Article

Effect of fertility levels and herbicides on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa)

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Abstract

A field experiment was conducted during the rainy seasons of 1999 and 2000, to find out the effect of fertility levels and herbicides on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.). The fertility level up to N45P40K30 + 25 kg ZnSO4 + foliar spray of micronutrient mixture (thrice) proved the best, producing 6.34 q/ha extra grain and Rs 6,968/ha extra net return over no fertility level. Hand-weeding (20 and 40 days after sowing) showed 72% weed-control efficiency with additional grain yield up to 9.91 q/ha and net return up to Rs 5,042/ha over unweeded control. Pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha or anilophos 0.40 kg/ha each with 2,4-D (Na-salt) 0.60 kg/ha showed 50 to 51% weed-control efficiency and proved the best substitute of hand-weeding (twice), the extra net return being Rs 3,689 and Rs 3,074/ha, respectively, over unweeded control. The seed protein and nutrient uptake were also increased significantly with increasing fertility levels and the herbicides over their respective controls.

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... Ni et al. (2000) from IRRI observed that in direct seeded puddled rice, the crop growth rate, LAI and dry matter production at tillering were associated with their competitiveness against weeds, whereas, relative crop growth rate, net assimilation rate and tillering capacity of the crop did not show such association. Singh et al. (2004) [89] found that plant height was more under non-puddled direct seeded rice at 30 and 60 DAS. However, tillers m -2 and dry matter accumulation were higher under puddled rice using rotavator. ...
... Ni et al. (2000) from IRRI observed that in direct seeded puddled rice, the crop growth rate, LAI and dry matter production at tillering were associated with their competitiveness against weeds, whereas, relative crop growth rate, net assimilation rate and tillering capacity of the crop did not show such association. Singh et al. (2004) [89] found that plant height was more under non-puddled direct seeded rice at 30 and 60 DAS. However, tillers m -2 and dry matter accumulation were higher under puddled rice using rotavator. ...
... In India, manual weeding is the most prevalent practices in different cultures of rice but this practice is effective only when weeds attain certain stature to provide better grip for uprooting (Bhan, 1980) [11] . Hand weeding (20 and 40 DAS) twice performed the best in enhancing all the growth and yield parameters (Singh and Namdeo, 2004) [89] . Hand weeding twice resulted in significantly higher panicle number and grain yield (Suganthi et al., 2005) [95] . ...
... Verma et al., (2017 a) [73] ; Ravishankar and Chandrashekharan (2003); Dhyani et al., (2009) [18] . Commelina diffusa Dhyani et al., (2009) [18] ; Bahar and Singh (2004) [3] Commelina benghalensis Shekhar and Mankotia, (2005) [59] ; Saini, (2005) [55] ; Singh and Namdeo, (2004) [61] ; Ram et al., (2004) [47] ; Mahajan et al., (2003) [34] ; Saini and Angiras (2002) [53] ; ...
... Ravishankar and Chandrashekharan, (2003); Moorthy and Saha, (2003) [39] . Caesulia axillaris Mahajan et al., (2003) [34] ; Bahar and Singh, (2004) [3] ; Ram et al., (2004) [47] Trianthema monogyna Tomar et al., (2002) [70] Euphorbia spp Ram et al. (2004) [47] ; Singh and Namdeo, (2004) [61] ...
... Uncontrolled weeds reduce the grain yield by 96 per cent in dry direct-seeded rice and 61 per cent in wet direct seeded rice (Maity and Mukerjee, 2008) [35] which is one of the major factors responsible for low yield of rice. Competition offered by weeds is most important and reduces the grain yield up to the extent of 32 per cent [61] . The yield loss due to weeds varied from 40 to 100 per cent in case of direct seeded rice (Choubey et al., 2001) [15] . ...
... kg ha -1 ) has recorded the lowest pooled mean among all the treatment combinations. Lacharme et al., 2001;Singh et al., 2004;Gala et al., 2011and Sanogo et al., 2010, Dongarwar et al., 2018a, Dongarwar et al., 2018b, Kashiwar et al., 2016, Dongarwar et al., 2015 also report the relevant results. ...
... kg ha -1 ) has recorded the lowest pooled mean among all the treatment combinations. All the treatments combinations with pooled analysis found to be significant throughout the three growing seasons Lacharme et al., 2001, Singh et al., 2004, Gala et al., 2011, Dongarwar et al., 2015, Sanogo et al., 2010, Dongarwar et al., 2018a, Dongarwar et al., 2018b, Kashiwar et al., 2016 also report the relevant results. Olsen's method (Jackson,1967) Available K 2 0 kg ha -1 290.00 318.00 Neutral normal ammonium acetate method (Jackson,1967) ...
... kg ha -1 ) has recorded the lowest pooled mean among all the treatment combinations. Lacharme et al., 2001;Singh et al., 2004;Gala et al., 2011and Sanogo et al., 2010, Dongarwar et al., 2018a, Dongarwar et al., 2018b, Kashiwar et al., 2016, Dongarwar et al., 2015 also report the relevant results. ...
... kg ha -1 ) has recorded the lowest pooled mean among all the treatment combinations. All the treatments combinations with pooled analysis found to be significant throughout the three growing seasons Lacharme et al., 2001, Singh et al., 2004, Gala et al., 2011, Dongarwar et al., 2015, Sanogo et al., 2010, Dongarwar et al., 2018a, Dongarwar et al., 2018b, Kashiwar et al., 2016 also report the relevant results. Olsen's method (Jackson,1967) Available K 2 0 kg ha -1 290.00 318.00 Neutral normal ammonium acetate method (Jackson,1967) ...
Article
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The field experiments were conducted in the kharif seasons of 2013-2014, 2014-2015, and 2015-2016 at the research farm of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bhandara (Sakoli) and Zonal Agricultural research Station, Sindewahi. The experiments were laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications and eight treatments. Higher number of effective tillers (390.0 m-2) observed in T2:- Row spacing 20cm x plant-to-plant spacing 10 cm at both the locations. The pooled mean of grain yield at two location and three seasons revealed that the row spacing of T2- 20 cm x plant-to-plant spacing 10 cm (3376 Kgha-1) was highest over all other treatments and it was par with T1. The highest GMR, NMR and B: C ratio has recorded in T2 followed by treatment T1. Sowing of drill rice at row spacing of 20 cm and plant to plant spacing of 10 cm (T2) was highest in grain yield (3376.49 kg ha-1), GMR, NMR and B:C ratio (1.91) over other treatments and it was at par with 20x15 cm drilling of rice with grain yield (3305.46 kgha-1) GMR,NMR and B:C ratio (1.86).
... kg ha -1 ) has recorded the lowest pooled mean among all the treatment combinations. Lacharme et al., 2001;Singh et al., 2004;Gala et al., 2011and Sanogo et al., 2010, Dongarwar et al., 2018a, Dongarwar et al., 2018b, Kashiwar et al., 2016, Dongarwar et al., 2015 also report the relevant results. ...
... kg ha -1 ) has recorded the lowest pooled mean among all the treatment combinations. All the treatments combinations with pooled analysis found to be significant throughout the three growing seasons Lacharme et al., 2001, Singh et al., 2004, Gala et al., 2011, Dongarwar et al., 2015, Sanogo et al., 2010, Dongarwar et al., 2018a, Dongarwar et al., 2018b, Kashiwar et al., 2016 also report the relevant results. Olsen's method (Jackson,1967) Available K 2 0 kg ha -1 290.00 318.00 Neutral normal ammonium acetate method (Jackson,1967) ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The field experiments were conducted in the kharif seasons of 2013-2014, 2014-2015, and 2015-2016 at the research farm of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bhandara (Sakoli) and Zonal Agricultural research Station, Sindewahi. The experiments were laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications and eight treatments. Higher number of effective tillers (390.0 m-2) observed in T2:- Row spacing 20cm x plant-to-plant spacing 10 cm at both the locations. The pooled mean of grain yield at two location and three seasons revealed that the row spacing of T2- 20 cm x plant-to-plant spacing 10 cm (3376 Kg ha-1) was highest over all other treatments and it was par with T1. The highest GMR, NMR and B: C ratio has recorded in T2 followed by treatment T1. Sowing of drill rice at row spacing of 20 cm and plant to plant spacing of 10 cm (T2) was highest in grain yield (3376.49 kg ha-1), GMR, NMR and B:C ratio (1.91) over other treatments and it was at par with 20 x15 cm drilling of rice with grain yield ( 3305.46 kg ha-1) GMR,NMR and B:C ratio(1.86).
... Optimum plant spacing ensures plants to grow properly both in their aerial and underground parts through utilization of solar radiation and nutrients, therefore proper manipulation of planting density may lead to increase in the economic yield of transplanted rice. Balanced fertilization right from the very beginning of crop growth is utmost essential to achieve better harvest of crop (Singh and Namdeo, 2004). As about 40 percent of yield increase is accounted against fertilizer use, the fertilizer recommendations should be matched to the basic soil fertility, season, target yield, climate etc. (Dakshina Murthy et al., 2015). ...
... The lowest potassium uptake was recorded in (T 1 ) viz., P 1 (20 cm × 20 cm) in combination with F 1 (111-32-45, N, P 2 O 5 and K 2 O) at all stages of crop growth. These results are in agreement with the findings of Sandhya kanthi (2012), Singh and Namdeo (2004) and Navneet Aggarwal and Avtar Singh (2015). ...
... Optimum plant spacing ensures plants to grow properly both in their aerial and underground parts through utilization of solar radiation and nutrients, therefore proper manipulation of planting density may lead to increase in the economic yield of transplanted rice. Balanced fertilization right from the very beginning of crop growth is utmost essential to achieve better harvest of crop (Singh and Namdeo, 2004). As about 40 percent of yield increase is accounted against fertilizer use, the fertilizer recommendations should be matched to the basic soil fertility, season, target yield, climate etc. (Dakshina Murthy et al., 2015). ...
... The lowest potassium uptake was recorded in (T 1 ) viz., P 1 (20 cm × 20 cm) in combination with F 1 (111-32-45, N, P 2 O 5 and K 2 O) at all stages of crop growth. These results are in agreement with the findings of Sandhya kanthi (2012), Singh and Namdeo (2004) and Navneet Aggarwal and Avtar Singh (2015). ...
... To achieve better growth and higher yield, requires balanced fertilization right from the very beginning of crop growth [3]. Application of optimum dose of nutrients is indispensable in crop production as it insures maximum economic benefit to the individual farmers as well as to the country [4]. ...
... Optimum plant spacing ensures plants to grow properly both in their aerial and underground parts through utilization of solar radiation and nutrients, therefore proper manipulation of planting density may lead to increase in the economic yield of transplanted rice. Balanced fertilization right from the very beginning of crop growth is utmost essential to achieve better harvest of the crop (Singh and Namdeo, 2004). Usually, rice yield declines when transplanting is delayed beyond the optimum time (Ologunde, 1987). ...
Article
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A field experiment was conducted on a sandy clay loam soil at the college farm of Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana during the kharif seasons of 2014 and 2015, to study the correlation and regression analysis of rice varieties as influenced by combination of plant densities and fertilizers under late sown condition. Grain yield was found to be significantly and positively correlated with number of tillers m-2 (r = 0. study revealed LAI, tillers m-2 , N, P, K uptake and dry matter of rice at maturity accounted for 68%, 88%, 98%, 94% and 99% of total variation in dry matter production of rice.
... Efficient utilization of applied nitrogen as well as other major nutrients has resulted in more number of effective tillers at higher levels. These findings are in close agreement with the reports of Shekar et al., (2005), Kundu et al., (2004), Singh and Namdeo (2004), Dwivedi et al., (2006), Sarmah (1998) and Sathiya Bama and Selvakumari (2005). ...
... The study also revealed that treatments like Amchlor 5G + Supermix 18WP, Amchlor 5G + Clean master 18WP, Talon 52WP + Clean master 18WP and Talon 52WP + Super mix 18WP showed higher weed control efficiency over two hand weeding treatment. While others reported the minimum weed pressure and the maximum weed control efficiency under two hand weeding treatment (Kumar et al., 2017;Rekha et al., 2002;Singh and Deo, 2004). In column, figures with similar letter (s) do not differ significantly while figures with dissimilar letter differ significantly (according to DMRT), ** = Significant at 1% level of probability, * =Significant at 5% level of probability, CV = Co-efficient of variance; No weeding (W0), Amchlor 5G as pre-emergence (W1), Talon 52WP as preemergence (W2), Supermix 18WP as post-emergence (W3), Clean master 18 WP as post-emergence (W4), Amchlor 5G + Supermix 18WP (W5 ), Amchlor 5G + Supermix 18WP + Hand weeding at 35 DAT (W6), Amchlor 5G + Clean master 18WP (W7), Talon 52WP + Clean master 18WP (W8), Talon 52WP + Supermix 18WP (W9); Talon 52WP + Clean master 18WP + Hand weeding at 42 DAT (W10), two hand weeding at 21 and at 42 DAT (W11) The probable cause of the present finding was mimic nature of weed, which help them to escape at the early crop growth stage and compete with crop. ...
... Hand weeding is very easy and environmentfriendly but tedious and highly labour intensive and thus is not economical for the farmers (Juraimi et al., 2013). Singh and Deo (2004) reported that hand-weeding (20 and 40 days after sowing) showed 72% weed-control efficiency with additional grain yield up to 9.91 q/ha and net return up to Rs 5,042/ha over un-weeded control. Pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha or anilophos 0.40 kg/ha each with 2,4-D (Nasalt) 0.60 kg/ha showed 50 to 51% weedcontrol efficiency and proved the best substitute of hand-weeding (twice), the extra net return being Rs 3,689 and Rs 3,074/ha, respectively over un-weeded control. ...
Article
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Increasing labour cost and scarcity has shifted in trend towards mechanization. Rice being a labour-intensive crop method like direct sowing using drum seeder could help in reducing the nursery and transplanting costs. Moreover, chemical weeding for direct sown rice need to be evaluated which could aid in the developing labour crisis. This review article focuses on the chemical weed management practices for direct sown rice. Pre-emergence (PE) herbicides like pretilachlor, anilofos and pendimethalin along with post-emergence herbicides (POE) like azimsulfuron and bispyribac sodium at different dosages and combinations are evaluated using available literature in contrast to manual hand weeding and mechanical weeding practices. It is a known fact that hand weeding is the best management practice till date and chemical combinations showing comparable performance to hand weeding can be chosen for further evaluation. It could be enlightened that the use of pretilachlor as PE followed by bispyribac sodium as POE have shown to be an appropriate, cost efficient weed management practice. Based on this the recommended dosage for application for pretilachlor @ 750 g (active ingredient) a.i./ha on 8 days after sowing (DAS); and bispyribac sodium @ 25 g a.i./ha on 30 DAS for direct sown drum seeded rice could enhance the weed control efficiency.
... The also find support with the works of Kumaran et al., (2015) Das et al., (2017) concluded that the post-emergence application of bispyribacsodium 25 g/ha at 25 DAT proved economical herbicide for transplanted rice as compared to hand weeding twice and also other herbicides and weedy check. Singh and Namdeo (2004) found higher net return ( 17,660 / ha) and B:C ratio (2.57) under two hand weedings, which reduced to 9,847 / ha and 2.26 under the application of butachlor. Also butachlor + 2, 4-D (EE) was comparable to two hand weedings wherein the net return and B: C ratio was observed to be 11,435/ha and 2.41. ...
Article
Rice farming is generally practiced in warm/cool humid subtropics where lack of control over the water by both flooding and drought problems and serious weed infestation thus crop badly suffer. Worldwide, weeds are one of the major biological threats to higher rice productivity and its management in rice is challenging, complex, expensive, and regulated mechanism. Therefore, to control the diverse weed infestation in rice fields, planed weed management strategies have to addressed. Now a day, unavailability of labour due to seasonal migration and lack of farm operations in the peak of the rice growing period adds fossil to the burning complications “the profuse weed infestation” and hence, the precise weed removal/control is utmost required to optimize the yield sustainability and efficient resource use. Among all the weed control methods, chemical weed control is commonly used to overcome weeds infestation which is easy, quick, time saving, cost effective and the most reliable method to control weeds in rice. In view of the limitations of herbicidal resistance of old molecules, it is necessary to promote the potential new molecules of herbicides and their combination (a sustainable option in a long run) for effective weed control. Among the existing herbicides, pre emergence herbicides alone are extensively used for controlling the rice weeds which do not provide extended period of weed control. To control weeds during the critical period of crop weed and escape the development of resistance, a combination of different groups of herbicides having different mode of action to be applied. Integrated approaches for weed management, emphasizing on the combination of management practices and scientific knowledge, may also reduce the economic costs and improve weed control owing to the complexity of the weed community.
... The higher uptake of N, P and K with incremental doses might be due to the fact that plant absorbed the nutrients proportionately as the pool of available nutrients increases in soil solution. Increased nutrient absorption by rice with increased fertilizer doses has also been reported by Singh and Namdeo, (2004). Applica-tion of 125% doses of fertilizers enriches the available nutrient status and consequently resulted in higher nutrient uptake. ...
Article
Full-text available
Performance of organic sources i.e. vermi-compost (VC), poultry manure (PM), farm yard manure (FYM) in combination with chemical fertilizers and sole chemical fertilizers with 100% recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) i.e. 120:60:60 NPK kg ha-1 and 125% RDF were evaluated in terms of nutrient content and nutrient uptake of basmati rice at crop research centre of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut, India, during kharif-2013 using randomized block design (RBD). Results revealed that highest nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in grain and straw and their uptake in basmati rice were recorded with application of 125% RDF through inorganic source of nutrient over other treatments. The highest grain (4.56 t ha-1) and straw yield (6.49 t ha-1) was also recorded with 125% RDF through inorganic source of nutrient but it was statistically similar to the treatment containing 50% RDF through inorganic sources + 50% through PM.
... The also find support with the works of Kumaran et al., (2015) Das et al., (2017) concluded that the post-emergence application of bispyribacsodium 25 g/ha at 25 DAT proved economical herbicide for transplanted rice as compared to hand weeding twice and also other herbicides and weedy check. Singh and Namdeo (2004) found higher net return ( 17,660 / ha) and B:C ratio (2.57) under two hand weedings, which reduced to 9,847 / ha and 2.26 under the application of butachlor. Also butachlor + 2, 4-D (EE) was comparable to two hand weedings wherein the net return and B: C ratio was observed to be 11,435/ha and 2.41. ...
... The also find support with the works of Kumaran et al., (2015) Das et al., (2017) concluded that the post-emergence application of bispyribacsodium 25 g/ha at 25 DAT proved economical herbicide for transplanted rice as compared to hand weeding twice and also other herbicides and weedy check. Singh and Namdeo (2004) found higher net return ( 17,660 / ha) and B:C ratio (2.57) under two hand weedings, which reduced to 9,847 / ha and 2.26 under the application of butachlor. Also butachlor + 2, 4-D (EE) was comparable to two hand weedings wherein the net return and B: C ratio was observed to be 11,435/ha and 2.41. ...
... The cost of weeding was comparatively higher with hand weeding (thrice) than herbicidal treatments, that's why lowest B: C ratio recorded under weed free. (Dhiman and Nandal, 1996;Behra et al., 1997 andSingh andNamdeo, 2004). ...
... The cost of weeding was comparatively higher with hand weeding (thrice) than herbicidal treatments, that's why lowest B: C ratio recorded under weed free. (Dhiman and Nandal, 1996;Behra et al., 1997 andSingh andNamdeo, 2004). ...
Article
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A field experiment was carried out at the Agricultural Research Farm, Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur, Bihar (India), during kharif season of 2014 to evaluate the weed management practices under direct seeded rice. The weed management factor under study comprised of 12 weed management treatments on direct seeded rice was laid out in Randomized Block Design and replicated thrice. The data revealed that maximum weed control efficiency, lowest weed population,weed dry weight and weed index were recorded under treatment T2-Weed free (3 hand weeding at 20,40 and 60 DAS). Among different weed management treatments,T11- Pendimethalin 1 L/ha (2 DAS) fb Bispyribac-Na 30 g/ha (20 DAS) + Hand weeding (40 DAS) had efficiently control the complex weed flora. On economical basis T12-Brown manuring with Sesbenia aculeate knock down with 2, 4-D @ 0.75 kg/ha at 35 DAS showed its superiority over rest of the treatments.
... However, plastic mulch resulted in significant reduction in dry matter accumulation of weeds by 37.4 and 63.8 percent over rice straw mulch and unmulched soil condition, respectively. Singh and Deo (2004) revealed that hand weeding (20 and 40 days after sowing) showed 72 per cent weed control efficiency over unweeded control in direct seeded rice plants. Singh and Singh (2001) carried out a field study during spring seasons (Feb.-Sept.) of 1996-98 under rainfed low valley situation of Uttaranchal and revealed that competition with Cyperus rotundus resulted in 52.5 per cent reduction in grain yield of rice. ...
Article
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Rice is an important staple food crop of India. Several factors are responsible for reducing the yield of Kharif rice. However, weed infestation is the major threat to productivity of Kharif rice. Weeds by the virtue of their high adaptability and faster growth dominate the crop habitat and reduce the yield potential of the crop. These weeds could be controlled through various methods. Manual method is though very common but cost intensive. Herbicides when applied alone are although economical but may have limitation of resistance development and shift in weed flora etc. Therefore, presently there is a need to use high efficacy herbicides in combination coupled with broad spectrum nature to control the complex weed flora in Kharif rice.
... Optimum plant spacing ensures plants to grow properly both in their aerial and underground parts through utilization of solar radiation and nutrients, therefore proper manipulation of planting density may lead to increase in the economic yield of transplanted rice. Balanced fertilization right from the very beginning of crop growth is utmost essential to achieve better harvest of the crop (Singh and Namdeo, 2004). Usually, rice yield declines when transplanting is delayed beyond the optimum time (Ologunde, 1987). ...
... Optimum plant spacing ensures plants to grow properly both in their aerial and underground parts through utilization of solar radiation and nutrients, therefore proper manipulation of planting density may lead to increase in the economic yield of transplanted rice. Balanced fertilization right from the very beginning of crop growth is utmost essential to achieve better harvest of crop (Singh and Namdeo, 2004). Usually, rice yield declines when transplanting is delayed beyond the optimum time (Ologunde, 1987). ...
... Rice yield per unit area per unit time is dependent on adequate fertilization. Balanced fertilization right from the very beginning of crop growth is utmost essential to achieve better harvest of crop (Singh and Namdeo, 2004). As about 40 percent of yield increase is accounted against fertilizer use, The efficiency with which the applied nutrient is used by the crop towards grain production was evaluated through partial factor productivity. ...
... These results corroborate with those of Gala et al., (2011) and Dongarwar et al., (2015) who reported that the increasing amount of nitrogen improves considerably the vegetative growth of rice. Singh and Namdeo (2004) have also reported increased nutrient absorption by rice with increased fertilizer doses. Increase in N dose by 25 per cent over recommended dose increased the uptake of P and K conspicuously besides increase in uptake of N. Similarly increase in K dose by 25 percent resulted in marked improvement in N uptake also. ...
Article
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An experiment was conducted to determine, the effect of different fertilizer doses on yield and economics of direct seeded rice, during wet (kharif) seasons of 2013-2014, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 at two separate locations viz. KVK, Bhandara and ZARS, Sindewahi. Highest no. of effective tillers length of Panicle (20.47 cm), number of grains panicles-1 (174.67) observed in T5 followed by treatment T4 and T7. Pooled mean at ZARS, Sindewahi indicated that T5 (4780.0 Kg ha-1) was expressively higher in grain yield followed by T4 and T7. Conversely, T5, T4 & T7 were at par with each other and significantly superior over other treatments. In pooled mean of KVK, Sakoli, T5 (3580 Kg ha-1) was significantly higher in grain yield followed by T4 (3722.86 kg ha-1) and T7 and treatment T4 and T7 were at par with each other. The pooled mean of three seasons and two locations showed that T5 was pointedly higher in grain yield (4180kg ha-1) followed by Treatment T4. The highest GMR, NMR and B: C ratio was recorded in T5 followed by T4 and T7 as well as T4 & T7 were at par. T5 was significantly higher in grain yield (4180 kg ha-1) and B: C ratio (2.08) followed by T4 (3861 kg ha-1) with B: C ratio (2.0).
... Efficient utilization of applied nitrogen as well as other major nutrients has resulted in more number of effective tillers at higher levels. These findings are in close agreement with the reports of Shekar et al., (2005), Kundu et al., (2004), Singh and Namdeo (2004), Dwivedi et al., (2006), Sarmah (1998) and Sathiya Bama and Selvakumari (2005). ...
... It 10 was noted that application of herbicides enhanced weed control efficiency due to restricted weed growth, resulted lower production of dry matter of weeds lead to high weed control efficiency. Singh and Namdeo (2004) found that hand weeding (20 and 40 days after sowing) showed 72 per cent weed control efficiency. ...
Article
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Taguchi method is an optimization technique used to find the optimal process parameters for a process. Paddy weeder is an equipment, used to control weeds. The paddy weeder consists of several parts, and most important part is the cutting blade. The cutting blades are joined on a rotor for delivering the rotary motion and are helpful in removing weeds from field and incorporating with soil. Through this study, one can determine the optimal process parameters for cutting blades manufacturing, and the main process parameters that affect its quality. The settings of the process parameters were determined by using Taguchi's experimental design method. The paper presents a detailed study of all the processes involved in the production of blades and hence selection of several control factors, constructing orthogonal arrays, the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, and regression analyses are employed to find the optimal process parameter levels, were employed to investigate the quality characteristics of cutting blades manufactured, and time involved in it. The improved die proved to be 88.6% efficient than the traditional methods and 71.4% efficient than the production by normal dies.
... The uptake studies of N P K at harvest showed that incremental doses of N, P and K recorded significantly progressive improvement in uptake of respective nutrients ( Table 2).The higher uptake of N ,P and K with incremental doses might be due to the fact that plant absorbed the nutrients proportionately as the pool of available nutrients increases in soil solution .Increased nutrient absorption by rice with increased fertilizer doses has also been reported by Singh and Namdeo (2004). Increase in N dose by 25 % ,increased the uptake of P and K conspicuously besides increase in uptake of N . ...
Article
A field experiment was conducted on rice (Oryza sativa L.) for three consecutive rabi seasons of 2007, 2008 and 2009 on Godavari alluvials (Vertic chromusters) at Andhra Pradesh Rice Research Institute, Maruteru, with an objective to revise the existing fertilizer doses of major nutrients for rabi rice in Krishna Godavari delta regions of Andhra Pradesh. Grain yield was increased by 11.5% and 6.3% due to increase in recommended dose of N from 100% (120 kg ha-1) to 125% and 150%. Increase in P & K doses from 100 to 125% (P from 60 to 75 and K from 40 to 50 kg ha-1) also improved grain yield significantly. Agronomic efficiency of N P and K was progressively increased with incremental doses of respective nutrients. Energy use efficiency of K is remarkably high particularly with first increment (4.87) followed by P and N. Highest gross returns, net returns and rupee per rupee invested were recorded with application of NPK @ 210-60-40 kg ha-1. Incremental doses of N, P and K over the recommended dose recorded significant improvement in uptake of respective nutrients. Grain quality, milling characters were significantly influenced by incremental doses of N P & K. While considering the economics, nutrient depletion and quality parameters, application of N @ 180-90-60 kg ha-1 appears to be the most optimum dose for rabi rice in deltaic alluvial soils of Andhra Pradesh.
Article
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Background: In India, rice covers largest area under cultivation. Among the biotic stresses weeds pose serious threat to rice if not controlled in its critical crop-weed competition period, reducing yield by 50%, in case of transplanted rice. The experiment was carried out to evaluate effectiveness of different herbicides and its combination with mechanical weed control methods in checking weed population in transplanted rice so as to maintain sustained production. Methods: The experiment was carried out in lower Gangetic plain zone during kharif season of 2018. It was laid out in randomized block design with seven treatments replicated thrice. The treatments were pretilachlor 50% EC@ 1500 ml ha-1 (0-4 DAT), butachlor 50% EC @ 4000 ml ha-1 (0-4 DAT), bispyribac Na 10% SC @ 200 ml ha-1 (Post-emergence), Sesbania intercrop @ 25 kg ha-1 up to 30 DAT followed by mechanical incorporation followed by 1 hand weeding @ 50 DAT, pretilachlor 50% EC @ 1500 ml ha-1 (0-4 DAT) followed by bispyribac Na 10% SC @ 2000 ml ha-1 (25 DAT), two hand weedings at 25 DAT and 50 DAT and untreated control. Result: Cyperus rotundus, Cyperus difformis, Alternanthera philoxeroides, Ludwigia octovalvis, Echinochloa colona, Fimbristyslis sp. were the dominating weed species as per experimental findings. Among all treatments two hand weedings at 25 DAT and 50 DAT significantly reduced the total weed density (no.m-2) while total weed biomass (g m-2) as was found to be lowest in treatment of pretilachlor 50% EC @ 1500 ml ha-1 (0-4 DAT) followed by bispyribac Na 10% SC @ 2000 ml ha-1 (25 DAT). Highest growth characteristics in rice was observed in treatment of two hand weedings at 25 DAT and 50 DAT. Pre- emergence and post-emergence application of pretilachlor and bispyribac sodium, respectively, was successful in achieving highest yield attributes, yield (4.12 t ha-1) and economic return (Rs. 47438 ha-1).
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Shiva Dhar, Babu Subhash, Raj R., Upadhyay, P.K., Singh, T., Yadav, S.K., Meena, R.P., Kumar, A., Yadav, D.D., Sarangi, S.K., Singh, D.N., Gupta, G., Jinger, D., Ramalu, B., Kumar, D., Prajapat, K., Rajpoot, S., Bamboria, S., Ravishankar, N., Kumar, V., Ramanjaneyulu, A.V. and Choudhary, S.K. 2021. Agri-Innovations to Combat Food and Nutrition Challenges In: Extended Summaries of 5th International Agronomy Congress. The Indian Society of Agronomy, IARI, New Delhi 110012, Vol. 3 pp 1187–1590.
Thesis
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The investigation entitled “Evaluation of Farm Level Water Footprints, Crop-Water Productivity and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Irrigated Rice under Different Tillage, Water and Nitrogen Management” were carried out at the Crop Research Centre of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut, U.P. during kharif seasons of 2016 and 2017. The experiment consisting four tillage crop establishment practices in main plots three water management/irrigation strategies in sub-plots and five nitrogen treatments viz. control (N1), 80 kg Nha-1 (N2), 120 kg Nha-1 (N3), 160 kg Nha-1 (N4) and 200 kg Nha-1 (N5) in sub-sub-plots was laid out in split -split plot design with three replications. The plant height, tillers m-2 dry matter accumulation increased with transplanted basmati rice on wide raised beds and transplanted basmati rice after puddling. Among the yield attributes number of grains per panicle, panicle length (cm), numbers of spikelet’s per panicle and test weight were increased in transplanted basmati rice on wide raised beds and transplanted basmati rice after puddling plots, respectively. The improvement in grain yield 16.8 and 10.6 per cent under transplanted basmati rice after puddling and transplanted basmati rice on wide raised beds plots, respectively over transplanted basmati rice on narrow raised beds practices. The highest total water footprint (TWFP) was observed under T4 followed by T1, T3 and T2 treatments. Irrigation strategies (W1) achieved significantly higher total water footprint (TWFP) as compared to all other irrigation strategies. Highest WFP Total was observed when “control” no fertilizer and only 80 kg N ha-1 was applied treatments. Highest WPIRRI was obtained under T3 (0.71 kg m-3) followed by T1 and T4 establishment methods. The WPTCW was gradually increased with increasing doses of nitrogen but estimated water productivity was at par with N3, N4 and N5. Average over the N treatments, higher ANUE was recorded under alternate wetting drying treatments (W2 and W3) than that of the continuous submergence (W1).The physiological N use efficiency (PNUE) values ranged from 33.3 to 50.6 kg grain/kg N uptake with decreasing values as the N doses increased. The higher value of minimum cooking time, elongation ration, water uptakes ratio obtained in N1 treatment. Increase in protein content by N5 over N3, N2 and N1 during 2016 was 1.18, 5.92 and 7.52 per cent, respectively and the corresponding values for 2017 were 1.09, 3.28 and 6.56 per cent. Results also Page 272 indicated that rice transplanted on wide raised beds and transplanted rice under reduced tillage plots consumed more moisture from the deeper profile layer than conventional tillage practice Transplanted basmati rice after puddling recorded higher bulk density and more contribution from top layer. Soil penetration resistance recorded significantly higher underconventional technique as compared to FIRB planting during 2016 and 2017, respectively. Among the macro-aggregates, 0.25 - 0.50 mm fraction constituted the greatest proportion followed by 0.5 - 1.0, 1.0 - 2.0, and >2 mm fraction constituted the least proportion in 0 – 10, 10-20 cm and 20 - 30 cm soil layers under FIRB, RT and CT system. Among the different planting technique the cost of cultivation was highest in T4 conventional tillage puddle transplanted rice followed by narrow raised beds unpuddled transplanted rice (T2) and it was lowest in reduced tillage transplanted practices plots. Among the different planting technique the highest net profit, B: C ratio was recorded in (T3) rice transplanted on wide raised beds. The B: C ratio under the treatments was in the descending order of N4160 kg N ha-1 > N5 200 kg N ha-1 > N3 120 kg N ha-1 > N2 80 kg N ha-1 > N1 control.
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