ArticlePDF Available
theme
SOCIAL JUSTICE
TRADITION
BECOMES
THE
TEACHER
COMMUNITY
EVENTS
ENRICH
EDUCATORS'
PROFESSIONAL
LEARNING
By
Margery
Ginsberg
and
Anthony
Craig
ne
way
to
approach
the
im-
provement
of
instruction
is
for
educators to
learn
from
student
interactions
in
cul-
tural
events
that
fully
en-
gage
students'
motivation
and
curiosity.
In
such
a
context,
educators
get
to
know
students
in new
ways
and
to
connect
student
strengths
to
classroom
instruction.
This
can
be
especially
powerful
when
the
learning context
is
a
shared
and
collaborative
experience
among
educators.
Two
elementary
school
staffs
came
together
to
learn
from
the
interactions
of
American
Indian
students
and
fam-
ilies
through
participation
in
the Tulalip
Tribes'
Salmon
Ceremony.
Such
cultural
events
in
communities
through-
out
the
United
States
have
the
potential
to
stimulate
new
ideas
for
teachers
to
create
more
inclusive, relevant,
and
en-
gaging
learning
environments.
Although
we
are
cautious
about
educators
making
hasty
conclusions
about
entire groups
of
people from
limited
in-
teractions,
we
believe
that,
with
knowledgeable
commu-
nity
members
and
elders
as
guides,
significant
community
events
provide
educators
with
opportunities
to
understand
expectations
and interactions
in
ways
that
might
not
be
possible
otherwise.
The
implications
for
teaching
and
learn-
ing
in
schools
are
profound.
BACKGROUND
As
is
true
for
many
school
districts,
the
teachers
in
Marysville
School
District
in
Washington
state,
most
of
Eu-
ropean-American descent,
teach
students
from
communi-
ties
where
the
process
of
socialization
generally
differs
from
educators'
own
childhood
experiences.
With
this
in
mind,
Marysville
School
District
has
focused
a
portion
of
teach-
ers'
professional
learning on
ways
to
create
greater
congru-
ence
between
the
strengths
that
students
exhibit
in
their
communities
and
opportunities
to learn
in
the
more
formal
context
of
school.
The
importance
of
connecting
the
cul-
ture
of
the
community
to
the
culture
of
the
classroom has
36
JSD
I
www.nsdc.org
4
August
2010
1
Vol.
31
No.
4
Drumbeats
begin
the
annual
Salmon
Ceremony
of
the
Tulalip
Tribes
of
Washington
state.
Educators
from
two
elementary
schools
in
Marysville,
Wash.,
studied
and
attended
the
ceremony
to
learn
from
traditions
thatserve
children
well.
MUMo[ OJy IA -I MLI r05
- -.
l•.1 y
Ai-i-•C
An
elder
drums
at
a
Salmon Ceremony
of
the
Tulalip
Tribes
in
Washington
state.
a
well
-established
legacy
in
educational
research
(Vygotsky,
ing
students
to
bridge the
participation
structures
in
their
1978;
Mohatt
&
Erikson,
1981;
Heath,
1983;
Au &
homes
and
communities
with
the
structures
found
in
most
Kawakami,
1985;
Zeichner,
1995; Gay,
2000).
In
addition
classrooms
is
foundational
to
academic
success.
to
the
potential
of
such
connections
for
democratic
plural-
As
authors,
we
also
believe
that
collaborative
learning
ism,
scholars
and
practitioners
commonly
agree
that
help-
among
teachers
in
a
shared
context
can
build
a
collective
www.nsdc.org
I
JSD
37
August2010
1
Vol.
31
No.
4
theme
SOCIAL JUSTICE
commitment
to
instructional
innovation.
One
of
us
has
been
an
educator
in American
Indian
communities
and
one
is
Amer-
ican
Indian
and currently
teaches
in
an
Indian
community.
Ul-
timately,
our
hope
is
to
encourage
pedagogical
imagination
without
reducing children
and
community
members
to
static
lists
of
presumed
characteristics
and
learning
styles.
Educators from
both
To
guide the
process
of
bridging
elementary
schools
community-school
interests,
Marysville
relpodeme
tay
shol
School
District,
which
serves
the
in-
responded
to
the
digenous
communities
of
the
Tulalip
invitation
with
Tribes,
has
established
a
district-level
resounding
interest.
In
RESPECT committee.
The
goal
of
nearly
full
attendance,
this
committee
is
to
strengthen
the
dis-
teachers and
school
tricts'
commitment
to
equitable
stu-
administrators
dent
performance.
With
a
focus
on
gathered
for
a
four-
teaching
and
learning
that
is
inclusive,
hour
preliminary
relevant,
engaging,
and
valuable
to
session
to
learn
about
learners
and
families,
the
committee
the
ceremony
and
to
recognizes
that
content-focused
in-
develop
a
focus
to
struction
is
insufficient
without
a
fun-
damental
awareness
of
and
respect
for
guiducthirowna
learner
diversity
and
motivation.
instructional
understanding
and
Marysville
recognizes
that opportuni-
ties
for
teachers
to
strengthen
their
cul-
imagination.
tural
awareness
require
reaching
outside
of
the
usual
context
of
profes-
sional
development.
In
particular,
community
gatherings
can be
valuable
occasions
to
learn
from
traditions
that
have
historically
served
children
well.
Here
we
describe
one
of
several ways
that
schools
and
dis-
tricts
can develop
a
professional
learning
agenda
focused
on
at-
tending
community
events
to
build
upon
teachers'
understanding
of
children's
strengths.
Although
our
example
focuses
on how
and
what
teachers
learned from
attending
a
significant
ceremo-
nial
event,
the
Tulalip experience
sheds
light
on professional
learning
opportunities
that
exist
in
communities
everywhere.
ORIENTATION
TO
A
COMMUNITY
GATHERING
To
reach
out
to
local
educators,
a
member
of
the
district's
RESPECT committee
(one
of
the
authors) drafted
an
invita-
tion
to
educators
in
two
elementary
schools
to
attend
the
prac-
tice
session
for
the
Tulalip
community's
annual
Salmon
Ceremony
and
the
actual
ceremony.
The
invitation
set
the
stage
for
learning from
students'
cultural
context
and
stressed
the
im-
portance
of
the
Salmon
Ceremony
to
the
Tulalip
community.
Educators
from
both
elementary
schools
responded
to
the
invitation
with resounding interest.
In
nearly
full
attendance,
teachers
and
school
administrators
gathered
for
a
four-hour
pre-
liminary
session
to
learn
about
the
ceremony
and
to
develop
a
focus
to
guide
their
own
instructional
understanding
and
imag-
ination.
WHAT
ARE
THE
CHILDREN
LEARNING?
To
sharpen
teachers'focus
on
student
strengths
and
knowledge,
the
initial
learning
agenda
included
a
10-
minute
video
clip
of
a
previous
ceremony.
As
educators
watched, they
were asked
to
keep
in
mind
the
questions,
"What
can
you
tell
about
what
the
children
are
learning,
and
how?
What
are
some
of
the
strengths
that
children
exhibit
that
might
have
implications
for
teaching
and
learning?"
The
videotaped
ceremony
stimulated
discussion
for
participants.
This
description
captures
elements
of
the
videotaped
ceremony
practice.
A
the
familiar
drumbeat
of
the
Snohomish
Welcome
Song
begins,
100
singers
and
drummers
enter
the
Tulalip
Longhouse.
As
is
traditional,
three
head
women
lead
the
procession,
followed
by
the
eldest
male
drummers
beating
their hand
drums
and
raising
their
hands to greet
and
thank
all
visitors
who
have
come
to
lend
support
as
tribal
members
pay
honor
to
the
first
returning
King
Salmon
of
the
season.
Intermingled
among these
elder
drummers,
singers,
and
dancers,
one
sees
dozens
of
young
children
ranging
in
age
from
toddler
to
teen
joining
in
with
a
focused
reverence.
As
the
ceremony
unfolds,
not
a
single
participant,
adult
or
child,
steps
out
of
line.
Each
participant
appears
to
feel
a
responsibility
for
this
important
work.
Every
song,
dance,
and
story
compels
tribal
members
of
all
ages
to
sing
and
dance in
order
to
conduct
the
ceremony
as
it
has
been
for
generations.
The
beauty
and
power
of
ancient songs
and
dances
come
alive
in
the
young
children
as
they
dance
around
the
three
sacred
fires
on
the
dirt
floor
of
the
longhouse.
The
importance
of
the
youth
in
the
survival
of
this
culture
is
evident
as
this
short
video
clip
comes
to
a
close.
38
JSD
I www.nsdc.org
August
2010
1
Vol. 31
No.
4
Tradition
becomes
the
teacher
Inclusion
RESPECT
AND
ATEACHING
RUBRIC
No
evidence
Ideas/
at
this
time
questions
Connection
to
learning
from
community
culture
Routines
and
rituals
are
present
that
contribute
to
respectful
learning
(e.g.
norms
are
clear,
cooperative
learning).
Students
and
teachers
comfortably
and
respectfully
interact
with
each
other
for
social
and
academic
support (students
support
each
other's
learning).
Students
and
teachers
share
a
relationship
that
may
be
subtle
(e.g.
students
share
thinking,
humor
used
mutually).
Teacher
arranges
activities
to
allow
for
closeness
and
independence.
Teacher
acknowledges
students'
identities
and
membership
in
cultural
groups
MORE
TOOLS
ONLINE
www.nsdc.org/
news/jsd/
Invitation
for
educators to
the
ceremony.
Agenda
for
the
initial
learning
experience.
Source:
Marysville (Wash.) School
District, adapted
from
Ginsberg
(2003).
Rubrics
-
Attitude:
Choice
and
personal/cultural
relevance.
-
Meaning: Challenge
and
engagement.
-
Competence:
Authenticity
and
effectiveness.
August
2010
I
Voi.
31
No.
4
Clear
evidence
Possible
evidence
www.nsdc.org
I
JSD
39
theme
SOCIAL JUSTICE
Seeking
to
create for teachers
the
same
conditions
for
learn-
ing
that
we
seek
for
students,
the
goals
for
the
initial
teacher
preparation
session,
participation
in
the Salmon
Ceremony,
and
the
follow-up
debrief
were
to
develop
an
understanding
of
Tu-
lalip
First
Salmon
Ceremony,
establish
common understanding
regarding
the
potential
of
a
community
context
as
a
site
for
learn-
ing,
and
experience
a
community
gathering
to learn
more
about
cultural
strengths,
talents,
and
values
to
integrate
with
teaching
and
learn-
ing
in
classrooms.
During
the
initial
The
agenda
for
the
initial
profes-
learning,
we
asked
sional
learning
clarified
the purpose,
teachers
to
list
their
what
participants
would
be
able
to
observations
and
know
and
do
as
a
result
of
the
learn-
safter
seeing
ing,
and the
resource
materials
avail-
insightsiafteremony
able
to
inform
their
thinking.
Among
the
practice
ceremony
the
materials
was
an
article
from
Ed-
video
clip.
After
ucational
Leadership
entitled
"Lessons
attending
the
practice
at
the Kitchen
Table,"
(Ginsberg,
ceremony
in
person,
or,
2007).
The
article
served
as
an
entry
for some
teachers,
the
point
into
a
discussion
on what
to
look
actual
ceremony,
for
at
the Salmon
Ceremony and the
teachers
replicated
this
importance
of
a
focus
on
community
in
a
personal
journal
or
strengths
or
funds
of
knowledge
(Gon-
with
a
partner.
zales,
Moll,
&
Amanti,
2005).
Aware-
ness
of
such
strengths
can
yield
valuable
clues
for
how
teachers
might
further
develop
their
own
classroom
expectations
and
learning
interactions
with students.
For example,
a
strength
that
a
teacher
of
young
children
might
notice
as
part
of
the Salmon
Ceremony
are
the
clear
norms
of
collaboration
that
are
demonstrated
by
elders
and
youth
for
younger children
who
are
learning
ceremonial
proto-
col.
Teachers
might
also
notice
various
forms
of
narration
throughout
the ceremony-
for
example,
the
use
of
story,
song,
and movement.
PRACTICE CEREMONY
FOLLOW-UP
Following
the
practice
for
the Salmon
Ceremony,
one
of
the
authors
sent
a
letter
thanking
teachers
for
being
present
and
showing
their
enthusiasm
and
love
for
students
and
the
com-
munity.
As several
participants
noted,
it
had
been
a
great
evening,
full
of
learning
and
culture.
The
letter
included
comments
from
the
families
about
their
children's
excitement
to
see
their
teach-
"ers:
"They
were
so
proud
to
tell
anybody
who
would
listen,
'That's my
teacher!'
and
'My teacher
is
here!'
"
The
letter
also
included
an
approach
for
teachers
who
would
attend
the
actual
ceremony. Underscoring
the
privilege
of
go-
ing
behind
the
scenes
of
this
ancient
ceremony,
teachers
were
asked
to
focus
on
how children
are
taught
and
the
high
expec-
tations
that
are
held
for
them. They
were
also
asked
to
record
their
thoughts
after
the
ceremony
to
aid
their
collective
mem-
ory
for
a
follow-up
discussion
where
participants would
apply
insights to
instructional
practice.
Setting
the
stage
for
educators
to
learn
from
a
community
gathering
was,
in some
ways,
easier
than
developing
a
follow-
up
session
to
make
sense
of
and
apply
insights
to
classroom en-
vironments.
Most
teachers
are
willing
to
extend
themselves
beyond
the
boundaries
of
the schoolhouse
if
they
believe
there
will
be
a
way
to use
experiences
to
construct
more
effective
class-
rooms.
However,
the
easiest
initial
bridges to
build
after at-
tending
any
event
are
often
the
superficial ones.
Clearly,
being
an
attentive
witness
does
not
necessarily
translate
into
being
a
discerning
interpreter.
At
the
same
time,
with
guidance
from
community
members,
thinking
through
some
of
the threads
of
a
story
can lead
to
understanding
aspects
of
students'
potential
that
can
be
forgotten
in
the rush
of
a
school
day.
APPLYING
INSIGHTS
FROM
CULTURAL EVENTS
During
the initial
learning,
we
asked
teachers to
list
their
observations
and
insights
after
seeing
the
practice ceremony
video
clip.
After
attending
the
practice
ceremony
in
person,
or,
for
some
teachers,
the
actual
ceremony,
teachers
replicated
this
in
a
personal
journal
or
with
a
partner.
As
we
interacted
with
teachers
over
the
following
weeks,
we
noted
a
range
of
teacher
observations
from the
ceremony
about
positive
student
learn-
ing
and
the
environmental
conditions
that supported
it.
The
list
included:
"*
Clear
norms
and
predictable
routines;
"*
Structured
participation
that
allowed
for
approximation;
"*
Repetition;
"*
Children
have
a
clear
understanding
of
events
without
ex-
plicit
lectures;
"*
Young
children
watching
and
learning from older
youth
and
elders;
"*
Close
proximity
of
children
to
adults;
"*
Multiple
roles
and
forms
of
participation;
"*
Well-modeled,
interactive,
and
respectful
participation;
"*
Voices
-
everyone
sings;
"*
Physical
movement;
"*
No
distinction
among
who
belongs
to
whom;
"*
Various
stories
with
examples
of
the
ethic
of
"no
enemies";
and
"*
The
use
of
rhythm
in
transitions.
We
used
this
list
and
its
insights
to
revise
teaching
rubrics
based
on
generic
ideas
about
supporting
intrinsic motivation
across
student
groups.
Our
goal
was
to
assist
teachers
in
pro-
viding
instruction
that
is
motivating
and
culturally
responsive.
Although
classrooms may
not
elicit
children's
intrinsic
motiva-
tion
in
ways
that
are
similar
to
a
community's
deep
collective
memory
and norms,
they
can
approximate the
conditions upon
which
children's
learning
thrives.
We
planned
to
take
the
revised
rubrics
to
a
concluding
gath-
ering
with
teachers,
where
we
could
apply
the
revised
rubrics
to
August
2010
1
Vol.
31
No.
4
40
JSD
I www.nsdc.org
Tradition
becomes
the
teacher
a
videotaped elementary
school
literacy
lesson
to
apply
the
pro-
fessional
learning
to
ongoing
instruction
and
reconsider
class-
room
practices.
One
of
the
teachers
had
volunteered
to
have
one
of
her
lessons
with
students
taped
and
to
reflect
with
the
group
on
the
lesson.
(See
one
example
of
a
revised
rubric
on
p.
39.)
"NOTICINGS" AND
"WONDERS"
After
watching
the
video
of
the
classroom
lesson
and
using
the
rubrics to
assess
the
lesson,
teachers offered
feedback
for
each
category.
Their
feedback
was
communicated
as
"noticings"
and
"wonders"
on
a
two-column
chart.
"Noticings"
are
attributes
of
the
lesson
that
clearly
connect
to
student
motivation.
"Won-
ders"
are
probing
questions
that
allow
teachers to
think
more
deeply
about
their
practice.
Following
the
video,
teachers
noted
the
high
student
energy,
concentration, and
effort they
saw
during
the
lesson.
Teachers
believed
that
the
revised
rubrics
were
more
congruent
with the
tribal
communities'
values
and norms.
Changes
within
the
rubric
included
new
considerations
regarding
multiple
opportunities
for
children
to
learn, based
on
observations
of
the
ceremony
that
included repetition,
learning from
elders
and
older
youth,
singing,
physical
movement,
various stories,
and
ways
of
devel-
oping
collective
memory. Another
set
of
changes
to
the
rubrics
focused
on
expectations
of
success,
based
on
observations
such
as
clear
demonstrations
of
expectations,
use
of
approximation,
lack
of
distinction
among
who
belongs
to
whom,
and the
ex-
ample
of
elders
as
committed
learners.
EXTENDING
NEW LEARNING
WITHOUT
A
BLUEPRINT
Most
teachers
were able
to watch
the ceremony
practice
video,
attend
the
practice
for
the ceremony,
and
attend
the
cer-
emony
itself.
Reflecting
on the
importance
of
these
experiences
as
educators, they
spoke
of
the
potential
of
community
learn-
ing
to
evoke
memory,
emotion,
and
new
learning.
They
also
in-
dicated
an
interest
in
extending
the
use
of
the
rubrics
to
their
own
professional practice.
For
example,
several
teachers
men-
tioned
that
they
would
like
to
strengthen their
knowledge
of
motivation
and culture
through
collaborative
lesson
design,
co-
teaching,
and
peer-feedback
with
American
Indian
colleagues.
Educational
researchers
and
theorists
are
clear
about
the im-
portance
of
instruction
on
student
learning
(Darling-Hammond,
2000; Brophy, 2004;
Gay,
2000).
They
are
also
clear
that
cul-
ture
and motivation
are
inseparable
from
learning (Ginsberg
&
Wlodkowski, 2000
).
At
a
time when there
are
many
frame-
works
and
approaches
to
implement them,
there
are
still
no blue-
prints
for
understanding and
improving
upon
the
cultural
nuance
of
classroom
norms and
interactions.
Fortunately,
there
are
com-
munities
willing
to
help
us
learn.
REFERENCES
Au,
K.
&
Kawakami,
A.
(1985,
April).
Talk
story
and
learning
to read.
Language
Arts,
62(4), 406-411.
Brophy,
J.
(2004).
Motivating
students
to
learn (2nd
ed.).
Mahwah,
NJ: Lawrence
Erlbaum
Associates.
Darling-Hammond,
L.
(2000).
Teacher
quality
and
student
achievement:
A
review
of
state policy
evidence.
Education
Policy
Analysis Archives,
8(1).
Gay,
G.
(2000).
Culturally
responsive
teaching.
New
York:
Teachers
College
Press.
Ginsberg,
M.
(2007,
March).
Lessons
at
the
kitchen
table.
Educational
Leadership,
64(6),
56-61.
Ginsberg,
M.
(2003).
Teachers
indicated
an
Motivation
matters:
A
workbookfor
teaes
indictedan
school
change.
San Francisco:
Jossey-
Bass.
the
use
of
the
rubrics
to
Ginsberg,
M.
&
Wlodkowski,
R.
(2000).
Creating
highly
motivating
classroomsfor
all
students:
A
schoolwide
approach
to
powerful
teaching
with
diverse
learners.
San
Francisco:
Jossey-Bass.
Gonzales,
N.,
Moll,
L.,
&
Amanti,
C.
(Eds.)
(2005).
Funds
of
knowledge:
Theorizing
practices
in
households,
communities,
and
classrooms.
Mahwah,
NJ:
Lawrence
Erlbaum
Associates.
Heath,
S.B.
(1983).
Ways
with
words:
Language,
life,
and
work
in
communities
and
classrooms.
Cambridge:
Cambridge
University
Press.
Mohatt,
G.
&
Erickson,
E
(1981).
Cultural
differences
in
their
own
professional
practice.
For
example,
several
teachers
mentioned
that
they
would
like
to
strengthen
their
knowledge
of
motivation and
culture
through
collaborative
lesson
design,
co-
teaching, and
peer-feedback
with
American
Indian
colleagues.
teaching
styles
in
an
Odawa
school:
A
sociolinguistic
approach.
In
H.T.
Trueba,
G.P.
Guthrie,
&
K.H.
Au (Eds.),
Culture
and
the
bilingual
classroom
(pp. 105-138).
Rowley,
MA:
Newbury House
Publishers.
Vygotsky,
L.
(1978).
Mind
in
society.
Cambridge,
MA:
Harvard
University
Press.
Zeichner,
K.
(1995).
Reflections
of
a
teacher
educator
working
for
social
change.
In
T.
Russell
&
E
Korthagen
(Eds.),
Teachers
who
teach
teachers.
London:
Falmer
Press.
0
Margery
Ginsberg
(ginsbm@u.washington.edu)
is
associate
professor
of
education at
the
University
of
Washington-Seattle.
Anthony
Craig
(acraig@
u.washington.edu)
is
an
instructional
coach
in
the
Marysville
School
District
(Marysville, Wash.)
and
a
member
of
the
Tulalip
Indian community.
0
August2010
1I
Vol.
31
No.
4
www,
nsdc.org
I
JSD
41
COPYRIGHT INFORMATION
Author:
Title:
Source:
ISSN:
Publisher:
Ginsberg, Margery; Craig, Anthony
Tradition Becomes the Teacher: Community Events Enrich Educators'
Professional Learning
J Staff Dev 31 no4 Ag 2010 p. 36-41
0276-928X
National Staff Development Council
504 South Locust Street, Oxford, OH 45056
The magazine publisher is the copyright holder of this article and it is reproduced
with permission. Further reproduction of this article in violation of the copyright is
prohibited. To contact the publisher: http://www.nsdc.org/
This article may be used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-
licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make
any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug doses should be independently
verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever
caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.

Supplementary resource (1)

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Using data from a 50-state survey of policies, state case study analyses, the 1993-94 Schools and Staffing Surveys (SASS), and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), this study examines the ways in which teacher qualifications and other school inputs are related to student achievement across states. The findings of both the qualitative and quantitative analyses suggest that policy investments in the quality of teachers may be related to improvements in student performance. Quantitative analyses indicate that measures of teacher preparation and certification are by far the strongest correlates of student achievement in reading and mathematics, both before and after controlling for student poverty and language status. State policy surveys and case study data are used to evaluate policies that influence the overall level of teacher qualifications within and across states. This analysis suggests that policies adopted by states regarding teacher education, licensing, hiring, and professional development may make an important difference in the qualifications and capacities that teachers bring to their work. The implications for state efforts to enhance quality and equity in public education are discussed.
Article
Written specifically for teachers, this book offers a wealth of research-based principles for motivating students to learn. Its focus on motivational principles rather than motivation theorists or theories leads naturally into discussion of specific classroom strategies. Throughout the book these principles and strategies are tied to the realities of contemporary schools (e.g., curriculum goals) and classrooms (e.g., student differences, classroom dynamics). The author employs an eclectic approach to motivation that shows how to effectively integrate the use of extrinsic and intrinsic strategies. Guidelines are provided for adapting motivational principles to group and individual differences and for doing 'repair work' with students who have become discouraged or disaffected learners. © 1997 Th e McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. © 2004 Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Talk story and learning to read. Language Arts
  • K Au
  • A Kawakami
Au, K. & Kawakami, A. (1985, April). Talk story and learning to read. Language Arts, 62(4), 406-411.
Culturally responsive teaching Lessons at the kitchen table Teachers indicated an Motivation matters: A workbookfor
  • G Gay
Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching. New York: Teachers College Press. Ginsberg, M. (2007, March). Lessons at the kitchen table. Educational Leadership, 64(6), 56-61. Ginsberg, M. (2003). Teachers indicated an Motivation matters: A workbookfor
Talk story and learning to read
  • K Au
  • A Kawakami
Au, K. & Kawakami, A. (1985, April). Talk story and learning to read. Language Arts, 62(4), 406-411.
Teachers indicated an Motivation matters: A workbookfor
  • M Ginsberg
Ginsberg, M. (2007, March). Lessons at the kitchen table. Educational Leadership, 64(6), 56-61. Ginsberg, M. (2003). Teachers indicated an Motivation matters: A workbookfor
Creating highly motivating classroomsfor all students: A schoolwide approach to powerful teaching with diverse learners
  • M Ginsberg
  • R Wlodkowski
Ginsberg, M. & Wlodkowski, R. (2000). Creating highly motivating classroomsfor all students: A schoolwide approach to powerful teaching with diverse learners. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Gonzales, N., Moll, L., &