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Design and Development of Low Cost Auto Gate System for House, Part 4

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This paper discusses the design and develops the low cost auto gate system for house. Nowadays, the existing auto gate is too expensive, a low cost auto gate system that possess a same quality in safety aspect as existing auto gate in the market is going to be developed in this project. Automatic door is an automated movable barrier installed in the entry of a room or building to restrict access, provide ease of opening a door or provide visual privacy. Throughout the project, a low cost auto gate will be built to be used as the rear gate for the backyard of the house. This explains the decision to have sensitive places protected or privacy area, using an intelligent gate controller system, from unwanted individuals or group of individuals that usually take advantages of loose security systems from the entry point. The controller used is smartphone that integrated by android program. The software used for this project is Arduino program. The controller is linking with the software and hardware component.
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2nd Integrated Design Project Conference (IDPC) 2015,
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 11 Dec 2015.
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Design and Development of Low Cost Auto Gate System for House, Part 4
A.Hadi1,2, F.C.Yang1, S.M.Kit1, L.K.Sing1, M.Ikhwan1
1Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang,
26300 UMP, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia;
2Phone: +6012-7130131
2E-mail: hadiputra09@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
This paper discusses the design and develops the low cost auto gate system for house.
Nowadays, the existing auto gate is too expensive, a low cost auto gate system that possess a
same quality in safety aspect as existing auto gate in the market is going to be developed in
this project. Automatic door is an automated movable barrier installed in the entry of a room
or building to restrict access, provide ease of opening a door or provide visual privacy.
Throughout the project, a low cost auto gate will be built to be used as the rear gate for the
backyard of the house. This explains the decision to have sensitive places protected or
privacy area, using an intelligent gate controller system, from unwanted individuals or group
of individuals that usually take advantages of loose security systems from the entry point.
The controller used is smartphone that integrated by android program. The software used for
this project is Arduino program. The controller is linking with the software and hardware
component.
Keywords: Auto gate, Arduino, Smartphone, Android
INTRODUCTION
The idea of using Auto Gate is not a something new, but the cost of installing the
system is expensive. In some projects, home automation system was proposed that included
home appliances and devices that are controlled and maintained in home management, which
provide an automatic selective remote control of computer system components that facilitates
conserving electrical energy while providing the capability of controlling the system from a
central location[1, 2]. A problem with expanding use of control systems technology to
distributed systems are the costs associated with the sensor-actuator infrastructure required to
monitor and control functions within such system [3]. Thus, the major contribution to
knowledge was to improve communications system and processing capability of the home
automation [4-8], with considering the low cost of budget by selecting suitable infrastructure
[9, 10]. Automation is the art of making processes or machines self-acting or self-moving, it
also pertains to the technique of making a 2 devices, machine, process or procedure more
fully automatic, it is a self-controlling or self-moving processes [11-13]. Automation in the
electrical, electronics and computing world has grown rapidly of which it dates back to 1940
when the first electronics computing machine was developed[14, 15]. Automation is usually
characterized by two major principles [16-19]: 1) mechanization, i.e. machines are self-
regulated so as to meet predetermined; 2) continuous process, i.e. production facilities are
linked together, thereby integrating several separate elements of the production process into a
unified whole [20]. Automatic gate is an automated movable barrier installed in the entry of a
room or building to restrict access, provide ease of opening a door or provide visual privacy
[21, 22]. It provides microcontroller to control devices thereby reducing the work of a man
[23-25]. In some of the projects, an automation device system is developed to control the
2nd Integrated Design Project Conference (IDPC) 2015,
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 11 Dec 2015.
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automatic gate as well as integrating android phone application [26]. Nowadays automatic
sliding gate has wide range of use. Its special feature is that it has rollers which help to slide
on defined rack. It reduces friction and makes handling easier [21, 27-31]. Switch which is
one part of this work may be the most ubiquitous mechanical devices in our technological
society [32-35]. Most every machine needs to be turned on or turned off at some point, and
that's typically done by activating a switch. Mercury switches are used rarely nowadays, and
they should be disposed of using hazardous waste protocols due to the high toxicity of
metallic mercury in the environment [28, 36-39]. The switches used in automated gate
nowadays are commonly controlled by using Arduino system. Arduino is an open-
source computer hardware and software company, project and user community that designs
and manufactures microcontroller-based kits for building digital devices and interactive
objects that can sense and control objects in the physical world. The project is based on
microcontroller board designs, manufactured by several vendors, using various
microcontrollers [3, 40-45]. These systems provide sets of digital and analog I/O pins that can
be interfaced to various expansion boards ("shields") and other circuits. The boards feature
serial communications interfaces, including USB on some models, for loading programs from
personal computers [10]. For programming the microcontrollers, the Arduino project
provides an integrated development environment (IDE) based on the Processing project,
which includes support for the C, C++ programming languages [41, 46-48]. This research
comprises both analog circuits and digital circuits. The system has both security application
and luxury, since it is more comfortable and easy if the opening and closing of the door are
done automatically [49]. The system could be done and implemented in the building of
school, house and various departmental buildings. The objectives of this project is to design
and develop a low cost auto-gate system, determine the time taken for the gate to slide when
it is fully opens to close or vice versa and the working range of the blue tooth system of the
auto-gate system.
DESIGN WORK
The figure below shows the auto gate system designed by one of our members after
done with discussion. On the same time, there are still finding the ways to improve the design
proposed.
Figure 1: Auto gate system designed by using SolidWork
2nd Integrated Design Project Conference (IDPC) 2015,
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 11 Dec 2015.
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EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
Test Rig Development
The devices and components needed for this project have been brought and items
purchased are around RM 502.36. All the items a received from the supplier except for the
switching power supply adapter and the gear set which is still in the shipping process. Raw
material such as mild steel and sheet metal are provided by FKM Store. Table 1 shows the
price and number of each device or component.
Table 1. Price and number of the items used
Device or components
Price (RM/unit)
Number
Price (RM)
Switching Power supply Adapter
51.26
1
51.26
Roller
13.00
2
27.10
Box
8.00
1
8.00
Vertical roller
3.00
6
18.00
Arduino set
100.00
1
100.00
DC motor
77.00
1
77.00
Motor driver
44.00
1
44.00
Gear set
170.00
1
170.00
Measuring Tape
4.00
1
4.00
Total Price
502.36
Arduino Setup
The testing of the Arduino programming has carried out with the auto gate system
using smartphone controller. The software named Roboremo had been used in the
smartphone to control the movement of the power window motor. The gate was successfully
moved by the power window motor with the desired opening and closing. The following
figure shows the system designed by the Roboremo.
Figure 2: System designed in Roboremo software
2nd Integrated Design Project Conference (IDPC) 2015,
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 11 Dec 2015.
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Figure 3: Schematic Diagram of Arduino system
1) Arduino system was setup as shown in Figure 3 above.
2) TXD of Bluetooth module was connected to digital pin 0 same as the coding
inserted, while RXD of Bluetooth module was connected to digital pin 1.
3) Voltage and ground of the Bluetooth module were then connected with 5V and
ground of the Arduino.
4) PWM of the motor driver was connected to the digital pin 9 which is used to
control the speed of the motor.
5) DIR of the motor driver was connected to the digital pin 10 which is used to
control the direction of the motor.
6) Ground of the motor driver was then connected to the ground of Arduino.
7) Power window motor and switching power supply adapter were then connected
with the motor driver.
8) Arduino coding was designed and trials and errors were done to test the
programming designed.
9) The system is then installed to the auto gate.
CALCULATIONS
The length of the gate and the total track length have been measured using measuring tape.
Gate Length, Lg = 1.2m
Track Length, Lt = 2.1m
Travel Distance, D = Lg Lg
= 2.1 1.2
= 0.9 m
The speed of the power window motor is 85rpm and it is converted to unit radian per second
as below,

   
2nd Integrated Design Project Conference (IDPC) 2015,
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 11 Dec 2015.
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The rotational speed of the motor, ω = 8.9023 rad/s
The radius of the motor gear, r = 0.035 m
Motor Speed (100%)
When the motor is at full speed, the speed of the motor, V is
  
   
 
The time for the gate to fully open which is to travel the distance D = 0.9 m at constant speed
V=0.3116ms-1 is
  
  
 

 
 
Motor Speed (40%)
When the motor is at full speed, the speed of the motor, V is
  
     
 
The time for the gate to fully open which is to travel the distance D = 0.9 m at constant speed
V=0.1246ms-1 is
  
  
 

 
 
2nd Integrated Design Project Conference (IDPC) 2015,
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 11 Dec 2015.
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Percentage Of Error
Table 2: Experimental and theoretical result
Speed
Angular
Velocity,
(rad s-1)
Theoretical time
(s)
Experimental time
(s)
Percentage Error (%)
100%
8.90
2.89
2.95
2.13
80%
7.12
3.61
3.83
6.08
60%
5.34
4.81
5.28
9.68
40%
3.56
7.22
8.50

20%
1.78
14.44
17.5
21.17
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Time Taken (s)
Speed (rad/s)
Theorical
Experiment
Figure 4: Time taken with respect to speed
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0
10
20
Percentage Error (%)
Speed (rad/s)
Percentage Error
Figure 5: Percentage error with respect to speed
2nd Integrated Design Project Conference (IDPC) 2015,
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 11 Dec 2015.
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Range In Working
Table 3: Result of range test
Test
Distance (m)
Result
1
5
Pass
2
10
Pass
3
15
Pass
4
20
Pass
5
25
Pass
6
30
Pass
7
35
Pass
8
40
Fail
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
One of the main objectives of the research papers is to determine the time taken for
the gate to fully open and close. In this section, the time taken to open and close the gate have
been calculated theoretically and later determined experimentally. The process to record the
time taken of opening and closing the gate is by using a stopwatch. Once the ‘open’ button of
the interface is pressed, the stopwatch was started. Just when the gate reached the end, the
stopwatch will stop. Figure 6 shows the finished product of auto gate.
Figure 6: Finished product of auto gate
From Table 2, the percentage error for motor travelling at full speed is much smaller
than the percentage error of motor travelling at 40% of speed. This is probably due to the
motor is initially gaining speed to accelerate from 0 to 0.1246 ms-1 when travelling at 40%
speed. As a result from this, the time taken for the motor to reach constant speed has been
increased. Hence, the percentage error is larger compared to motor travelling at full speed.
The objective in determine the range of distance for the Bluetooth control system to operate
has been achieved. The range of distance has been determined by operating the smartphone
interface at different distances. Table 3 shows the result of the test. From the results shown in
2nd Integrated Design Project Conference (IDPC) 2015,
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 11 Dec 2015.
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the table, it can be conclude that the Bluetooth device of the smartphone apps interface is able
to operate within the range of 35 meters without obstacle between smartphone and the
Arduino system.
The recommendation of this project is, first is the auto gate system can be designed to
make the power window motor moveable with it can be rotated 120° anticlockwise. When the
system is out of services, the gate can also be move manually by just adjusting the position of
the power window motor. Secondly, in this project the limit switch or sensor can be add at
the end of the gate so that when the gate touch the sensor the gate will automatically stop. It
mean that by only one click on the controller interface in smartphone the gate will
automatically full open and full close.
CONCLUSION
The objective of this project had been achieved from designing an auto-gate system
with a 1.25m x 1.6m gate dimension that can work smoothly when it operates. The speed of
the auto-gate can also be adjusted so that it is suitable and user-friendly for all and they can
decide their desired speed according to the needs. It can also be considered low cost as the
amount used was only around 500 ringgit. Besides, in this project also had found the
approximate working range for the Bluetooth system for the auto-gate system to create a new
generation of keyless auto-gate system that controlled by cell-phone applications.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Special thanks to a few people who had contributed to the progress of our project.
First and foremost, highest gratitude to Dr. Muhamad Mat Noor and Dr. Hafizi for guide and
advise to the right path until the end of this project. Next, a thousand of thanks to all those
people who directly and indirect involved in this project, lecturers and sellers who giving
suggestion and direction to the success of this project. Last but not least, special thanks to the
group members who had contributed in purchasing the items and fabricating the gate.
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