Article

The effect of heating and NaOH treatments on the nutritive value of nonlinted whole cottonseeds

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The effect of treating nonlinted whole Pima cottonseeds (WCS) with heat, NaOH, or their combination on digestive tract digestibility in dairy cows, was studied using the mobile dacron bag technique. NaOH treatment increased ruminal DM disappearance from WCS. For DM there was an interaction, between heat treatment and incubation time. Interactions of NaOH x heat and heat x incubation time were found for ruminal CP disappearance. Heat treatment decreased ruminal CP disappearance. With WCS which was heat-treated in the presence of NaOH, ruminal CP disappearance decreased. NaOH and heat treatments of WCS, respectively, increased and decreased intestinal DM disappearance. These respective treatments also increased and decreased intestinal CP disappearance. NaOH and heat treatments of WCS, respectively, increased and decreased total tract DM and CP disappearance. It was concluded that a combination of NaOH and heat treatments may protect nonlinted WCS from excessive ruminal CP degradation and deliver more nutrients to the intestine.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Heat treatment can decrease cottonseed protein degradation in the rumen. This effect has been demonstrated in vitro (6,36,38), in situ (4,5,33), and in vivo (27,35). Much less information is available concerning the effect of heating WCS on dairy cow performance. ...
... Samples of diets and refusals Calculated from NRC (25). 4 Calculated from the in situ data obtained from the current study. ...
... The chemical compositions of WCS and RWCS are presented in Table 2. Similar values of chemical com- 3 Degradability rate constant. 4 Rate of passage assumed to be 6.5%/h. positions were measured for both the WCS and RWCS in this study. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to examine the effect of roasting nonlinted whole cottonseed on ruminal crude protein (CP) degradability and performance in high-yielding dairy cows. Multiparous Israeli Holstein-Friesian cows (parity average 2.5+/-1.5; n = 132) with 571+/-65 kg of body weight (BW), 107+/-48 d in milk (DIM), and 37+/-5.8 kg of milk yield/d were used in the study. Cows were divided into two dietary treatment groups according to their BW, DIM, and milk production. The two diets were similar in CP, net energy for lactation, and neutral detergent fiber content [17%, 1.74 Mcal/kg, and 30% on a dry matter (DM) basis] and included either 15% (on a DM basis) whole cottonseed or roasted whole cottonseed. Ruminal effective degradability of CP, organic matter (OM), and ether extract (EE) decreased 14, 11, and 10%, respectively, compared to whole cottonseed. Total tract digestibilities of CP and EE were similar for both treatments and averaged 57 and 59%, respectively. However, DM and OM digestibilities were 6 and 5% higher in cows offered roasted whole cottonseed relative to those fed whole cottonseed diet. The inclusion of roasted whole cottonseed in the ration decreased ruminal ammonia and blood urea N concentration by 12% compared with diet with the raw whole cottonseed. Milk production, milk fat content, and production, and milk protein yield increased when roasted, nonlinted whole cottonseed was included in the diet. Milk protein content was similar for both treatments, averaging 2.92%.
... It also has been shown that the cottonseeds treated with alkali could increase availability of the nutrients by breaking the lignocellulose linkage (12). However, these studys as well as other earlier studies mainly focused on the effects of individually crushing processing (13,14) or alkalization treatment on ruminants (15,16). Moreover, the alkalization material used in those studys were NaOH, whereas the effect of WCS with CaO and CaCl 2 treatment as well as the combination of crush and alkalization treatment on dairy cows were lacking. ...
... We assessed rumen digestion of WCS after 2, 6,12,16,24,30,36,48, and 72 h of digestion. At each time point, 48 nylon bags (2 parallels × 8 treatment × 3 cows; pore size: 50 µm) containing approximately 10 to 15 g of WCS sample were weighed. ...
... In the present study, compared with AC treatments and CO treatment, most of the CA treatments had higher in vitro intestinal digestibility of WCS, DM, and CP, and CA2 treatment had the highest in vitro intestinal digestibility. It could be partially explained that alkalization was beneficial for the intestinal digestibility of cottonseed DM and CP, and the CA groups had much larger alkali contact with WCS (16). In summary, the CA2 method was the most effective process regarding the enhancement in the utilization of WCS main nutrients (i.e., DM, NDF, ADF, CP, and EE) in situ rumen degradation and in vitro intestinal digestion. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of mixed-process methods on the ruminal degradability of whole cottonseed (WCS) both in situ and in vitro , and the effect on the production performance of dairy cows. Eight WCS process methods were tested on the ruminal digestibility, including crush-alkali 1 (CA1), crush-alkali 2 (CA2), crush-alkali 3 (CA3), alkali 1-crush (A1C), alkali 2-crush (A2C), alkali 3-crush (A3C), crush-only (CO), and non-processed. Alkali 1, 2, and 3 indicate the supplementation of alkali to WCS at the dose of 4% on dry matter (DM) base as followed: 4% NaOH, 2% NaOH + 2% CaO, and 2% NaOH + 2% CaCl 2 alkaline, respectively. Among all treatments, CA2 showed the highest WCS ruminal degradation in situ and the highest intestinal digestibility of WCS in vitro . Furthermore, an animal experiment was conducted for 60 days on 30 Holstein dairy cows, using a diet without WCS (CON group), a diet containing 8% non-processed WCS (NP group), and a diet containing 8% CA2-treated WCS (CA2 group). The results indicated that the dry matter intake, 4% fat-corrected milk production, milk protein, milk fat, and content of short-chain saturated fatty acid of milk in the CA2 group were significantly higher ( P < 0.05) than CON group. Furthermore, DMI, the CLA was significantly greater ( P < 0.05) in the CA2 group than the other groups. Additionally, the free gossypol concentration in serum or milk was under safety level in the three groups. Overall, crush and alkalization (NaOH: CaO = 1:1) treatment could improve the utilization of WCS in dairy farms.
Presentation
Full-text available
XVI International Symposium, ”Feed Technology”, 28-30 October 2014, Novi Sad, Serbia. Proceedings 2014 pp.245-252 ref.many
Article
Whole cottonseed (WCS) is a byproduct of the cotton-fiber industry. There are Upland and Pima two main varieties of cottonseed (CS), and Pima CS is considered nutritionally superior to Upland CS because of its higher fat and protein content. Pima CS contains more gossypol and a higher proportion of the (−) isomer than Upland CS. Monogastric animals are particularly sensitive to the toxic effects of gossypol, whereas ruminants are somewhat more resistant, especially for female. Concentrations of plasma gossypol (PG) and its negative isomer were directly proportional to free gossypol (FG) intake in dairy cows. The sign of gossypol toxicity observed was an increase in erythrocyte fragility (EF) for cows receiving high dietary FG. Pre- and postpartum consumption of FG might impair some aspects of calf skeletal development and vitamin metabolism, but long-term performance of cows and calves was not affected. The possible effect of WCS fat on reducing microbial activity and potential gossypol toxicity may limit the amount of WCS that can be supplemented to high-yielding dairy cows. The current recommendation is to include WCS at up to 150 g/kg of the diet. WCS processing, especially heat treatment, may aid in providing more unchanged WCS fat and CP to the small intestine, and decreasing ruminal CP degradability and increasing post ruminal digestibility. Heat treatment may also be a useful tool in reducing FG in WCS. Thus, heat treatment may enable an increase in the supplementation rate of WCS for dairy cattle rations. DM intake of dairy cattle is not altered when WCS is included at up to 25% of the diet. The DM intake response to the inclusion of WCS in the diet is a function of both climatic and dietary factors. However, DM intake decreased linearly with increasing levels of iron sulfate in the diet, and substitution of cracked Pima CS for Upland CS increased DM intake.
Article
Whole cottonseed (WCS) is an unusual feedstuff for ruminants. Due to its high content of fat and protein, it may be defined as a concentrate. On the other hand, its fiber is similar to that of forages in terms of effectiveness in the rumen. The response of dairy cattle milk production to WCS feeding is variable. A large part of the effect of WCS on milk production is related to ruminal effects, which depend upon the basal diet fermentation balance. The high degradability of crude protein (CP) in the rumen may be associated with high ammonia production. The low heat increment obtained with WCS feeding favors its supplementation at high environmental temperatures, but a possible effect of WCS fat, i.e. reduced microbial activity, and gossypol toxicity may limit the amount of WCS which can be given to high-yielding dairy cattle. Current recommendations are to include WCS at up to 150 g/kg of the diet. Processing, and especially heat treatment of WCS may aid in providing more non-rumen degraded fat and CP from WCS to the small intestine. Heat treatment may also be useful for reducing free gossypol in WCS, and is likely to enable increased supplementation of WCS in dairy cattle rations. Reducing WCS particle size and NaOH treatment may also improve overall WCS digestibility. The advantages of such treatments may be more marked in low-lint WCS.
Article
The effect of heat treatment on the nutritive value of rumen undegradable protein (UDP) fraction of whole cottonseed (WCS) was studied in this experiment. Forty two multiparous Israeli Holstein cows were used in a multiple double 3×3 Latin square design. Milk production averaged 38±4.1 kg at the beginning of the experiment. Three different diets were formulated to contain 160 g/kg crude protein (CP), 365 g/kg neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) on a dry matter (DM) basis, 7.24 MJ net energy for lactation (NEL)/kg DM and 170 g/kg WCS. 30% of dietary CP was of cotton origin. Diets were (1) whole cottonseed (WCS), (2) heated whole cottonseed (HWCS) and (3) whole cotton seeds plus 3.1% maize gluten meal (WCS+MG). Diets with HWCS and WCS+MG contained 60 g UDP/kg DM compared with 54 g UDP/kg DM in the WCS treatment. Heat treatment decreased ruminal CP degradability of WCS by 22% and ruminal organic matter (OM) degradability by 5%. Intakes of DM, OM and CP were similar across diets. Higher apparent total tract digestibilities of DM and OM were determined in HWCS and WCS+MG diets (0.62 and 0.64 and 0.63 and 0.65, respectively) compared to WCS diet (0.59 and 0.62, respectively). Higher ruminal propionate proportion was determined in diets containing WCS and WCS+MG over the sampling hours. A higher ruminal ratio of acetate:propionate was measured in the diet containing HWCS. Ammonia N concentration was similar in all treatments, however, blood urea N concentration was the lowest at 3 and 6 h after feeding in the HWCS diet compared to the other diets. Milk yield and composition were similar for all treatments and averaged 34.2±0.45 kg/d with 34.2 g fat/kg, 30.1 g CP/kg and 47 g lactose/kg. It was suggested that inclusion of HWCS in diets for high-yielding dairy cows decreased the endogenous catabolism of amino acids. In this study the effect of heat treatment on WCS on the performance of cows was not apparent because the cows consumed surplus of dietary CP.
Article
The effects of replacing whole cottonseed by heated whole cottonseed at two levels of crude protein on amino acid (AA) utilization by the bovine mammary gland were investigated. Four Israeli Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 2 x 2 factorial arrangements. Diets were formulated to contain two levels of crude protein (CP), normal (160 g CP/kg dry matter) and low (140 g CP/kg dry matter), and two levels of rumen undegradable protein (UDP), high (380 g UDP/kg CP) and low (350 g UDP/kg CP). Whole cottonseed was quantitatively substituted by heated whole cottonseed to formulate the high UDP diets. Intakes of dry matter and organic matter were similar for all treatments and averaged 15.9 and 14.4 kg/d respectively. Yields of milk and its constituents were similar for all treatments. Milk yield averaged 23.1 kg/d and this contained (per kg) 32.3 g CP, 25.4 g total casein and 47.5 g lactose. The milk fat content was lower in the cows given the high UDP diets, averaging 34.6 g/kg compared with 38.9 g/kg in the cows fed on the diets with low UDP. Plasma AA concentrations were similar for all treatments apart from Leu and Ile, which were higher in the cows given the high CP diets: 152 and 103 microM compared with 183.8 and 131.5 microM for the low CP diets. Net extraction and balance of essential AA across the half udder suggested that essential AA were supplied in amounts sufficient to meet milk protein requirements for all treatments. The surplus AA supplied as a result of feeding the high dietary CP were probably catabolized via an enhanced oxidative pathway, possibly in the liver, presumably as a passive response to their disposal.
Article
This study examines the effect of NaOH treatment on the nutritive value of Pima cottonseed for lactating cows. Treatment of Pima cottonseed with NaOH increased the extent of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber in vitro digestibility. Three groups of cows were fed 3 similar total mixed rations (TMR) differing only in the type of cottonseed fed, either whole linted Akala, whole unlinted Pima, or whole Pima treated with 4% NaOH (T-Pima). Dry matter and organic matter (OM) intakes of Akala and Pima TMR were similar and tended to be lower compared with cows fed T-Pima. This was reflected in similar intake of crude protein and lipids by cows fed the 3 TMR. Digestibility of DM, OM, and crude protein were similar in cows fed Pima and T-Pima diets, and slightly higher in cows fed the Akala TMR. Lipid digestibility was highest in cows fed Akala TMR, whereas cellulose and NDF digestibility were lowest in Pima TMR. In the 3 TMR, there was a large gap between the high values of "digestibility of intact seeds" and actual in vivo digestion of DM and OM. Similar yields of milk and milk protein were obtained in cows fed the Akala and Pima TMR, whereas higher yields of milk, milk protein, milk fat, and 4% fat-corrected milk were found in the T-Pima cows. Similar efficiency of DM intake for fat-corrected milk production was achieved by cows fed the 3 TMR.
Article
Six experiments were conducted. In the first three, barley grain was either field-dried and harvested at 89% DM or harvested as high-moisture barley with 67% DM. The high-moisture barley was stored either anaerobically or artificially dried. Straw from the high-moisture barley was allowed to dry in the field and then stored. Straw from the field-dried barley was also retained. Sheep were used to measure the digestibility of the three types of barley in Experiment 1 and the two types of straw in Experiment 2. In the third experiment, rats were used to measure true protein digestibility, biological value and net protein utilization of the three types of barley. In experiments 4 and 5 barley was reconstituted and stored anaerobically or treated with ammonia or sodium hydroxide and stored, and then evaluated with sheep and rats. In Experiment 6, the loss of ammonia on exposure of ammonia-treated grain to air was measured.
Article
The effect of varying levels of alkali treatment on composition and disappearance of DM and cell wall components of alfalfa and orchardgrass was measured. Three field replicates of first-cutting alfalfa (bud and midbloom) and orchardgrass (prehead and head) were treated at harvest with 0 (no solution applied or 100% water treatment), 2, 4, 6, or 8 g NaOH/100 g forage DM. Forages were hand cut, hand sprayed, and sun cured as hay. Alkali treatment decreased the NDF and ADF content of both maturities of orchardgrass; conversely, alkali treatment increased NDF concentration in both maturities of alfalfa. Regardless of maturity, CP content of alfalfa decreased as level of NaOH increased. After 72 h of in situ digestion, NaOH increased potentially digestible DM in both maturities of orchardgrass. Disappearance of NDF in mature orchardgrass increased as NaOH increased. Alkali treatment increased the extent of ferulic acid disappearance in immature orchardgrass and increased the extent of p-coumaric acid disappearance in mature orchardgrass. Sodium hydroxide treatment linearly increased the potentially digestible DM and NDF fractions in both maturities of alfalfa. Alkali treatment decreased the rate of DM digestion in alfalfa, regardless of maturity. Alkali treatment altered chemical composition and increased cell wall utilization of both orchardgrass and alfalfa.
Article
Eight Holstein steers (439 kg) with "T" cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used to evaluate the characteristics of digestion of Pima cottonseed. Treatments consisted of a basal growing-finishing diet containing (DM basis) 1) 15% tapioca, 2) 15% whole linted cottonseed (Delta Pine 61, DP); 3) 15% whole lint-free cottonseed (Pima, PW), and 4) 15% ground Pima cottonseed (PG). Substitution of tapioca with cottonseed decreased (P < .05) ruminal and total tract digestion of OM (10.8 and 3.5%, respectively). Net ruminal microbial N synthesis was also lower (20.5%, P < .10) with cottonseed supplementation. The greater reductions occurred with DP and PG. Characteristics of ruminal and total tract digestion of OM and N were similar for DP and PG. Grinding Pima cottonseed increased ruminal digestion of OM (13%; P < .05) and feed N (18.1%; P < .10). Ruminal digestibility of N in DP, PW, and PG averaged 50.0, 49.4, and 59.3%, respectively. Postruminal digestion of lipid was similar (P > .10) across cottonseed treatments, averaging 76.9%. The comparative DE value of DP, PW, and PG were 4.13, 3.20, and 3.80 Mcal/kg, respectively. It is concluded that the energy value of lint-free Pima cottonseed is similar to that of linted varieties provided that it is ground before feeding. However, grinding will increase ruminal N degradability 20%. Furthermore, depending on the level of incorporation in the diet, grinding Pima cottonseed may decrease ruminal microbial growth and net ruminal protein efficiency.