This book covers the biotechnology of all the major perennial fruit and nut species, including Actinidia spp., Anacardium occidentale , Mangifera indica , Pistacia vera , Annona spp., Cocos nucifera , Elaeis guineensis , Phoenix dactylifera , Ananas comosus , Carica papaya , Garcinia mangostana , Diospyros kaki , Vaccinium spp., Castanea spp., Carya illinoinensis , Juglans regia , Persea americana , Theobroma cacao , Musa spp., Psidium guajava , Olea europaea , Averrhoa carambola , Passiflora spp., Eriobotrya japonica , Fragaria × ananassa , Malus × domestica , Prunus persica , Prunus armeniaca , Prunus domestica , Prunus spp., Prunus dulcis , Pyrus spp., Cydonia spp., Rubus spp., Citrus spp., Dimocarpus longan , Litchi chinensis , and Vitis spp. This book also covers biotechnologies and also traditional ones, such as regeneration pathways, protoplast culture, in vitro mutagenesis, and ploidy manipulation that have been applied to many of these species. The species are organized by plant family to facilitate comparisons among related ones. Each species is discussed in relation to its family and its related wild forms, and most are accompanied by full colour illustrations. This book is a vital resource for those working on the improvement of perennial fruit, nut and plantation crops.