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Perspectives on the link between ecosystem services and biodiversity: The assessment of the nursery function

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The relationship between biodiversity and each ecosystem service or bundle of ecosystem services (e.g. win−win, win−lose or win−neutral) is an active field of research that requires structured and consistent information. The application of that research for conservation and decision-making can be hampered by the ambiguity found in the definition of the nursery function under the ecosystem service perspective. In this paper, we review how the role of nursery habitats is included in the ecosystem services literature, covering conceptual, biophysical and economic reflections. The role of ecosystems as nurseries is mostly analyzed in coastal environments. The main observation is that there is no consensus on the consideration of the nursery function as a service (e.g. which species or habitats) or on how to assess it (e.g. which indicators or valuation methods). After that review, we analyze three different interpretations given to the nursery function, namely the ecological, conservationist and economic point of view; and we distinguish between different types of assessment that may consider the nursery function. We conclude that the nursery function can be considered an ecosystem service on its own right when it is linked to a concrete human benefit and not when it is represented with indicators of general biodiversity or ecosystem condition. Thus, the analysis of the delivery of ecosystem services should be differentiated from the analysis of ecological integrity. Only with this distinction science may be able to quantify the link between biodiversity and ecosystem services and policy may be effective in halting biodiversity loss. Similar considerations could apply for other biodiversity constituents that may be treated as ecosystem services.
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... An indicator measures the state and evolution of biodiversity or a natural environment, its composition and anthropogenic impacts (Bowers and Boutin 2008;Burrascano et al. 2011;Di Battista et al. 2016;Liquete et al. 2016;Guetté et al. 2017). It may consist of a set of precise physical, chemical or biological measurements, such as the number of individuals or the number of taxa in a given area. ...
... The existing indicators are made up of various criteria leading to an index (Vergnes et al. 2013;Moreno Pires et al. 2014;Haaland & Van den Bosch 2015). There is simplification, but for many researchers it is well known that the state of a habitat or the presence of certain structural indicators of the ecosystem are representative of greater complexity (Lavorel & Garnier 2002;Garnier et al. 2004;Shipley et al. 2006;Levrel, 2007;King 2016;Liquete et al. 2016;Guetté et al. 2017). This indicator brings together a number of ecological features relating to an environment or space (Garnier et al. 2004;Geijzendorffer and Roche 2013;Di Battista et al. 2016). ...
... This complexity is significant for biodiversity due to the variety of functions within the ecosystem and its evolutionary capacities (Elmqvist et al. 2003;Chillo et al. 2011;Arponen 2012). Biodiversity provides also ecosystem services, which benefit human societies and compagnies (Anton et al. 2010;Feld et al. 2010;Liquete et al. 2016). An indicator thus makes it possible to simplify the reality of biodiversity by selecting criteria that make it understandable. ...
... Biodiversity is closely linked to ecosystem functioning, which in turn underpins the provision of ecosystem services on which humanity depends, such as Food provision and Climate regulation Liquete et al., 2016). According to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD, 1992), biodiversity is defined as "the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems". ...
... Yet, biodiversity is threatened worldwide by pressures such as habitat loss, overexploitation and pollution (Halpern et al., 2008;Knights et al., 2013). International environmental agreements, such as the Aichi Biodiversity Targets for 2020 in the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD, 1992), the EU Biodiversity Strategy 2020 (BD; COM/2011/0244), and recent European Union legislation (e.g. the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD; 2008/56/EC)) are placing increasing emphasis on halting biodiversity loss (Laurila-Pant et al., 2015;Liquete et al., 2016). ...
... This paper identifies potential indicators for seven selected ecosystem services from a list of biodiversity indicators prepared for the GES assessment of the MSFD. Ecosystem services are generated from many interactions in complex systems and not all links between ecosystem components and ecosystem services are fully understood (Balvanera et al., 2013;Liquete et al., 2016). For some services the role of the contributing components is clear. ...
Article
The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires member states to manage their marine ecosystems with the goal of achieving Good Environmental Status (GES) of all European Seas by 2020. Member states assess GES according to 11 descriptors set out in the MSFD, and their associated indicators. An ecosystem service approach is increasingly being advocated to ensure sustainable use of the environment, and sets of indicators have been defined for ecosystem service assessments. We considered whether a selection of GES indicators related to biological descriptors, D1 Biodiversity, D2 Non-indigenous species, D4 Food webs and D6 Seafloor integrity, may provide information relevant to ecosystem services, potentially allowing use of collected environmental data for more than one purpose. Published lists of indicators for seven selected marine ecosystem services were compared to 296 biodiversity-related indicators included within the DEVOTOOL catalogue, established for screening marine biodiversity indicators for the MSFD. We concluded that 64 of these biodiversity indicators are directly comparable to the ecosystem service indicators under consideration. All 296 biodiversity indicators were then reassessed objectively to decide which of them could be useful as ecosystem service indicators. To carry out this step in a consistent and transparent manner, guidelines were developed among the co-authors that helped the decision making process for each individual indicator. 247 biodiversity indicators were identified as potentially useful ecosystem service indicators. By highlighting the comparability between ecosystem service and biodiversity indicators it is hoped that future monitoring effort can be used not only to ensure that GES is attained, but also that ecosystem service provision is maximised. It is recommended that these indicators should be tested across EU regional seas to see if they are useful in practice, and if ecosystem service assessments are comparable across regional seas.
... Esta abordagem metodológica simples, direta e eficiente poderá ser aplicada em outras pequenas ilhas oceânicas com o objetivo de melhorar a capacidade para avaliar e monitorizar mais eficientemente os serviços ecossistémicos relacionados com a polinização, aperfeiçoando assim os sistemas de apoio à decisão no planeamento e gestão do território, em especial nos sistemas agroecológicos que implicam uma maior compatibilização entre a agricultura e a conservação da natureza. (LIQUETE et al., 2016), ou seja, na tradução mais apropriada para português "Manutenção de condições para reprodução das populações e manutenção dos habitats". De facto, as opiniões parecem divergir quanto à forma como a manutenção dos habitats e a manutenção das condições para reprodução das populações podem ser considerados como um serviço ecossistémico por si só, uma vez que têm apenas impactos indiretos sobre as pessoas e podem já ser incluídos nos cálculos dos serviços ecossistémicos prestados pelas populações adultas dos organismos (LIQUETE et al., 2016). ...
... (LIQUETE et al., 2016), ou seja, na tradução mais apropriada para português "Manutenção de condições para reprodução das populações e manutenção dos habitats". De facto, as opiniões parecem divergir quanto à forma como a manutenção dos habitats e a manutenção das condições para reprodução das populações podem ser considerados como um serviço ecossistémico por si só, uma vez que têm apenas impactos indiretos sobre as pessoas e podem já ser incluídos nos cálculos dos serviços ecossistémicos prestados pelas populações adultas dos organismos (LIQUETE et al., 2016). O debate tem como foco o problema de se considerar ou não o CICES 2.3.1.2 ...
... Mapa com a proporção de espécies de artrópodes endémicos na ilha Terceira (Açores) Fonte: os autores Em relação ao debate sobre a viabilidade do CICES 2.3.1.2 -"Manutenção de condições para reprodução das populações e manutenção dos habitats"(LIQUETE et al., 2016), pode ser considerado como pertinente e válido o dado que mede a integridade dos sistemas naturais. O indicador Peae mostrou ser eficaz em identificar áreas de elevado valor patrimonial para a ilha Terceira (Açores), onde as funções de "Manutenção de condições para reprodução das populações e manutenção dos habitats" das espécies endémicas possam ser realizadas, já que as zonas mais importantes coincidem com as áreas protegidas(ver BORGES et al., 2011;GASPAR et al., 2011). ...
Chapter
Citação: Gil A., Picanço A., Moreira M. & Borges P.A.V. (2021) 4.4. Cartografia e análise de serviços de ecossistemas terrestres em pequenas ilhas oceânicas - Casos de estudo relacionados com biodiversidade no Arquipélago dos Açores (Portugal). pp 113-135. In: S.C. Ribeiro, D. Boscolo, G. Ciochetti, A. Firmino, & N. Guiomar, (eds). A Ecologia da Paisagem no Contexto Luso-Brasileiro. Volume II. 1ª Edição. 463p. Editora Appris. Curitiba, Brasil. ISBN: 978-65-250-0280-4. Aquisição online a partir de https://www.editoraappris.com.br/produto/5166-ecologia-da-paisagem-no-contexto-luso-brasileiro-volume-ii
... Para evaluar el estado de un servicio ecosistémico se usan indicadores, que básicamente son variables que brindan información de un conjunto de fenómenos, facilitando la simplificación de procesos complejos (Müller & Burkhard, 2012) y con proxis que representan el valor del indicador (Liquete, et al., 2017). Los resultados mostrados en estas evaluaciones sirven para tomar decisiones políticas y personales que puedan ayudar a la recuperación y conservación de los ecosistemas, proponiéndose el Enfoque Ecosistémico (EE), como estrategia para el manejo integrado de los ecosistemas. ...
... Un ecosistema ofrece diferentes hábitats, estos pueden ser esenciales para que las especies que los ocupan desarrollen su ciclo de vida. Además, las especies también dependen de diferentes ecosistemas debido a que están en continuo movimiento o migrando, como por ejemplo aves, mamíferos, insectos y peces (Liquete, et al., 2017). Estos hábitats mantienen poblaciones de especies y protegen la capacidad ecológica de la comunidad para recuperarse de las perturbaciones que puedan presentarse (resiliencia). ...
... The structure of the soil ecosystem subcomponent (including chemical, physical and biological aspects) sets the conditions for soil processes (structure interacting with function), resulting in the potential provision of soil-associated ecosystem services (and disservices) that can be benefited and valued by farmers and various other beneficiaries and stakeholders, directly or indirectly involved. Integrating the relationship between ecological (left, green) and socio-economic (right, yellow) systems for agricultural soils will provide a more comprehensive approach for the evaluation and decision-making in policies and management (Liquete et al. 2016). ...
... A larger agricultural ecosystem(Liquete et al. 2016) ...
Article
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The environment is changing quickly and it is ever more burdened in connection with the greater needs of human society. This fact has increased efforts to improve the management of land and natural resources and the necessity to evaluate them. Land valuations become more important as the land consumption increases. Soil needs to be evaluated in the whole context of how its quality is affected and the values it provides. The concept of ecosystem services offers this holistic view. This paper defines ecosystem services (ES), the various linkages between soil properties, their functions and benefits, the assessment of soil quality using indicators and then briefly mentions EU environmental assessment methods and terms used in the context of ES. The article also mentions frameworks with which to assess and evaluate the soil quality that can be divided into two groups. The first group is comprised of a framework of indicators that describe the current state of the soil system assessment for evaluating the quality of the agricultural land. This is based on a detailed measurement of the terrain, a statistical analysis of soil databases or processing the status of specific threats to the soil. The second group is comprised of a framework of indicators focused on changes in the soil quality and applied soil management. These frameworks deal with the productivity of the soil in various systems of farming, compare agricultural systems or discuss the advantages of soil biota as indicators of soil quality in detail. Many of the designs of the soil quality indicators focus on the soil management in the context of a single discipline such as agriculture or water pollution. There are concepts for considering the soil quality in regional planning.
... This type of analysis may be used to allow us to evaluate the thresholds of biodiversity necessary to maintain a target magnitude of the ecosystem service over time in a given watershed. 2012;Egoh et al., 2009;Isbell et al., 2011;Liquete et al., 2016;Mace et al., 2012), not all ES respond equally to increases or decreases in biodiversity, nor do they operate at the same level of the ecological hierarchy (Balvanera et al., 2014). In general terms, cultural and regulating ES depend on a broad range of native species and positively correlate with increased biodiversity (Bastian, 2013). ...
... The scientific evidence clearly indicates the importance of preserving genetic diversity, species and ecosystems for the purpose of preserving ecosystem services (ES) (Burkhard and Maes, 2017). Ecosystems with greater biological diversity function more optimally, exchange matter and energy at greater rates, are more stable over time, and more productive and resilient in the face of climate and environmental change (Cardinale, 2012;Liquete et al., 2016). There is no consensus on the nature of the link between biodiversity and ES, nor is there consensus on the mechanism by which it operates (Balvanera et al., 2014;Díaz et al., 2007;Harrison et al., 2014;Loreau et al., 2001). ...
Article
Ecosystem services, the direct or indirect contributions of ecosystems to human well-being, are based on interactions that occur within complex systems at different ecological levels. The strong link between biodiversity and ecosystem services is an important argument for ecosystem management and conservation. In this study we quantified the link between the functional diversity (FD)- used as a proxy of biodiversity- of different forest ecosystems and their water flow regulation (WFR) ecosystem service. This link was evaluated over time and space in two contrasting landscapes of south-central Chile, with different legacies of land use/cover change (LUCC), between 1986 and 2011. We calculated a subwatershed-averaged FD, based on the functional divergence of forest ecosystems at each subwatershed in both landscapes. To evaluate WFR we used a spatially explicit hidrological-model-based indicator. The results revealed a positive linkage between forest ecosystems biodiversity and the provision of WFR. Greater FD was spatially associated with higher WFR provision rates with the FD = 0.3 being a critical threshold for high WFR rates. However, some subwatersheds with lower FD values also had high WFR rates. This may be related to the presence of mono-specific forest plantations, which lack diversity, but fulfill important functions in the hydrological cycle as a result of their structure. We conclude that FD has a positive spatial relationship with WFR, where WFR is the result of the multiple ecosystem processes such as energy exchange, evapotranspiration, runoff. FD, evaluated at the ecosystem level, can be a good means to quantify the link between biodiversity and ecosystem services. This type of analysis may be used to allow us to evaluate the thresholds of biodiversity necessary to maintain a target magnitude of the ecosystem service over time in a given watershed.
... Through the provision of habitat and maintenance of natural process by the wetland/riparian area, a contribution is made to maintaining biodiversity (Liquete et al., 2016) Services contributing to direct benefits Provisioning services ...
... It is recognized that biodiversity maintenance is not an ecosystem service in the strict sense(Liquete et al., 2016), and is framed in less anthropocentric terms than all of the other services, but it underpins many other services and is widely acknowledged as having high value to society broadly, even in the absence of any local or downstream beneficiaries.2 WET-EcoServices focusses on recreational services which are specifically nature-based, e.g. ...
Article
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A rapid assessment technique, termed WET-EcoServices, was developed 10 years ago to help assess the ecosystem services that individual wetland hydrogeomorphic units supply. The technique requires the assessor to consider and score a suite of indicators (e.g., hydraulic roughness of the vegetation) which are then used to rate the ability of the wetland to provide 16 different ecosystem services. WET-EcoServices has become well entrenched in the South African context, with wetland specialists routinely using the technique to inform development planning, whilst it has also been used extensively in the wetland rehabilitation context. The technique has recently been revised, including the following key changes: (i) the technique is now more explicit in terms of distinguishing both ecosystem services’ supply and the demand for all ecosystem services assessed; (ii) the technique has been expanded to include non-wetland riparian areas; (iii) several of the indicators have been refined or replaced with indicators more relevant or appropriate for informing the rating of the ecosystem service or for which information is more readily available at a national level; and (iv) the algorithms used to integrate scores for the relevant indicators have been comprehensively refined so as to better account for the relative importance of the respective indicators. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of Version 2 of the technique and its underlying approach and then to demonstrate its application to 6 selected cases representing contrasting contexts, with a particular focus on the graphical representation of ecosystem service supply and demand for each case. Some of the key emphases and approaches applied by WET-EcoServices are then discussed in relation to other published techniques widely used for assessing wetland ecosystem services. After reflecting on some key limitations of WET-EcoServices, the paper concludes with recommendations on the technique’s potential contributions to operationalizing key broad imperatives of government.
... Les écosystèmes aquatiques abritent une grande diversité biologique. L'étude de cette diversité biologique est importante pour comprendre le fonctionnement de ces milieux, par exemple la survie des différentes espèces, lesquelles dépendent les unes des autres (Liquete et al., 2016). Les ressources ichtyologiques représentent les principales sources de protéines animales accessibles pour beaucoup de populations. ...
... La représentativité des Mormyridae non moins négligeable en termes de nombre d'espèces pourrait traduire une bonne qualité de l'eau du lac de barrage. En effet, il est noté que ces poissons réagissent rapidement aux conditions d'altérations du milieu et seraient, par conséquent, de bons bio-indicateurs permettant de caractériser l'état présent d'un habitat (Niamien-Ebrottié et al., 2008;Byanikiro et al., 2017). Toutefois, leur nombre réduit dans les captures pourrait être imputé aux méthodes de capture. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Solomougou dam lake, created in 1973 for crop irrigation, is nowadays used for fishing activities. This study was conducted in order to understand the ichthyological diversity in this fishery. So, fishermen’s catches have been analyzed from January to December 2019 in order to identify fish species and to calculate their specific and relative abundances, their occurrence’s frequency as well as Shannon diversity index and Piélou equitability index. Thus, 12950 specimens including fourteen families, twenty-five genera and thirty-seven species have been recorded. The three families with the most species are Cichlidae (10 species), followed by Mormyridae (6 species) and Cyprinidae (5 species). However, taking into account the relative abundances of families in the total catches, Cichlidae (41.87%) are always the most numerous, followed by Alestidae (14.47%) and Mochokidae (12.84%), each of these last two families being represented by only two species. Finally, in terms of specific relative abundance, the three most dominant species are Brycinus imberi (14.41%), Synodontis schall (12.76%) and Oreochromis niloticus (11.62%). With regard to the occurrence’s frequency values, fourteen accidental species, one accessory and twenty-two constants have been identified. Shannon diversity index and Piélou equitability index are 3.9159 and 0.7517, respectively. © 2020 International Formulae Group. All rights reserved.
... Les écosystèmes aquatiques abritent une grande diversité biologique. L'étude de cette diversité biologique est importante pour comprendre le fonctionnement de ces milieux, par exemple la survie des différentes espèces, lesquelles dépendent les unes des autres (Liquete et al., 2016). Les ressources ichtyologiques représentent les principales sources de protéines animales accessibles pour beaucoup de populations. ...
... La représentativité des Mormyridae non moins négligeable en termes de nombre d'espèces pourrait traduire une bonne qualité de l'eau du lac de barrage. En effet, il est noté que ces poissons réagissent rapidement aux conditions d'altérations du milieu et seraient, par conséquent, de bons bio-indicateurs permettant de caractériser l'état présent d'un habitat (Niamien-Ebrottié et al., 2008;Byanikiro et al., 2017). Toutefois, leur nombre réduit dans les captures pourrait être imputé aux méthodes de capture. ...
Article
Full-text available
Le lac de barrage Solomougou, créé en 1973 à des fins agricoles, est exploité de nos jours pour les activités halieutiques. La présente étude y a été conduite en vue d’étudier sa diversité ichtyologique. Les captures des pêcheurs ont été analysées de janvier à décembre 2019. Les paramètres étudiés sont la richesse spécifique, les abondances spécifique et relative, le pourcentage d’occurrence ainsi que les indices de diversité spécifique de Shannon et Weaver et d’équitabilité de Piélou. Ainsi, 12950 spécimens répartis en quatorze familles, vingt-cinq genres et trente-sept espèces ont été répertoriés. Les trois familles comptant le plus d’espèces sont les Cichlidae (10 espèces), suivis des Mormyridae (6 espèces) et des Cyprinidae (5 espèces). Cependant, dans les captures totales, les Cichlidae (41,87%) sont toujours les plus nombreux, suivis des Alestidae (14,47%) et des Mochokidae (12,84%), chacune de ces deux dernières familles étant représentées par deux espèces. Enfin, en termes d’abondance relative spécifique, Brycinus imberi (14,41%), Synodontis schall (12,76%) et Oreochromis niloticus (11,62%) sont les plus représentatives. Relativement aux valeurs de fréquence d’occurrence, la pêcherie compte quatorze espèces accidentelles, une accessoire et vingt-deux constantes. Les valeurs de l’indice de diversité spécifique de Shannon et de l’indice d’équitabilité sont respectivement 3,9159 et 0,7517.Mots clés : Espèces de poissons, abondance, distribution, lac de barrage Solomougou, Côte d'Ivoire. English title: Ichtyological fauna of the Solomougou dam lake (Korhogo, Côte d'Ivoire) The Solomougou dam lake, created in 1973 for crop irrigation, is nowadays used for fishing activities. This study was conducted in order to understand the ichthyological diversity in this fishery. So, fishermen’s catches have been analyzed from January to December 2019 in order to identify fish species and to calculate their specific and relative abundances, their occurrence’s frequency as well as Shannon diversity index and Piélou equitability index. Thus, 12950 specimens including fourteen families, twenty-five genera and thirty-seven species have been recorded. The three families with the most species are Cichlidae (10 species), followed by Mormyridae (6 species) and Cyprinidae (5 species). However, taking into account the relative abundances of families in the total catches, Cichlidae (41.87%) are always the most numerous, followed by Alestidae (14.47%) and Mochokidae (12.84%), each of these last two families being represented by only two species. Finally, in terms of specific relative abundance, the three most dominant species are Brycinus imberi (14.41%), Synodontis schall (12.76%) and Oreochromis niloticus (11.62%). With regard to the occurrence’s frequency values, fourteen accidental species, one accessory and twenty-two constants have been identified. Shannon diversity index and Piélou equitability index are 3.9159 and 0.7517, respectively.Keywords: Fish species, abundance, distribution, Solomougou Dam Lake, Côte d'Ivoire.
... The HQ model is often proposed as a proxy to derive information about biodiversity. However, due to its similarities with habitat integrity models based on the assessments of environmental stressors (Theobald 2013), its use can embrace the assessment of landscape's ecological integrity (Liquete et al. 2016). It is worth noting that the integration of biodiversity assessments into the ES framework is an active field of research since conceptual incongruities arise when habitat services are included into decision-making frameworks to operationalize the use of ES (Kumar 2010;Haines-Young and Potschin 2018). ...
... It is worth noting that the integration of biodiversity assessments into the ES framework is an active field of research since conceptual incongruities arise when habitat services are included into decision-making frameworks to operationalize the use of ES (Kumar 2010;Haines-Young and Potschin 2018). For this reason, some authors suggested to clarify the use of these types of models to differentiate the overall ecosystem conditions like in general analyses of biodiversity, from the assessment of specific ES, like in the case of habitat nurseries (Liquete et al. 2016). ...
Article
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This study analyzed the interactions among a set of ecosystem services (ES) and derived ES bundles in the Headwaters of Coal River West Virginia (WV), in the Central Appalachians, an area historically characterized by surface mining and coal extraction. ES were modeled using the InVEST system, while a custom model was used to link water quality to freshwater ES, deriving information at two different spatial scales based on hydrologic units. High-resolution remote sensing data (1-2 m resolution) were used to incorporate historical information from land-cover (LC) transitions since 1976 to differentiate reclamation processes and characterize the forest class. Consistent ES tradeoffs were confirmed in areas characterized by surface mining processes that reported significant losses of carbon sequestration, habitat quality , and freshwater ES. The interaction of complex anthropogenic processes within the specific landscape led to the definition of different ES bundles, characterized not only by coal mining processes but also by the distribution of settlements and developed areas. The utilization of relatively small hydrologic catchments (1-25 km 2), the comparison with a more extensive set of spatial units, and the inclusion of high-resolution data with multiple LC classes that included historical information, allowed the authors to infer knowledge about the interactions between ES changes and their drivers in the study area. The results can be used to implement conservation, as well as development-restoration strategies, by including ES assessments to promote a more sustainable land management approach in the rural-mining region of Central Appalachians and support future alternatives to extractive economies.
... Gómez- Baggethun et al. 2013;Varshney et al. 2020. • Climate change mitigation and adaptation (Biju Kumar and Ravinesh 2017; Swingland 2013) • Economic benefits (e.g., carbon offset costs and increased workplace productivity)(Liquete et al. 2016). • Social benefits (e.g., social cohesion and security)(Fuller and Irvine 2010;Sandifer et al. 2015. ...
Chapter
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This chapter is about habitat provisioning core concepts in the urban built environment context.
... Juegan un papel vital en la protección de las zonas costeras ante la erosión, las tormentas y la elevación del nivel del mar asociada al cambio climático (Rao et al., 2015). Al mismo tiempo, constituyen sitios de reproducción y cría de numerosas especies costeras y marinas, de importancia comercial y para la conservación (Liquete et al., 2016); mantienen la calidad y claridad del agua al filtrar los contaminantes y atrapar los sedimentos procedentes de la tierra (Bouillon et al., 2008); capturan gases de efecto invernadero ya que actúan como sumideros de carbono (Herrera-Silveira et al., 2016). El valor económico anual, asociado al costo de los productos y servicios que proveen los manglares, ha sido estimado entre $200 000 y $900 000 dólares por hectárea (Wells y Ravilious, 2006). ...
Book
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En esta obra se integran y proponen protocolos de monitoreo de la biodiversidad marina en áreas naturales protegidas del Caribe mexicano, como parte de un programa de estudio con enfoque integrador que permite extender su implementación a las áreas marinas protegidas de la región del Gran Caribe. La aplicación de las metodologías descritas permite estimar la resiliencia y evaluar la condición y el estado de salud de tres ecosistemas prioritarios (arrecifes coralinos, pastizales marinos y manglares), y dos grupos de especies claves: tortugas marinas y condrictios (tiburones y rayas). Los cinco protocolos de monitoreo incluyen la fundamentación teórica de 60 indicadores de monitoreo biológico y fisicoquímico sobre la base del conocimiento de la estructura, la función y los procesos biológicos que ocurren en los ecosistemas prioritarios de la región, así como de la ecología de las especies. Se abordan los procedimientos de cálculo y la relevancia de cada indicador para estimar la salud de dichos ecosistemas y especies. El libro, coordinado por la CONABIO, integra el conocimiento científico-técnico de académicos, investigadores, tomadores de decisiones, y miembros de la sociedad civil de México, de los cuales 21 son autores y 33 colaboradores pertenecientes a 17 instituciones, con experiencia en trabajos para la conservación de las áreas marinas protegidas del Caribe mexicano. Se describe además cómo la información resultante de los monitoreos es integrada y asimilada dentro del Sistema de Información y Análisis Marino Costero (SIMAR), manteniendo la información disponible para la comunidad científica y tomadores de decisiones. Esta obra reúne elementos técnicos disponibles para apoyar la generación de mejores políticas públicas de conservación y aprovechamiento sustentable de nuestros recursos marinos para el bienestar de la sociedad. Los protocolos forman parte de los esfuerzos internacionales por integrar y distribuir datos de biodiversidad marina que permitan evaluar su condición en un contexto de cambio y variabilidad climática.
... Відповідно до сучасної наукової думки, під α-різноманіттям окремих фітоценозів розуміють їхне видове багатство, визначене за допомогою спеціальних індексів, розрахунок яких здійснюють на основі значень кількості та відносної рясності видів [35,36,37]. Найчастіше для оцінки різноманіття рекомендують використовувати інформаційні індекси: різноманітності Шеннона, вирівняності Пієлу, домінування Сімпсона, а також відносного видового багатства Маргалефа [38,39,40,41]. ...
... Juegan un papel vital en la protección de las zonas costeras ante la erosión, las tormentas y la elevación del nivel del mar asociada al cambio climático (Rao et al., 2015). Al mismo tiempo, constituyen sitios de reproducción y cría de numerosas especies costeras y marinas, de importancia comercial y para la conservación (Liquete et al., 2016); mantienen la calidad y claridad del agua al filtrar los contaminantes y atrapar los sedimentos procedentes de la tierra (Bouillon et al., 2008); capturan gases de efecto invernadero ya que actúan como sumideros de carbono (Herrera-Silveira et al., 2016). El valor económico anual, asociado al costo de los productos y servicios que proveen los manglares, ha sido estimado entre $200 000 y $900 000 dólares por hectárea (Wells y Ravilious, 2006). ...
Chapter
Los tiburones y las rayas tienen un papel esencial como depredadores tope y media- nos, respectivamente, en los ecosistemas marinos que habitan, y ocupan los últimos eslabones de la cadena trófica (Heithaus et al., 2008); desempeñan funciones de control sobre poblaciones de numerosas especies marinas (Myers et al., 2007), con lo que contribuyen a mantener el equilibrio con sus competidores, garantizando así la diversidad de especies (Myers y Worm, 2005). Su presencia mantiene el equilibrio de las cadenas tróficas en los principales ecosistemas que habitan (Terborgh y Estes, 2010); por ejemplo, su eliminación en el arrecife desencadenaría el conocido efec- to en cascada, pues dispararía la prolife- ración de sus competidores carnívoros, lo cual incidiría negativamente en las poblaciones de sus presas y de sus competidores carnívoros (peces) (Brunnschweiler, 2010). La ausencia de herbívoros, a su vez, conduciría a una proliferación de algas que compiten por el espacio con los corales. Esto podría contribuir a un cambio de fase en el ecosistema hacia un estado domina- do por algas (Dulvy et al., 2004).
... The nursery function that VCE provide is not considered a service and as such is not valued (Liquete et al., 2016), however, this nursery function and the connectivity of various life stages of fish and invertebrates between habitats is of critical importance to maintaining fisheries. An example of the importance is the connectivity within the Penaeid prawn lifecycle, which demonstrates habitat use through various stages of its lifecycle, using inshore habitats for nursery functions, and the provisioning ecosystem service is realized in deeper waters (Figure 2). ...
Article
Full-text available
Temperate Australia has extensive and diverse coast and marine habitats throughout its inshore and offshore waters. The region includes the southernmost extent of mangroves, over 500 estuaries and coastal embayments, home to extensive meadows of seagrasses and tidal saltmarsh. In areas of hard substrate, rocky reefs are abundant and productive with large forests of macroalgae. Coastal regions can be densely populated by humans and often habitats can be degraded, polluted or lost, while some remain relatively isolated and pristine. These habitats provide services to society including provision of food, regulate our climate through sequestration of carbon, treating our waste and protecting our shorelines from damage from storms. Coastal areas are culturally importantly hubs for recreation and tourism. Habitat mapping demonstrates diverse habitats throughout temperate Australia, but a formal investigation of services provided by these habitats has been lacking. This review of ecosystem services provided by coast and marine environments throughout temperate Australia reveals vast and productive ecosystems that provide multiple ecosystem services, substantial value to the Australian economy and contribute to the health and well-being of people who live in, visit of benefit from services or products from these regions. Some of these are considered within traditional economic metrics such as provision of wild catch fisheries, but this review demonstrates that regulation and maintenance services including waste treatment and protecting shorelines from extreme events are under recognized, and their value is substantial. However, consistent with many locations globally, coast and marine habitats are under threat from increasing development, sewage, agricultural, industrial discharges, urban runoff and climate change. Resultantly, temperate Australian coast and marine habitat extent and condition is generally declining in many regions, putting the provision of services and benefits to the community at risk. Continued degraded or lost habitats indicate current management frameworks are not capturing the full risk from development and there are winners and losers in trade off decision making. Incorporating ecosystem services in decision making may allow an integrated approach to management, and acknowledgment of services provided could prevent habitats from being undervalued against economic and social interests, a practice that often results in environmental degradation.
... Depending on the taxonomy, ecosystems' capacity of hosting species and maintaining their life cycles is included either within the "regulating and maintenance" services or within the "supporting or habitat" services, depending on the taxonomy: the first holds for the CICES classification, and the second for the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. The issue here is not merely a semantic one; rather, it stems from the conceptualization of ES, and, as pointed out by Liquete et al. (2016a), it is affected by scholars' perspectives and it bears consequences on assessments. For instance, economists warn against assessing natural value when evaluating a bundle of ES in monetary terms, because it would lead to double counting (Wallace, 2007;Turner et al., 2010;Fu et al., 2011), as the value of biodiversity would be counted both in the natural value and in the final ES that is demanded and consumed by humans. ...
Book
Full-text available
Identifying and planning green infrastructures at the regional scale can be considered an intentional way of spreading the positive impacts of environmental conservation policies across spatial contexts much more complex and larger than protected areas. In this volume, a methodological approach is defined and experimentally implemented into the Sardinian region (Italy), in order to identify both a regional green infrastructure, and a network of ecological corridors, conceived as edges connecting the regional protected areas. This approach supports spatial decision-making processes aimed at addressing environmental hazards connected to landslides and floods, as well as at establishing effective spatial planning rules. OPEN ACCESS BOOK - available from https://series.francoangeli.it/index.php/oa/catalog/view/814/662/4727
... MES and their capacity ranks for EUNIS (European Union Nature Information System) marine seabed habitats were adopted on a scale from 0 (absent/negligible) to 2 (very high) based on desk research (Galparsoro et al., 2014;Salomidi et al., 2012) and following the approach adopted by previous case studies in the region (Depellegrin et al., 2017;Manea et al., 2019). Ranks for Essential Fish Habitats (EFHs), marine mammals and turtles were defined considering the best scientific knowledge on their role in determining MES, with specific focus on the Northern Adriatic environment (Roman and McCarthy, 2010;Fortuna et al., 2015;Lent, 2015;Lent and Squires, 2017;Liquete et al., 2016;Tavares et al., 2019). ...
Article
Multiple anthropogenic activities can exert adverse effects on marine vulnerable ecological components and the ecosystem services they provide to human well-being. Emilia-Romagna (E-R) Region belongs to one of the most industrialized coastal and sea areas of the Italian Northern Adriatic Sea, requiring adequate decision support instruments able to assist authorities to enforce ecosystem-based Marine Spatial Planning (MSP). In this research we combine Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA) model with marine ecosystem services capacity (MESCap) assessment of multiple ecological components (seabed habitats, essential fish habitats, marine mammals and turtles). The geospatial instruments were used for E-R Region's sea space to support the selection of spatially explicit measures to address two marine conservation objectives, i.e. A. preservation of essential fish habitats and B. protection of species of high conservation value, namely marine mammals and turtles, proposed within an MSP pilot study for the region. Results show that cumulative effects are mainly generated from trawling activities, maritime transport (e.g. Port of Ravenna), and by the influence of land-based activities (i.e. inputs from Po river and other minor rivers). Highest threats to marine ecosystem services (ES) were related to supporting ES (e.g. habitat and nursery provisioning) and to cultural ES. We discuss the contribution of the presented approach towards an ecosystem-based management in the region and the potential benefits that the integration of the ES concept can have in the designing of planning measures with the aim of reducing the cumulative effects and of maintaining marine ecological resources and services.
... Forests play a multi-dimensional role in humans' and eco-systems' wellbeing [4][5][6][7]. Though many researchers, especially economists, usually focus on the market value of forest products, the trend has significantly changed other values, such as the non-use values and specifically the existence values. ...
Article
Full-text available
Uganda is richly endowed with flora and fauna. Until the early 2000s, most of the types of vegetation have remained natural/virgin forests and shrubs until recent years, when human activities have damaged them. Understanding the different ways that people value such endangered forest resources is very important. The main hypothesis in our study is that willingness to pay (WTP) for forest existence value and sustainability depends on the preference for the same values. In addition, we examined socioeconomic characteristics, such as sex, education, and household incomes, which could influence the WTP for forest existence value and sustainability. We carried out field questionnaire interviews with the aim of ascertaining Willingness to Pay (WTP) for forest existence. The WTP values were in a range between 1 and 200 USD based on the contingent valuation method (CVM). A sample with a size of 203 was interviewed in selected towns and villages in Uganda, and the data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. The cross-tabulation of the expressed preferences illustrates that 81.9% of the representative sample are willing to pay for forest existence value and sustainability. We concluded that the willingness to pay for forest existence significantly depends on the preference for forest existence values and sustainability. Our results equally express that the mean WTP in this region is 15 USD per year and that over 60% are willing to pay this amount. The socioeconomic determinants’ results demonstrate heterogeneity and that over 90% of the respondents are willing to pay for forest existence, conservation, and sustainability.
... Nursery grounds for fish was the second service prioritized by both communities, justified by the fact that shallow waters are vital for food provisioning, protection and habitat for juvenile fish which becomes adults for them to harvest. A nursery is a habitat with conditions that facilitates the reproduction of species that proceed to form adult populations [45]. Many of the marine fishery species exploited spend at least some part of their life histories in nearshore coastal habitats [46]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Effective conservation management combines information obtained from formal scientific research with traditional knowledge derived from communities living within the ecosystem, in an integrated and comprehensive ecosystem assessment. To complement national efforts to establish Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in critical coastal ecosystems to protect nursery areas and spawning grounds in Ghana, two communities in the Greater Cape Three Points area in the Western Region of Ghana were involved in a participatory mapping and assessment exercise as part of an ecosystem-based approach to the establishment of MPAs in the area. The paper presents the processes by which the communities were engaged in identifying and mapping out top five priority ecosystem services (ES) vital for fisheries—an important livelihood source in the area—valuing the prioritized ecosystem services, and identifying and assessing four main anthropogenic pressures threatening the continual provisioning of ecosystem services. The relevance of such community participatory assessment in policy formulation is also discussed in the paper. The paper demonstrates that the livelihoods of rural coastal communities are linked to broader ecosystem functioning. It also shows that when participatory mapping is complemented with perspectives from direct beneficiaries of ES, managers are afforded a holistic insight into the array of issues that feed into a comprehensive management approach which addresses social, economic and ecological concerns.
... nursery function). In the context of this report, we follow a recently published report by Liquete et al., (2016) which concludes that "nursery function should be considered as an ecosystem service in its own right when linked to concrete human benefits, not when it represents general biodiversity or ecosystem condition". With reference to the EUNIS classification scheme, the biotopes mainly providing this service are coastal saltmarshes, reedbeds, seagrass and infralittoral rock, although all sediment biotopes are recognised as important (Table 30). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The overarching aim of this report is to investigate and assess the natural capital value of the Solent Marine Sites (SEMS) in terms of the function of coastal habitats and key species controlling water quality (particularly relating to nitrogen [N] and phosphorous [P] inputs). More specifically the project provides evidence to help value several ecosystem service flows which are interlinked with water quality. A further aim is to consider future management trade-offs and risks to these ecosystem services.
... Additionally, still in terms of "regulation and maintenance" services, P. oceanica meadows represent a spawning ground and a nursery habitat (sensu Habitat Directive Framework 1992/43/CEE) for several marine species, and they are indeed considered as biodiversity hotspots. It is worth noting that the classification of the nursery role as a "regulation and maintenance" service is not identified univocally, rather a debate is still open (Liquete et al., 2016). P. oceanica also provides several "provisioning" (e.g. ...
Article
Ecological systems can be regarded as natural capital that yields ecosystem services vital for human well-being. The provision of these services strictly depends on the protection of natural capital stocks generating them, highlighting the need for conservation and monitoring actions led by proper assessment methodologies. Among the available methods, the Environmental Accounting Model based on the emergy approach is rapidly gaining popularity in ecological applications. We used such method to assess the natural capital value of Posidonia oceanica meadows, widely recognized the most important ecosystems in the Mediterranean basin, at Italian national spatial scale. The natural capital value of P. oceanica was further weighed by the estimates provided by a Habitat Suitability Model. We observed that the estimated level of habitat suitability played an important role as modifier of the average biophysical value of P. oceanica. Our approach allowed to identify the meadows having the highest stability and over space and time, which we defined as the most valuable in biophysical terms, thus with highest natural capital value. The spatially explicit estimates we provided could support managers and policy-makers to ensure the long-term provision of ecosystem services generated by P. oceanica, enhancing ecosystem management and maritime spatial planning.
... The intensification of agroforestry and timber management has already shown that optimization of one or some ES (e.g., provisioning) is likely to reduce diversity and system stability (Cardinale et al. 2012;Lindenmayer et al. 2012), as well as biodiversity (MEA 2005). Recently, science and policy agendas on biodiversity moved to include ES assessments and recognized the crucial task of monitoring ES to determine the effectiveness of policy frameworks (Geijzendorffer and Roche 2013;Liquete et al. 2016). Several studies showed how biodiversity attributes affected provision of ES by impacting the underlying natural processes (Díaz et al. 2006;Harrison et al. 2014). ...
Chapter
Land use planning is mainly based on monetary values of provisioning ecosystem services (ES). However, many other non-monetary ES and biodiversity provide values for human well-being, and it should be included in the decision-making. The objective of this chapter was to characterize different ES (provisioning, cultural, supporting, regulating) and potential biodiversity in different forest types in Tierra del Fuego Province, Argentina. We map and extract information for provision of ES and biodiversity and compare them through univariate and multivariate methods. We found that each forest type showed different potential biodiversity that determines the need of specific conservation and management strategies. Forest types presented different types and levels of provision of the studied ES, where several synergies and trade-offs were observed according to the current economic activities. Beside this, ES and potential biodiversity of the forests are not equally represented in the currently protected natural reserve network, compared to the values at landscape level. These outputs can be used to improve the current land use planning and the effectiveness of conservation at landscape level.
... Juegan un papel vital en la protección de las zonas costeras ante la erosión, las tormentas y la elevación del nivel del mar asociada al cambio climático (Rao et al., 2015). Al mismo tiempo, constituyen sitios de reproducción y cría de numerosas especies costeras y marinas, de importancia comercial y para la conservación (Liquete et al., 2016); mantienen la calidad y claridad del agua al filtrar los contaminantes y atrapar los sedimentos procedentes de la tierra (Bouillon et al., 2008); capturan gases de efecto invernadero ya que actúan como sumideros de carbono (Herrera-Silveira et al., 2016). El valor económico anual, asociado al costo de los productos y servicios que proveen los manglares, ha sido estimado entre $200 000 y $900 000 dólares por hectárea (Wells y Ravilious, 2006). ...
... The functions of an ecosystem are commonly referred to as ecosystem conditions and can be indicated using ecological integrity (EI) variables Schneiders & Müller 2017). Even though there is a general scientific acceptance of the basic role of EI as a fundament of ES provision, there are knowledge gaps with respect to the specific interactions among the conceptions (Erhard et al. 2017;Laurila-Pant et al. 2015;Liquete et al. 2016). Since landscape features such as climatic, soil and biological conditions are arguably co-dependent to a large degree, seeing them as an interacting network should yield a more complete understanding of the factors determining production and efficiency (see Figure 1). ...
Article
Full-text available
Human well-being is highly dependent on nature, especially with respect to food provision. This study has been developed in the ecosystem service framework and focuses on the evaluation of ecological integrity as a base for the capacity of Schleswig-Holstein to provide ecosystem services. The ecosystem service potential is assessed based upon a Bayesian belief network and the study area's soil fertility. The respective service flow is estimated from official regional statistics, and is represented by the total harvested biomass for food, fodder and energy. The spatial distribution of six different ecological integrity variables and the crop production potentials and flows are compared and interpreted with respect to the characteristics of the main landscape regions within the study area. The results indicate a trade-off between the actual crop production and the underlying ecological integrity and service potentials. This trade-off is strongest in case of croplands, while it gradually diminishes in grasslands and forests. Based on the results, conclusions about the relation between ecosystem services and ecological integrity are drawn. The findings of the study can be used to support the development of sustainable land management strategies, which aim to harmonize agricultural production and environmental conditions.
... A number of authors, including some of us, have aimed to make such contributions (10)(11)(12). But we concur with many review papers which have found modest and narrow engagement of ES research with the SSH (13)(14)(15)(16)(17). Many SSH scholars have been turned off by the ES framing, while some who have engaged and have contributed importantly, report a persistent discomfort (18)(19)(20). ...
Article
Full-text available
We share many of the views of de Groot et al. on the relevance of ecosystem services (ES) and the constructive role they have played in highlighting the importance of nature to people. Here we aim to further clarify how the concept of Nature’s Contribution to People (NCP) contributes to science and policy
... For example, Martínez Pastur et al. (2016) found that water features were a key attractant for the location of CES and van Zanten et al. (2016) found that mountain areas too attracted the location of CES. The provision of CES can vary from an entire ecosystem to a single sub-component (such as a single species) of an ecosystem (Liquete et al., 2016). In addition to this, the variety of natural features found in an area can positively affect the location of aesthetic services (Oteros-Rozas et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
People of remote oceanic islands show a clear connection to their natural environment. Our study provides a case study example of how the location of coastal Cultural Ecosystem Services in small islands can be analysed, providing useful information to managers and conservationists alike. Using a series of analyses, we here show how groups of people place Cultural Ecosystem Services in different places driven by their socio-demographic identity and the environment that surrounds them. We found that a range of different socio-demographic factors affects the grouping of people and that both natural and anthropogenic infrastructure environments affect the location of recreational and aesthetic services. For recreation and aesthetic services, we found that a range of environmental features, including the travel distance and accessibility, habitat types, biodiversity indicators and proximity to Invasive Species impacted the location of these coastal services. As a result, our demographic identity can identify places where services are located.
... Biodiversity plays a crucial role in the supply of ecosystem services, which essentially sustain human livelihoods [17,18]. Contrary to this natural provision the invasion of alien species, remains one of a number of significant threats to both biodiversity and the functionality of ecosystems and also to the ecosystem services they provide. ...
... Little is also known about the expectations of stakeholders that design and implement GI: this is part of the reason why their implementation in the agricultural sector is still lagging behind (Demuzere et al., 2014;Hansen and Pauleit, 2014;Liu et al., 2014). Moreover, although previous research has already proven the importance of GI for the protection of ecosystem services (Valentini et al., 2015;Pataki et al., 2011;Lovell and Taylor, 2013;Liquete et al., 2016), few studies analyze stakeholders' expectations about the implementation of GI in the agricultural sector: the results of this study contribute in filling this gap. Understanding what induces users to implement GI is crucial to the improvement of the design of these measures in adaptation and mitigation policies of the agro-food sector. ...
Article
Full-text available
Solutions like Green Infrastructures can restore and maintain key regulative ecosystem services capable of mitigating disaster risk and contributing to climate change adaptation. Given the vulnerabilities that affect agriculture and its role in national economies, GI can play an important role in managing trade-offs between conflicting ecosystem services. However, their use is still lagging behind, and socio-economic dynamics in their uptake in the agricultural sector are partially disregarded. The uncertainty involved in the modelling of ecological processes can be reduced through the use of participatory processes and the involvement of relevant stakeholders to sustain decision-making processes. This article intends to assess stakeholders' perceptions on the implementation of Green Infrastructures in agriculture by capturing critical barriers and facilitators. The implementation of such Green Infrastructures policies is associated to different climate change trends in order to understand the effect of different scenarios on rural development. The study uses fuzzy logic to elicit the stakeholders’ needs. The key results show that when there is uncertainty in the state of climate change trends, it is always more efficient to adopt progressive policies investing in the development and diffusion of Green Infrastructures.
... As highly productive ecosystems, estuarine and coastal ecosystems also play a key role in sustaining a large part of the global fishery by providing some of the key habitats for marine resource production (Pauly et al. 2002). A critical function of these habitats is the provision of food and shelter to different ontogenetic stages of fisheries species, and as such, they serve as prime nursery areas (Blaber et al. 2000;Liquete et al. 2016;Sheaves et al. 2015). While the habitat importance of coral reefs, mangroves, sea grass beds and salt marshes is widely acknowledged, less emblematic habitats such as soft sediment habitats (sandy substrates and mudflats) are crucial for a large range of marine species . ...
... Esta religação pode realizar-se através da musealização dos espécimes que demonstram a dependência humana das plantas (coleções de botânica económica), como os alimentos, medicamentos, fibras e têxteis, tinturaria e tecnologia de origem vegetal63 . Neste âmbito antropocêntrico, num Herbário é possível encontrar os meios necessários para explorar muitos dos serviços de ecossistemas prestados pelas plantas64 . Com benefícios mútuos, quer para a sociedade quer para as instituições detentoras de herbários, o desenvolvimento de projetos de crowdsourcing -em que um visitante se pode tornar num colaboradoré já uma prática comum em várias instituições em que voluntários se envolvem na digitalização/transcrição de etiquetas ou documentação de herbário65 . ...
Article
Full-text available
ResumoOs herbários são coleções biológicas que incluem o material de referência para todos os que precisem de identificar ou preservar plantas, fungos ou algas. Estas coleções foram usadas inicialmente pelos professores/médicos/herbalistas no século XVI e mais tarde, nas primeiras viagens de exploração científica, tornaram-se uma ferramenta essencial para todos os coletores e botânicos. A contextualização dos herbários do ponto de vista da história das ciências pode ampliar os usos de um herbário e reforçar a sua versatilidade. Desta perspetiva, os herbários transcendem a sua função de repositório, refletindo contextos para além dos da esfera científica, espelhando as políticas de desenvolvimento governamental, educacional e económico de um país. O Herbário do Museu de História Natural e da Ciência da Universidade do Porto é uma coleção reconhecida mundialmente como o Herbário da Universidade do Porto (PO) e é uma coleção de referência da flora Portuguesa, contendo coleções históricas, privadas e académicas constituídas desde o século XIX. Tomando como ponto de partida o herbário (coleção botânica desidratada entre papel) e o Herbário da Universidade do Porto (como instituição responsável da organização e conservação de vários tipos de coleções botânicas), este trabalho mostra como os herbários e os Herbários são veículos para a compreensão de assuntos de várias esferas e materializam a sua interconexão, promovendo uma aprendizagem de carácter global, fomentando a sua consciência histórica e cívica. Palavras-chave: Coleções históricas; Herbários: Estudos Interdisciplinares. Abstract Herbaria are biological collections that include reference material for anyone who needs to identify or preserve plants, fungi or algae. These collections were used by the first professors/doctors/herbalists in the 16th century, and later, on the first voyages of scientific exploration becoming an essential tool for all collectors and botanists. The contextualization of herbaria from the point of view of the history of science can broaden the uses of a herbarium and reinforce its versatility. From this perspective, herbaria transcend their repository function, reflecting contexts beyond those of the scientific sphere, mirroring a country's government, educational and economic development policies. The Herbarium of the Museum of Natural History and Science of the University of Porto is a collection recognized worldwide as the Herbarium of the University of Porto (PO) and is a reference collection of Portuguese flora, containing historical, private and academic collections since the 19th century. Taking as its starting point the herbarium (dehydrated botanical collection between paper) and the Herbarium of the University of Porto (as the institution responsible for the organization and conservation of various types of biological collections), this paper shows how herbaria and Herbaria are vehicles for the understanding of subjects from various spheres and materialize their interconnectedness, promoting a global learning, fostering their historical and civic awareness. Keywords: Historical collections; Herbaria; Interdisciplinary studies.
... Our results suggest that climate warming can profoundly alter functional structure in marine fish nurseries, which could have major implications for the stability of large marine ecosystems (LMEs) worldwide, as nurseries contribute to LME population maintenance (Baptista et al., 2015;Beck et al., 2001;Liquete et al., 2016;Seitz et al., 2014). In the Bay of Somme, declines in commercially-important species like plaice, sole, sprat and herring likely had negative, reinforcing impacts on fish stocks in the EEC (Auber et al., 2017a(Auber et al., , 2015. ...
Thesis
The ensemble of biological, geochemical, and physical processes that occur within ecosystems is driven by the interplay between biological communities and the abiotic environment. Explaining the spatial and temporal dynamics of biological communities in relation to environmental conditions is therefore essential for understanding ecosystem functioning, and ultimately for achieving sustainable development. In marine ecosystems, fish communities are key to ecosystem functioning, and fisheries provide livelihoods for over 10% of the world’s population. However, understanding the processes structuring fish communities remains difficult because community structure varies with both natural environmental fluctuations and, increasingly, human pressures. Effectively managing fisheries and marine ecosystems under global change therefore requires better characterizing fish community dynamics over time and space and disentangling the underlying drivers and mechanisms. While fish ecologists have traditionally relied on species-based approaches (i.e., taxonomic approaches) to study community structure, trait-based approaches (i.e., functional approaches) are increasingly used because they can provide better insight into community assembly and the mechanisms driving community responses. To meet this need for a better understanding of biodiversity dynamics, the present thesis took advantage of long-term scientific monitoring data to characterize the functional responses of fish communities to environmental gradients in the North Sea, Eastern English Channel, and Bay of Somme. All three ecosystems experienced temperature rises and oceanographic changes associated with a warming phase of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), which rapidly impacted fish community structure. Consistent biological responses were observed across the three ecosystems despite their different spatial scales, demonstrating that fish communities were affected by environmental change through bio-ecological traits associated with habitat preference and life history. In the North Sea and Eastern Channel, pelagic species were the most responsive and contributed largely to community dynamics, which is likely explained by their greater mobility, higher dispersal rates, and fewer habitat requirements. However, beyond habitat preference, species with r-selected life histories (e.g., low size and age at maturity, low parental investment, small offspring) had the fastest environmental responses whether or not they were pelagic, likely due to their rapid population turnover and generation time. Importantly, the way these species’ responses shaped community structure depended on environmental context. R-selected, pelagic species rapidly declined in the Bay of Somme and Eastern Channel, but rapidly increased in the North Sea. This likely reflects environmental suitability, indicating that after the phase change of the AMO, the Eastern Channel became a less favorable environment for these species, while the North Sea became more favorable. Thus, species with high mobility and fast life history cycles appear capable of rapidly tracking environmental conditions, shifting in abundance in response to environmental suitability. Additionally, as these ecosystems have warmed over the last 30 years, community responses were characterized by increases in mean thermal preference. Importantly, the amplitude of community changes was partially determined by communities’ initial structure and redundancy of bio-ecological traits, showing that community responses depended not only on environmental changes but also on biodiversity itself. Lastly, while fish community responses were consistently associated with climatic changes, historical fishing pressure on large-bodied, demersal species appeared to render fish communities more sensitive to environmental changes by increasing the relative of abundance of pelagic and r-selected species.
... However, Díaz et al. (2018b) also cite literature reporting inadequate engagement of social sciences and humanities perspectives within ES literature (i.e. Haase et al. 2014;Chaudhary et al. 2015;Luederitz et al. 2015;Fagerholm et al. 2016;Liquete et al. 2016), as well as persistent discomfort of social sciences and humanities scholars to the ES approach Satz et al. 2013;Comberti et al. 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
People depend on functioning ecosystems, which provide benefits that support human existence and wellbeing. The relationship between people and nature has been experienced and conceptualized in multiple ways. Recently, ecosystem services (ES) concepts have permeated science, government policies, multinational environmental agreements, and science-policy interfaces. In 2017, the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) introduced a new and closely related concept-Nature's Contributions to People (NCP). The introduction of NCP has sparked some lively discussion and confusion about the distinguishing characteristics between ES and NCP. In order to clarify their conceptual relation, we identify eleven specific claims about novel elements from the latest NCP literature and analyze how far ES research has already contributed to these corresponding conceptual claims in the existing ES literature. We find a mixed-picture, where on six specific conceptual claims (culture, social sciences and humanities, indigenous and local knowledge, negative contributions of nature, generalizing perspective, non-instrumental values and valuation) NCP does not differ greatly from past ES research, but we also find five conceptual claims (diverse worldviews, context-specific perspective, relational values, fuzzy and fluid reporting categories and groups, inclusive language and framing) where NCP provides novel conceptualizations of people and nature relations. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Juegan un papel vital en la protección de las zonas costeras ante la erosión, las tormentas y la elevación del nivel del mar asociada al cambio climático (Rao et al., 2015). Al mismo tiempo, constituyen sitios de reproducción y cría de numerosas especies costeras y marinas, de importancia comercial y para la conservación (Liquete et al., 2016); mantienen la calidad y claridad del agua al filtrar los contaminantes y atrapar los sedimentos procedentes de la tierra (Bouillon et al., 2008); capturan gases de efecto invernadero ya que actúan como sumideros de carbono (Herrera-Silveira et al., 2016). El valor económico anual, asociado al costo de los productos y servicios que proveen los manglares, ha sido estimado entre $200 000 y $900 000 dólares por hectárea (Wells y Ravilious, 2006). ...
Article
The primary objective of this study was to use ecosystem services in land allocation across Gharehsoo watershed in Golestan Province, north of Iran. Hence, land suitability was assessed using multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) methods to develop forestry, agriculture, range management, construction, and conservation land uses. Ecosystem services including water yield, habitat quality, and aesthetic quality were also quantified using integrated valuation of environmental services and tradeoffs (InVEST) and MCE methods. Next, the land allocation was investigated under five scenarios developed based on the land suitability and ecosystem services, namely land suitability, water yield, habitat quality, aesthetic quality and integration scenarios. The scenarios were then implemented using particle swarm optimization algorithm and compared to each other, based on the spatial land use variability and land use fragmentation. The results revealed that there is an obvious difference between the northern and southern parts of the region in terms of their land suitability and ecosystem services. An almost increasing trend was also observed for the allocated area to forestry, range management, and conservation land uses in the following order of scenarios: land suitability, aesthetic quality, water yield, integration, and habitat quality. However, an almost decreasing trend was obtained for agriculture and construction land uses in the same order of scenarios. Besides, range management and agriculture land uses had the highest and lowest spatial variability in all the scenarios, respectively. The results also clarified that the land use fragmentation decreased more in the water yield scenario than the other scenarios. This study indicated that using ecosystem services in land allocation can improve land use pattern and arrangement, consequently, helping take into account the ecosystem conditions in land use planning. In conclusion, this approach can help land managers to make appropriate decisions for maintaining ecosystem services in any region.
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This study was carried out to assess biodiversity and environmental services for inplementing environmental services payment of Babe district, Backan province. Key informant and household interviews were were used to collect information. Results showed that the fauna and flora of Babe were diverse with many species listed in the Red Book of Vietnam and of the world. In additon, Babe has two main forest ecosystems distributed in different terrains. As a result, forest of Babe produced diversified environmental services with high value. However, forest and biodiversity conservation activities of Babe district were not encouraged because the environmental services were exploited and implemented ineffectively. Hence, in the next time Babe district should implement forest and diversity conservations more effectively for maintaning environmental services supply of forest ecosystems and promoting to implement payments for environmental services programs to protect forest resource and improve income for local people.
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Mangroves and seagrasses are important nurseries for many marine species, and this function is linked to the complexity and context of these habitats in coastal seascapes. It is also connected to bathymetric features that influence habitat availability, and the accessibility of refuge habitats, but the significance of terrain variation for nursery function is unknown. To test whether seafloor terrain influences nursery function, we surveyed fish assemblages from mangrove and seagrass habitats in 29 estuaries in eastern Australia with unbaited underwater cameras and quantified the surrounding three-dimensional terrain with a set of complementary surface metrics (that is, depth, aspect, curvature, slope, roughness) applied to sonar-derived bathymetric maps. Terrain metrics explained variability in assemblages in both mangroves and seagrasses, with differing effects for the entire fish assemblage and nursery species composition, and between habitats. Higher depth, plan curvature (concavity or convexity) and roughness (backscatter) were negatively correlated with abundance and diversity in mangroves and positively linked to abundance and diversity in seagrass. Mangrove nursery species (6 species) were most abundant in forests adjacent to flats with concave holes, rough substrates and low-moderate depths, whereas seagrass nursery species (3 species) were most abundant in meadows adjacent to deep channels with soft mounds and ledges. These findings indicate that seafloor terrain influences nursery function and demonstrate contrasting effects of terrain variation in mangroves and seagrass. We suggest that incorporating three-dimensional terrain into coastal conservation and restoration plans could help to improve outcomes for fisheries management, but contrasting strategies might be needed for different nursery habitats.
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Mangroves are some of the most productive coastal systems on the planet and provide valuable ecosystem services (ES). They are especially important in threatened ecosystems and developing countries, where they are likely to have direct impacts on local communities. An approach based on ES allows assessing ecosystems across the domains of ecology, sociology and economy. This study focused on the evaluation of ES in mangroves and started by creating a comprehensive global list of mangrove ES based on the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. These services were then quantified using the best available indicators for mangrove systems. The mangroves of Diogo Nunes, São João dos Angolares and Malanza, located in the São Tomé Island, were used to illustrate the challenges in applying ES indicators in this type of ecosystems. The obtained results confirmed that mangroves can provide important and diverse services. However, the high variability among mangrove systems affects their ability to deliver ES, requiring caution for the extrapolation across regions. This assessment emphasizes how the ES framework can be used as a tool to develop management plans that integrate conservation goals and human wellbeing.
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Within South Africa, the St. Lucia Basin, comprising the White Mfolozi, Black Mfolozi, Mfolozi Hluhluwe-Mkuze sub-basins, is an ecologically important region. However, the river ecosystems and their inherent biota, especially the ichthyofauna, are inadequately studied. Considering the anthropogenic land-use change currently occurring and the concomitant elevated resource-use, we sought to ascertain the composition of the fish species communities within the basin and the environmental drivers influencing the spatial shifts in these communities to provide baseline information. We collected data from 20 sites in the basin from 2016 to 2018. A total of 4 420 individuals representing 24 fish species, from eight families, were recorded. Using generalised linear modelling, species count data were fitted to sub-catchment factor variables and habitat variables. We observed significant differences in the structure of the ichthyofauna communities between the sub-catchments as well as the environmental drivers to be substrate, mean depth, mean velocity, overhanging vegetation and woody debris. The Hluhluwe sub-catchment was the most diverse, while the White Mfolozi was the least diverse. Continued unsustainable use of the basin's water resources and poor land management practices are likely to shift the ichthyofauna communities into uniform, species-depauperate communities, potentially leading to a loss in ecosystem services and functioning.
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Marine, coastal and ocean development has gained impetus around the globe and in particular along Africa’s coastal states. A socio-ecological systems framework approach was adopted to explore marine and coastal socio-ecological systems in Algoa Bay, situated in the Eastern Cape, South Africa a Bay with a rich history steeped in culture and diversity. Phytoplankton biodiversity was determined for the Bay to characterise aspects of the marine environment in Algoa Bay. The policy landscape for South Africa was also analysed to characterise the governance landscape and identify if the policies, legislation and frameworks adopted and applied would support socio-ecological systems thinking and support equitable development of marine and coastal resources. Positives raised by manager are the general positive attitude and proenvironmental value system. To understand how people within the Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality value the marine and coastal environment, their knowledge of phytoplankton and services provided, governance knowledge, attitudes towards the future of the socioenvironment landscape and value positions that would identify pro-environmental behaviour of the communities surveyed. Loss of marine and coastal environments and services would be a direct threat to spiritual and cultural practices and beliefs of the amaXhosa. Further access was a driving theme in this study and therefore development and conservation efforts need to heed the value and importance of having access to the marine and coastal environment, not only for sustaining livelihoods but for religious and leisure experiences. 8 Size fractionated biomass was determined to describe the contribution of different cell size assemblages to the overall productivity of Algoa Bay. The analysis showed a general dominance of microplankton cell sizes with the picoplankton not contributing much towards the overall biomass of the period analysed. Cell size of the phytoplankton species provides an indication of the environmental changes, together with contribution towards biomass. Species that bloom also change the productivity of the system, for example a diatom bloom will increase productivity more so than a dinoflagellate bloom. Cell size will influence response of phytoplankton to environmental changes and how phytoplankton adapts physiologically to stressors such as climate change. However in the context of studies linking biodiversity to a socio-ecological framework, size fractionated data is not required and overall productivity and diversity of the system is better suited for this type of study. The direct link between the ecological and social data is the application of the information for management of the ecosystem and as an early warning system. The information learnt from the managers and community also highlights the need for a shared approach to gathering knowledge and learning about the world around us.
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The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) intend to encourage liveable urban environments by 2030 with a main focus on strategies to achieve environmental and human well-being. In the same way, the multifunctionality principle of green infrastructure planning aims to develop and protect urban green spaces to provide several ecosystem services to increase human well-being whilst protecting the environment. With this in mind, this paper seeks to gather evidence on the nexus between multifunctionality and green infrastructure planning to achieve the SDGs within a South African context. The implementation of green infrastructure to this effect depends on creating awareness of different typologies of green infrastructure elements and the ecosystem services they provide to strengthen the implementation of the green infrastructure concept in urban planning practice. Within the aim of context-specific considerations to green infrastructure planning, green infrastructure typologies possible for implementation within a South Africa urban planning practice context are considerably more limited. A qualitative research approach is employed using case studies identifying specific examples to explore South African green infrastructure typologies and their multifunctionality. Different multifunctionality concepts are recognized by urban planners in South Africa. The research findings highlighted that multifunctionality achieved through green infrastructure planning should inform urban planning practice to promote the integration of ecological considerations. The paper ultimately provides a deeper insight into the expanding field of green infrastructure research in a South African context by underlining context-based multifunctional green infrastructure typologies and accordingly emphasizes, mainstreaming the ecosystem services concept as part of urban planning practice to address the SDGs locally.
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The Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) is widely used for mapping, ecosystem assessment, and natural capital ecosystem accounting. On the basis of the experience gained in using it since the first version was published in 2013, it has been updated for version 5.1. This policy brief summarises what has been done and how the classification can be used.
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Mangrove forests are one of the world's most threatened tropical ecosystems with global loss exceeding 35% (ref. 1). Juvenile coral reef fish often inhabit mangroves, but the importance of these nurseries to reef fish population dynamics has not been quantified. Indeed, mangroves might be expected to have negligible influence on reef fish communities: juvenile fish can inhabit alternative habitats and fish populations may be regulated by other limiting factors such as larval supply or fishing. Here we show that mangroves are unexpectedly important, serving as an intermediate nursery habitat that may increase the survivorship of young fish. Mangroves in the Caribbean strongly influence the community structure of fish on neighbouring coral reefs. In addition, the biomass of several commercially important species is more than doubled when adult habitat is connected to mangroves. The largest herbivorous fish in the Atlantic, Scarus guacamaia, has a functional dependency on mangroves and has suffered local extinction after mangrove removal. Current rates of mangrove deforestation are likely to have severe deleterious consequences for the ecosystem function, fisheries productivity and resilience of reefs. Conservation efforts should protect connected corridors of mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reefs.
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In the EU, the mapping and assessment of ecosystems and their services, abbreviated to MAES, is seen as a key action for the advancement of biodiversity objectives, and also to inform the development and implementation of related policies on water, climate, agriculture, forest, marine and regional planning. In this study, we present the development of an analytical framework which ensures that consistent approaches are used throughout the EU. It is framed by a broad set of key policy questions and structured around a conceptual framework that links human societies and their well-being with the environment. Next, this framework is tested through four thematic pilot studies, including stakeholders and experts working at different scales and governance levels, which contributed indicators to assess the state of ecosystem services. Indicators were scored according to different criteria and assorted per ecosystem type and ecosystem services using the common international classification of ecosystem services (CICES) as typology. We concluded that there is potential to develop a first EU wide ecosystem assessment on the basis of existing data if they are combined in a creative way. However, substantial data gaps remain to be filled before a fully integrated and complete ecosystem assessment can be carried out.
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Human-dominated marine ecosystems are experiencing accelerating loss of populations and species, with largely unknown consequences. We analyzed local experiments, long-term regional time series, and global fisheries data to test how biodiversity loss affects marine ecosystem services across temporal and spatial scales. Overall, rates of resource collapse increased and recovery potential, stability, and water quality decreased exponentially with declining diversity. Restoration of biodiversity, in contrast, increased productivity fourfold and decreased variability by 21%, on average. We conclude that marine biodiversity loss is increasingly impairing the ocean's capacity to provide food, maintain water quality, and recover from perturbations. Yet available data suggest that at this point, these trends are still reversible.
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Biodiversity loss can affect ecosystem functions and services. Individual ecosystem functions generally show a positive asymptotic relationship with increasing biodiversity, suggesting that some species are redundant. However, ecosystems are managed and conserved for multiple functions, which may require greater biodiversity. Here we present an analysis of published data from grassland biodiversity experiments, and show that ecosystem multifunctionality does require greater numbers of species. We analysed each ecosystem function alone to identify species with desirable effects. We then calculated the number of species with positive effects for all possible combinations of functions. Our results show appreciable differences in the sets of species influencing different ecosystem functions, with average proportional overlap of about 0.2 to 0.5. Consequently, as more ecosystem processes were included in our analysis, more species were found to affect overall functioning. Specifically, for all of the analysed experiments, there was a positive saturating relationship between the number of ecosystem processes considered and the number of species influencing overall functioning. We conclude that because different species often influence different functions, studies focusing on individual processes in isolation will underestimate levels of biodiversity required to maintain multifunctional ecosystems.
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We conducted a choice experiment for the economic valuation of benefits of components of biodiversity that are provided by the natural systems protected in the Peñuelas Lake National Reserve, located in the Mediterranean zone of Chile. The Mediterranean zone of central Chile is one of the world's 34 biodiversity hotpots. Furthermore, we estimated the economic benefits of the water supply provided by the reserve. Unlike most of the previous studies on willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation, part of the data that we produce refers to: (a) public WTP for unpopular species of fauna (an endemic amphibian currently in danger of extinction); and (b) public WTP for flora present at the Reserve (endemic orchid species). Specifically the attributes of the study were the following: existence of endemic orchid species; chances of observing animals with scenic attraction; additional protection for an endemic amphibian; and, availability of drinkable water in the future. A rate of entry to the area was incorporated to estimate WTP for additional protection for the selected attributes. WTP data were obtained from a representative sample of Chilean tourists that visit the area. Factors influencing the visitors’ WTP were also explored.Three hundred and four Chilean visitors of the reserve were randomly selected for interviews. Multinomial Logit and Random Parameter Logit models results show that visitors are willing to pay to protect the selected attributes. Marginal mean WTP/visitor for the single levels of variation of the attributes range from about $1.7 per visitor per visit for securing the existence of five species of endemic orchids to about $8.9 for guaranteeing the availability of drinkable water for 50 years. The analysis of visitors’ WTP for different levels of protection allowed an improved understanding of the sensitivity of the participants to the scope of the information provided.
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Where they dominate coastlines, seagrass beds are thought to have a fundamental role in maintaining populations of exploited species. Thus, Mediterranean seagrass beds are afforded protection, yet no attempt to determine the contribution of these areas to both commercial fisheries landings and recreational fisheries expenditure has been made. There is evidence that seagrass extent continues to decline, but there is little understanding of the potential impacts of this decline. We used a seagrass residency index, that was trait and evidence based, to estimate the proportion of Mediterranean commercial fishery landings values and recreation fisheries total expenditure that can be attributed to seagrass during different life stages. The index was calculated as a weighted sum of the averages of the estimated residence time in seagrass (compared with other habitats) at each life stage of the fishery species found in seagrass. Seagrass-associated species were estimated to contribute 30%–40% to the value of commercial fisheries landings and approximately 29% to recreational fisheries expenditure. These species predominantly rely on seagrass to survive juvenile stages. Seagrass beds had an estimated direct annual contribution during residency of €58–91 million (4% of commercial landing values) and €112 million (6% of recreation expenditure) to commercial and recreational fisheries, respectively, despite covering <2% of the area. These results suggest there is a clear cost of seagrass degradation associated with ineffective management of seagrass beds and that policy to manage both fisheries and seagrass beds should take into account the socioeconomic implications of seagrass loss to recreational and commercial fisheries.
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The first public product of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) is its Conceptual Framework. This conceptual and analytical tool, presented here in detail, will underpin all IPBES functions and provide structure and comparability to the syntheses that IPBES will produce at different spatial scales, on different themes, and in different regions. Salient innovative aspects of the IPBES Conceptual Framework are its transparent and participatory construction process and its explicit consideration of diverse scientific disciplines, stakeholders, and knowledge systems, including indigenous and local knowledge. Because the focus on co-construction of integrative knowledge is shared by an increasing number of initiatives worldwide, this framework should be useful beyond IPBES, for the wider research and knowledge-policy communities working on the links between nature and people, such as natural, social and engineering scientists, policy-makers at different levels, and decisionmakers in different sectors of society.
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What can ecological science contribute to the sustainable management and conservation of the natural systems that underpin human well-being? Bridging the natural, physical and social sciences, this book shows how ecosystem ecology can inform the ecosystem services approach to environmental management. The authors recognise that ecosystems are rich in linkages between biophysical and social elements that generate powerful intrinsic dynamics. Unlike traditional reductionist approaches, the holistic perspective adopted here is able to explain the increasing range of scientific studies that have highlighted unexpected consequences of human activity, such as the lack of recovery of cod populations on the Grand Banks despite nearly two decades of fishery closures, or the degradation of Australia's fertile land through salt intrusion. Written primarily for researchers and graduate students in ecology and environmental management, it provides an accessible discussion of some of the most important aspects of ecosystem ecology and the potential relationships between them.
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1. Monitoring anthropogenic impacts is essential for managing and conserving ecosystems, yet current biomonitoring approaches lack the tools required to deal with the effects of stressors on species and their interactions in complex natural systems. 2. Ecological networks (trophic or mutualistic) can offer new insights into ecosystem degradation, adding value to current taxonomically constrained schemes. We highlight some examples to show how new network approaches can be used to interpret ecological responses. 3. Synthesis and applications. Augmenting routine biomonitoring data with interaction data derived from the literature, complemented with ground-truthed data from direct observations where feasible, allows us to begin to characterise large numbers of ecological networks across environmental gradients. This process can be accelerated by adopting emerging technologies and novel analytical approaches, enabling biomonitoring to move beyond simple pass/fail schemes and to address the many ecological responses that can only be understood from a network-based perspective.
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A systematic literature review was undertaken to analyse the linkages between different biodiversity attributes and 11 ecosystem services. The majority of relationships between attributes and ecosystem services cited in the 530 studies were positive. For example, the services of water quality regulation, water flow regulation, mass flow regulation and landscape aesthetics were improved by increases in community and habitat area. Functional traits, such as richness and diversity, also displayed a predominantly positive relationship across the services, most commonly discussed for atmospheric regulation, pest regulation and pollination. A number of studies also discussed a positive correlation with stand age, particularly for atmospheric regulation. Species level traits were found to benefit a number of ecosystem services, with species abundance being particularly important for pest regulation, pollination and recreation, and species richness for timber production and freshwater fishing. Instances of biodiversity negatively affecting the examined ecosystem services were few in number for all ecosystem services, except freshwater provision. The review showed that ecosystem services are generated from numerous interactions occurring in complex systems. However, improving understanding of at least some of the key relationships between biodiversity and service provision will help guide effective management and protection strategies.
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a b s t r a c t Estimation of the economic value of ecosystem services is particularly incipient in the marine realm, where numerous services still need to be evaluated. Seagrasses deliver essential services to humans. In this paper, we determined the economic value of Cymodocea nodosa seagrass meadows for local fisheries at the oceanic island of Gran Canaria (eastern Atlantic). Large-sized fishes, which constitute the fishable fraction, were seasonally sampled through 2011 by means of visual censuses at 12 seagrass-dominated sites. The total fish biomass was 907.6 kg (894.55 kg of commercially-targeted fishes). By using standard market prices, we estimated that the monetary value of this biomass averaged 866 V ha À1 ; at the island-scale, this value adds up to 606 239 V, when considering the area covered by C. nodosa. Small-sized fishes (mostly juveniles that replenish fisheries) were also seasonally sampled, through a seine net, at the same 12 seagrass-dominated sites. Eight nearshore fish species with commercial interest used seagrass meadows as 'nursery grounds'. Estimates of secondary production revealed that this fish production monetarily averaged 95.75 V ha À1 y À1 when considering standard market prices; this value adds up to 67 030.30 V y À1 at the island-scale, when considering the area covered by C. nodosa. This study provides complementary assessments of the key economic contribution of seagrass meadows for coastal fisheries as both 'fishing' and 'nursery' grounds. This is a way to promote the social perception of the key role that seagrasses play on the coast and, therefore, the necessity of incorporating seagrasses into conservation legislative frameworks.
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The second MAES report presents indicators that can be used at European and Member State's level to map and assess biodiversity, ecosystem condition and ecosystem services according to the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES v4.3). This work is based on a review of data and indicators available at national and European level and is applying the MAES analytical framework adopted in 2013.
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In this short welcome note for the new journal “Ecosystem Services”, the main interrelations between the ecosystem service concept and the approach of ecological indicators are briefly discussed with respect to three key issues: at first, some definitions are analyzed to answer the question if ecosystem services can be understood as ecological indicators. Due to a positive answer, the position of ecosystem services in the DPSIR indicator framework is determined as the central impact component. It is stated that different viewpoints are possible to interrelate the services; an environmental starting point focusing on the linkage to ecological processes and functions on the one side, and the relations with human well-being criteria and management obligations on the other. Finally, the actual needs for further research and application are outlined from an indicator-based aspect and the broad field of potential contributions for the new journal is summarized.
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Recently, some members of the conservation community have used ecosystem services as a strategy to conserve biodiversity. Others in the community have criticized this strategy as a distraction from the mission of biodiversity conservation. The debate continues, and it remains unclear whether the concerns expressed are significant enough to merit the opposition. Through an exploration of the science of biodiversity and ecosystem services, we find that narrow interpretations of metrics, values, and management drive much of the tension and make the common ground appear small. The size of this common ground depends on the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem services and how they respond to management interventions. We demonstrate how understanding this response can be used to delimit common ground but highlight the importance of differentiating between objectives and approaches to meeting those objectives in conservation projects.
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Controlled experiments have substantially advanced our understanding of the links between changing biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) in recent years. However, controversy continues regarding the relevance of BEF experiments to the complex ecosystems and large spatial and temporal scales of interest in conservation and management. Here, I address some of the persistent criticisms regarding experimental BEF research and argue that these have been overstated. Contrary to some suggestions, many putative artifacts attributed to experiments render their conclusions about BEF links stronger, rather than weaker. Like other broad ecological concepts, BEF focuses on general patterns, rather than looking at species-level, applied conservation problems. Nevertheless, insights from BEF experiments conducted to date are likely to underestimate, rather than overestimate, the importance of biodiversity to ecosystem functioning and the provision of ecosystem services in the real world. These experiments suggest that managing ecosystems to promote biodiversity can have important practical benefits.
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Research on ecosystem services has grown exponentially during the last decade. Most of the studies have focused on assessing and mapping terrestrial ecosystem services highlighting a knowledge gap on marine and coastal ecosystem services (MCES) and an urgent need to assess them. We reviewed and summarized existing scientific literature related to MCES with the aim of extracting and classifying indicators used to assess and map them. We found 145 papers that specifically assessed marine and coastal ecosystem services from which we extracted 476 indicators. Food provision, in particular fisheries, was the most extensively analyzed MCES while water purification and coastal protection were the most frequently studied regulating and maintenance services. Also recreation and tourism under the cultural services was relatively well assessed. We highlight knowledge gaps regarding the availability of indicators that measure the capacity, flow or benefit derived from each ecosystem service. The majority of the case studies was found in mangroves and coastal wetlands and was mainly concentrated in Europe and North America. Our systematic review highlighted the need of an improved ecosystem service classification for marine and coastal systems, which is herein proposed with definitions and links to previous classifications. This review summarizes the state of available information related to ecosystem services associated with marine and coastal ecosystems. The cataloging of MCES indicators and the integrated classification of MCES provided in this paper establish a background that can facilitate the planning and integration of future assessments. The final goal is to establish a consistent structure and populate it with information able to support the implementation of biodiversity conservation policies.
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Reducing the rate of biodiversity loss and averting dangerous biodiversity change are international goals, reasserted by the Aichi Targets for 2020 by Parties to the United Nations (UN) Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) after failure to meet the 2010 target ( 1, 2). However, there is no global, harmonized observation system for delivering regular, timely data on biodiversity change ( 3). With the first plenary meeting of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) soon under way, partners from the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) ( 4) are developing—and seeking consensus around—Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) that could form the basis of monitoring programs worldwide.
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Michael W. Beck, Kenneth L. Heck, Jr., Kenneth W. Able, Daniel L. Childers, David B. Eggleston, Bronwyn M. Gillanders, Benjamin Halpern, Cynthia G. Hays, Kaho Hoshino, Thomas J. Minello, Robert J. Orth, Peter F. Sheridan and Michael P. Weinstein
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Tropical marine ecosystems are under mounting anthropogenic pressure from overfishing and habitat destruction, leading to declines in their structure and function on a global scale. Although maintaining connectivity among habitats within a seascape is necessary for preserving population resistance and resilience, quantifying movements of individuals within seascapes remains challenging. Traditional methods of identifying and valuing potential coral reef fish nursery habitats are indirect, often relying on visual surveys of abundance and correlations of size and biomass among habitats. We used compound-specific stable isotope analyses to determine movement patterns of commercially important fish populations within a coral reef seascape. This approach allowed us to quantify the relative contributions of individuals from inshore nurseries to reef populations and identify migration corridors among important habitats. Our results provided direct measurements of remarkable migrations by juvenile snapper of over 30 km, between nurseries and reefs. We also found significant plasticity in juvenile nursery residency. Although a majority of individuals on coastal reefs had used seagrass nurseries as juveniles, many adults on oceanic reefs had settled directly into reef habitats. Moreover, seascape configuration played a critical but heretofore unrecognized role in determining connectivity among habitats. Finally, our approach provides key quantitative data necessary to estimate the value of distinctive habitats to ecosystem services provided by seascapes.
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The goal of ecosystem-based marine spatial management is to maintain marine ecosystems in a healthy, productive and re-silient condition; hence, they can sustainably provide the needed goods and services for human welfare. However, the increasing pressures upon the marine realm threaten marine ecosystems, especially seabed biotopes, and thus a well-planned approach of managing use of marine space is essential to achieve sustainability. The relative value of seabed biotopes, evaluated on the basis of goods and services, is an important starting point for the spatial management of marine areas. Herein, 56 types of European seabed biotopes and their related goods, services, sensitivity issues, and conservation status were compiled, the latter referring to management and protection tools which currently apply for these biotopes at European or international level. Fishing activities, especially by benthic trawls, and marine pollution are the main threats to European seabed biotopes. Increased seawater turbidity, dredged sediment disposal, coastal constructions, biological invasions, mining, extraction of raw materials, shipping-related ac-tivities, tourism, hydrocarbon exploration, and even some practices of scientific research, also exert substantial pressure. Although some first steps have been taken to protect the European sea beds through international agreements and European and national legislation, a finer scale of classification and assessment of marine biotopes is considered crucial in shaping sound priorities and management guidelines towards the effective conservation and sustainability of European marine resources.
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Canopy-forming macroalgae of the genus Cystoseira are being lost in several areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Cystoseira amentacea var. stricta and C. compressa are common species in the Ligurian Sea; they are distributed in patches, but their abundance and distribution is locally variable. We investigated changes in relative cover, biomass and morphology of Cystoseira amentacea var. stricta and C. compressa with increasing urbanisation, and effects of the presence or absence of Cystoseira species on the composition and structure of understorey assemblages. C. amentacea var. stricta habitats were lost close to urban areas, while C. compressa slightly increased. The morphological characteristics of these 2 species were very variable in space and time, and did not vary with urbanisation. Assemblages lacking canopy differed markedly from Cystoseira-dominated assemblages, particularly assemblages dominated by Corallina elongata, the species most responsive to changes in habitat structure and urbanisation, which forms dense turfs in urban habitats lacking canopies. Marked species-specific differences between the assemblages dominated by the 2 Cystoseira species were detected. C. amentacea var. stricta is a key species maintaining habitat complexity and species diversity in Mediterranean rocky shores and we recommend additional conservation actions, such as habitat restoration by transplantation of this endangered species.