Article

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Omega 3 and Omega 6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Cardiovascular Disease and Metabolic Syndrome

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Abstract

A lipid excess produces a systemic inflammation process due to tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein synthesis. Simultaneously, this fat excess promotes the appearance of insulin resistance. All this contributes to the development of atherosclerosis and increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (omega 3), and arachidonic acid (omega 6) have shown anti-inflammatory properties. Lately, an inverse relationship between omega-3 fatty acids, inflammation, obesity and cardiovascular diseases has been demonstrated. To check fatty acids effect, the levels of some inflammation biomarkers have been analyzed. Leptin, adiponectin and resistin represent a group of hormones associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance and are modified in obese-overweight people comparing to normal weight people. Omega-3 PUFAs have been shown to decrease the production of inflammatory mediators, having a positive effect in obesity and diabetes mellitus type-2. Moreover, they significantly decrease the appearance of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Regarding omega-6 PUFA, there is controversy whether their effects are pro- or anti-inflammatory. The aim of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive overview about the role of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs in cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome.

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... ese essential PUFAs enter our bodies only through diet. e dietary sources of n-3 PUFAs include fish oils rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3), whereas the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid is mostly found in plants and vegetable oils [47]. Nowadays, there is growing evidence showing that dietary n-3 PUFAs have a variety of healthy properties such as the reduction of plasma atherogenic lipids and inflammation [16,21,25,41,[47][48][49]. e associations between n-3 PUFAs and metabolic syndrome risk demonstrate inconsistent results [50]. ...
... e dietary sources of n-3 PUFAs include fish oils rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3), whereas the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid is mostly found in plants and vegetable oils [47]. Nowadays, there is growing evidence showing that dietary n-3 PUFAs have a variety of healthy properties such as the reduction of plasma atherogenic lipids and inflammation [16,21,25,41,[47][48][49]. e associations between n-3 PUFAs and metabolic syndrome risk demonstrate inconsistent results [50]. ...
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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has a worldwide tendency to increase and depends on many components, which explains the complexity of diagnosis, approaches to the prevention, and treatment of this pathology. Insulin resistance (IR) is the crucial cause of the MetS pathogenesis, which develops against the background of abdominal obesity. In light of recent evidence, it has been shown that lipids, especially fatty acids (FAs), are important signaling molecules that regulate the signaling pathways of insulin and inflammatory mediators. On the one hand, the lack of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the body leads to impaired molecular mechanisms of glucose transport, the formation of unresolved inflammation. On the other hand, excessive formation of free fatty acids (FFAs) underlies the development of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in MetS. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the participation of FAs and their metabolites in the pathogenesis of MetS will contribute to the development of new diagnostic methods and targeted therapy for this disease. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in the study of the effect of fatty acids as modulators of insulin response and inflammatory process in the pathogenesis and treatment for MetS.
... Basically, the daily energy supply of the patients should be through protein, fat, and carbohydrates. To measure individual calorie requirements, indirect calorimetry has developed into the gold standard [38]. In practice, the rule of thumb of 25-30 kcal/kg body weight has proven itself [4], but there are also differences here with regard to the determined and the recommended energy requirement [37]. ...
... As is well known, the use of high-quality vegetable oils can have a positive effect on inflammation. Consequently, the use of omega-3 fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and the reduction of arachidonic and trans fatty acids should be taken into account in nutritional therapy [38]. A high intake of omega-3 fatty acids can, therefore, not only reduce the incidence of cancer but also reduce cancer-associated symptoms [47][48][49]. ...
Article
The diagnosis and treatment of cancer are associated with impairment at the physical and at psychological level. In addition, side effects are a potentially treatment-limiting factor that may necessitate dose reduction, delay, or even discontinuation of therapy, with negative consequences for outcome and mean survival. Numerous studies have shown that physical activity and sports and exercise therapy programs are not only practicable but also recommendable for oncologic patients during the acute phase and in the aftercare. Furthermore, nutrition plays an important role in all stages of tumor therapy. A timely integration of a nutrition therapy and physical activity in the form of physiotherapy and sports therapy serves to prevent and reduce treatment-associated side effects. Evidence-based recommendations on cancer prevention through nutrition therapy, physical activity, and sports and exercise therapy should be integrated into treatment plans for oncology patients as well as in health care services for the general population. Individual counselling by trained nutrition and exercise specialists may be advisable to receive concrete recommendations on the respective tumor entity or specific side effects. This mini review is based on a selective literature search in the PubMed database and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials on the subjects of healthy diet and physical activity in primary prevention and follow-up about cancer.
... Exudation of prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes and in vitro models for adiposity, SPMs were shown to decrease pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ), increase pro-resolution cytokine IL-10, counteract adipokine secretion and monocyte accumulation, promote M2 polarization of macrophages, and improve insulin sensitivity [86]. They work in nanomolar range, but the production depends on the presence and activity of Cox-and LOX enzymes as described above (see also Figure 1). ...
... This was a consequence of decreased amounts of 5-LOX, the enzyme responsible for synthesis of D-series resolvins from DHA. Hence, the administration of SPMs and their precursor metabolites may be more reliable for counteracting chronic inflammatory processes since this avoids potential enzymatic bottlenecks [85,86,88,89]. SPMs, including resolvin, maresins, and protectins, were shown to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in mouse models [90][91][92][93] via stimulation of anti-inflammatory signaling pathways and reduction of pro-inflammatory macrophages. ...
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PCOS as the most common endocrine disorder of women in their reproductive age affects between 5-15 % of the female population. Apart from its cardinal symptoms, like irregular and anovulatory cycles, hyperandrogenemia and a typical ultrasound feature of the ovary, obesity, and insulin resistance are often associated with the disease. Furthermore, PCOS represents a status of chronic inflammation with permanently elevated levels of inflammatory markers including IL-6 and IL-18, TNF-α, and CRP. Inflammation, as discovered only recently, consists of two processes occurring concomitantly: active initiation, involving "classical" mediators including prostaglandins and leukotrienes, and active resolution processes based on the action of so-called specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs). These novel lipid mediator molecules derive from the essential ω3-poly-un-saturated fatty acids (PUFAs) DHA and EPA and are synthesized via specific intermediates. The role and benefits of SPMs in chronic inflammatory diseases like obesity, atherosclerosis, and Diabetes mellitus has become a subject of intense research during the last years and since PCOS features several of these pathologies, this review aims at summarizing potential roles of SPMs in this disease and their putative use as novel therapeutics.
... Food sources high in PUFAs present two opposite effects in humans, namely, promotion of beneficial effects due to anti-inflammatory properties of PUFA and contribution to oxidative stress through exposure to hazardous substances as a result of PUFAs degradation through oxidation processes (10,11). Actually, there are several mitigation strategies to minimize oxidation processes along the food chain (12)(13)(14), but the physiological oxidative processes that take place during gastrointestinal digestion will happen despite the presence of those antioxidant agents (15,16). ...
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Meat and fish are introduced into the diet as a source of protein, but these muscle foods present different fatty acid (FA) compositions and different lipid stabilities. Fatty fish is expected to oxidize due to its higher content of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), whereas the higher heme-Fe content of red meat will also affect lipid stability. Combining other food ingredients within a meal also influences lipid oxidation, which will not stop after meals intake. This is due to the acidic environment of the stomach together with the presence of metallic ions, a process that is scarcely understood. The goal of this study was to evaluate the oxidation of fatty fish vs. meat meal diets under in vitro standardized semi-dynamic gastric conditions and FA release from the stomach to the duodenum. Meal diets composed by 25% beef meal (BM) or fatty fish meal (FM), 25% fried potatoes, and 50% sugar soft drink were prepared. Proximate composition, FA and amino acid profiles, and meals quality indices were evaluated. Their differences in composition led to different total gastric digestion time of 242.74 (BM) and 175.20 (FM) minutes. Using the INFOGEST semi-dynamic gastric model, 4 gastric emptying (GE) were simulated in both meals. In each GE, FA profile and lipid oxidation products (LOPs) formation were assessed. As a result, more than 50% FA release to the duodenum occurred in GE1, whose percentage decreased with the time of digestion. FM exhibited the highest LOPs formation, which corroborates the high peroxidizability index measured for this meal diet. Higher LOPs formation occurred in the later GEs, which released less FA. This suggests that higher times of residence in the stomach increase FA oxidation. This study shows a higher formation of LOPs during digestion of FM using a whole meal approach. These results relate to its richness in PUFAs compared to BM. Despite higher LOPs formation, FM digests that reached duodenum still contain higher content of unoxidized PUFAs compared with BM and a desirable ω3/ω6 PUFAs ratio of ∼0.43. LOPs formation in PUFA-rich meals could be reduced if those meals have a low caloric value, avoiding large times of residence in the stomach and consequently high levels of oxidation.
... The benefit of PUFAs in CVD is widely known [149]. The effect of PUFA intake on HDL cholesterol concentration is mainly modulated by the APOA1 (main apolipoprotein of HDL), thus it was shown that PUFAs consumption was associated with higher HDL cholesterol concentration depending on APOA1 polymorphism [150]. ...
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries and expose patients to increased risk of hepatic and cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Both environmental factors and genetic predisposition contribute to the risk. An inappropriate diet, rich in refined carbohydrates, especially fructose, and saturated fats, and poor in fibers, polyunsaturated fats, and vitamins is one of the main key factors, as well as the polymorphism of patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3 gene) for NAFLD and the apolipoproteins and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family for the cardiovascular damage. Beyond genetic influence, also epigenetics modifications are responsible for various clinical manifestations of both hepatic and CV disease. Interestingly, data are accumulating on the interplay between diet and genetic and epigenetic modifications, modulating pathogenetic pathways in NAFLD and CV disease. We report the main evidence from literature on the influence of both macro and micronutrients in NAFLD and CV damage and the role of genetics either alone or combined with diet in increasing the risk of developing both diseases. Understanding the interaction between metabolic alterations, genetics and diet are essential to treat the diseases and tailoring nutritional therapy to control NAFLD and CV risk.
... Non-digestive stachyose enhances bioavailability of isoflavones for improving Non-digestive stachyose enhances bioavailability of isoflavones for improving hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in mice fed with high fat diet hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in mice fed with high fat diet Cover Page Footnote Cover Page Footnote 1. Introduction I n our daily life, an excessive consumption of saturated fats is well known to be linked to cardiovascular diseases [1,2], which counts the primary cause of death worldwide [3]. Studies have shown that long-term or excessive intake of high fat diets (HFD) including beef tallow can cause abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, which seems to be the early step in the etiological cascade, leading to obesity and metabolic syndrome [4][5][6][7]. ...
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This study examined the efficacy of non-digestive stachyose on enhancing the absorption of soy isoflavones to improve metabolic syndrome in C57/BL6 mice. UPLC-q/TOF-MS was employed to analyze the content of isoflavones in urine and faeces. Stachyose significantly increased urinary contents of total isoflavones, genistein, daidzein and glycitein in mice. Supplementation of stachyose, soybean isoflavones or a combination prevented high fat diet (HFD)-induced body weight gain, accumulated adipose, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in obese mice. Interestingly, co-supplementation of stachyose and isoflavones improved all the mentioned parameters more effectively than administration of stachyose or isoflavones alone. Histological observation of hepatic tissues also confirmed the beneficial effects of co-supplementation of stachyose and isoflavones. These findings suggest that co-ingestion of non-digestible oligosaccharides and polyphenols as normal diet is a promising potential strategy for managing or reducing the risk of metabolic syndrome, which will lead to new knowledge on whole soybean and have extensive application in development of healthy food.
... In addition, nutritional value of plant oils is also evaluated by the amount of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) [10]. Oils rich in MUFAs, such as oleic acid (C18:1), had the potential to lower blood cholesterol levels and reduce the aortic accumulation of oxidized LDL without adversely affecting HDL fraction [11,12]. PUFAs are essential for the human health and can only be received from a proper diet. ...
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Cold-pressed oil is one of the healthiest plant extracts, but its use is limited only in some kinds of plants. Therefore, we aimed to investigate some potential cold-pressed oils with attractive fatty acid profiles and high amounts of functional phytochemicals. Fifty cold-pressed plant oils were prepared from various plant materials in Thailand, in which some of them were from uncommon or unattended plant materials. The oils included were nut oils (n = 9), pseudo-cereal oils (n = 9), legume oils (n = 3), amaranth oils (n = 3), marrow seed oils (n = 8), cruciferous seed oils (n = 7), and leafy green seed oils (n = 11). Gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) were employed to analyze fatty acid profile and five functional phytochemicals (e.g., phytosterols, cholecalciferol, and squalene). Saturated fatty acids were detected around 7.87–36.04%, monounsaturated fatty acids 10.17–80.25%, and polyunsaturated fatty acids nondetectable (ND)–78.25%, phytosterols 663–15123 μg g⁻¹, squalene 265–5979 μg g⁻¹, and cholecalciferol ND–1287.75 μg g⁻¹. The study showed chemical characteristic of the analyzed oils: some contained good fatty acid composition and some were rich in functional phytochemical content. Among the obtained oils, marrow seed oils are a good source of phytosterol, cholecalciferol, and linoleic acid. Pseudo-cereal oils are rich in squalene and linolenic acid. Legume oils are rich in phytosterols and oleic acid. Besides, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the significance of oils that share compositional similarity (e.g., the samples from pseudo-cereal oil were found on the lower side of the PCA space, which separated them from marrow and leafy green seed oils distributed on the upper part of the plot). In summary, the qualitative and quantitative data would provide a good foundation for further application or selection of those plant oils for health purposes.
... Although it might be expected that an association should be found between PUFA and fat oxidation, no significant association was detected between PUFA and BFox/MFO in the present work. However, the present results do not differentiate between u-3 and u-6 fatty acids, which might elicit different metabolic and inflammatory effects that are able to influence this association [55,56]. Furthermore, it is important to take into consideration that the association between nut consumption and BFox do not remain significant after controlling for different confounders. ...
Article
Background and aims To study the relationships between different dietary factors (i.e., energy, macronutrient and fatty acid intake, food group consumption, and dietary pattern) and basal fat oxidation (BFox) and maximal fat oxidation during exercise (MFO) in sedentary adults. Method and Resulss A total of 212 (n=130 women; 32.4±15.1 years) sedentary healthy adults took part in the present study. Information on the different dietary factors examined was gathered via a food frequency questionnaire and three non-consecutive 24 h recalls. Energy and macronutrient intakes and food consumption were then estimated and dietary patterns calculated. BFox and MFO were measured by indirect calorimetry following standard procedures. Our study shows that dietary fiber intake was positively associated with BFox after taking into account age, sex and energy intake. A significant positive association between nut consumption and BFox was observed which became non-significant after taking into account age and energy intake. Fat intake and the dietary quality index (DQI), and the DQI for the Mediterranean diet, were positively associated with MFO, which was attenuated after taking sex, age and energy intake into account. Conclusion A higher dietary fiber intake and fat intake are associated with higher BFox and MFO respectively in sedentary adults. Clinical trials ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02365129 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT02365129) & ID: NCT03334357 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03334357)
... During the 1970s, a rising body of evidence provided data to support omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) supplementation in the prevention and management of obesity and CVD [22]. Even in vitro studies in cell cultures, animal models, epidemiological, and clinical studies in human subjects present conflicting data and usually there is a large gap in the literature regarding the effects observed in vitro/animals studies and in clinical trials. ...
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It is now established that adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and heart are endocrine organs and secrete in normal and in pathological conditions several molecules, called, respectively, adipokines, myokines, and cardiokines. These secretory proteins constitute a closed network that plays a crucial role in obesity and above all in cardiac diseases associated with obesity. In particular, the interaction between adipokines, myokines, and cardiokines is mainly involved in inflammatory and oxidative damage characterized obesity condition. Identifying new therapeutic agents or treatment having a positive action on the expression of these molecules could have a key positive effect on the management of obesity and its cardiac complications. Results from recent studies indicate that several nutritional interventions, including nutraceutical supplements, could represent new therapeutic agents on the adipo-myo-cardiokines network. This review focuses the biological action on the main adipokines, myokines and cardiokines involved in obesity and cardiovascular diseases and describe the principal nutraceutical approaches able to regulate leptin, adiponectin, apelin, irisin, natriuretic peptides, and follistatin-like 1 expression.
... Modulation of mercury toxicity by fish oil took place by the Inuit people; fish oil is known to contain substantial amounts of omega-3 alpha-linoleic acid [65]. On the other hand, lower incidence of mortality in people who used to consume fish based diets, or their oil supplements regardless the level of contamination [66]. ...
Article
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The human body is exposed to significant amounts of the potent inorganic mercury (Hg+2) or methylmercury (Me-Hg). The diet is the main route for this exposure; the fish consumption may result with confusion for the crucial benefits of the fish consumption beside the hazardous side of their content of mercuric compounds. The mercuric compounds have different routes of absorption, mostly by the gut through the diet, causing severe health problems via the oxidative stress mechanisms. The diet complexity regarding ingredients and cooking type may affect the bioaccessibility of the present mercuric compounds by several mechanisms, in addition to the protective role of gut microbiota. The aim of this review is to explore the available data and researches, about the mercuric present forms, absorption pathways, toxicity mechanisms and dietary components that negatively affect the mercuric compounds bioaccessibility (absorption) including the cooking type, fat content, omega-3 fatty acids, selenium, glutathione, gut microflora, ethanol content, garlic, onion, tea, coffee, and fruits.
... One of the PUFAs that were increased in AAU feces included linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6). LA is the shortest-chained omega-6 fatty acid and is one of the essential PUFAs, which humans must obtain via their diet [7]. LA can be metabolized by gut bacteria, and the level of LA in the gut is therefore the net balance between dietary intake and bacterial metabolism [8]. ...
Article
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Purpose Increased linoleic acid (LA) was observed in acute anterior uveitis (AAU) patient feces in our previous study. To investigate the immunoregulatory effect of LA, we studied the effect of LA on human and murine dendritic cells (DCs), CD4⁺T cells, and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in vitro. Methods The level of LA in feces from AAU patients and healthy individuals was measured by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The immunoregulatory effect of LA on human and murine DCs, CD4⁺ T cells, and RPE cells was evaluated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and flow cytometry (FCM). The effect of LA on DCs was evaluated by Tandem mass tag (TMT)-based proteomics analysis. Results Increased LA was observed in feces from AAU patients (1018.35 ± 900.01 mg/kg) as compared with healthy individuals (472.55 ± 365.49 mg/kg, p = 0.0136). LA attenuated the antigen-presenting function of human and murine DCs by decreasing the expression of CD40, the secretion of IL-6 and IL-12p70, and the ability to shift naïve T cells towards T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th17 cells. LA also inhibited the secretion of MCP-1 and IL-8 from RPE cells. Proteomics analysis showed differential expression of 28 proteins, including squalene epoxidase (SQLE), farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase 1 (FDFT1), and cytochrome P450 family 51 subfamily A member 1 (CYP51A1), in LA-treated DCs compared with controls. LA also accelerated the apoptosis of DCs from healthy individuals. Conclusion LA inhibited the function of human and murine DCs, CD4⁺T cells, and RPE cells, regulated the expression of proteins, and promoted the apoptosis of human DCs. These results collectively suggest that LA might decrease the function of immune cells in vitro, and further studies are needed to investigate its role in the pathogenesis of AAU.
... Omega-3 PUFAs were shown to decrease the production of inflammatory mediators, having a positive effect on obesity and T2DM. Moreover, they significantly decrease the appearance of CVD risk factors [95]. ...
Article
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Overweight and obesity are key risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity is currently presented as a pro-inflammatory state with an expansion in the outflow of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), alongside the expanded emission of leptin. The present review aimed to evaluate the relationship between obesity and inflammation and their impacts on the development of cardiovascular disease. A literature search was conducted by employing three academic databases, namely PubMed (Medline), Scopus (EMBASE), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). The search presented 786 items, and by inclusion and exclusion filterers, 59 works were considered for final review. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) method was adopted to conduct quality assessment; 19 papers were further selected based on the quality score. Obesity-related inflammation leads to a low-grade inflammatory state in organisms by upregulating pro-inflammatory markers and downregulating anti-inflammatory cytokines, thereby contributing to cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. Because of inflammatory and infectious symptoms, adipocytes appear to instigate articulation and discharge a few intense stage reactants and carriers of inflammation. Obesity and inflammatory markers are strongly associated, and are important factors in the development of CVD. Hence, weight management can help prevent cardiovascular risks and poor outcomes by inhibiting inflammatory mechanisms.
... The most important characteristic of the fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the beneficial effect on human health (Manson et al. 2019;Sarr et al. 2019). The activity of LC n-3 PUFA is multidirectional and effectiveness has been found in anti-atherosclerotic (Baker et al. 2018), antithrombotic (Tsoupras et al. 2019), anti-inflammatory (Tortosa-Caparrós et al. 2017), anti-allergenic (Kunisawa et al. 2015), and anticancer activity (Serini et al. 2011). Furthermore, an increased incidence of depression is observed in regions with low fish (LC n-3 PUFA) consumption (Hibbeln 1998). ...
Article
The influence of the most important heat treatments: cooking, microwave heating, baking, and frying (with comparison of deep-frying with pan-frying and convection baking with conventional) on the level of oxidation and fatty acids composition in lipids of African catfish was studied. After any heat treatment, the peroxide value did not exceed 5 mEq O2 kg−1 lipids and the anisidine value did not exceed 6.5, which can be considered as good lipid quality. It was found that the fillets subjected to convection baking and pan frying were characterized by lower oxidation levels and higher nutritional quality of lipids than those subjected to conventional baking and deep frying. When converted to wet weight, EPA and DHA losses after heating did not exceed 33%. However, when converted to dry mass, the losses of these acids, depending on the treatment applied, were between 3.8 and 51.8%. Better quality of lipids was found in heated fillets in which heat transfer took place by convection (cooking, baking) than by conduction (frying). It was found that depending on the applied heat treatment, 200 g portion provides about 190 (fried fillets) to 350 (convection-baked fillets) mg EPA and DHA.
... It is still controversial whether omega-6 PUFAs exert pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory effects by themselves [139]. However, it is known that an unbalanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio in favor of omega-6 PUFAs is highly prothrombotic and proinflammatory. ...
Article
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According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the global nutrition report shows that whilst part of the world's population starves, the other part suffers from obesity and associated complications. A balanced diet counterparts these extreme conditions with the proper proportion, composition, quantity, and presence of macronutrients, micronutrients, and bioactive compounds. However, little is known on the way these components exert any influence on our health. These nutrients aiming to feed our bodies, our tissues, and our cells, first need to reach mitochondria, where they are decomposed into CO2 and H2O to obtain energy. Mitochondria are the powerhouse of the cell and mainly responsible for nutrients metabolism, but they are also the main source of oxidative stress and cell death by apoptosis. Unappropriated nutrients may support mitochondrial to become the Trojan horse in the cell. This review aims to provide an approach to the role that some nutrients exert on mitochondria as a major contributor to high prevalent Western conditions including metabolic syndrome (MetS), a constellation of pathologic conditions which promotes type II diabetes and cardiovascular risk. Clinical and experimental data extracted from in vitro animal and cell models further demonstrated in patients, support the idea that a balanced diet, in a healthy lifestyle context, promotes proper bioenergetic and mitochondrial function, becoming the best medicine to prevent the onset and progression of MetS. Any advance in the prevention and management of these prevalent complications help to face these challenging global health problems, by ameliorating the quality of life of patients and reducing the associated sociosanitary burden.
... ω-3 and ω-6 FA PUFAs were inversely associated with MetS prevalence in females [27]; whilst greater total PUFA, and its sub-types (LA or α-LA), intake was negatively associated with hypertension and positively associated with abdominal obesity in a systematic review [28]. Some evidence from observational and interventional studies is in agreement with our results, where the benefits of both ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA in decreasing the odds of MetS [29][30][31][32] was evident. ...
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We aimed to examine the association between nutrient patterns and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Iranian adults. In a cross-sectional study of 850 self-certified healthy women and men aged 20-59 y, dietary data were assessed using three 24-hours recall. Anthropometric measures were done and blood samples were collected to measure serum fasting serum glucose and lipid profile. The MetS was defined using the International Diabetes Federation. Major nutrient patterns were identified using principle competent analysis. In the first nutrient pattern, the individuals in the fifth quintile had a higher intake of vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, zinc, iron, Saturated Fatty Acids (SAFA), and protein. In the second nutrient pattern, individuals in the first quintile had lower consumption of zinc, SAFA, vitamin E, α-Tocopherol (α-TF), oleic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), B carotene, linolenic acid, and Monounsaturated fatty acids, compared to the fifth quintile. Furthermore, in the third nutrient pattern, the individuals in the fifth quintile had a higher intake of potassium, magnesium, phosphorous, calcium, protein, carbohydrate, vitamin C, and folate compared to other quintiles. We identified the second pattern had an indirect association with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting blood sugar (P<0.001 for all), total cholesterol (P=0.04) when controlled for body weight. Our findings showed that nutrient patterns may have an association with metabolic syndrome components with mediating body 18 weight.
... Animal studies in the 1990s have shown a direct relationship between these fatty acids and the ability to modulate pro-inflammatory mediators [24,25]. Clinical trials in humans have shown that supplementation with these fatty acids can have a beneficial outcome in reduction of triglycerides, reduction blood pressure, and inflammation, thereby becoming important in coronary heart disease, obesity-related diseases, and rheumatic diseases [26]. ...
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Purpose of review: Despite advances in pharmacologic management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) remains popular adjuncts to therapy among patients for ongoing symptomatology. Recent findings: Mind-body interventions are becoming increasingly popular, including yoga and meditation. Randomized controlled trials have found these interventions to be helpful regarding pain, mood, and energy in RA patients. Other CAM modalities, such as natural products, special diets, acupuncture, and body-based therapies, also continue to be used by RA patients with limited evidence for efficacy and safety. While there are numerous CAM interventions available, the data is very limited at this time with only low-quality evidence supporting various therapies. Medical providers are more open to the addition of CAM in their patients and require increased education on the topic. Additional research needs to be conducted in order to provide evidence-based recommendations to our patients.
... Oken et al. (2012) documented that fish are the primary source of vitamin D and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. Additionally fish plays an important role in the diet especially in causing an anti-inflammatory effect to consumers due to the presence of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (Mori 2017;Tortosa-Caparrós et al. 2017;Tan et al., 2018).Taste and safety of the fish were among the major factors that influenced consumer-purchasing behavior and is coherent with the finding by Awuor et al.(2019). Fish tissue is much vulnerable to bacterial contamination that leads to spoilage and an outbreak of fish foodborne diseases (Lahel et al., 2020). ...
... Data on the effect of omega-3 FAs in leptin levels is still scarce and controversial although it has been reported that dietary fatty acid composition may change plasmatic leptin levels (Reseland et al. 2001). In vitro studies with adipocytes have shown that both DHA and EPA did not increased leptin secretion while in vivo studies carried out with several animal models resulted in various outcomes, including decreased leptin levels in patients with stable coronary artery disease after 1 month treatment (Tortosa-Caparros et al. 2017). ...
Article
Background Although a large body of literature reported the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FAs) consumption on adipokines levels, but recent findings from clinical trials are not univocal. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of omega-3 FAs supplements on adipokines. Methods We searched Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane Library from inception to August 2020 without any particular language limitations. Outcomes were summarized as standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated from Hedge's g and random effects modeling. Results Fifty-two trials involving 4,568 participants were included. Omega-3 FAs intake was associated with a significant increase in plasma adiponectin levels (n = 43; 3,434 participants; SMD: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.37; p = 0.01; I²= 80.14%). This meta-analysis indicates that supplementing participants with omega-3 fatty acids more than 2000 mg daily and more than 10 weeks resulted in a significant and more favorable improvement in plasma adiponectin levels. However, omega-3 FAs intake had no significant effect on leptin levels (SMD: −0.02, 95% CI: −0.20, 0.17, I²= 54.13%). Conclusion The evidence supports a beneficial effect of omega-3 FAs intake on serum adiponectin levels but does not appear to impact on leptin concentrations. Larger well-designed RCTs are still required to evaluate the effect of omega-3 FAs on leptin in specific diseases.
... The SPMs include maresins, resolvins, and protectins which are synthesized from the eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3), which belong to the n-3 PU-FAs family [57,[61][62][63][64]. Physiologically, a balance is maintained between the n 6 and n3 PUFAs to have an optimal response to inflammation and as quick as its resolvent. Several data demonstrated that elevation in 1:1 ratio of n6 to n3 could be responsible for the chronic inflammation progression and metabolic syndrome emergence [60, [65][66][67][68]. ...
Article
Undeniably, lipid plays an extremely important role in the homeostasis balance, since lipid contributes to the regulation of the metabolic processes. The metabolic syndrome pathogenesis is multi-pathway that composes neurohormonal disorders, endothelial cell dysfunction, metabolic disturbance, genetic predisposition, in addition to gut commensal microbiota. The heterogenicity of the possible mechanisms gives the metabolic syndrome its complexity and limitation of therapeutic accesses. The main pathological link that lipid contributes to the emergence of metabolic syndrome via central obesity and visceral obesity that consequently lead to oxidative stress and chronic inflammatory response promotion. Physiologically, a balance is kept between the adiponectin and adipokines level to maintain the lipid level in the organism. Clinically, extremely important to define the borders of the lipid level in which the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome is reversible, otherwise will be accompanied by irreversible complications and sequelae of the metabolic syndrome (cardiovascular, insulin resistance). The present paper is dedicated to providing novel insights into the role of lipid in the development of metabolic syndrome hence dyslipidemia is the initiator of insulin resistance syndrome (metabolic syndrome).
... Epidemiological studies suggest that carotenoids can prevent free radical-dependent oxidation of LDL, cholesterol, proteins or DNA, by capturing free radicals and thus reducing stress induced by ROS [31]. Furthermore, PUFA, namely n-3 PUFA, was described to hold antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects [32][33][34]. ...
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Bioactive lipidic compounds of microalgae, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and carotenoids, can avoid or treat oxidation-associated conditions and diseases like inflammation or cancer. This study aimed to assess the bioactive potential of lipidic extracts obtained from Gloeothece sp.–using Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) solvents like ethanol, acetone, hexane:isopropanol (3:2) (HI) and ethyl lactate. The bioactive potential of extracts was assessed in terms of antioxidant (ABTS•+, DPPH•, •NO and O2•assays), anti-inflammatory (HRBC membrane stabilization and Cox-2 screening assay), and antitumor capacity (death by TUNEL, and anti-proliferative by BrdU incorporation assay in AGS cancer cells); while its composition was characterized in terms of carotenoids and fatty acids, by HPLC-DAD and GC-FID methods, respectively. Results revealed a chemopreventive potential of the HI extract owing to its ability to: (I) scavenge -NO• radical (IC50, 1258 ± 0.353 µg·mL−1); (II) inhibit 50% of COX-2 expression at 130.2 ± 7.4 µg·mL−1; (III) protect 61.6 ± 9.2% of lysosomes from heat damage, and (IV) induce AGS cell death by 4.2-fold and avoid its proliferation up to 40% in a concentration of 23.2 ± 1.9 µg·mL−1. Hence, Gloeothece sp. extracts, namely HI, were revealed to have the potential to be used for nutraceutical purposes.
... Se encontró que los contenidos de ácidos grasos tienen efectos tanto peligrosos como benéficos para la salud humana según el tipo de grasas y el consumo de carne (4) . Además, la preocupación de los consumidores por alimentos altos en omega-3 (AGPI ω-3) en su dieta diaria aumentó debido a su efecto benéfico en la salud humana (5,6,7) . ...
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The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of the grapeseed meal, added to slow-growing Hubbard broilers diet high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) due to the dietary flaxseed meal. The 7-wk feeding trial used 80 broiler chicks (14 d), assigned to two groups: control (C) and E, with 4 replicates of 10 chicks/group. The basal diet was similar for both groups during both feeding stages. The diet for group E was supplemented with 3% grapeseed meal. Six broilers from each group were slaughtered in the end of the feeding trial, and blood, breast and leg meat samples were collected. Serum cholesterol was significantly lower in group E (110.85 mg/dL), than in group C (146.82 mg/dL). The PUFA concentration was significantly higher in group E, than in group C, both in the breast (31.34 %, compared to 27.73 % total fatty acid methyl ester - FAME) and in the leg (32.44 %, compared to 30.06 % total FAME). The cholesterol concentration was significantly lower in group E (42.52 mg), than in group C (60.91 mg/100 g fresh sample) in the leg. After 7 d of refrigeration, the peroxide value was significantly lower in group E (8.11 meq), than in group C (8.79 meq/kg fat) in the breast meat, while fat acidity was significantly lower in group E (40.82 mg KOH), than in group C (43.99 mg KOH / g fat) in the leg. The dietary 3 % grapeseed meal, used as natural antioxidant, in PUFA-enriched broiler diets, had positive effects on the blood parameters and meat quality.
... Diseases or disorders Reference Inflammatory -autoimmune diseases or disorders Cardiovascular risk, diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome [29] Cancer [30,31] Neurodegenerative diseases [27] Allergies [32] Asthma [33] Arthritis [34] Hypertension [35] Maternal and child health Infant growth and neurodevelopment [36] Gestational diabetes mellitus [37] primary producer. [40,41] Phytoplankton is mostly consumed by zooplankton or benthic invertebrates such as shellfish, which are, in turn, accumulated at progressively higher trophic levels through the food chain to finalize in humans (Fig. 2). ...
Article
Lipids from marine organisms are a source of molecules of high nutritional significance, like polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and antioxidants. The incorporation of these molecules into the human body is possible mainly through the intake of fish and fish oil-based food. This review covers some of the health benefits and biochemical aspects of nutritional lipids, the available marine resources for the production of PUFAs and antioxidants, and the most used methods for the extraction and identification of these natural lipid molecules in the lab and in the industry. Emphasis is put on the use of residual biomass from fisheries to obtain these interesting products and the consequent improvement of the sustainability of the fish industry.
... Evidence from a review demonstrates that PUFA has a protective effect on T2D development [13]. Omega-3 PUFA has been shown to decrease the production of inflammatory mediators, decreasing the development of T2D [14]. Omega-6 PUFA, but not omega-3 PUFA was reported to improve insulin sensitivity in a meta-analysis [15]. ...
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Background: To evaluate the association and dose-response relationship between polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adults. Methods: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases were searched for cohort studies that examined the association between PUFA and T2D incidence published up to September 6, 2021. Relative risk (RR) or hazard ratio (HR) was used as the effect indicator, each effect size was expressed by 95% confidence interval (CI). The presence of heterogeneity of effect size between studies was assessed by the Q-test and I2 statistics. If I2 ≥ 50%, the random-effects model was applied, otherwise the fixed effects model was used. Sensitivity analysis was performed for all models. Potential publication bias was assessed. We conducted linear and nonlinear dose-response meta-analyses, calculated summary relative risk (SRR). Results: Twenty-five articles were selected including 54,000 patients in this study. Our estimates observed no linear associations between total PUFA and the incidence of T2D. However, the summary dose-response curve of T2D risk increased in a nonlinear pattern with the consumption of omega-3 PUFA (Pnonlinearity < 0.001) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (Pnonlinearity = 0.040). Our subgroup analysis showed that total PUFA intake was associated with increased incidence of T2D in Europe (RR: 1.040, 95% CI 1.009 to 1.072), and Australia (RR: 1.188, 95% CI 1.113 to 1.269). However, total PUFA intake was associated with decreased T2D incidence in Asia (RR: 0.897, 95% CI 0.860 to 0.936). Subgroup analysis based on PUFA types showed that DHA intake was associated with decreased T2D incidence (RR: 1.164, 95% CI 1.048 to 1.294) while linoleic acid (LA) decreased T2D incidence (RR: 0.956, 95% CI 0.930 to 0.983). Regarding the sex subgroup, women's intake of total PUFA would increase the risk of T2D (RR: 1.049, 95% CI 1.019 to 1.079) while total PUFA intake decreased the risk of T2D in men (RR: 0.955, 95% CI 0.913 to 0.999). Conclusion: For specific PUFA, dose-response curves show nonlinear significant associations between PUFA intakes and T2D. It may be necessary to pay attention to the effects of PUFA and type of intake on T2D. Trial registration Not applicable.
... Low risk of neurodegenerative and coronary heart disease, cholesterol regulation, and low risk of thrombosis, among others, are some of the most important effects of EPA, DPA, and DHA on human health (Colussi et al., 2017;Tortosa-Caparrós et al., 2017). One of the lipid nutritional indices used to study the tendency to clot formation in blood vessels is the thrombogenicity index (TI). ...
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Ctenopharyngodon idella (Grass carp) is one of the most widely produced species in aquaculture. This species is capable of feeding on forage crops and algae. However, few studies have investigated forage feeding in the production of this species. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of fresh Lolium multiflorum feeding on the fatty acid and antioxidant fat-soluble vitamin composition, antioxidant status, and lipid stability of C. idella meat. For this purpose, a 120-day feeding trial was conducted. Approximately 300 juvenile C. idella (7.97 ± 0.6 g and 8.82 ± 0.73 cm) were used. Two experimental diets were used: L. multiflorum Lam (annual ryegrass) forage, or pasture diet (PD), and artificial grain diet (GD). Juveniles of C. idella fed PD accumulated a greater concentration of EPA, DPA, and DHA fatty acids after 60 and 120 days (P < 0.05). Conversely, fish fed a grain-based diet accumulated higher omega 6 fatty acid content in their meat. The PD group meat had a higher content of α-tocopherol, lutein, β-carotene, and retinol than the GD group (P < 0.05). The action of these fat-soluble vitamins and micronutrients increased the FRAP and decreased TBARS in the meat of the PD group. These results suggest that L. multiflorum (ryegrass) feeding improves the quality of C. idella meat by increasing the fatty acids beneficial to human health, such as EPA, DPA, and DHA contents. In addition, this diet increases the antioxidant fat-soluble vitamin contents, thus not only improving the nutritional value of the meat but also contributing to lipid stability.
... Mechanistic analysis showed that the FA absorbed through intestinal cells is released into the blood, penetrating the BBB through passive diffusion [153,154], and is finally recognized by various nuclei in the hypothalamus, such as the ARC and the VMN [155,156], via binding transporters such as fatty acid translocase (FAT; also known as CD36), thus modulating food intake and fat decomposition [154]. Excessive omega-6 FA not only impairs the sensitivity of the hypothalamic FA detection system, but also affects the inflammatory state downstream of the MGBA, promoting fat mass growth and inflammation in WAT, which ultimately leads to obesity and cardiovascular disease [154,157]. In fact, intracerebroventricular injection of unsaturated FA, rather than saturated palmitic acid (PA), produced stronger anaerobic signals in POMC neurons, decreasing weight and fat mass [158]. ...
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Recently, the microbiota-gut-brain axis (MGBA) has emerged as a target for therapeutic innovation. Impairment of dynamic relationships within the MGBA promotes the pathological features of metabolic diseases. However, experimental data on the MGBA has limited clinical application. This review summarizes recent studies and proposes that exploring the interaction among peripheral organs and the MGBA could verify the dominant role of the latter in the onset of metabolic diseases and promote the clinical application of research outcomes. We first emphasize the molecular basis of metabolic diseases caused by MGBA disorders, which manifests as bidirectional relationship. We also summarize related therapeutic strategies, along with limitations in their clinical application. Adipose tissue (AT) is dynamic during metabolic activities and might interact with components in the MGBA. Therefore, it is interesting to explore the interplay among the MGBA and different kinds of AT, including thermogenic adipose tissue and white adipose tissue (WAT). In addition, we also evaluate the functional specificity of adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) and the beige adipose tissue. Understanding the heterogeneity and molecular basis of the interaction between different kinds of AT and the MGBA could accelerate innovation in the diagnosis and therapy of metabolic diseases.
... A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported that supplementation with vitamin D conferred beneficial effects on insulin resistance and TAG concentrations [9]. Marine long-chain n-3 PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been thoroughly investigated, and shown to have cardio-protective effects via anti-inflammatory effects [10][11][12][13], activating peroxisome proliferator activated receptors [14,15] and G protein-coupled receptor 120 signaling pathway [16]. Meanwhile, circulating n-3 PUFA, especially DHA, was significantly higher in healthy subjects, as compared with subjects with NAFLD, and supplemental fish oil exerted substantial beneficial effects on hepatic function and lipid metabolism in subjects with NAFLD [1,9]. ...
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Purpose The present study aimed to investigate fish oil plus vitamin D3 (FO + D) supplementation on biomarkers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods In a 3-month randomized controlled trial, 111 subjects with NAFLD, aged 56.0 ± 15.9 y, were randomized into FO + D group (n = 37), fish oil group (FO, n = 37) or corn oil group (CO, n = 37). The subjects consumed the following capsules (3 g/day), which provided 2.34 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) + 1680 IU vitamin D3 (FO + D group), or 2.34 g/day of EPA + DHA (FO group), or 1.70 g/d linoleic acid (CO group). Results Using multivariable-adjusted general linear model, there were significant net reductions in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and triacylglycerol (TAG) and TNF-α levels in the FO + D and FO groups, compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The supplemental FO + D also showed significant reductions in insulin (− 1.58 ± 2.00 mU/L vs. − 0.63 ± 1.55 mU/L, P = 0.050) and IL-1β (− 6.92 ± 7.29 ng/L vs. 1.06 ± 5.83 ng/L, P < 0.001) in comparison with control group. Although there were no significant differences between FO + D and FO groups regarding biochemical parameters, supplemental FO + D showed decreases in ALT (from 26.2 ± 13.5 U/L to 21.4 ± 9.6 U/L, P = 0.007), aspartate aminotransferase (AST, from 22.5 ± 7.0 U/L to 20.2 ± 4.0 U/L, P = 0.029), HOMA-IR (from 3.69 ± 1.22 to 3.38 ± 1.10, P = 0.047), and TNF-α (from 0.43 ± 0.38 ng/L to 0.25 ± 0.42 ng/L, P < 0.001) levels following the intervention. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that groups supplemented with FO + D and FO had similar beneficial effects on biomarkers of hepatocellular damage and plasma TAG levels in subjects with NAFLD, while in the FO + D group, there were some suggestive additional benefits compared with FO group on insulin levels and inflammation. Trial registration ChiCTR1900024866.
... Previous studies confirmed that the ratio of acetylcarnitine to carnitine (C2/C0) was increased in the HCT group, suggesting that the β-oxidation of even-numbered FFAs was upregulated [12]. In addition, the level of PUFA reduced significantly in HCT group, while PUFA has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties and to restrain the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines [35,36]. In particular, docosahexaenoic acid, the omega-3 PUFA, has also been reported to reduce the HCC cell growth through inhibition of the signal transduction of prostaglandin E2 by downregulating COX-2 and upregulating 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase, a COX-2 antagonist [37]. ...
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) displays a high degree of metabolic and phenotypic heterogeneity and has dismal prognosis in most patients. Here, a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based nontargeted metabolomics method was applied to analyze the metabolic profiling of 130 pairs of hepatocellular tumor tissues and matched adjacent noncancerous tissues from HCC patients. A total of 81 differential metabolites were identified by paired nonparametric test with false discovery rate correction to compare tumor tissues with adjacent noncancerous tissues. Results demonstrated that the metabolic reprogramming of HCC was mainly characterized by highly active glycolysis, enhanced fatty acid metabolism and inhibited tricarboxylic acid cycle, which satisfied the energy and biomass demands for tumor initiation and progression, meanwhile reducing apoptosis by counteracting oxidative stress. Risk stratification was performed based on the differential metabolites between tumor and adjacent noncancerous tissues by using nonnegative matrix factorization clustering. Three metabolic clusters displaying different characteristics were identified, and the cluster with higher levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) in tumors showed a worse prognosis. Finally, a metabolite classifier composed of six FFAs was further verified in a dependent sample set to have potential to define the patients with poor prognosis. Together, our results offered insights into the molecular pathological characteristics of HCC.
... Careful blending should be modulated based on the final use of the blended oil. In a diet rich in essential fatty acids, a healthy ω-3:ω-6 ratio, important in the prevention of many diseases, may be achieved by mixing oils to obtain a balanced fatty acid composition [152,153]. The mixture of sunflower oil with 20% cold-pressed flaxseed oil produced an oil with an optimal ω-3:ω-6 ratio and with an enhanced level of bioactive compounds like tocopherols and carotenoids [152]. ...
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To meet consumers’ demand for natural foods, edible oil producers and food processing industries are searching for alternatives to synthetic antioxidants to protect oils against oxidation. Antioxidant compounds extracted from different plant parts (e.g., flowers, leaves, roots, and seeds) or sourced from agri-food industries, including residues left after food processing, attract consumers for their health properties and natural origins. This review, starting from a literature research analysis, highlights the role of natural antioxidants in the protection of edible oils against oxidation, with an emphasis on the emerging and sustainable strategies to preserve oils against oxidative damage. Sustainability and health are the main concerns of food processing industries. In this context, the aim of this review is to highlight the emerging strategies for the enrichment of edible oils with biomolecules or extracts recovered from plant sources. The use of extracts obtained from vegetable wastes and by-products and the blending with oils extracted from various oil-bearing seeds is also pointed out as a sustainable approach. The safety concerns linked to the use of natural antioxidants for human health are also discussed. This review, using a multidisciplinary approach, provides an updated overview of the chemical, technological, sustainability, and safety aspects linked to oil protection.
... Attainment of peak bone mass depends on a variety of nutritional and endocrine factors (60) . Many studies have reported the benefits of PUFA consumption; however, omega-3 and omega-6 are debated in context of anti-inflammation (61) and bone health (62) . The increase in BMD theoretically is related to increased calcium deposition in the bone matrix and this might be due to the capability of enhanced calcium absorption in duodenum by DHA and EPA (63) . ...
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Obesity is considered to impair long‐term health by disturbing multiple physiological functions. However, it remains controversial issue, as to whether obesity has beneficial or detrimental effects on bone health in post‐menopausal women. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationships between obesity and bone mineral density (BMD) under conditions of ovarian hormone deficiency in an animal model and to evaluate the potential health benefits of Greenshell™ mussel (GSM) on bone health. A total of 144 adult female Sprague–Dawley rats were fed from age 12 weeks on one of four diets (normal (ND); ND + GSM; high fat/high sugar (HF/HS); HF/HS + GSM; N = 36 per diet). At age 20 weeks, following a DXA scan, 12 of the rats on each diet underwent ovariectomy (OVX) and the remaining rats were left intact. 12 of the intact rats in each diet group were culled at age 26 weeks (Short‐term cohort). The remaining rats were culled at age 48 weeks (Long‐term cohort). Rats were DXA scanned prior to cull then various fat pads were dissected. The results revealed that HF/HS rats and OVX rats dramatically increased body weight and fat deposition in correlation with leptin. In the long term cohort, vertebral spine BMD rapidly declined after OVX. At termination, the OVX rats had decreased plasma bone turnover markers of CIX‐1 and TRAP when compared to sham rats. Significantly higher BMD was found in OVX rats fed HF/HS diet when compared to ND but this difference was not recapitulated in intact rats. BMD of right femur was significantly increased 5–10% by GSM in the short term cohort. The data demonstrated that obesity can be beneficial by increasing BMD in OVX rats, and this may extrapolate to post‐menopausal women as adipocyte‐produced estrogen may slightly compensate for the reduction in ovarian hormones. Finally, the data showed that GSM may be beneficial to bone health by increasing BMD accrual. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Background & Aims To evaluate the effect of the Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet Program (BALANCE Program) on inflammatory biomarkers, involved in the pathophysiology of the atherosclerosis, on inflammatory biomarkers, cardiovascular risk factors, and on plasma fatty acids in cardiovascular disease secondary prevention patients. Methods In this substudy of the BALANCE Program randomized clinical trial, a total of 369 patients aged 45 years or older, who have experienced cardiovascular disease in the previous 10 years, were included. These patients were randomized into two groups and followed up for six months: BALANCE Program group and control group (conventional nutrition advice). In the initial and six-month final visits, anthropometry (body weight, height and waist circumference), food intake evaluation by 24-hour dietary recall, plasma inflammatory biomarkers (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin, and C-reactive protein levels), blood pressure, glycemia, insulinemia, lipid profile, and plasma fatty acids levels were evaluated. Results The BALANCE Program group showed increased plasma alpha-linolenic acid levels (P = 0.008), reduction in waist circumference (P=0.049) and BMI (P=0.032). No difference was observed among plasma inflammatory biomarkers and clinical data. Conclusion After six months of follow-up, BALANCE Program led to a significant reduction on BMI and waist circumference in individuals in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease. Although plasmatic alpha-linolenic acid has increased, there was no impact on plasma inflammatory biomarkers. Clinical trial registration NCT01620398.
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Low-carbohydrate and high-fat diets have been used for body weight (BW) control, but their adverse effects on lipid profiles have raised concern. Fish oil (FO), rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, has profound effects on lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that FO supplementation might improve the lipid metabolic disturbance elicited by low-carbohydrate and high-fat diets. Male SD rats were randomized into normal control diet (NC), high-fat diet (HF), and low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (LC) groups in experiment 1, and NC, LC, LC + 5% FO (5CF), and LC + 10% FO diet (10CF) groups in experiment 2. The experimental duration was 11 weeks. In the LC group, a ketotic state was induced, and food intake was decreased; however, it did not result in BW loss compared to either the HF or NC groups. In the 5CF group, rats lost significant BW. Dyslipidemia, perirenal and epididymal fat accumulation, hepatic steatosis, and increases in triglyceride and plasma leptin levels were observed in the LC group but were attenuated by FO supplementation. These findings suggest that a ketogenic low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet with no favorable effect on body weight causes visceral and liver lipid accumulation. FO supplementation not only aids in body weight control but also improves lipid metabolism in low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet-fed rats.
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Keluoxin (KLX) is an active agent in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy (DR). However, its mechanism, targets, and effective constituents against DR are still unclear, which seriously restricts its clinical application. Chinmedomics has the promise of explaining the pharmacological effects of herbal medicines and investigating the effective mechanisms. The research results from electroretinography and electron microscope showed that KLX could reduce retinal dysfunction and pathological changes by the DR mouse model. Based on effectiveness, we discovered 64 blood biomarkers of DR by nontargeted metabolomics analysis, 51 of which returned to average levels after KLX treatment including leukotriene D4 and A4, l -tryptophan, 6-hydroxymelatonin, l -phenylalanine, l -tyrosine, and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). The metabolic pathways involved were phenylalanine metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis, sphingolipid metabolism, etc. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), and protein 70 S6 kinase (p70 S6K) might be potential targets of KLX against DR. This was related to the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and AMPK signaling pathways. We applied the chinmedomics strategy, integrating serum pharm-chemistry of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with metabolomics, to discover astragaloside IV (AS-IV), emodin, rhein, chrysophanol, and other compounds, which were the core effective constituents of KLX when against DR. Our study was the first to apply the chinmedomics strategy to discover the effective constituents of KLX in the treatment of DR, which fills the gap of unclear effective constituents of KLX. In the next step, the research of effective constituents can be used to optimize prescription preparation, improve the quality standard, and develop an innovative drug.
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major health problem, and its prevalence has increased in recent years, concurrent with rising rates of obesity and other metabolic diseases. Currently, there are no FDA-approved pharmacological therapies for NAFLD, and lifestyle interventions, including weight loss and exercise, remain the cornerstones for treatment. Manipulating diet composition and eating patterns may be a sustainable approach to NAFLD treatment. Dietary strategies including Paleolithic, ketogenic, Mediterranean, high-protein, plant-based, low-carbohydrate, and intermittent fasting diets have become increasingly popular because of their purported benefits on metabolic disease. This review highlights what is currently known about these popular dietary approaches in the management of NAFLD in clinical populations with mechanistic insight from animal studies. It also identifies key knowledge gaps to better inform future preclinical and clinical studies aimed at the treatment of NAFLD.
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Background and Aims Modifiable lifestyle factors such as physical activity (PA) and Mediterranean diet (MD) decrease metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim was to assess 1-year changes of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), sedentary behavior and diet quality according to MetS severity in older population at high cardiovascular risk. Methods and Results Prospective analysis of 55-75 y.o. 4359 overweight/obese participants with MetS (PREDIMED-Plus trial) categorized in tertiles according to 1-year changes of a validated MetS severity score (MetSSS). Anthropometrics, visceral adiposity index, T&G index, dietary nutrient intake, biochemical marker levels, Dietary Inflammatory Index and depression symptoms were measured. Diet quality was assessed by 17-item MD questionnaire. PA were self-reported using the Minnesota-REGICOR Short Physical Activity Questionnaire and 30-s chair stand test. Sedentary behaviors were measured using the Spanish version of the Nurses’ Health Study questionnaire. After 1-year follow-up, decreasing MetSSS was associated with an anti-inflammatory dietary pattern, high intake of vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, whole grain cereals, white fish, bluefish and low intake of refined cereals, red and processed meat, cookies/sweets and snacks/ready-to-eat-meals. It resulted in high intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, protein, fiber, vitamin B1, B6, B9, C, D, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus and low glycaemic index and SFA, TFA and carbohydrates intake. Regarding PA and sedentary behavior, decreasing MetSSS was associated with increased moderate-to-vigorous LTPA, chair stand test and decreased sedentary and TV-viewing time. Conclusion Decreasing MetSSS was associated with an anti-inflammatory dietary pattern, high LTPA, high MD adherence, low sedentary time, and low depression risk.
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Linseed oil is a rich source of Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids, which is nutritionally very important for maintaining human health. But due to its poor thermal and oxidative stability linseed oil (LSO) is not used an edible oil. Therefore in the present study the efforts were being made to blend linseed oil with MUFA rich oil i.e. sunflower oil (SFO) and to explore the possibility of using it as a frying oil in Indian cookery. As per the standards given by Food Safety and Standards Act (2011) for blended oils, 4 blends of SFO:LS O were formulated. The formulation was done by the physical mixing (mixing the two oils together and shaking vigorously and using vortex mixer at 150 rpm) of the two oils. SFO was used as a base oil and was mixed in the different ratios with LSO. 6 frying cycles for the selected oil blend were carried out to determine the impact of frying on the thermal stability of the selected oil blend. Each cycle was carried out for 3 minutes at 175 0 C. Fatty acid composition of the control and blends was analysed using gas chromatography. Physico-chemical properties like fatty acid composition, Free Fatty Acid (FFA) content, Peroxide Value, Specific Gravity, Radical Scavenging Activity, Total Polar Material, Colour and Refractive Index were analysed to determine the thermal stability of the oil blend after each frying cycle. The selected blend was further used in preparing the mathries, which was followed by the sensory evaluation.
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The beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on preventing obesity are well known, however, the underlying mechanism by which n-3 PUFAs influence tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle under obesity remains unclear. We randomly divided male C57BL/6 mice into 5 groups (n=10) and fed for 12 weeks as follows: mice fed a normal diet (Con, 10% kcal); mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, lard, 60% kcal); and mice fed a high-fat diet (60% kcal) substituting half the lard with safflower oil (SO), safflower oil and fish oil (SF) and fish oil (FO), respectively. Then we treated HepG2 cells with palmitic acid and DHA for 24 h. We found that body weight in FO group was significantly lower than it in HFD and SO groups. N-3 PUFAs reduced the transcription and translation of TCA cycle enzymes, including IDH1, IDH2, SDHA, FH and MDH2, to enhance mitochondrial function in vivo and vitro. DHA significantly inhibited protein expression of the mTORC1 signaling pathway, increased p-AKT protein expression to alleviate insulin resistance and improved mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate and glycolysis ability in HepG2 cells. In addition, the expressions of IDH2 and SDHB were reduced by rapamycin. N-3 PUFAs could prevent obesity by improving TCA cycle homeostasis and mTORC1 signaling pathway may be upstream.
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Background Although there is growing evidence on the association between nutrient patterns and metabolic risk factors, very little is known about the relationship between nutrient patterns and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to examine the associations of nutrient patterns with MetS among apparently healthy obese adults living in Tabriz, Iran. Methods Three hundred and forty-seven apparently healthy obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²) adults aged 20–50 years were included in this cross-sectional study. Dietary intake of 38 nutrients was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) of 132 food items. Nutrient patterns were determined using factor analysis. The MetS was defined based on the guidelines of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III). Results Three major nutrient patterns were extracted: “Mineral based pattern”, “Simple sugar based pattern” and “Fat based pattern”. There was no significant association between nutrient patterns and MetS, in the crude model even after adjusting for confounders. There was a significant difference between quartiles in the mineral based pattern for free mass (FFM), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), large Waist circumference (WC) and Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). In the simple sugar based pattern, we observed a significant association for SBP, DBP, and triglyceride (TG) levels. In addition, the fat based pattern was positively associated with BMI, and weight. Conclusions We did not observe any significant association of nutrient patterns with the risk of MetS amongst the apparently healthy obese adult's population. Whereas we confirmed the deleterious effect of the simple sugar and fat based patterns on several metabolic risk factors, our findings also showed that the mineral based pattern is related to healthier metabolic factors in an Iranian population. These results should be approved by future studies to recognize any causal relationship between adherence to specific nutrient patterns and MetS.
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Abstract CONTEXT: Postoperative atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF) is one of the most common complications of cardiac surgery and significantly increases morbidity and health care utilization. A few small trials have evaluated whether long-chain n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reduce postoperative AF, with mixed results. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether perioperative n-3-PUFA supplementation reduces postoperative AF. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: The Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Prevention of Post-operative Atrial Fibrillation (OPERA) double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. A total of 1516 patients scheduled for cardiac surgery in 28 centers in the United States, Italy, and Argentina were enrolled between August 2010 and June 2012. Inclusion criteria were broad; the main exclusions were regular use of fish oil or absence of sinus rhythm at enrollment. INTERVENTION: Patients were randomized to receive fish oil (1-g capsules containing ≥840 mg n-3-PUFAs as ethyl esters) or placebo, with preoperative loading of 10 g over 3 to 5 days (or 8 g over 2 days) followed postoperatively by 2 g/d until hospital discharge or postoperative day 10, whichever came first. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Occurrence of postoperative AF lasting longer than 30 seconds. Secondary end points were postoperative AF lasting longer than 1 hour, resulting in symptoms, or treated with cardioversion; postoperative AF excluding atrial flutter; time to first postoperative AF; number of AF episodes per patient; hospital utilization; and major adverse cardiovascular events, 30-day mortality, bleeding, and other adverse events. RESULTS: At enrollment, mean age was 64 (SD, 13) years; 72.2% of patients were men, and 51.8% had planned valvular surgery. The primary end point occurred in 233 (30.7%) patients assigned to placebo and 227 (30.0%) assigned to n-3-PUFAs (odds ratio, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.77-1.20]; P = .74). None of the secondary end points were significantly different between the placebo and fish oil groups, including postoperative AF that was sustained, symptomatic, or treated (231 [30.5%] vs 224 [29.6%], P = .70) or number of postoperative AF episodes per patient (1 episode: 156 [20.6%] vs 157 [20.7%]; 2 episodes: 59 [7.8%] vs 49 [6.5%]; ≥3 episodes: 18 [2.4%] vs 21 [2.8%]) (P = .73). Supplementation with n-3-PUFAs was generally well tolerated, with no evidence for increased risk of bleeding or serious adverse events. CONCLUSION: In this large multinational trial among patients undergoing cardiac surgery, perioperative supplementation with n-3-PUFAs, compared with placebo, did not reduce the risk of postoperative AF. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00970489. Comment in Fish oil vs olive oil for postoperative atrial fibrillation. [JAMA. 2013] Fish oil vs olive oil for postoperative atrial fibrillation--reply. [JAMA. 2013] PMID: 23128104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC3694745 Free PMC Article Share on FacebookShare on TwitterShare on Google+ Images from this publication.See all images (3)Free text Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3 Publication Types, MeSH Terms, Substances, Secondary Source ID, Grant Support LinkOut - more resources PubMed Commons home PubMed Commons 0 comments How to join PubMed Commons
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Background Growing evidence suggests a cardioprotective role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). However, the exact mechanisms underlying the effects of omega-3 PUFA in humans have not yet been fully clarified. Purpose We sought to evaluate omega-3 PUFA-mediated effects on adipokines in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods We conducted a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study, in which adiponectin, leptin and resistin were determined at baseline, 3–5 days and 30 days during administration of omega-3 PUFA 1 g/day (n = 20) or placebo (n = 28). Results As compared to controls administration of omega-3 PUFA resulted in increase of adiponectin by 13.4 % (P < 0.0001), reduction of leptin by 22 % (P < 0.0001) and increase of adiponectin to leptin (A/L) ratio by 45.5 % (P < 0.0001) at 30 days, but not at 3–5 days. Compared with placebo adiponectin was 12.7 % higher (P = 0.0042), leptin was 16.7 % lower (P < 0.0001) and A/L ratio was 33.3 % higher (P < 0.0001) in the omega-3 PUFA group at 30 days. Resistin decreased similarly in both groups after 1 month, without intergroup differences (P = 0.32). The multivariate model showed that the independent predictors of changes in adiponectin at 1 month (P < 0.001) were: omega-3 PUFA treatment, baseline platelet count, total cholesterol and those in leptin (P < 0.0001) were: omega-3 PUFA treatment and waist circumference. Independent predictors of A/L ratio changes (P < 0.0001) were: assigned treatment, current smoking and hyperlipidemia. Conclusions In high risk stable coronary patients after PCI omega-3 PUFA supplementation improves adipokine profile in circulating blood. This might be a novel, favourable mechanism of omega-3 PUFA action.
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Context Postoperative atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF) is one of the most common complications of cardiac surgery and significantly increases morbidity and health care utilization. A few small trials have evaluated whether long-chain n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reduce postoperative AF, with mixed results. Objective To determine whether perioperative n-3-PUFA supplementation reduces postoperative AF. Design, Setting, and Patients The Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Prevention of Post-operative Atrial Fibrillation (OPERA) double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. A total of 1516 patients scheduled for cardiac surgery in 28 centers in the United States, Italy, and Argentina were enrolled between August 2010 and June 2012. Inclusion criteria were broad; the main exclusions were regular use of fish oil or absence of sinus rhythm at enrollment. Intervention Patients were randomized to receive fish oil (1-g capsules containing ≥840 mg n-3-PUFAs as ethyl esters) or placebo, with preoperative loading of 10 g over 3 to 5 days (or 8 g over 2 days) followed postoperatively by 2 g/d until hospital discharge or postoperative day 10, whichever came first. Main Outcome Measure Occurrence of postoperative AF lasting longer than 30 seconds. Secondary end points were postoperative AF lasting longer than 1 hour, resulting in symptoms, or treated with cardioversion; postoperative AF excluding atrial flutter; time to first postoperative AF; number of AF episodes per patient; hospital utilization; and major adverse cardiovascular events, 30-day mortality, bleeding, and other adverse events. Results At enrollment, mean age was 64 (SD, 13) years; 72.2% of patients were men, and 51.8% had planned valvular surgery. The primary end point occurred in 233 (30.7%) patients assigned to placebo and 227 (30.0%) assigned to n-3-PUFAs (odds ratio, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.77-1.20]; P = .74). None of the secondary end points were significantly different between the placebo and fish oil groups, including postoperative AF that was sustained, symptomatic, or treated (231 [30.5%] vs 224 [29.6%], P = .70) or number of postoperative AF episodes per patient (1 episode: 156 [20.6%] vs 157 [20.7%]; 2 episodes: 59 [7.8%] vs 49 [6.5%]; ≥3 episodes: 18 [2.4%] vs 21 [2.8%]) (P = .73). Supplementation with n-3-PUFAs was generally well tolerated, with no evidence for increased risk of bleeding or serious adverse events. Conclusion In this large multinational trial among patients undergoing cardiac surgery, perioperative supplementation with n-3-PUFAs, compared with placebo, did not reduce the risk of postoperative AF. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00970489
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an increasingly common arrhythmia that now stands at epidemic proportion, with more than 2.3 million people affected in the USA and over 4.5 million people affected in Western Europe. AF is an expression of underlying heart disease and is increasingly associated with hypertension, congestive heart failure, and ischemic heart disease. It is also a progressive disease secondary to continuous structural remodeling of the atria, which relates to AF itself, to changes associated with aging and to progression of the underlying heart disease. Traditionally, AF has been addressed only after it has already presented with pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies designed for rhythm or rate control (secondary prevention). Although secondary prevention is the most feasible approach at present, the concept of primary prevention of AF with therapies aimed at preventing the development of substrate and correcting the risk factors for AF has emerged as a strategy, which is likely to produce a larger effect in the general population. Recent experiments provided new insights into AF pathophysiology, which generated background for new mechanism-based therapies. Agents targeting inflammation, oxidative injury, atrial myocyte metabolism, extracellular matrix remodeling, and fibrosis have theoretical advantages as novel therapeutic strategies. In this respect, drugs that are not traditionally antiarrhythmic such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, aldosterone antagonists, statins, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have shown an antiarrhythmic potential in addition to any treatment effect on the underlying disease. These agents are thought to have an advantage of targeting both the occurrence and progression of the substrate for AF, thus, providing primary and secondary prevention of the arrhythmia. Although first experimental and hypothesis-generating small clinical studies or retrospective analyses have been encouraging, several larger, properly designed, prospective trials have not confirmed earlier observations. This review provides a contemporary evidence-based insight into the possible preventative and reverse remodeling role of statins and polyunsaturated fatty acids in AF.
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Background: Previous randomized studies have reported conlicting results on the eficacy of omega-3 fatty acids (PUFA) in preventing atrial ibrillation (AF) post cardiac surgery. Therefore, a meta-analysis of the role of PUFA in the prevention of atrial ibrillation in post-cardiac surgery patients was conducted.
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The National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III report (ATP III)1 identified the metabolic syndrome as a multiplex risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that is deserving of more clinical attention. The cardiovascular community has responded with heightened awareness and interest. ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome differ somewhat from those of other organizations. Consequently, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, in collaboration with the American Heart Association, convened a conference to examine scientific issues related to definition of the metabolic syndrome. The scientific evidence related to definition was reviewed and considered from several perspectives: (1) major clinical outcomes, (2) metabolic components, (3) pathogenesis, (4) clinical criteria for diagnosis, (5) risk for clinical outcomes, and (6) therapeutic interventions. ATP III viewed CVD as the primary clinical outcome of metabolic syndrome. Most individuals who develop CVD have multiple risk factors. In 1988, Reaven2 noted that several risk factors (eg, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia) commonly cluster together. This clustering he called Syndrome X , and he recognized it as a multiplex risk factor for CVD. Reaven and subsequently others postulated that insulin resistance underlies Syndrome X (hence the commonly used term insulin resistance syndrome ). Other researchers use the term metabolic syndrome for this clustering of metabolic risk factors. ATP III used this alternative term. It avoids the implication that insulin resistance is the primary or only cause of associated risk factors. Although ATP III identified CVD as the primary clinical outcome of the metabolic syndrome, most people with this syndrome have insulin resistance, which confers increased risk for type 2 diabetes. When diabetes becomes clinically apparent, CVD risk rises sharply. Beyond CVD and type 2 diabetes, individuals with metabolic syndrome seemingly are susceptible to other conditions, notably polycystic ovary syndrome, fatty liver, cholesterol gallstones, asthma, sleep disturbances, and some …
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Obesity is a multifactorial chronic disease characterized by an accumulation of visceral and subcutaneous fat, which leads to a predisposition toward cardiometabolic diseases. A plethora of mechanisms, including abnormalities in lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, adipokine imbalance, and inflammasome activation have been suggested to underlie the relationship between obesity and atherosclerosis. More recent data point toward an emerging role of impaired autophagy and altered gut microbiome homeostasis as potentially contributing factors. This review provides an overview of this area. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Obesity is frequently associated with chronic inflammation, metabolic and vascular alterations which predispose to the development of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). However, the individual obesity-related risk for the MetS is not determined by increased fat mass alone. Heterogeneity of body composition, fat distribution and adipose tissue (AT) function may underly the variable risk to develop metabolic and cardiovascular diseases associated with increased body fat mass. Importantly, an inability to increase AT mass by adipocyte hyperplasia may lead to adipocyte hypertrophy and could induce dysfunction of adipose tissue characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity, hypoxia, increased parameters of intracellular stress, increased autophagy and apoptosis and tissue inflammation. As a result, adipocytes and other AT cells release signals (e.g. adipokines, cells, metabolites) resulting in a proinflammatory, diabetogenic and atherogenic serum profile. These adverse signals may contribute to further AT inflammation and secondary organ damage in target tissues such as liver, brain, endothelium, vasculature, endocrine organs and skeletal muscle. Recently, a specific adipocyte volume threshold has been shown to predict the risk for obesity-associated type 2 diabetes.Most likely, impaired adipocyte function is caused by genetic, behavioural and environmental factors which are not entirely understood. Elucidating the mechanisms of adipocyte dysfunction may lead to the identification of novel treatment targets for obesity and the MetS.
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Background: Recent trials of fish oil for the prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence have provided mixed results. Notable uncertainties in the existing evidence base include the roles of high-dose fish oil, inflammation, and oxidative stress in patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF not receiving conventional antiarrhythmic (AA) therapy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of high-dose fish oil on AF recurrence, inflammation, and oxidative stress parameters. Methods: We performed a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study in 337 patients with symptomatic paroxysmal or persistent AF within 6 months of enrollment. Patients were randomized to fish oil (4 g/day) or placebo and followed, on average, for 271 ± 129 days. Results: The primary endpoint was time to first symptomatic or asymptomatic AF recurrence lasting >30 s. Secondary endpoints were high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). The primary endpoint occurred in 64.1% of patients in the fish oil arm and 63.2% of patients in the placebo arm (hazard ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval: 0.84 to 1.45; p = 0.48). hs-CRP and MPO were within normal limits at baseline and decreased to a similar degree at 6 months (Δhs-CRP, 11% vs. -11%; ΔMPO, -5% vs. -9% for fish oil vs. placebo, respectively; p value for interaction = NS). Conclusions: High-dose fish oil does not reduce AF recurrence in patients with a history of AF not receiving conventional AA therapy. Furthermore, fish oil does not reduce inflammation or oxidative stress markers in this population, which may explain its lack of efficacy. (Multi-center Study to Evaluate the Effect of N-3 Fatty Acids [OMEGA-3] on Arrhythmia Recurrence in Atrial Fibrillation [AFFORD]; NCT01235130).
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During the 1970s, 2 Danish investigators, Bang and Dyerberg, on being informed that the Greenland Eskimos had a low prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) set out to study the diet of this population. Bang and Dyerberg described the "Eskimo diet" as consisting of large amounts of seal and whale blubber (ie, fats of animal origin) and suggested that this diet was a key factor in the alleged low incidence of CAD. This was the beginning of a proliferation of studies that focused on the cardioprotective effects of the "Eskimo diet." In view of data, which accumulated on this topic during the past 40 years, we conducted a review of published literature to examine whether mortality and morbidity due to CAD are indeed lower in Eskimo/Inuit populations compared with their Caucasian counterparts. Most studies found that the Greenland Eskimos and the Canadian and Alaskan Inuit have CAD as often as the non-Eskimo populations. Notably, Bang and Dyerberg's studies from the 1970s did not investigate the prevalence of CAD in this population; however, their reports are still routinely cited as evidence for the cardioprotective effect of the "Eskimo diet." We discuss the possible motives leading to the misinterpretation of these seminal studies.
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N-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) have been shown to inhibit body fat accumulation in animals. To clarify the mechanism of this fat-lowering effect of n-3 HUFA in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, isolated grass carp mature adipocytes were incubated with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) at different concentrations for 6 h. The release of glycerol to the medium was detected, and the expression of the lipolysis-related genes was analyzed. In experiment 2, a 95-day feeding trial was conducted with two diets formulated with either lard oil (as control) or fish oil (supplying n-3 HUFA as treatment) as the main lipid source. The glycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) released from the isolated adipocytes of both groups were detected after the feeding period. The expression of select lipolysis-related genes in adipose tissue was also analyzed. The results from experiment 1 showed that the release of glycerol was significantly increased by DHA and EPA (P < 0.05). Moreover, the expression of lipolysis-related genes, such as adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and leptin, was also significantly elevated in the treatment group (P < 0.05). Experiment 2 demonstrated that glycerol and FFA release from the isolated adipocytes were significantly higher in the treatment group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The expression level of ATGL, HSL, TNFα and leptin in the treatment group was significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). The present results provide novel evidence that n-3 HUFAs could regulate grass carp adipocyte lipolysis in vitro or in vivo, and the effect might be in part associated with their influence on the expression of lipolysis-related genes and lipolysis-related adipokines genes.
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Aims: Previous studies have suggested a lower risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) with higher intakes of fish and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), but the results have been inconsistent. The aim was to investigate the association between consumption of marine n-3 PUFA and development of AF. Methods and results: A total of 57 053 Danish participants 50-64 years of age were enrolled in the Diet, Cancer, and Health Cohort Study between 1993 and 1997. Dietary intake of fish and marine n-3 PUFA was assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. In total, 3345 incident cases of AF occurred over 13.6 years. Multivariate Cox regression analyses (3284 cases and 55 246 participants) using cubic splines showed a U-shaped association between consumption of marine n-3 PUFA and risk of incident AF, with the lowest risk of AF at a moderate intake of 0.63 g/day. For quintiles of marine n-3 PUFA intake, a 13% statistically significant lower risk of AF was seen in the middle vs. lowest quintile: Q1 reference, Q2 HR 0.92 (95% CI 0.82-1.03), Q3 HR 0.87 (95% CI 0.78-0.98), Q4 HR 0.96 (95% CI 0.86-1.08), and Q5 HR 1.05 (95% CI 0.93-1.18). Intake of total fish, fatty fish, and the individual n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid also showed U-shaped associations with incident AF. Conclusion: We found a U-shaped association between consumption of marine n-3 PUFA and risk of incident AF, with the lowest risk close to the median intake of total marine n-3 PUFA (0.63 g/day).
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Dietary supplementation has traditionally consisted of adding vitamins and/or minerals to correct or prevent a nutritional deficiency. When supplementing the diet with other inflammatory mediators, such as essential fatty acids, there is an adjunctive benefit to the standard therapies used in the control of chronic inflammatory diseases such as Crohn's disease or rheumatoid arthritis. This review focuses on the strategies utilized for therapeutic modulation of the inflammatory cascade through dietary supplementation with specific biomolecules. Examples of how these biomolecules affect local and systemic immune responses to chronic inflammation are examined. In particular, an overview of the literature identifying the potential to modify the host response to chronic periodontitis is provided.
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