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Il dialetto grico del Salento: elementi balcanici e contatto linguistico

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The present study presents the results of the documentation and analysis of some aspects of the grammar of Griko. Griko is a Greek dialect spoken in Apulia, in the province of Lecce (Italy). Chapter 1 describes the present-day linguistic situation of Griko and offers an overview of the previous studies and a summery of the question of the origin. Empirical basis of the research and methodology are also described. Chapter 2 discusses the relationship between Griko and the languages belonging to the Balkan Sprachbund. Moreover, it presents in a descriptive way some morphosyntactic features of Griko possibly due to language contact with Italo-romance. Chapters 3 and 4 offer a closer examination and (tentative) analysis of two ‘Balkanisms’ in Griko, namely the replacement of infinitive and the double complementizer system. Empirical data are analysed in the framework of recent generative studies and in comparison with neighbouring Italo-romance dialects (Salentino, Southern Calabrian) and Balkan languages, primarily Greek.
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... Our survey was conducted exclusively in the Griko area, i.e. in the villages of Calimera, Sternatìa and Zollino, and took place in the summers of 2015 and 2016. 9 The geographic position of these three localities is given in Figure 3. Differently from Baldissera (2013), according to whom infinitives in the Griko dialects spoken nowadays are attested only after the modal 'can' and the aspectual verb 'finish' 10 , the 8 As for Griko, Data I are from Rohlfs (1950), Data II from Cotardo (1975), Data III from Frassanito (2010) and Data IV from Baldissera (2013). As for Greko, Data I are from Rossi Taibbi & Caracausi (1959), Data II from Katsoyannou (1992), Data III from Remberger (2011) and Data IV from Bovese. ...
... As for Greko, Data I are from Rossi Taibbi & Caracausi (1959), Data II from Katsoyannou (1992), Data III from Remberger (2011) and Data IV from Bovese. 9 The choice of these three localities was not random, but strictly followed the indications provided by Baldissera (2013), according to which the towns of Calimera and Sternatìa, together with Martano, host the most consistent number of Griko speakers. Due to already established contacts with some locals speakers, we decided to conduct our investigation also in the village of Zollino. 10 Baldissera (2013) claims that aspectual verbs in Griko dialects are not uniform in the selection of verbal complements. ...
... Our survey was conducted exclusively in the Griko area, i.e. in the villages of Calimera, Sternatìa and Zollino, and took place in the summers of 2015 and 2016. 9 The geographic position of these three localities is given in Figure 3. Differently from Baldissera (2013), according to whom infinitives in the Griko dialects spoken nowadays are attested only after the modal 'can' and the aspectual verb 'finish' 10 , the 8 As for Griko, Data I are from Rohlfs (1950), Data II from Cotardo (1975), Data III from Frassanito (2010) and Data IV from Baldissera (2013). As for Greko, Data I are from Rossi Taibbi & Caracausi (1959), Data II from Katsoyannou (1992), Data III from Remberger (2011) and Data IV from Bovese. ...
... As for Greko, Data I are from Rossi Taibbi & Caracausi (1959), Data II from Katsoyannou (1992), Data III from Remberger (2011) and Data IV from Bovese. 9 The choice of these three localities was not random, but strictly followed the indications provided by Baldissera (2013), according to which the towns of Calimera and Sternatìa, together with Martano, host the most consistent number of Griko speakers. Due to already established contacts with some locals speakers, we decided to conduct our investigation also in the village of Zollino. 10 Baldissera (2013) claims that aspectual verbs in Griko dialects are not uniform in the selection of verbal complements. ...
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The gist of this paper is to shed light on the syntactic and morphological nature of infinitives in a selected number of Modern Greek dialects spoken in southern Italy. Specifically, infinitives of a set of Griko(-Greek) dialects spoken in Salento, a geographic region in the southernmost portion of Apulia, will be scrutinised. This study is underpinned by a collection of linguistic data gathered by the authors during two fieldwork expeditions that took place in three villages of Salento, i.e. in Calimera, Sternatìa and Zollino, in the summer months of 2015 and 2016. Data from these three dialects show that infinitives are very restricted in use in Griko dialects, as they are generally attested only after the modal ‘sózzo’ (cf. can). Other modals, e.g. ‘é’ (cf. must), and control verbs, are instead consistent in selecting verbal complements composed of a finite verb which in turn is preceded by a particle, the morphological shape of which corresponds to ‘na’ (na-clause). Co-author: Athina Ioanna Livadara, University of Crete
... gli amici/le amiche poss.3sg.inv 'la sua amica / il suo amico / le sue amiche/i suoi amici' Da un punto di vista strutturale, alcuni dialetti italoromanzi meridionali presentano una configurazione specifica per i possessivi forti quando compaiono nei sintagmi nominali indefiniti (Silvestri 2012;2013;2016;in stampa). In una configurazione indefinita del sintagma nominale, i possessivi forti devono essere inseriti in una struttura che prevede un elemento che corrisponde alla preposizione pan-romanza de (<Lat. ...
... For instance, in Griko noun phrases, the word order between nouns and adjectives follows a Romance pattern (3), and there is no overtly marked aspectual opposition of the +/-perfective value on verbal forms preceded by the complementizer na (4b), as opposed to Standard Modern Greek (SMG, 4a), which has built its entire verbal system on this aspectual opposition. For illustration, consider the following Griko examples, taken from Filieri (2001) and Baldissera (2013): Lazard, 1986) and the commercial relations of Venetians and Genoese with the Byzantine Empire, one can find cultural (e.g., Ven(etian) ancona < Gr ikona 'icon') and maritime terms (e.g., Ιt arcipelago < Gr arxipelaγos 'archipelago') and names of imported products (e.g., Ven anguria < Gr anguri(a) 'cucumbers', Ven palamia < Gr palamiδa 'type of fish') (see Cortelazzo, 1970 for an extensive list, and Gardani, 2013, pp. 251-260 for their morphological integration). ...
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and Keywords In the course of its long history, Greek has experienced a particularly multifarious and profound contact with Romance, in a wide geographical area that spreads from western to eastern Europe and also covers part of the once Hellenophone Asia Minor. The beginning of this contact is difficult to delimit given that the ancestor languages, Ancient Greek and Latin, were already in interaction even before the Roman period of the Greek-speaking world. Both Greek and Romance (Italo-Romance, Gallo-Romance, Aromanian, and Judeo-Spanish) have acted as donor or recipient, depending on the specific historical and sociolinguistic circumstances. A significant number of lexical items (roots, affixes, and words) were transferred from one language to another, while phonological and structural transfers have also occurred in areas where Greek has been in constant and long contact with Romance, as for instance, in south Italy. Greek has been the basis for the formation of scientific internationalisms in Romance, and reversely it has recently adopted Romance terms and term-forming affixes.
... These contexts are: the modal verb sozo 'can'; the aspectual spitseo 'finish'; the causatives kanno, afinno, and the perception verbs torò 'see', akuo 'hear'. The last two contexts are unavailable in Griko as of today(Baldissera 2012: 59, cit. Remberger 2011. ...
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The languages of the Balkans are a rich source of data on contact-induced language change. The result of a centuries long process of lexical and structural convergence as been referred to as a ‘sprachbund’. While widely applied, this notion has, however, increasingly been questioned with respect to its usefulness. Addressing the linguistic makeup of the Balkan languages, the notion of sprachbund is critically assessed. It is shown that a) the Balkan languages and the Balkan linguistic exclaves (Albanian and Greek spoken on the Italian peninsula) share similar contact-induced phenomena, and b) the principal processes underlying the development of the Balkan languages are borrowing and reanalysis, two fundamental and general mechanisms of language change.
Article
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The languages of the Balkans are a rich source of data on contact-induced language change. The result of a centuries long process of lexical and structural convergence has been referred to as a 'sprachbund'. While widely applied, this notion has, however, increasingly been questioned with respect to its usefulness. Addressing the linguistic makeup of the Balkan languages, the notion of sprachbund is critically assessed. It is shown that a) the Balkan languages and the Balkan linguistic exclaves (Albanian and Greek spoken on the Italian peninsula) share similar contact-induced phenomena, and b) the principal processes underlying the development of the Balkan languages are borrowing and reanalysis, two fundamental and general mechanisms of language change.
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