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Cognitive enhancement through stimulation of the chemical senses

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Abstract

Finding a non-pharmacological adjunct to enhance cognitive processing in humans would be beneficial to numerous individuals. Past research has consistently noted a significant interplay between odors and human behavior; for example, the administration of particular odorants enhances athletic performance, mood, and sleep quality. In addition, odorants have a differential effect on human behavior, dependent upon route of administration (retronasal vs. orthonasal). The following study examined the differential effects of odorants on cognition based upon route of administration. During Phase 1, 31 participants completed cognitive tasks on a computer-based program (Impact©) under five "chewing gum" conditions (no gum, flavorless gum, peppermint gum, cinnamon gum, and cherry gum). During Phase II, 39 participants completed the cognitive tasks under four odorant conditions (no odor, peppermint odor, jasmine odor, and cinnamon odor). Results revealed a task-dependent relationship between odors and the enhancement of cognitive processing. Specifically, cinnamon, administered retronasally and orthonasally, improved participants' scores on tasks related to attentional processes, virtual recognition memory, working memory, and visual-motor response speed. Implications are discussed in relation to providing a non-pharmacological adjunct to enhance cognition in the elderly, individuals with test-anxiety, and those with symptoms of dementia.

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... We made a specific effort to design a study in which any context-dependent effect could be seen. It has been shown that odors can induce context-dependent memory (Aggleton & Waskett, 1999) and certain odorants, such as peppermint (Barker et al., 2003) and cinnamon (Zoladz & Raudenbush, 2005), have been shown to enhance cognition, including memory. Zoladz and Raudenbush (2005) showed that administering cinnamon odorant both via cinnamon gum and via direct nasal delivery, enhances a variety of cognitive tasks. ...
... It has been shown that odors can induce context-dependent memory (Aggleton & Waskett, 1999) and certain odorants, such as peppermint (Barker et al., 2003) and cinnamon (Zoladz & Raudenbush, 2005), have been shown to enhance cognition, including memory. Zoladz and Raudenbush (2005) showed that administering cinnamon odorant both via cinnamon gum and via direct nasal delivery, enhances a variety of cognitive tasks. Cinnamon was more effective in enhancing cognitive performance than jasmine, peppermint, and the absence of odor. ...
... Our use of cinnamon as a flavor is based on previous research demonstrating cinnamon's particularly strong role in enhancing cognition (Zoladz & Raudenbush, 2005) but the possibility exists that different flavors may interact differently with various types of oral activity and this should be explored. Therefore, future studies should explore the role of flavor as context when oral activity does not change. ...
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This study examined the effect of chewing gum on memory when flavor is held constant. Four separate groups of participants (total n=101) completed a word recall task. At learning and recall, participants either chewed a piece of gum or sucked a sweet. Each participant completed the memory task twice, once with abstract words and once with concrete words. A significant effect of word type (concrete vs. abstract) was found, however recall performance was not improved by matched oral activity at learning and recall. The results cast further doubt on the ability of chewing gum to induce context-dependent memory effects.
... Among the passive methods, aroma exposure showed good results in maintaining alertness in comparison with light and alarm [5]. Furthermore, peppermint scent were proven to significantly increase alertness in activities that require continuous attention [9], on athletic performance [10], while administered on cognitive tests [11] [12], or to prevent drowsiness [13]. Nonetheless, the empirical evidence of the peppermint aroma effectiveness in maintaining drivers' alertness was not conclusively known. ...
... Alertness level was monitored via brainwave activity using electroencephalograph (EEG) along 30 minutes of driving. The brainwave measured were theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13), and beta (13-30 Hz). These waves were chosen to show active condition (beta wave), as well as drowsiness, eyes closed, and sleepy situation (alpha and theta waves). ...
... In this study, peppermint fragrance was given continuously during the driving. In addition, [10], [11], and [19] also administered continuous method of contact. Moreover, other researches applied intermittent method, such as [9] and [13]. ...
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The numbers of the traffic accidents related to human factors are increasing rapidly. Among all contributing factors to the accident, fatigue and sleepiness on wheel are the most common reasons. Both conditions decrease drivers’ alertness, resulting in performance decrement and accident risk increment. The alertness degradation is usually not well recognized by the drivers. Peppermint fragrance is commonly known on its freshness as medicine or aromatherapy. This research was conducted to examine the effectiveness of peppermint as a car freshener in order to maintain drivers’ alertness level. A within-subject design experiment was carried out in a car-driving simulator laboratory engaging twelve male participants. There were two driving conditions: with placebo and with peppermint fragrance. Placebo and peppermint fragrance was released continuously using an electric vaporizer. The participants’ alertness level was monitored via brainwave activities using electroencephalograph (EEG) along 30minutes of driving. Frequency analysis on EEG data was conducted to determine the alpha, theta, and beta power band on F3 and F4 of lobus frontal to generate the (α+θ)/β ratio. Results of this study demonstrated that the application of the peppermint car freshener resulted in lower slope of (α+θ)/β ratio rather than placebo condition (0.018 vs. 0.026), though the difference was not significant (p = 0.216). The results suggest that the peppermint is promising to be applied as in-vehicle fragrance in order to maintain drivers’ alertness. Further research can be conducted to test various method of fragrance exposure to get more substantial increase of alertness level.
... Herz (2002) reports that working in the presence of a pleasant odours results in higher self-efficacy, setting higher goals and employing efficient work strategies in comparison to working in a no-scent condition. Zoladz -Raudenbush (2005) also believe that pleasant odours may lead to cognitive, social, psychological and physiological performance improvement. Research done by Baron (1990) confirmed that participants who were exposed to pleasant scents, set higher goals on a clerical coding task, were more likely to adopt an efficient strategy for performing this task, set higher monetary goals and made more concessions during face-to-face negotiations with an accomplice. ...
... no scent) environment perform better on an analytical reasoning task, moreover people expect that being in a coffee-scented environment will increase their performance because they expect it will increase their physiological arousal level (Madzharov et al., 2018). Zoladz -Raudenbush (2005) showed that cinnamon odour improved attentional processes, virtual recognition and working memory, and visual-motor response speed. Keller (2017) defines six scents that can improve productivity and performance of a company: 1) Rosemary for stimulating the mind, improving memory retention, relief of fatigue, headaches and muscular aches and pains and it helps workers concentrate on the task at hand; 2) Lemon relieves tension, anger and anxiety in the workplace and promotes the perception of cleanliness; 3) Lavender for high stress work environments; 4) Cinnamon creates alertness, improves focus and accurate attention to detail; 5) Jasmine offers relief from stress, tension, anxiety and depression; 6) Peppermint promotes concentration and focused thinking. ...
... 7,8 There is also increase in cognitive skills, short term memory and arithmetic skills along with fall in stress due to change in salivary cortisol levels. [9][10][11] On the contrary some other studies show that there is a decreased attention and increased reaction time. 12 Also subjects had a fall in cognitive skills and short term memory. ...
... 9 In another study by Zoladz PR et al who concluded that peppermint has no action whatsoever in increasing the attention span after conducting the study on their cognitive performance software. 10 This is not in accordance with our study. ...
Article
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Background: Many medical students are dealing with day to day stress in their lives and they need to be both physically and mentally active to counter and overcome their daily problems. In such scenario, a non-pharmacological adjunct could prove useful to counter all of it so that they can work more efficiently. Many universities do recommend the use of peppermints and chewing gums. This study is conducted to see if any of these items actually have an influence on cognitive and physical abilities.Methods: A non-randomized controlled trial was performed on the undergraduate medical students of N.K.P. Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre belonging to the age group of 18-21 years. They were given normal flavoured gum, mint flavoured gum and peppermint. A series of cognitive and physiological tests in both stressful and stress free environments were performed.Results: Consumption of peppermint in a stressful environment showed increase in attention span of the subjects and it increased the intelligence Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-R (WAIS-R) in both stress free and stressful environments. As compared to normal gum, peppermint and peppermint gum proved to be more effective. There was no significant change observed in alertness, reaction time, arithmetic ability, short term memory and fatigue index in any of the subjects.Conclusions: Peppermint has caused increase in the attention span and intelligence of medical students in a stressful work scenario. Peppermint gum was found to be more beneficial than normal gum.
... Rediscovery of metabolically active BAT in adult humans [3] and the fact that it can be turned on by various pharmacological agents, provides compelling reasons to evaluate the already known thermogenic compounds for their ability to affect performance in cold temperatures. Based on this and on indication in literature about the ability of pepper and cinnamon to improve cognitive performance [4][5][6][7] the current study was designed to evaluate if the thermogenic and performance enhancing ability of the two spices could normalise or improve performance following exposure to cold temperature in albino Wistar rats. ...
... Specifically, cold exposure can lead to decrements in memory [19,20], vigilance [21], reaction time [22], decision making [23], etc. The present results are in agreement with those demonstrating cognitive impairments following cold exposure [4][5][6][7]. Treatment with green tea and both the spices significantly improved performance, but only in the cold exposed group. We reasoned that it may be due to the following factors. ...
Article
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Despite an understanding that a major effect of cold exposure is a fall in core body temperature which is responsible for the observed decrements in the performance, it is surprising that thermogenic supplements are seldom evaluated to verify if they can aid in improving the performance during cold exposure. Following evidence from our previous study indicating the ability of pepper and cinnamon to improve cold endurance, we investigated further here if the improved endurance had advantages in real time where they could positively affect cognitive performance (assessed by Novel object test) when exposed to cold in albino wistar rats. In order to delineate if the observed improvement if any, was due to their cognitive enhancing ability or thermogenic potential, distinctive room temperature (RT) and cold temperature (CT) groups were used. Cold exposure impaired cognitive performance which improved following treatment with both the spices. We noted an increased rate of cold adaptive thermogenesis in CT treated group as evidenced by an elevated norepinephrine, free fatty acid levels in blood, increased expression of UCP1 in brown adipose tissue, the net effect being a decreased fall in the core body temperature. Absence of any notable effect in these parameters in the RT treated group ascertained that at least in the current experimental set up the observed improvement in performance in CT treated group is due to the thermogenic potential of the spices alone. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the cognitive impairment caused by exposure to cold can be effectively countered by agents with thermogenic potential.
... Furthermore, the chewing of gum was associated with a small overall increase in performance on a battery of cognitive tests (Scholey et al., 2009). In other studies, chewing gum was found to benefit verbal working memory (Hirano et al., 2008;Zoladz & Raudenbush, 2005), free recall (Baker, Bezance, Zellaby, & Aggleton, 2004;Johnson & Miles, 2008), attention (Smith, 2010;Tucha, Mecklinger, Maier, Hammerl, & Lange, 2004;Tucha & Simpson, 2011), as well as performance on reaction time measures (Sakamoto, Nakata, & Kakigi, 2009;Smith, 2010). ...
... It is also possible that the cognitive effects of gum chewing observed in our study are confounded with flavor-for instance, there is evidence that some flavors lead to an amplification of cognitive effects, even in the absence of chewing (Zoladz & Raudenbush, 2005; see also Johnson & Miles, 2008). On the other hand, studies (e.g., Sakamoto et al., 2009) also reveal performance improvements after participants chew flavorless gumbase, suggesting that the presence of gum itself is sufficient to induce changes in cognitive functioning. ...
Article
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The current series of experiments investigated the effects of the timing of gum chewing on cognitive function, by administering a battery of cognitive tasks to participants who chewed gum either prior to or throughout testing, and comparing their performance to that of controls who did not chew gum. Chewing gum was associated with performance advantages on multiple measures when gum was chewed for 5 min before, but not during, cognitive testing. The benefits, however, persisted only for the first 15-20 min of the testing session, and did not extend to all cognitive domains. To explain this pattern of results, it is proposed that the time-limited nature of performance benefits can be attributed to mastication-induced arousal. Furthermore, the lack of improvement in cognitive function when gum is chewed throughout testing may be because of interference effects due to a sharing of resources by cognitive and masticatory processes. This dual-process mechanism is not only consistent with the outcome of present experiments but can potentially account for a wide range of findings reported in the literature.
... There has been growing interest in the influence of fragrance on the performance of workers. In one Japanese car factory, for example, a significant increase in productivity (together with a concomitant reduction in accidents) was reported when a lemon scent was introduced onto the factory floor (see Shimuzu Corporation, 1988;Knasko, 1992;Barker et al., 2003;Zoladz and Raudenbush, 2005;Herz, 2007;Shepherd, 2010). Positive results of odor administration on people's performance have not always been reported though (e.g., see Marx, 1990;Gaygen and Hedge, 2009). ...
Article
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The majority of the world’s population now lives an urban existence, spending as much as 95% of their lives indoors. The olfactory atmosphere in the built environment has been shown to exert a profound, if often unrecognized, influence over our mood and well-being. While the traditionally malodorous stench to be found indoors (i.e., prior to the invention of modern sanitation) has largely been eliminated in recent centuries, many of the outbreaks of sick-building syndrome that have been reported over the last half century have been linked to the presence of a strange smell in the environment. At the same time, however, there is also growing evidence that consumer behavior can be manipulated by the presence of pleasant ambient odors, while various aromatherapy scents are said to improve our mood and well-being. This Anglophone review focuses primarily on indoor western urban developed spaces. Importantly, the olfactory ambience constitutes but one component of the multisensory atmosphere and ambient odors interact with the visual, auditory, and haptic aspects of the built environment. Surprisingly, the majority of published studies that have deliberately chosen to combine ambient scent with other sensory interventions, such as, for example, music, have failed to increase store sales, or to enhance people’s mood and/or well-being, as might have been expected. Such negative findings therefore stress the importance of considering multisensory congruency while, at the same time, also highlighting the potential dangers that may be associated with sensory overload when thinking about the effect of ambient smell on our well-being.
... There was no significant correlation between odor ratings and performance on the creativity tests (S1 Table). There is evidence that cinnamon odor increases attention and memory [44,45], although conflicting evidence [46] was also reported. Since both groups were equally exposed to the odor, any presumed effect of the odor itself would affect both groups. ...
Article
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The placebo effect is usually studied in clinical settings for decreasing negative symptoms such as pain, depression and anxiety. There is interest in exploring the placebo effect also outside the clinic, for enhancing positive aspects of performance or cognition. Several studies indicate that placebo can enhance cognitive abilities including memory, implicit learning and general knowledge. Here, we ask whether placebo can enhance creativity, an important aspect of human cognition.Subjects were randomly assigned to a control group who smelled and rated an odorant (n = 45), and a placebo group who were treated identically but were also told that the odorant increases creativity and reduces inhibitions (n = 45). Subjects completed a recently developed automated test for creativity, the creative foraging game (CFG), and a randomly chosen subset (n = 57) also completed two manual standardized creativity tests, the alternate uses test (AUT) and the Torrance test (TTCT). In all three tests, participants were asked to create as many original solutions and were scored for originality, flexibility and fluency.The placebo group showed higher originality than the control group both in the CFG (p
... During the control period participants consumed 500 mL of still natural mineral water. It is acknowledged that this may not be as appropriate as a taste-matched placebo, but this could not be achieved as the odour of the peppermint may be as ergogenic as the ingestion (Zoladz and Raudenbush 2005). The peppermint essential oil was commercially available (Holland and Barrett Retail Limited, Warwickshire, UK). ...
Article
This study examined the effects of peppermint essential oil (PEP) on aerobic capacity. Seven healthy participants performed a graded maximal exercise test following 10-days of ingesting either PEP or a control in a randomised cross-over design. There was no significant difference between control and PEP trials for expired gas variables (V ̇O2 peak 3.54 vs. 3.52 L/min) or performance measures (time to exhaustion 583.33 vs. 587.04 seconds). Similarly, resting cardio-pulmonary measures were also unchanged between visits.
... Scholey et al. 2009 found that the chewing of gum was associated with a small overall increase in performance on a battery of cognitive tests. Other studies indicate that chewing gum offers a range of benefits (Onyper et al., 2011) like verbal working memory (Hirano et al., 2008;Zoladz and Raudenbush, 2005), free recall (Baker et al., 2004;Johnson & Miles, 2008), attention (Smith, 2010;Tucha et al., 2004;Tucha & Simpson, 2011), as well as performance on reaction time measures (Sakamotoet et al., 2009;Smith, 2010). ...
Article
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Medicated chewing gum has a history for about a century. Now-a-days it is considered to be a potential and conve-nient modified release drug delivery system which can be used in pain relief medication, smoking cessation, travel illness, freshening of breath, prevention of dental caries, alleviation of xerostomia, vitamin or mineral supplementa-tion etc. Medicated chewing gums are prepared by using a water insoluble gum base with water soluble bulk portion. This formulation offers both local and systemic effects and has a range of advantages over conventional oral solid dosage forms. USP currently has no in vitro release testing apparatus for the evaluation and determination of drug release from the prepared chewing gums. But European Pharmacopoeia adopted a compendial apparatus to do so. Medicated chewing has drawn attention to the researchers as potential drug delivery system and it could be a com-mercial success in near future. Key Words : pharmaceutical chewing gum, gum base, oral mucosal drug delivery, buccal membrane, apparatus. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/icpj.v1i4.10064 International Current Pharmaceutical Journal 2012, 1(4): 86-91
... Recently, behavioral studies were performed to examine the relationship between chewing and cognitive performance including memory, attention and executive function. With regard to memory, it has been reported that gum chewing improves episodic and working memory during chewing, suggesting at least in part that chewing promotes regional cerebral blood flow and glucose delivery (Stephens & Tunney, 2004;Wilkinson, Scholey, & Wesnes, 2002;Zoladz & Raudenbush, 2005). However, the existence of enhanced performance of episodic memory task by context-dependent effects induced by chewing has remained controversial (Baker, Bezance, Zellaby, & Aggleton, 2004;Johnson & Miles, 2007Stephens & Tunney, 2004). ...
Article
In recent years, chewing has been discussed as producing effects of maintaining and sustaining cognitive performance. We have reported that chewing may improve or recover the process of working memory; however, the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are still to be elucidated. We investigated the effect of chewing on aspects of attention and cognitive processing speed, testing the hypothesis that this effect induces higher cognitive performance. Seventeen healthy adults (20-34years old) were studied during attention task with blood oxygenation level-dependent functional (fMRI) at 3.0 T MRI. The attentional network test (ANT) within a single task fMRI containing two cue conditions (no cue and center cue) and two target conditions (congruent and incongruent) was conducted to examine the efficiency of alerting and executive control. Participants were instructed to press a button with the right or left thumb according to the direction of a centrally presented arrow. Each participant underwent two back-to-back ANT sessions with or without chewing gum, odorless and tasteless to remove any effect other than chewing. Behavioral results showed that mean reaction time was significantly decreased during chewing condition, regardless of speed-accuracy trade-off, although there were no significant changes in behavioral effects (both alerting and conflict effects). On the other hand, fMRI analysis revealed higher activations in the anterior cingulate cortex and left frontal gyrus for the executive network and motor-related regions for both attentional networks during chewing condition. These results suggested that chewing induced an increase in the arousal level and alertness in addition to an effect on motor control and, as a consequence, these effects could lead to improvements in cognitive performance.
... our sense of smell is the strongest sense in relation to memory, finding that we are 100 times more likely to remember something that we smell than something that we see, hear, or touch (Vlahos 2007). Further, Herz (1998) published a study in which she found that all our senses evoke equally accurate memories, but scents evoke more emotional ones. Zoladz and Raudenbush (2005) led a charge to examine the effects of ambient scent on augmenting cognitive performance. They found that both cinnamon and peppermint scents improved participants' scores on tasks related to attentional processes, virtual recognition memory, working memory, and visual-motor response speed. In addition, participants rated their mood and ...
Article
Since the sense of smell cannot be turned off and it prompts immediate, emotional responses, marketers are becoming aware of its usefulness in communicating with consumers. Consequently, over the last few years consumers have been increasingly influenced by ambient scents, which are defined as general odors that do not emanate from a product but are present as part of the retail environment. The goal of this article is to create awareness of the ethical issues in the scent marketing industry. In particular, we illuminate areas of concern regarding the use of scents to persuade, and its potential to make consumers vulnerable to marketing communications. Since this is a new frontier for marketers, we begin with an explanation of what makes the sense of smell different from other senses. We then provide a description of how scents are used in marketing, past research on the power of scents, and the theoretical basis for, and uses of scents to influence consumers. This brings us to the discussion of the ethical considerations regarding the use of this sense. We close with several future research ideas that would provide more evidence of how the sense of smell can, and should be used by marketers. Keywordsambient scent-attitudes-behaviors-influence-marketing
... Examples of different digital fragrance applications include clothes that enhance the performance of competitive athletes through the delivery of peppermint odour molecules that are retrieved in seconds [5] or clothes that trigger memories and convey information through the delivery of specific 'aroma chimes' that correspond with the time as shown in Figure 6. Other examples could be clothes worn for education purposes whereby the aroma dimension is employed to increase learning ability, concentration and boosts creative enhancement, or novel odours and contextually inappropriate smells are used to help memorization. ...
Chapter
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This paper examines a new experience focusing on smell and how it might expand our sensory repertoire; or maximise our sense of wellbeing through fashion. It explores Scentsory Design®, a multidisciplinery project that changes the experience of fragrance to a more intimate communication of identity, by employing emerging technologies with the ancient art of perfumery. Scentsory Design® specialises in the research and development of wearable wireless sensor networks and microfluidic devices for fragrance delivery and therapeutic applications in ‘emotional fashion’. Intelligent fabrics are discussed which are engineered for pleasure, education, protection and psychological endbenefits, by offering social and therapeutic value in a desirable fashion context. The fabrics incorporate sensors and microfluidics to initiate fragrance delivery of beneficial aromas released in controlled ways responding to personal needs. The paper concludes by suggesting clothes that mimic the olfaction system via electronic nose sensors that emulate a dog’s sense of smell.
... The authors concluded that chewing gum or receiving mint flavor at any point can improve memory (Johnson and Miles, 2008). There is additional support for the suggestion that flavor plays a role in the effect of mastication on memory through arousal in young adults (Zoladz and Raudenbush, 2005;Masumoto et al., 1998) and younger middle-aged adults (age range 27-33 years) (Morinushi et al., 2000) although underlying mechanisms are not yet identified. ...
Article
The goal of this literature review has been to investigate the relationship between mastication and cognition, with a special focus on ageing and dementia, and its possible underlying mechanisms. Since the relationship between mastication and cognition is not yet firmly established, and is investigated in the context of a number of different disciplines, a comprehensive overview will contribute to our knowledge. The results of animal and human experimental studies suggest a causal relationship between mastication and cognition. Furthermore, correlations exist between mastication and activities of daily living and nutritional status. These findings have compelling implications for the development of prevention strategies by which medical and nursing staff may optimize their care for the frail and elderly, suffering from dementia.
... To address this, the design team developed a concept for a personalised movable storage, much like a cabin-size luggage that could be taken from a locker and docked to the desk at the beginning of each shift (Figure 11). This included space for personal items, e.g., a pillow and blanket; a photo of family and loved ones; a tray for stationary; a handover bag with potential for recording handover messages digitally; and an oil diffuser for individual aromas that help with removing fatigue and stimulating performance, e.g., citrus, peppermint, cinnamon and jasmine (Ho & Spence, 2005;Mahachandra & Garnaby, 2015;Warm, Dember & Parasuraman, 1990;Zoladz & Raudenbush, 2005). Workplace design can be a canvas for new-generation leaders to express strategies that entrust, enable and motivate people. ...
Conference Paper
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Creative Leadership (CL) is a leadership model comprising the three values of Empathy, Clarity and Creativity, which are considered baseline operational and leadership attributes in a Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) world. This paper presents a case study charting the application of CL principles within delivery of a complex research project involving international collaboration between The Helen Hamlyn Centre for Design (HHCD) at London's Royal College of Art (RCA), a strategic partner-TATA Consultancy Services (TCS), and an airline client [the Airline]. The purpose of the design research was to improve the operational efficiency of the Airline, whilst improving staff and customer experience. This addressed three discrete, yet interlinked areas of delivery within the Airline Operations Control Centre (OCC), namely Technology, Environment and People. The three values of CL-Empathy, Clarity and Creativity-were exercised to align physical, technological and psychological factors. These were implemented in the design of a UX technology that made complex information accessible at a glance, and the redesign of the OCC office environment to enable better communication and personal wellbeing. This paper captures the process and outcomes, whilst reflecting on the efficacy of the CL model as a progressive framework for innovation, growth and development.
Thesis
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The aim of this dissertation is to reflect the main characteristics of scent marketing and illustrate how the olfactory effects influence people’s decision-making at a physiological, cognitive and emotional level. The current research is based on different scientific and academic articles who attempt to describe the background conditions related to olfactory responses including: odor’s congruency, environmental conditions and target receptivity and how the use of scents enhances memory and influence individuals. What is more, a theoretical framework analysis about the scent marketing industry that focuses on the Spanish market is provided.
Article
Background Sleepiness during the night shift is a common complaint of shift workers, including the nurses. This study investigated the effects of inhaled rosemary oil on sleepiness and alertness of shift-working nurses. Methods Eighty shift-working nurses were selected and assigned randomly into control (n=40) and intervention (n=40) groups. Both groups completed the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire and Epworth Sleepiness Survey before the intervention. The intervention group received one drop of rosemary essential oil using a mask. The control group received a drop of distilled water instead, after which the questionnaires were completed for a second time. Results The sleepiness mean score in the intervention group reduced from 12.15 to 8.3, while it increased from 11.41 to 13.76 in the control group (P<0.001). The alertness mean scores changed from 4.45 to 3.25 and from 4.41 to 5.34 in intervention and control groups, respectively (P<0.001). Conclusion Rosemary aroma decreased sleepiness and increased alertness in shift-working nurses.
Article
Past research indicates the odors of peppermint and cinnamon (1) enhance motivation, performance, and alertness, (2) decrease fatigue, and (3) serve as central nervous system stimulants. Given these results, it is reasonable to expect that the presentation of peppermint or cinnamon odor while driving may produce a more alert and conscientious driver, and minimize the fatigue associated with prolonged driving. In the present study, participants were monitored during simulated driving under three odor conditions (peppermint, cinnamon, non-odor control). Odors were added to low flow oxygen (1.3L/min) via an oxygen concentrator and presented at the rate of 30 seconds every 15 minutes. Measures of cognitive performance, wakefulness, mood, and workload were also assessed. Both cinnamon and peppermint administration led to increased ratings of alertness, decreased temporal demand, and decreased frustration over the course of the driving scenario. In addition, peppermint scent reduced anxiety and fatigue. Periodic administration of these odors over prolonged driving may prove beneficial in maintaining alertness and decreasing highway accidents and fatalities.
Article
We investigated brain electric field signatures of subjective feelings after chewing regular gum or gum base without flavor. 19-channel eyes-closed EEG from 20 healthy males before and after 5 minutes of chewing the two gum types in random sequence was source modeled in the frequency domain using the FFT-Dipole-Approximation. 3-dimensional brain locations and strengths (Global Field Power, GFP) of the equivalent sources of five frequency bands were computed as changes from pre-chewing baseline. Gum types differed (ANOVA) in pre-post changes of source locations for the alpha-2 band (to anterior and right after regular gum, opposite after gum base) and beta-2 band (to anterior and inferior after regular gum, opposite after gum base), and of GFP for delta-theta, alpha-2 and beta-1 (regular gum: increase. gum base: decrease). Subjective feeling changed to more positive values after regular gum than gum base (ANOVA).--Thus, chewing gum with and without taste-smell activates different brain neuronal populations.
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Dementia is a serious and growing problem that presents enormous burdens to patients, their families, and national healthcare systems throughout the world. In the United States, there are currently two classes of psychopharmacologic agents approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: the cholinesterase inhibitors, which are approved for use in patients with mild to moderate disease, and memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, which is approved for treatment of moderate to severe illness. Three cholinesterase inhibitors are in general clinical use, each of which has a distinct pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and side-effect profile. In addition, there is growing research and clinical evidence of the effectiveness of the cholinesterase inhibitors in patients who are in the more advanced stages of Alzheimer's dementia as well as in patients with other forms of dementia.