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PS-501, fermented papaya preparation, improves scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice

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Abstract

PS-501, a fermented papaya, preparation is a natural functional healthy food produced by yeast fermentation of Carica Papaya Linn. In the present study, we examined the effect of PS-501 on the scopolamine-induced impairment of spontaneous alternation performance associated with short-term memory and passive avoidance learning associated with long-term memory in mice. PS-501 was orally administered to mice through water bottle in home cage for one month. PS-501 (0.1 or 0.5 g/Kg) significantly inhibited the scopolamine (1 mg/Kg)-induced decrease in spontaneous alternation performance and passive avoidance learning. These results suggest that PS-501 significantly improve the impairment of short- and long-term memory resulting from cholinergic dysfunction.

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... The market for functional food intended to improve mental health and to increase the memory power is rapidly growing. Several scientific reports suggested that the fermented plant foods improved the cognitive function with in vitro and in vivo models [19][20][21][22][23][24]. Several reports suggested that fermented plant juices can be used in cosmetic preparations [25] and can be potent nutraceutical products [26]. ...
Article
Food is an essential need for all living creatures which provides the energy to maintain life and grow further. Fermentation is a process used to preserve and advance the quality of foods, and those foods are known as fermented foods. Some foods offer health benefits to consumers apart from nutrition, and such foods are called as functional foods. Most functional foods are fermented foods, and the fermenting microorganism plays a precious role in the functional property of the food. Cognitive decline is closely associated with the productivity of an individual and the society. Even though cognitive decline is connected to aging, dietary pattern influences memory, anxiety and other social behaviors. Many scientific studies have explained the link between food habits and cognitive functions by in vitro and in vivo models. The present review compiled the clinical data on the impact of fermented foods on human cognitive function.
... The expression of SOD was significantly upregulated after FPP treatment, while FPP post-treatment improved cell viability and attenuated the intracellular Ca 2+ influx, ROS generation, and NO accumulation (54,55). In a mouse model of AD induced by scopolamine, PS-501, the extract of yeast-fermented papaya, significantly reversed short-and long-term memory impairment (56). There is further evidence to indicate that FPP administration can improve memory functions in human studies. ...
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Around the world, fermentation of foods has been adopted over many generations, primarily due to their commercial significance with enriched flavors and high-profile nutrients. The increasing application of fermented foods is further promoted by recent evidence on their health benefits, beyond the traditionally recognized effects on the digestive system. With recent advances in the understanding of gut-brain interactions, there have also been reports suggesting the fermented food’s efficacy, particularly for cognitive function improvements. These results are strengthened by the proposed biological effects of fermented foods, including neuroprotection against neurotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This paper reviews the beneficial health effects of fermented foods with particular emphasis on cognitive enhancement and neuroprotective effects. With an extensive review of fermented foods and their potential cognitive benefits, this paper may promote commercially feasible applications of fermented foods as natural remedies to cognitive problems.
... In neurological conditions, oral administration of FPP in mice attenuated the reduction of short-and long-term memory induced by scopolamine [17]. Because of the abovedescribed role of free radicals in the pathophysiology of chronic neurodegenerative diseases, it has been suggested a possible role for the antioxidant action of FPP in counteracting the oxidative stress associated with these conditions [15]. ...
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Brain tissue is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress (OS). Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced antioxidant systems, and decreased efficiency in repairing mechanisms have been linked to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Postmortem studies in AD patients’ brains have shown oxidative damage markers (i.e., lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, and glycoxidation). Fermented papaya (FPP, a product of Carica papaya Linn fermentation with yeast) is a nutraceutical supplement with favorable effects on immunological, hematological, inflammatory, and OS parameters in chronic/degenerative diseases. We studied 40 patients (age 78.2 ± 1.1 years), 28 AD patients, and 12 controls. Urinary 8-OHdG was measured to assess OS. Twenty AD patients were supplemented with FPP (Immunage, 4.5 grams/day) for 6 months, while controls did not receive any treatment. At baseline, 8-OHdG was significantly higher in patients with AD versus controls (13.7 ± 1.61 ng/mL versus 1.6 ± 0.12 ng/mL, ). In AD patients FPP significantly decreased 8-OHdG (14.1 ± 1.7 ng/mL to 8.45 ± 1.1 ng/mL, ), with no significant changes in controls. AD is associated with increased OS, and FPP may be helpful to counteract excessive ROS in AD patients.
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