issue. For example, some
authors (Verheul et al., 2006) assign such factor as
industrial sector and especially service sector to the factors
that decrease the gender gap, while others maintain
(Mirchandani, 1999) that there is little analysis of how
gendered processes may in fact shape the size of firms, or
tendency to focus on certain industries. The fact that the
owners of certain firms face barriers regardless of their sex
is presented as the evidence that these barriers are gender
neutral. Birley, Moss, Saunders (1987) share their opinion
and claim that there is no relationship between gender and
the industrial sector chosen. There is also no unique
opinion about the influence of such factors as past
experience, motivation, per capita income, etc.
In summary, a conclusion can be made that there are
more factors increasing gender gap than the ones that
decrease or are neutral. Though most statistical data
declare that gender gap in entrepreneurship is decreasing,
the factors analysed support the fact that differences
between men and women entrepreneurs do exist and the
decrease in difference is stipulated by changing economic
and social environment.
Analysis of gender gap in entrepreneurship
According to the Department of Statistics of the
Government of the Republic of Lithuania, in Lithuania there
were 99.4 % of small and mid-sized businesses in 2008.
In order to perform the analysis of gender gap starting
and developing own business in Lithuania, four presumptions
which should confirm or deny the gender differences
discussed in theoretical part are formulated:
Presumption 1: Men entrepreneurs’ businesses are
bigger and survive longer than the ones of women
Presumption 2: Men entrepreneurs tend to gain the
initial capital easier (or they already have it) for the
beginning of business while women entrepreneurs face
more difficulties gaining the initial financing due to their
lower income.
Presumption 3: Often men start business aspiring to
get financial benefits while women seek more personal
interests (self-
acknowledgement, pleasant microclimate,
financial independence, etc.).
Presumption 4: Gender gap exists between business
segments: men are more inclined to start business oriented
to technological (innovation), industrial or constructional
trends while women to trade and service fields.
The presumptions are verified on the grounds of
empirical methodology. The presumptions were confirmed
(denied) by the method of expert evaluation. Group of
experts was formed from 20 businessmen representing small
and mid-sized companies (10 women and 10 men) who
answered the survey’s questions which should display
gender gap tendencies in entrepreneurship in a written form.
When the data of survey were summarised, presumption
1 was determined to be confirmed: in experts’ opinion,
men entrepreneurs start businesses where more workers are
employed (form 10 to 49 employees in larger companies);
women entrepreneurs start small businesses, i.e. companies
up to 9 employees (see Figure 2). The latter statement is
confirmed by such authors as Still, Walker (2006). The
survey performed in Australia revealed that most women
in small business in Australia were either self-employed or
owners of “micro-businesses“ (less than 5 employees).
Men entrepreneurs’ businesses on average survive for 11
years while women entrepreneurs’ businesses exist half
shorter, on average for 5.5 years (see Figure 3). The
existing situation may be explained by the fact that more
active participation of women in business in Lithuania
increased only during the last decade.
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up to 9
employees from 10 to 49
employees from 50 to 249
from 1 to 5 years from 5 to 10
years from 10 years
and more
Figure 2. Distribution of men and women according to the number
of workers employed in their own businesses (determined by the
method of expert evaluation, percent).
Figure 3. Distribution of men and women according to the
lifetime of their businesses (determined by the method of
expert evaluation, percent).
According to the Department of Statistics of the
Government of the Republic of Lithuania (2008), in 2000-
2006 an average salary of women was smaller by 218 Lt
than the one of men. Similar tendencies were discovered
during the analysis. Experts stated that more men (50%
men and 40% of women) start their business from personal
savings or use a combined financing – bank loan and
personal savings (40% women and 30% men). Other
sources of financing, according to experts, are: a loan form
of a bank, EU structural fund’s support, help of parents,
friends. Experts maintain that men have more possibilities
to use the bank loan and support of EU structural funds
while women are more likely to use the help of parents and
family. Having summarised all the answers, a statement
can be made that men gain initial capital for the beginning
of the business easier than women, thus presumption 2 is
In order to test presumption 3, experts were given 11
reasons that could influence the establishment of own
business. The experts could choose several answers and
rank them according to priority: 1 the most important, 2
– important, etc. Information in Figure 4 confirms the
presumption 3.
Figure 4. Reasons that encouraged to start own business (determined by the method of expert evaluation).
Thus, in expert’s opinion, even 80% of men establish a
business in order to get financial benefits while for women
financial benefits are only important but not the most
important priority. The percentage distribution of reasons
why women start their own business is much well-rounded,
universal because as the most important reasons such
motives as wish to get away from undesirable working
conditions, wish to try business and possibility to use
talent, professional skills are indicated. An interesting fact
was noticed that for men it is important to have a
possibility to combine work and personal life while women
do not consider it to be so important. It could be explained
by the fact, that women working in a private/government
enterprise feel responsibility to combine both things. A
conclusion can be made that a situation analysed reveals
still existing gender stereotypes.
In order to test presumption 4, experts had to designate
fields (according to the allotment of Department of Statistics
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of the Government of the Republic of Lithuania) where
men and women entrepreneurs have established their
businesses. They had to choose several variants. When
data was systemised, it emerged that, according to experts,
most men (70%) run businesses in trade and smaller part of
them (40%) real estate and other types of business.
Experts maintain that women entrepreneurs’ percentage
distribution is almost equal in the following fields:
services, trade, real estate, rent and other types of
businesses (from 20 % to 30%). With reference to the
information presented, a conclusion can be made that
presumption 4 was not confirmed because, in experts
opinion, both men and women go into various types of
businesses in Lithuania and explicit differences were not
Summarising, the following conclusions can be made:
1. Having analysed literature, it was assessed that the
main reasons which determined the emergence of
gender gap in entrepreneurship are changes in
demographic variables, different value systems
and factor groups. Scientists explain a lower status
of woman in society by theories of feminism and
discrimination which describe the phenomena
through historical stereotypes and different nature
of man and woman.
2. With reference to foreign scientistsclassification
of factors influencing gender differences in
entrepreneurship, a supplemented classification of
factor groups was proposed: cultural, organisational,
economic, demographical, psychological, technolo-
gical, institutional and political.
3. The factors which increase, decrease gender gap
in entrepreneurship or are neutral were determined
and grouped. Among the most influential for the
increase of gender gap in entrepreneurship are
unemployment, redundancy, salary difference in
labour market (group of economic factors),
marriage, parenting, emigration and previous work
experience (group of demographical factors),
availability of capital, social security and business
licenses (group of institutional and political
factors) and finally motivation and personal value
system (group of psychological factors). Service
market share, education, motivation and
psychological features of a person are treated as
the most important in order to reduce the gender
gap. An abundance of negative factors allow
presuming that reduction of gender gap is a long
and complex process that will take more than one
4. In accordance with the answers of experts, 3 of 4
presumptions about existing gender differences in
entrepreneurship were confirmed, one of them was
denied. It was determined that businesses
established by men survive longer and are bigger
than the ones of women in Lithuania; men usually
have the initial capital for the beginning of
business while women more often use the help of
parents, friends or bank loans; value systems of
men and women are apparently different: men
usually seek profit, while women aspire to
acknowledgement; men and women choose almost
the same types of businesses during recent years
of the recovery of economy in trade, real estate
and financial intermediation fields attracted
entrepreneurs irrespective of their gender.
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Gražina Startien÷, Rita Remeikien÷
Lyčių skirtumai verslininkyst÷je
Straipsnyje nagrin÷jama aktuali globalin÷ problema lyčių
skirtumai pradedant ar pl÷tojant savo verslą. Moterų ir vyrų lygios
galimyb÷s bei lyčių lygyb÷ n÷ra iki galo įgyvendintos nei Lietuvoje, nei
daugelyje kitų šalių. Verslo sritis buvo ilgą laiką rezervuota vyrams, tod÷l
nepaisant to, kad paskutiniame dešimtmetyje moterų verslininkių daug÷jo,
jų Europoje ir Lietuvoje yra mažiau nei vyrų verslininkų. Europos
ekonomikos ir socialinių reikalų komiteto (2007) teigimu, vidutinis vyrų
ir moterų naujai įsteigtų įmonių santykis ES šalyse apytiksliai yra 70
proc. ir 30 proc. Vis dar pastebimas labai didelis atotrūkis tarp vyrų ir
moterų darbo užmokesčio, ypač besivystančiose šalyse. Per ilgus
dešimtmečius susiformavę lyčių stereotipai apie moters vaidmenį šeimoje
traktuojami kaip viena iš svarbiausių kliūčių, trukdančių moterims integ-
ruotis į darbo rinką ir kartu prad÷ti nuosavą verslą.
Akivaizdu, kad bet kurios ekonomin÷s ir socialin÷s sistemos
vystymasis daugiausia grįstas verslininkyst÷s pl÷tra, o tai skatina esamus
verslininkus pl÷sti savo įmones ir motyvuoja būsimus verslininkus prad÷ti
savo verslą (P. Tominc, M. Rebernik (2006); K. Kriščiūnas, J. Greblikaite
(2007); V. Navickas, R. Bagdonait÷, V. Juščius (2006)). Globalizacijos ir
pereinamosios ekonomikos šalių integra-cijos į pasaulinę rinką sąlygomis
ne tik did÷ja ekonomine veikla užsiimančių įmonių rizikos laipsnis, tačiau
ir sukuriami įvairūs verslo rizikos mažinimo įmon÷s ir valstybiniu
lygmeniu būdai (G. Startien÷, R. Remeikien÷ (2007); Adamonien÷ R.,
Trifanova J. (2007)).
Verslininkyst÷ neabejotinai yra sud÷tingas ir daugiaaspektis reiškinys.
D÷l darbo rinkų restruktūrizacijos, keičiantis darbuotojų kvalifikacijai, darbo
turinio ir darbo sutarčių pobūdžiui did÷ja verslininkyst÷s svarba globalioje
ekonomikoje (M. Minniti (2003); A. Šileika, D. Andriušaitien÷ (2007)).
Norint pl÷toti verslą, pasiekti laim÷jimų darbo aplinkoje, kurie
reiškiasi kilimu karjeros laiptais, padid÷jusia asmens galia ir prestižu
visuomen÷je, priešingai nuo paprasto darbo, reikalingas sąlygiškai didelis
asmeninis įsipareigojimas, kuris, kaip teigiama įvairiuose literatūros
šaltiniuose (Šiaur÷s Europos inovacijų centras (2007); M. Minniti (2003);
P. Tominc, M. Rebernik (2006)), labiau priimtinas vyrams nei moterims.
Be to, manoma, kad nuosavas verslas dažnai užgožia d÷mesį asmeniniam
privačiam gyvenimui, d÷l to jis dažniau siejamas su vyrais nei moterimis.
Užsienio mokslininkų nuomone (Rosti L., Chelli F. (2005); Still L. V.,
Walker E. A. (2006); Verheul I., Thurik R. (2001)), min÷tas vyrų
dominavimo verslininkyst÷je priežastis galima paaiškinti tuo, kad moterys
susiduria su didesniais sunkumais pl÷tojant savo verslą nei vyrai.
Nustatyta, kad kai kurie iš šių barjerų, pavyzdžiui, pradinio kapitalo
įsigijimas, atitinkamos kvalifikacijos įgijimas, giminių, draugų ir šeimos
pasipriešinimas, kultūrinis prisitaikymas bei diskriminacija yra sunkiau
įveikiami moterų (R. McKay, 2001). Europos ekonomikos ir socialinių
reikalų komitetas (2007) pritaria min÷toms problemoms. Jis teigia, kad
socialiniai ir kultūriniai barjerai, informacijos apie švietimo ir mokymo
galimybes trūkumas ir papildomi sunkumai ieškant finansavimo verslo
projektams lemia tai, jog moterys, steigdamos įmones, patiria daugiau
kliūčių negu vyrai.
Nepaisant greito moterų, esančių profesionalaus bei vadovaujamo
darbo postuose, daug÷jimo ir moterų verslininkių ekonomin÷s svarbos,
lyčių skirtumai išlieka akivaizdūs. Tokių autorių: M. Minniti (2003); I.
Verheul ir kt. (2004), nuomone, moterų ir vyrų verslininkyst÷ skiriasi tiek
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asmenin÷je, tiek ir verslo srityse: jie pradeda ir pl÷toja verslą skirtinguose
sektoriuose, kuria skirtingus produktus, siekia skirtingų tikslų ir taiko
skirtingas verslo strategijas.
Ryškus susidom÷jimas lyčių skirtumais verslininkyst÷je
mokslininkams kilo tik suaktyv÷jus moterų-verslininkių veiklai, t. y.
praeitame šimtmetyje, tačiau analizuotoje literatūroje įvairių mikro,
makro tyrimų ir skirtingose šalyse atliktų tyrimų jau yra daug. Tyrimų
metu gauti rezultatai autoriams padeda ne tik išsiaiškinti egzistuojančius
lyčių skirtumus, bet ir kuo aiškiau suvokti lyčių skirtumų verslininkyst÷je
priežastis bei nustatyti ir išanalizuoti veiksnius, turinčius skirtingą poveikį
vyrų ir moterų elgsenai kuriant/pl÷tojant verslą. Nors lyčių skirtumai
versle nagrin÷jami pakankamai plačiai, pasigendama aiškių šių skirtumų
priežasčių nustatymo. Vieni autoriai (T. B. Levent ir kt., 2003) lyčių
skirtumus grindžia remdamiesi feminizmo teorijomis, kiti (R. O. Kutanis, S.
Bayraktaroglu, 2003) besikeičiančiomis demografinių veiksnių
tendencijomis ir skirtingomis vertybių skal÷mis, treti (I. Verheul, A. Van
Stel, R. Thurik, (2006); G. Negru-Strauti, M. Izvercian, M. Tion (2008))
lyčių skirtumų egzistavimą versle bando aiškinti remdamiesi įvairiais
Gilinimąsi į šią sritį paskatino ir tai, kad nagrin÷toje literatūroje
pasigendama detalesnio veiksnių, l÷musių lyčių skirtumų atsiradimą
verslo steigimo požiūriu, analiz÷s. Mokslininkai išskiria įvairius
veiksnius, priskiria juos vienoms ar kitoms veiksnių grup÷ms, tačiau
mažai d÷mesio skiria šių veiksnių poveikiui egzistuojantiems lyčių
skirtumams. Kol kas mokslin÷ literatūra nepateikia aiškaus atsakymo ir į
tokius klausimus: „Kod÷l šie skirtumai egzistuoja?“, „Kas juos lemia?“,
„Ar vienodai tie patys veiksniai veikia lyčių skirtumus versle?“ Taigi
statistinių duomenų „bylojimas“ apie tai, moterys mažiau dalyvauja versle
nei vyrai leidžia daryti prielaidą, jog lyčių skirtumai vis d÷lto egzistuoja.
Deja, skirtumų prigimtis ir priežastys mokslin÷je literatūroje n÷ra visiškai
Straipsnio tikslas nustatyti lyčių skirtumus verslininkyst÷je.
Tikslui pasiekti iškeliami šie uždaviniai: 1) išskirti priežastis, l÷musias
lyčių skirtumų atsiradimą verslo steigimo požiūriu; 2) suklasifikuoti
veiksnius, darančius įtaką lyčių skirtumams verslininkyst÷je; 3) nustatyti
veiksnius, didinančius, mažinančius ar neutraliai veikiančius lyčių
skirtumus verslininkyst÷je; 4) remiantis ekspertų išvadomis, atlikti lyčių
skirtumų versle palyginamąją analizę.
Straipsnio objektas – lyčių skirtumai versle.
Tyrimo metodika apima mokslin÷s literatūros, statistikos duomenų,
antrinių duomenų analizę, ekspertinio vertinimo metodą.
Straipsnio pirmoje dalyje išskiriamos priežastys, paaiškinančios
lyčių skirtumų kilmę versle. Atlikus mokslin÷s literatūros analizę, prieita
prie išvados, kad tiksliausiai vyraujančius skirtumus tarp vyrų ir moterų
paaiškina feminizmo ir diskriminacijos teorijos, demografinių veiksnių
pokyčiai, skirtingos vertybių skal÷s ir kiti įvairūs veiksniai.
Siekiant kuo išsamiau atlikti veiksnių, veikiančių moterų ir vyrų
skirtumus verslininkyst÷je, analizę, antroje straipsnio dalyje pateikiamas
šių veiksnių skirstymas į tam tikras grupes ir nustatoma, kokiu būdu, t. y.
teigiamai, neigiamai ar neutraliai, išskirti veiksniai turi įtakos moterų ir
vyrų elgsenai steigiant savo verslą. Apibendrinus autorių nuomones,
darbe pateikiamas veiksnių grupių, veikiančių lyčių skirtumus, skirstymas
į kultūrinius, organizacinius, ekonominius, demografinius, psichologinius,
technologinius, institucinius ir politinius veiksnius. Taip pat nustatomi
veiksniai, trejopai (didinantys, mažinantys ir neutralūs) darantys įtaką
vyrų ir moterų skirtumams versle.
Atsižvelgiant į ekspertų vertinimus trečioje straipsnio dalyje
atliekama lyčių skirtumų verslininkyst÷je palyginamoji analiz÷. Atlikus
lyčių skirtumų verslininkyst÷je palyginamąją analizę nustatyta, kad
teorijoje aptariami ir analizuojami lyčių skirtumai aktualūs ir Lietuvos
verslininkams. Atlikta ekspertų apklausa Lietuvoje parod÷, kad vyrų
vadovaujamos įmon÷s yra didesn÷s, ilgiau gyvuoja nei moterų
vadovaujamos, tačiau tiek vyrų, tiek moterų įmonių steigimo verslo sritys
yra labai artimos. Vert÷tų pabr÷žti ir tai, kad teorijoje akcentuojamos
skirtingos lyčių vertybių skal÷s ypač akivaizdžios praktikoje.
Atlikus sisteminę literatūros analizę, gautos šios išvados:
1. Tokie procesai: patriarchalinių visuomenių tradicijų ir
nuostatų pokyčiai, visuomen÷s laisv÷jimas, nuolatinis lyčių
rungtyniavimas tarpusavyje, skatino moteris vis labiau
veržtis į tas sritis (taip pat ir į verslą), kuriose anksčiau
dominavo vyrai. Nors šis reiškinys yra pakankamai naujas,
tačiau mokslin÷je literatūroje pateikiami moterų ir vyrų
skirtumų verslininkyst÷je tyrimų rezultatai n÷ra vienareikš-
miai, išsakomos įvairios mokslininkų nuomon÷s apie lyčių
skirtumų atsiradimo ir egzistavimo versle priežastis.
2. Pasiūlytas papildytas lyčių skirtumams verslininkyst÷je
darančių įtaką veiksnių grupių skirstymas, taip pat sugru-
puoti veiksniai, turintys skirtingą poveikį lyčių skirtumams.
Gauta išvada, kad lyčių skirtumų tolesniam egzistavimui
gali daryti įtaką lyčių skirtumus verslininkyst÷je didinančių
veiksnių gausa.
3. Atlikus lyčių skirtumų palyginamąją analizę Lietuvoje,
paaišk÷jo, kad teorijoje išskiriami lyčių skirtumai versle
atsispindi ir praktikoje.
Raktažodžiai: lyčių skirtumai versle, lyčių skirtumus versle veikiantys
veiksniai, verslininkyst÷.
The article has been reviewed.
Received in October, 2008; accepted in December, 2008.
... Women are more likely pursuing a new idea and seeking freedom, self-expression and better working conditions. They usually seek acknowledgement for their work more than men ( Startienė and Remeikienė 2008 ). Growing up in a family business provides an example to children; however, fewer women than men become wine entrepreneurs. ...
... Inheriting the family wine estate can, in some cases, be a trap for the aspiring entrepreneur. Studying Lithuanian entrepreneurs, Startienė and Remeikienė (2008 ) show that women usually receive more fi nancing from their relatives than men, creating fi nancial and organisational obligations because family members tend to impose themselves more on companies that they are fi nancing. Yet Pavel (2012 : 26), studying the Romanian wine industry, notes that women who manage to establish an independent reputation have shown an uncanny understanding of marketing and 'deserve to be remembered as experienced employers, with an eye for fi nding talents, and as perfect entrepreneurs who run their businesses from modest debuts [to] levels of international importance'. ...
Gender, wine, and culture are inextricably connected. The literature is recent with a geographically diffuse focus. Gender roles seem entrenched in many of the world’s winemaking cultures and more fluid in others, reminding us that gender culture varies geographically, though we lack enough evidence to disentangle the two influences on occupational roles. Family businesses especially continue to provide opportunities for women despite patterns of enduring male dominance. Women have also emerged, often from family experience, as entrepreneurs with a different but effective management style. They create networks, challenge governance, and excel at wine marketing. Female winemakers have become an extrinsic cue for wine. This chapter surveys the literature for common themes as well as analytic gaps and calls for more research dedicated to inter- and intra-country analyses across wine cultures.
... Gender-based injustice behaviours affect various phases of entrepreneurship (Guzman & Kacperczyk, 2019). Discriminatory practices against women therefore not only act as a hurdle to starting their own business (Startien & Remeikien, 2008) but also negatively influence their empowerment (Aghazamani et al., 2020;Su et al., 2020). In the MENA region, Bastian et al. (2019) observed that gender inequality within societies decreases women's trust in their self-efficacy and subsequently lowers their entrepreneurial endeavours. ...
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Given the significance of entrepreneurial women’s contribution to the tourism industry and the fifth UN Sustainable Development Goal (gender equality) this study aims to investigate: first, the interrelationship between women entrepreneurship, creating shared value, and women’s empowerment; and second, the effect of gender-based discriminations on women’s entrepreneurship, creation shared value, and women’s empowerment in the tourism context. Data were collected from 167 Iranian women operating various tourism-related enterprises and analysed using structural equation modelling in WarpPLS software. The results highlight the positive direct and indirect effects of female entrepreneurship on women’s empowerment and the importance of the mediating role of creating shared value between these two constructs. The results also confirmed the negative impacts of gender-based discrimination in entrepreneurship and creating shared value for female tourism entrepreneurs in Iran. The practical implications of the study, limitations, and potential directions for future research are discussed.
... According to Crane [35], in developed countries female-owned entrepreneurial firms perform similarly to male-owned firms; in developing countries, on the other hand, maleowned firms significantly outperform female-owned firms. Startienė and Remeikienė [36] shows that companies run by men are larger and have existed for longer than those run by women; however, the business establishment fields of men and women are very similar, and Guzman and Kacperczyk [37] show that female-led firms are 63 percentage points less likely than male-led firms to obtain external financing (i.e., venture capital). The most significant part of this gap (65 percent) stems from gender differences in start-up orientation, as women are less likely to found companies that signal growth potential to outside investors. ...
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The purpose of this research is to develop a theoretical model of the entrepreneurial decision of individuals and to measure the effect of a group of variables on this decision. The effects of variables such as income, age, gender, level of education, and entrepreneurial skills are studied. The results show that innovation and entrepreneurship are linked to the personal characteristics of individuals and the social context in which they develop, thus making it possible to guide social policies for the development of the economy. Logit and probit functions were used to measure the effect of the variables on the entrepreneurship phenomenon. The main findings of this research indicate that the variables with a significant impact on the success of entrepreneurship and innovation are income, age, gender, skill, and the interaction between the opportunity and education variables.
... The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, which is classified as a developing region, has a relatively small female entrepreneurial contribution, with only one third of total entrepreneurs being women, as reported by Kelley et al. (2011) in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2010 Report. According to Startienė and Remeikienė (2008), this situation is the result of cultural gender roles that expect women to be housewives and mothers, which makes it difficult for them to enter the professional work environment, which is male dominated (Metaclfe 2011; Sidani et al. 2015). This is also applicable to the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), as part of the MENA region, given the sensitive perspective of females according to Faisal et al. (2017), despite the fact that all the GCC governments have allotted enormous resources to support entrepreneurship in order to develop more diversified sources of income for their economies by turning towards neoliberalism (Ennis 2019) and away from oil dependence (Mathew 2019). ...
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While the Omani government’s endeavours over two decades to support entrepreneurship, particularly among women, have been significant, research has not substantiated their impacts; even so, the number of female entrepreneurs has substantially increased. This study aims to contribute to the entrepreneurship literature by investigating this aspect of the Omani government’s entrepreneurship efforts in addition to other factors found in literature that contribute to the success of female entrepreneurship. A comprehensive literature review is conducted using the ‘wildcard operator’ search technique to define the factors affecting success in entrepreneurship; the study tests these factors to understand their applicability in the Omani context in order to build a sound conceptual model. A questionnaire-based survey was employed to collect primary data from 218 successful Omani female entrepreneurs from 2017 to 2020. The data collected were analysed using structured equation modelling. Out of the 12 hypotheses proposed, seven were confirmed by the results, and a hypothetical multifactor success factor model was proposed accordingly. The proposed model can be used as a hands-on indicative tool for assisting Omani policy- and decision makers to implement effective policies in the future that will be able to leverage female entrepreneurship. The generalisability of the model needs further research to determine its fitness for the contexts of other countries.
... This satisfaction has been related mainly to the income level and work conditions. This paper shows that the existence of income level differences has a positive influence on female entrepreneurship (Eikhof et al., 2013;Kobeissi, 2010;Orhan & Scott, 2001;Segal et al., 2005;Startienė & Remeikienė, 2015), that is, having relevant differences in terms of salary is one of the factors pushing women to become entrepreneurs (Noguera et al., 2015). On the other hand, the size of the gender wage gap varies considerably across countries (Christofides, Polycarpou, & Vrachimis, 2013). ...
To identify the combinations of the economic and social aspects related to female entrepreneurship in OECD countries, we carried out a cross-national analysis of female entrepreneurship using fsQCA methodology. We analyzed 2015 data from 29 OECD countries, covering different geographical areas. Data were retrieved from three databases (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, Country Risk Score, and Glass Ceiling Index) and the relationship between entrepreneurship by gender and the conditions in a country were studied, especially those socially related to gender under female labor working conditions. The results show that the combination of good country risk score conditions and the low presence of women in power positions is related to high female entrepreneurship and low gender labor-force gap. By contrast, low female entrepreneurship is reached through a combination of high gender labor-force and wage gaps.
... Thus, the need of CE research is continually growing. However, Lithuanian researchers are oriented towards doing research on strategic entrepreneurship (Jucevicius, 1999;Uus & Monkeviciene, 2005;Andriuscenka, 2003;Krisciunas & Greblikaite, 2007;Vaitkevicius & Binkeviciute, 2007), entrepreneurship in SMEs (Bartkus, 2004;Andriuscenka & Adamoniene, 2006;Zukauskas & Stripeikis, 2011), development of individual entrepreneurship (Strazdiene & Garalis, 2007, Greblikaite & Krisciunas, 2012Paulioniene, 2007), entrepreneurship in specific business sectors or its specific implementation (Gronskas, 2000;Grundey & Sarvutyte, 2007;Startiene & Remeikiene, 2008;Petuskiene & Glinskiene, 2011) and individual entrepreneurship (Krisciunas & Cepkauskiene, 2004;Vazdonis & Ciutaite, 2010) rather than research on CE. Lithuanian researchers analyse CE merely as a theoretical issue in parts of broader research (Snitka & Gerdvilas, 2001;Andriuscenka;Zidonis, 2008). ...
Innovations are necessary for successful competition in local and global markets; moreover, they are at the core of corporate entrepreneurship (CE). The paper deals with corporate entrepreneurship in mature organisations. The theoretical model of CE, including innovations, strategic objectives and potential for growth, is described in the article. It is differentfrom common approaches to CE in the field by attributing characteristics frequently used in CE research to institutional factors of CE. Three institutional factors and their relations with CE are analysed: managers’ attitudes toward entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial culture and institutional support systems. Medium and large sized Lithuanian mature organisations have been researched in regard to CE and its factors using the random sampling method and online survey. The results have shown that Lithuanian mature organisations reveal a high level of CE; however, innovations are at the lowest level in comparison with the other two characteristics of CE. Managers’ attitudes toward entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial culture and institutional support systems positively correlate with CE, but the strength of correlation is different. The results have disclosed the importance of managers’ attitudes toward entrepreneurship to institutional support systems and entrepreneurial culture as well as the importance of managers’ attitudes toward entrepreneurship to CE through the moderating effect of institutional support systems and entrepreneurial culture. © 2017, Kauno Technologijos Universitetas. All rights reserved.
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Este trabajo determina qué elementos influyen en la potencial propensión a actuar (PA) a la hora de emprender desde una perspectiva de género del alumnado universitario. Se ha realizado a partir del Modelo del Evento Emprendedor de Shapero y Sokol (1982) y las investigaciones empíricas de Liñán y Chen (2009) sobre la modelización de variables para medir la PA con el fin de emprender. Se suministró un cuestionario al alumnado de último curso del Grado de Rela-ciones Laborales y Recursos Humanos de la Universidad de Sevilla, entre los años académicos 2012-2013 a 2019-2020, obteniéndose un total de 663 respuestas. Los resultados evidencian que existen similitudes y diferencias entre la PA del alumnado. En el caso de las variables que influyen en la PA de hombres y mujeres se encuentran la conveniencia percibida (CP), la percepción de viabilidad (PV) y el hecho de tener una persona progenitora emprendedora. Entre las que se identifican diferencias destacan, la deseabilidad de ser persona emprendedora y algunas capacidades específicas. Esta investigación pone de relieve la importancia de adaptar la educación emprendedora a los distintos perfiles de alumnado en una universidad.
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p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 10pt;"> The article analyses the situation of men and women in the labour market in the globalization and economic integration into the European Union conditions and demonstrates that gender equality under the current conditions and social life, politics and economy is becoming a political priority. The aim of the paper is: to analyze the situation of men and women in the labour market and its regulation; to study the respondents’ view on the situation of men and women in the labour market. Empirical study showed that 42% of women and 26% of men have never lost their jobs and the people who have, have men-tioned several reasons for this. Respondents, both women and men, generally lose work because of inadequate working conditions and the company’s bankruptcy. Meanwhile, the response of men’s and women’s opinion on the inequality/discrimination experience is different. According to women, involved in the study, in Lithuania they mostly experienced discrimination based on sex and age, while men consider to be most discriminated on grounds of sex, disability and age. Almost one fifth of the respondents have personally experienced discrimination themselves in the labour market because of sex. Keywords: labour market, equal opportunities, discrimination, employment, entrepre-neurship. Reguliuojant Europos Sąjungos (ES) plėtros tolesnę ekonominę politiką daugiausia dėmesio skiriama darbo rinkai ir pirmiausia – moterų ir vyrų lygioms galimybėms joje. Lyčių lygybė, taip pat ir darbo rinkoje, nusako principą, kuriuo vadovaujantis skirtingas moterų bei vyrų elgesys, siekiai, poreikiai ir rezultatai yra lygiaverčiai ir neskatina nelygybės. Straipsnyje atskleidžiama, kad lyčių lygybė šiandieninėmis sąlygomis tiek visuomeniniame gyvenime, tiek politikoje ir ekonomikoje tampa politikos prioritetu. Globalizacijos ir europinės ekonominės integracijos procesai skatina ekonomikos plėtrą, o tai tiesiogiai susiję su darbo rinka. Ekonomikos atvirumo didėjimas lemia visų ūkio veiklos rūšių, tarp jų ir darbo jėgos, judumą, ypač tuomet, kai nepatenkinami darbuotojų lūkesčiai turėti lygias darbo užmokesčio, darbo sąlygų, lanksčių darbo organizavimo formų taikymo ir pan. galimybes. Straipsnio tikslas – išanalizuoti moterų ir vyrų padėtį Lietuvos darbo rinkoje. Raktiniai žodžiai: darbo rinka, lygios galimybės, diskriminacija, užimtumas, verslumas. </p
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Globally, entrepreneurship is considered as a means to create jobs and improve social and economic conditions of a country. Particularly, in the context of developing countries, owing to high unemployment rate, social inequality, and high levels of poverty, the need for entrepreneurship is further emboldened. Essentially, of late, most discussions on entrepreneurial empowerment have focused on the youth and women.
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Literature on the creation of organizations is often cast within a masculine gender framework. This paper draws from three theoretical perspectives to develop a new perspective that broadens the view of organizational creation by encompassing the relative balance of feminine and masculine perspectives in the entrepreneur's venture start-up process and new venture attributes. We elaborate the relatively less visible feminine and personal perspective and compare this with the traditional or masculine perspective. Important to the discussion is the distinction between biology (sex: male and female, man and woman) and socialized perspectives (gender: masculine and feminine). While research and the general public often use the concept of gender loosely to signify sex, we follow a more precise feminist distinction. The paper advances new concepts of gender-maturity (an individual difference) and gender-balance (an organizational quality).
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What is the commodity in the labour market - labour force, labour or labour services? What is the labour market? What is the difference between labour force market and labour resources market? Rather frequent confusion of these conceptions (even in scientific literature) shows that these conceptions are not clearly conceptually determined. The article indicates that not labour force but labour - functional status of labour force - is purchased in the market. Namely labour is the main object of labour demand and supply. All relations with labour market subjects focus on hiring relations and these become the main conditioning element. Thus when designing the measures of labour market policy and looking for their improvement, it is important to remember that driving forces as well as “short” places of essential factors determining the working of economic mechanism focus namely on hiring relations. Istorinis metodologinis darbo rinkos sampratos aspektas Santrauka. Kas yra prekė darbo rinkoje - darbo jėga, darbas ar darbo paslaugos? Kas yra darbo rinka? Kuo skiriasi sąvokos darbo jėgos rinka ir darbo išteklių rinka? Tai, jog šios sąvokos nepakankamai aiškiai konceptualiai apibrėžtos, rodo pernelyg dažnas jų painiojimas - netgi mokslinėje literatūroje. Straipsnyje motyvuojama, kad rinkoje perkama ne darbo jėga, o darbas - funkcinė darbo jėgos būsena. Būtent darbas yra pagrindinis darbo rinkoje besiformuojančios darbo paklausos ir pasiūlos objektas. Visi darbo rinkos subjektų santykiai fokusuojami samdos santykiuose, kurie tampa pagrindiniu ją pačią formuojančiu elementu. Reikšminiai žodžiai: darbo jėga, darbas, darbo rinka, samdos santykiai. Article in Lithuanian.
This paper analyzes the characteristics of male and female participants attending pioneering entrepreneurship development programs, which form part of an economic strategy directed at increasing the quality and quantity of new firms. The participants did not need to have a business plan, finance available or formal education, but must have had a “reasonably feasible idea”. The results show significant differences between the characteristics of the male and female entrepreneurs, and the businesses which they form.
Previous research has found that female-owned businesses generally underperform male-owned businesses on a variety of measures such as sales and profit. Further, this underperformance appears to persist even after controlling for demographic differences. However, previous studies have tended to limit their assessment of performance to output measures (sales or profit, for example) without relating these output measures to appropriate inputs (such as total assets or owner's equity). This would appear to be a significant oversight. After controlling for industry, age of business, and the number of days a business operated, this study finds no significant differences between male- and female-controlled businesses with respect to total income to total assets (TITTA), the return on assets (ROA), or the return on equity (ROE). Interestingly, if the control variables are removed, there is evidence to suggest that female-controlled businesses outperform male-controlled businesses.
The study reported here addresses some issues on gender, entrepreneurship and finance that have been identified as problematic in the literature. For example, much of the research to date is based on the assumption of entrepreneurship as male entrepreneurship; few studies have controlled for structural characteristics that may impact on the relationship between owner gender and a venture's ability to raise finance; and women are less likely than men to seek growth and external financing. Through the conduct of in-depth semi-structured interviews, an attempt has been made to give ‘voice’ to women's intrinsically interesting experiences as the enactment of a situated practice, and not just in comparison with the assumed norm of male entrepreneurial activity. The findings suggest that when variables such as individual and firm characteristics are controlled for, generalizations found in the literature may not be supported. Further, the paper highlights that neither women entrepreneurs nor their businesses are homogeneous in nature and that greater heterogeneity in the study of female entrepreneurship in general, and access to finance in particular, is required.
The objective of the paper is to present a comparative analysis of the performance of men-owned and women-owned businesses. The study uses a multidimensional framework of entrepreneurial success, where the indicators refer to the financial, nonfinancial and personal goals indicated in literature as being important to entrepreneurs. Economic performance was measured as change in sales and profitability for a period of one year and over three years. Data were obtained from printing firms based in Metro Manila, Philippines, a country in Southeast Asia. That no variations attributed to gender were found in firm performance on the short-term scale further support the findings that financial goals are actually considered by Filipino women to be vital to their success. Over the longer time period of three years, female underperformance became manifest perhaps because these women possess personal and nonfinancial priorities and their growth strategies may be different.
Women entrepreneurs are a vital contributor to today’s economy, employing one from every four employees in the USA. Yet, there is still a dearth of research on women entrepreneurs. This study examines a particular group of women entrepreneurs largely ignored by the literature: entrepreneurs over 50 years old. It focuses on women who do not have a family, or whose children have grown up. Given the aging population this group will increase in numbers and impact on gross domestic product and employment statistics. This paper explores the characteristics of this unique group of entrepreneurs and considers if gender is implicit in the organizational structures of the businesses established by these women.
There is a dearth of studies that have examined the issue of the impact of gender on business performance. Three problems are evident in this earlier work:(1) the need to expose theoretical assumptions; (2) the adequacy of methodologies adopted; and (3) apparent equivocal results. A theme running through much of this work is whether the concept of ‘performance’ is itself gendered. This paper confines itself to addressing three research questions in respect of the impact of gender of business owner on business performance. The field data comprise a sample of 104 microbusinesses in business services in two locations-Newcastle upon Tyne and Milton Keynes, in the UK. The results show (1) no significant difference between the performance of the businesses of sole male and sole female owners, (2) clear evidence of the underperformance of spouse-owned businesses, (3) no support for the hypothesis that women have an ‘integrated approach’ to their business and personal lives (in contrast to men), and (4) evidence that cultural presuppositions about gender roles were most clearly demonstrated in the spouse-owned businesses.