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Iran J Public Health, Vol. 44, No.11, Nov 2015, pp.1442-1444 Editorial
1442 Available at:
Impact of Lifestyle on Health
*Dariush D. FARHUD
1, 2
1. School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2. Dept. of Basic Sciences, Iranian Academy of Medical Sciences ,Tehran, Iran
*Correspondence: Email:
(Received 12 Oct 2015; accepted 22 Oct 2015)
Lifestyle is a way used by people, groups and na-
tions and is formed in specific geographical, eco-
nomic, political, cultural and religious text. Life-
style is referred to the characteristics of inhabit-
ants of a region in special time and place. It in-
cludes day to day behaviors and functions of indi-
viduals in job, activities, fun and diet.
In recent decades, life style as an important factor
of health is more interested by researchers. Ac-
cording to WHO, 60% of related factors to indi-
vidual health and quality of life are correlated to
lifestyle (1). Millions of people follow an un-
healthy lifestyle. Hence, they encounter illness,
disability and even death. Problems like metabolic
diseases, joint and skeletal problems, cardio-vascu-
lar diseases, hypertension, overweight, violence
and so on, can be caused by an unhealthy lifestyle.
The relationship of lifestyle and health should be
highly considered.
Today, wide changes have occurred in life of all
people. Malnutrition, unhealthy diet, smoking, al-
cohol consuming, drug abuse, stress and so on,
are the presentations of unhealthy life style that
they are used as dominant form of lifestyle. Be-
sides, the lives of citizens face with new challenges.
For instance, emerging new technologies within
IT such as the internet and virtual communication
networks, lead our world to a major challenge that
threatens the physical and mental health of indi-
viduals. The challenge is the overuse and misuse
of the technology.
Therefore, according to the existing studies, it can
be said that: lifestyle has a significant influence on
physical and mental health of human being. There
are different forms of such influences. Consangu-
inity in some ethnicity is a dominant form of life
style that it leads to the genetic disorders. Refor-
mation of this unhealthy life style is a preventing
factor for decreasing the rate of genetic diseases
(2). In some countries, the overuse of drugs is a
major unhealthy life style. Iran is one of the 20
countries using the most medications. They prefer
medication to other intervention. Furthermore, in
15-40% of cases they use medications about with-
out prescription (3). Pain relievers, eye drops and
antibiotics have the most usage in Iran. While self-
medications such as antibiotics have a negative
effect on the immune system, if the individual
would be affected by infection, antibiotics will not
be effective in treatment. Overall, 10 percent of
those who are self-medicated will experience se-
vere complications such as drug resistance. Some-
times drug allergy is so severe that it can cause
death (4).
Finally, variables of lifestyle that influence on
health can be categorized in some items:
1- Diet and Body Mass Index (BMI): Diet
is the greatest factor in lifestyle and has a
direct and positive relation with health.
DD Farhud: Impact of Lifestyle on Health
Available at: 1443
Poor diet and its consequences like obesity
is the common healthy problem in urban
societies. Unhealthy lifestyle can be meas-
ured by BMI. Urban lifestyle leads to the
nutrition problems like using fast foods
and poor foods, increasing problems like
cardiovascular (5).
2- Exercise: For treating general health
problems, the exercise is included in life
style (6). The continuous exercise along
with a healthy diet increases the health.
Some studies stress on the relation of ac-
tive life style with happiness (7, 8).
3- Sleep: One of the bases of healthy life is
the sleep. Sleep cannot be apart from life.
Sleep disorders have several social, psy-
chological, economical and healthy conse-
quences. Lifestyle may effect on sleep and
sleep has a clear influence on mental and
physical health (9).
4- Sexual behavior: Normal sex relation is
necessary in healthy life. Dysfunction of
sex relation is the problem of most of so-
cieties and it has a significant effect on
mental and physical health. It can be said
that dysfunctional sex relation may result
in various family problems or sex related
illnesses like; AIDS
5- Substance abuse: Addiction is consid-
ered as an unhealthy life style. Smoking
and using other substance may result in
various problems; cardiovascular disease,
asthma, cancer, brain injury. According to
the resent studies in Iran, 43% of females
and 64% of males experience the use of
hubble-bubble (10). A longitudinal study
shows that 30% of people between 18-65
years old smoke cigarette permanently (11).
6- Medication abuse: It is a common form
of using medication in Iran and it is con-
sidered as an unhealthy life style. Un-
healthy behaviors in using medication are
as followed: self-treatment, sharing medi-
cation, using medications without pre-
scription, prescribing too many drugs, pre-
scribing the large number of each drug,
unnecessary drugs, bad handwriting in
prescription, disregard to the contradictory
drugs, disregard to harmful effects of
drugs, not explaining the effects of drugs.
7- Application of modern technologies:
Advanced technology facilitates the life of
human beings. Misuse of technology may
result in unpleasant consequences. For ex-
ample, using of computer and other de-
vices up to midnight, may effect on the
pattern of sleep and it may disturb sleep.
Addiction to use mobile phone is related
to depression symptoms (12).
8- Recreation: Leisure pass time is a sub
factor of life style. Neglecting leisure can
bring negative consequences. With disor-
ganized planning and unhealthy leisure,
people endanger their health.
9- Study: Study is the exercise of soul. Plac-
ing study as a factor in lifestyle may lead to
more physical and mental health. For ex-
ample, prevalence of dementia, such as
Alzheimer's disease is lowerin educated
people. Study could slow process of de-
With a look at existing studies in health domain, 9
key factors can be suggested for healthy life style
(Fig. 1). In regard to each factor, the systematic
planning in micro and macro level can be estab-
lished. It can provide a social and individual
healthy lifestyle.
The authors declare that there is no conflict of
Iran J Public Health, Vol. 44, No.11, Nov 2015, pp.1442-1444
1444 Available at:
Fig. 1: Nine key factors that forming healthy life style
1. Ziglio E, Currie C, Rasmussen VB. (2004). The
WHO cross-national study of health behavior
in school aged children from 35 countries:
findings from 2001-2002. J School Health, 74(6):
2. WHO (2001). Services for prevention and man-
agement of genetic disorders and birth defect
in developing countries (Farhud DD. As com-
mittee member) (WHO/HGN/WAOPB-D/99.1).
3. Karimi M, Heidarnia A, Ghofranipur F., (2010).
Effective factors on using medication in aging
by using healthy believe. J Arak Med Uni, 14(5);
4. IRNA (2013). Iran as a second country in using
drugs in Asia. Available at: Accessed:
15 Sep 2014.
5. Mozaffarian D, Hao T, Rimm EB, Willett W, Hu
FB. (2011). Changes in diet and life style and
long term weight gain in women & men. N
Eng Med J, 364: 2392-2404.
6. Dunn AL, Anderson RE, Jakicic JM (1998). Life-
style physical activity interventions: history,
short and long term effects and recommenda-
tions. Am J Preven Med, 15(4): 398-412.
7. C3 collaborating for health. (2011). The benefits
of physical activity for health and wellbeing.
Available at:
activity-and-health-v-1-20110603.pdf. Ac-
cessed: 1 Oct 2014.
8. Farhud DD, Malmir M, Khanahmadi M (2015).
Happiness as a healthy life style. Iranian Acad-
emy of Medical Science. (In press)
9. Farhud DD, Tahavorgar A (2013). Melatonin
hormone, metabolism & its clinical effects: a
review. Iran J Endocrinol Metabol, 15(2): 221-236
(In Persian).
10. Ebrat news (2013). Frequency of using cigarette
in adolescents: awareness of authority.
74. Accessed: 1 Oct 2014
11. Ebadi M, Vahdaninia M, Azin A, Aeenparast A,
Omidvari S, Jahangiri K et al. (2011). Preva-
lence of smoking: health in view of Iranian.
Peyesh Quarterly, 10 (3); 365-372.
12. Thomee S, Harenstam A, Hagberg M (2011).
Mobile phone use and stress, sleep disturb-
ances, and symptom of depression among
young adults. BMC Public Health, 11:66-77.
... Consequently, individuals may fail to maintain a healthy lifestyle and neglect self-care due to their lack of awareness. Additionally, an unhealthy lifestyle (Farhud, 2015) can contribute to the development of diabetes at a young age. As a result, when individuals seek healthcare services, they may already be in a severe condition. ...
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Indonesia is the fifth country with the most diabetes sufferers in the world. This is influenced by an unhealthy lifestyle and then coupled with a lack of public awareness to check whether he has diabetes or not. The KNN (K-Nearest Neighbors) algorithm can be used to pr edict whether a person has diabetes. By using a dataset from the Pima Indian Diabetes Database, the data training process was carried out using the KNN algorithm and obtained decent accuracy results using a Jupyter notebook. From the results of the trained data set, it is then exported to be used in website development using the Python programming language. In the web application developed, the user is asked to input data on pregnancies (a person's pregnancy rate as long as he is alive), insulin levels, glucose levels, BMI, blood pressure, family history of diabetes, skin thickness, and age in the form of a slider. The input data is processed by the KNN algorithm to determine the outcome in the form of a positive or negative diabetes result based on the proximity of the new data entered with other data that has been trained.
... The study of lifestyle provides necessary information to guide health-promoting initiatives tailored to the needs of a population. Various instruments exist assessing singular facets of lifestyle, such as diet [8][9][10], physical activity [11][12][13] or alcohol use [14,15]. However, comprehensive tools evaluating multiple lifestyle domains are lacking. ...
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A healthy lifestyle and proper nutrition have a major impact on the well-being of a population. Therefore, the aim of this research is to describe the behavior of these habits in relation to sociodemographic variables to provide data on the development of effective training and awareness-raising actions. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out. To study the behavior of a series of variables related to eating habits and lifestyle, a questionnaire was designed and validated and subsequently disseminated online, by means of nonprobabilistic snowball sampling, relying on social networks. The sample collected consisted of 18,070 young adults of Spanish nationality. Bivariate comparative analyses were performed using t-test independent samples, and the effect size (ES) was calculated by determining Cohen’s D coefficient. A multivariate analysis were conducted using linear regression and principal component analysis. Results: Adults eat better but have a poorer quality of rest and are more sedentary than young people. No gender differences were found in nutritional habits; however, men engage in more sports and sleep better. People with a higher educational level have better nutritional and sleep habits, but are more sedentary, as are people of a higher socioeconomic level. Conclusions: Higher socioeconomic and educational levels seem to favor a healthier lifestyle. The Spanish population aged 18–45 years needs to make dietary changes but leads an active lifestyle.
... Indeed, excessive caloric intake relative to a person's daily requirements could result in obesity and all of its consequences, a prevalent problem in urban societies. The consumption of fast foods with low nutritional values is becoming progressively more common [176]. In addition to poor dietary practices, inactivity is the fourth leading cause of mortality around the globe. ...
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Breast cancer has become the most common cancer in the US and worldwide. While advances in early detection and treatment have resulted in a 40% reduction in breast cancer mortality, this reduction has not been achieved uniformly among racial groups. A large percentage of non-metastatic breast cancer mortality is related to the cardiovascular effects of breast cancer therapies. These effects appear to be more prevalent among patients from historically marginalized racial/ethnic backgrounds, such as African American and Hispanic individuals. Anthracyclines, particularly doxorubicin and daunorubicin, are the first-line treatments for breast cancer patients. However, their use is limited by their dose-dependent and cumulative cardiotoxicity, manifested by cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease, arrhythmias, hypertension, thromboembolic disorders, and heart failure. Cardiotoxicity risk factors, such as genetic predisposition and preexisting obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and heart diseases, are more prevalent in racial/ethnic minorities and undoubtedly contribute to the risk. Yet, beyond these risk factors, racial/ethnic minorities also face unique challenges that contribute to disparities in the emerging field of cardio-oncology, including socioeconomic factors, food insecurity, and the inability to access healthcare providers, among others. The current review will address genetic, clinical, and social determinants that potentially contribute to this disparity.
... 22,23 According to the World Health Organization, people's health status and quality of life are closely related to their lifestyles. 24 Epidemiological studies show that children are more susceptible to behavioral problems, especially behavioral difficulties such as behavioral problems and psychological problems during pandemic periods. 25,26 In this process, the fact that children experience problems such as exposure to COVID-19, fear, frustration, boredom, and staying away from their familiar surroundings may cause greater problems in the future. ...
Background Obesity is associated with multimorbidity and both, have an impact on physical and mental health. Previous studies suggested a possible relationship between obesity, multimorbidity and suicidal spectrum, but few studies focused on this association notably in young adults. The aim of the present study was to examine the co-occurring effect of multimorbidity and obesity on suicidal ideation. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey data was conducted. Data from a sample of young adults (18 to 30 years-old) with obesity, of the 2005 (n = 394) and 2015–2016 (n = 295) cycles were analyzed. Multimorbidity, suicidal ideation, and health behaviours were self-reported. Results The prevalence of physical multimorbidity was 12 % in 2005 and 16 % in 2015–2016. Logistic regressions showed an association between multimorbidity and suicidal ideation (2005: OR 3.05, 95 % CI 1.56–5.98; 2015–2016: OR 2.85, 95 % CI 1.40–5.78). Among covariates, the significant association of sex (OR 1.89; 95 % CI 1.11–3.21) and educational status (OR 3.19; 95 % CI 1.47–6.94) in the 2005 cycle, were not replicated in the 2015–2016 cycle (sex: OR 1.01; 95 % CI 0.55–1.85; education: OR 0.97; 95 % CI 0.48–1.96). Finally, no consistent association between health behaviours and suicidal ideation was found. Limitations Data were self-reported, consequently, we cannot discard the possibility of a reporting bias. The study was cross-sectional so no directional conclusion or causality can be drawn. Conclusion Multimorbidity is associated with suicidal ideation among those with obesity. Attention should be given to chronic disease prevention in young people, as the development of suicidal ideation may also be prevented.
Introduction In the management of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, a systematic response like modifications in lifestyles is needed along with the medication. The study was conducted to determine the impact of comprehensive lifestyle modifications on hypertension and diabetes and to compare it with that of physical activity alone as a health education intervention. Materials and Method A risk factor-based community intervention trial was conducted for one year in 3 villages in coastal Karnataka. The sample of 305 was calculated depending on the expected change in blood pressure and an equal sample size was drawn from each of the villages using a systematic random sampling method. Baseline data on blood pressure level, random blood sugar, and HbA1c levels were recorded. After 1 year of intervention, all the parameters were further recorded along with the adherence to medication for these non-communicable diseases. Results The mean difference between the groups suggested that participants with physical activity intervention reported a statistically significant reduction in systolic blood pressure. In the comprehensive lifestyle modification group, there was a significant reduction in both diastolic blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin levels (21 mmHg and 2.1%; p < 0.001). Conclusion The study indicates that in the management of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, the impact of comprehensive lifestyle modifications was more significant compared to physical activity alone.
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Objective: This scoping review aims to map and summarize the direct impact of contracting COVID-19, and the indirect consequences of the pandemic on the health of peri- and postmenopausal women. Methods: Searches for published studies were conducted in CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, PsycINFO and ProQuest from inception to 26 Oct, 2022. Grey literature and reference lists of included studies were searched. Results are presented as a narrative synthesis and tables. Results: Thirty-eight studies were selected in this review. Overall, a majority of studies (n = 31) suggest that menopausal women were negatively impacted, while lesser studies (n = 21) concluded that they were not and some studies (n = 14) produced both negative and neutral results. Twenty-three studies presented on the direct health impact of COVID-19 infections on menopausal women. Eleven studies focused on the indirect impact of COVID-19 in terms of contact restriction measures on menopausal health during the pandemic compared to before the pandemic. Six studies described the different indirect impact of COVID-19 on health of menopausal women with various characteristics or lifestyles. Conclusion: The direct and indirect impacts of COVID-19 on menopausal women on physical, mental health and social wellbeing are largely negative.
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Introduction: Melatonin, a hormone that exists in most living organisms, is produced in the pineal gland, retina, alimentary tract and various other tissues of the body and secreted by the pineal gland. It can be said this hormone exists in most living organisms. Production of this hormone is affected by different factors like age, light and other environmental and physiological agents. Considering its vast effects, the aim of this review article is to provide an update of current data available on the production, metabolism and clinical effects of this hormone in humans and its roles in different diseases like obesity, some cancers and diseases affecting brain function. Materials and Methods: This article is the result of reviewing 60 articles, of which 34 are directly referred to. Results: Based on the articles investigated, several environmental factors participate in the regulation and synthesis of this hormone which acts as a protective agent against chronic and degenerative diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, metabolic and behavioral disorders. Additionally, Melatonin intake improves some pathological conditions. Conclusion: Considering the positive effects of melatonin and the fact that no side effects of melatonin supplementation, have been documented it can be said that should, for any reason its synthesis and secretion cease in individuals taking a suitable physician-prescribed dose of this hormone would be beneficial, preventing increase in disease.
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Because of the quick development and widespread use of mobile phones, and their vast effect on communication and interactions, it is important to study possible negative health effects of mobile phone exposure. The overall aim of this study was to investigate whether there are associations between psychosocial aspects of mobile phone use and mental health symptoms in a prospective cohort of young adults. The study group consisted of young adults 20-24 years old (n = 4156), who responded to a questionnaire at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Mobile phone exposure variables included frequency of use, but also more qualitative variables: demands on availability, perceived stressfulness of accessibility, being awakened at night by the mobile phone, and personal overuse of the mobile phone. Mental health outcomes included current stress, sleep disorders, and symptoms of depression. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated for cross-sectional and prospective associations between exposure variables and mental health outcomes for men and women separately. There were cross-sectional associations between high compared to low mobile phone use and stress, sleep disturbances, and symptoms of depression for the men and women. When excluding respondents reporting mental health symptoms at baseline, high mobile phone use was associated with sleep disturbances and symptoms of depression for the men and symptoms of depression for the women at 1-year follow-up. All qualitative variables had cross-sectional associations with mental health outcomes. In prospective analysis, overuse was associated with stress and sleep disturbances for women, and high accessibility stress was associated with stress, sleep disturbances, and symptoms of depression for both men and women. High frequency of mobile phone use at baseline was a risk factor for mental health outcomes at 1-year follow-up among the young adults. The risk for reporting mental health symptoms at follow-up was greatest among those who had perceived accessibility via mobile phones to be stressful. Public health prevention strategies focusing on attitudes could include information and advice, helping young adults to set limits for their own and others' accessibility.
Introduction: Lifestyle physical activity interventions have resulted in response to the public health problem of promoting regular amounts of physical activity to the majority of U.S. adults who remain inadequately or completely inactive. These lifestyle interventions allow a person to individualize his/her physical activity programs to include a wide variety of activities that are at least of moderate intensity and to accumulate bouts of these activities in a manner befitting his/her life circumstances.
Specific dietary and other lifestyle behaviors may affect the success of the straightforward-sounding strategy "eat less and exercise more" for preventing long-term weight gain. We performed prospective investigations involving three separate cohorts that included 120,877 U.S. women and men who were free of chronic diseases and not obese at baseline, with follow-up periods from 1986 to 2006, 1991 to 2003, and 1986 to 2006. The relationships between changes in lifestyle factors and weight change were evaluated at 4-year intervals, with multivariable adjustments made for age, baseline body-mass index for each period, and all lifestyle factors simultaneously. Cohort-specific and sex-specific results were similar and were pooled with the use of an inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis. Within each 4-year period, participants gained an average of 3.35 lb (5th to 95th percentile, -4.1 to 12.4). On the basis of increased daily servings of individual dietary components, 4-year weight change was most strongly associated with the intake of potato chips (1.69 lb), potatoes (1.28 lb), sugar-sweetened beverages (1.00 lb), unprocessed red meats (0.95 lb), and processed meats (0.93 lb) and was inversely associated with the intake of vegetables (-0.22 lb), whole grains (-0.37 lb), fruits (-0.49 lb), nuts (-0.57 lb), and yogurt (-0.82 lb) (P≤0.005 for each comparison). Aggregate dietary changes were associated with substantial differences in weight change (3.93 lb across quintiles of dietary change). Other lifestyle factors were also independently associated with weight change (P<0.001), including physical activity (-1.76 lb across quintiles); alcohol use (0.41 lb per drink per day), smoking (new quitters, 5.17 lb; former smokers, 0.14 lb), sleep (more weight gain with <6 or >8 hours of sleep), and television watching (0.31 lb per hour per day). Specific dietary and lifestyle factors are independently associated with long-term weight gain, with a substantial aggregate effect and implications for strategies to prevent obesity. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).
Lifestyle physical activity interventions have resulted in response to the public health problem of promoting regular amounts of physical activity to the majority of U.S. adults who remain inadequately or completely inactive. These lifestyle interventions allow a person to individualize his/her physical activity programs to include a wide variety of activities that are at least of moderate intensity and to accumulate bouts of these activities in a manner befitting his/her life circumstances. We reviewed the history of lifestyle physical activity interventions and defined lifestyle physical activity based on this review. We located 14 studies that met this definition. Lifestyle physical activity interventions are effective at increasing and maintaining levels of physical activity that meet or exceed public health guidelines for physical activity in representative samples of previously sedentary adults and obese children. The majority of these interventions have been delivered by face-to-face contact in small groups, which limits their public health impact. However, a small number of studies demonstrate that these interventions can be delivered by mail and telephone, which may enhance their generalizability. Most of these studies utilized behavior change theories such as Social Cognitive Theory, the Transtheoretical Model, and Behavior Learning to shape the interventions. Lifestyle interventions aimed at modifying the environment, such as signs posted to increase stair climbing, also have been shown to be effective over the short term. The major issues concerning lifestyle physical activity interventions are: (1) testing their ability to be implemented on a large scale; (2) examining cost-effectiveness for different modes of delivery; and (3) researching the efficacy in populations such as the elderly, minorities, economically disadvantaged, and individuals with concurrent disease. More studies aimed at manipulating the environment to increase physical activity need to be tested over periods of one year or longer. It is possible that lifestyle interventions could be integrated and delivered by new technologies such as interactive computer-mediated programs, telephone, or computer web-based formats. All of these recommended approaches should utilize valid and reliable measures of physical activity and should examine the health effects, particularly on a longitudinal basis. Basic dose-response studies in controlled settings also are needed to help us understand the health effects of accumulated moderate intensity activity.
The benefits of the enormous progress in medical genetics during the past two decades in industrialized nations have had limited impact in developing countries, where more than 80&percnt; of the world’s population lives. To assess the status of genetic services in developing countries, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Alliance of Organizations for the Prevention of Birth Defects (WAOPD) convened a group of experts in medical genetics who either work in, or are familiar with, the social, economic and health problems of developing countries (see Appendix) in The Hague from 5 to 7 January 1999. The purpose of the meeting was to review the current status of genetic services in the developing world and to make recommendations to further the implementation of programs for the management and prevention of genetic disorders and birth defects at the primary health care and community levels in those countries.
Effective factors on using medication in aging by using healthy believe
  • M Karimi
  • A Heidarnia
  • F Ghofranipur
Karimi M, Heidarnia A, Ghofranipur F., (2010). Effective factors on using medication in aging by using healthy believe. J Arak Med Uni, 14(5); 70-78.
Prevalence of smoking: health in view of Iranian
  • M Ebadi
  • M Vahdaninia
  • A Azin
  • A Aeenparast
  • S Omidvari
  • K Jahangiri
Ebadi M, Vahdaninia M, Azin A, Aeenparast A, Omidvari S, Jahangiri K et al. (2011). Prevalence of smoking: health in view of Iranian. Peyesh Quarterly, 10 (3); 365-372.
Frequency of using cigarette in adolescents: awareness of authority. 74
  • Ebrat News
Ebrat news (2013). Frequency of using cigarette in adolescents: awareness of authority. 74. Accessed: 1 Oct 2014