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Türk İşaret Dili Dilbilgisi Kitabı

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Abstract

(the first grammar book on Turkish Sign Language, approved officially) Oldukça geniş kapsamlı bir derlem çalışmasının sonunda ortaya çıkan bu kitabın verilerini toplamak için alanda sürdürülen çalışmalar, Türk İşaret Dili (TİD)’nin, Sağır toplumu tarafından Türkiye’nin her bölgesinde ve yaşamın her alanında (tiyatro, spor, hukuk vd.) kullanılan ulusal bir işaret dili olduğunu bir kez daha kanıtlamış bulunmaktadır. Dünyadaki diğer işaret dilleri gibi başka herhangi bir sözlü dilden türememiş doğal dil olan TİD, hem Türkçe’den hem de diğer ülkelerde kullanılan işaret dillerinden farklı dilbilgisel kurallar içermesinin yanı sıra, sözlü dillerde var olan yerel ağız/lehçe farklılıklarını da içinde barındırmakta, ancak bu farklılıklar, dilbilgisel işleyişte değil sözcük düzeyinde kendini göstermektedir. Türk İşaret Dili Dilbilgisi Kitabı alanda gerçekleştirilen veri toplama süreci ve konuların metinleştirilmesi dahil olmak üzere 6 ay gibi çok kısa bir sürede ortaya konmuştur. Bu 6 aylık süreçte, pilot çalışma gerçekleştirilmiş, proje ekibine hem teknik hem de dilbilimsel eğitimler verilmiş, alan çalışmasının planlaması yapılmış, ardından Türkiye’nin dört bir köşesinde toplam 26 İl’e gidilerek her İl’den anadili Türk İşaret Dili olan ortalama 4 sağırdan yarı yapılandırılmış yöntemle ve Türk İşaret Dili kullanılarak (toplam 113 sağırdan) veri toplanmıştır. Derlem büyüklüğü yaklaşık 800.000 sözcük olup 6.240 dakikalık kayıttan oluşmaktadır. Bu süreçte toplanan verilerin 4’te 1’i ElAN yazılımı ile çözümlenmiş, çözümleme belli bir düzeye ulaştıktan sonra kitabın yazımı gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu kapsamda bir işaret dili dilbilgisi projesinin ve kitabının ne Türkiye’de ne de başka bir ülkede gerçekleştirilmemiş olmasından yola çıkarak elinizdeki kitabın bir ilk olma özelliği taşıdığını da söyleyebiliriz. T.C. Aile ve Sosyal Politikalar Bakanlığı Engelli ve Yaşlı Hizmetleri Genel müdürlüğü tarafından hazırlanmış ve 2015 yılı kamu yatırımı projesi kapsamında yürütülmekte olan bu projede, 4 danışman ve 3 araştırmacı- editörden oluşan akademik ekip, işaret dil(ler)i üzerine pek çok bilimsel çalışması bulunan dilbilim uzmanlarıdır. Teknik ekip ve alan sorumluları da, daha önce dilbilgisi çalışma deneyimleri olan toplam 8 sağır bireyden oluşmaktadır. Türkiye’nin her bir yanında araştırmamıza katılan sağır toplum bireylerinin destekleri olmadan böyle bir çalışmayı gerçekleştirmemiz kesinlikle olanaksızdı. Her birine ayrı ayrı çok teşekkür ederiz.
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... These videos were also analyzed in order to identify accompanying nonmanuals such as 'bn' (Dikyuva, 2011). 'ap' which is puffed cheeks and the negative counterpart of perfective aspectual signs was also observed in the data (Dikyuva et al., 2015). Due to time and space constraints, an analysis for all the manual signs cannot be provided in this thesis. ...
... Moving on to HİÇ 'ever', as seen in both (2) and Figure 1, it occurs after the verb inflected with 'ap'. Dikyuva et al. (2015) has reported it as a perfective negative marker (p. 264-5) and their examples do not have any other negative sign, namely either manual or nonmanual. ...
... Additionally, HİÇ can occur with either perfective or non-perfective contexts as in (3) and (4) (cf. Dikyuva et al., 2015). Furthermore, it co-occurs with the nonmanual 'ap' as seen in Figure 1The further study is needed to see whether TİD has two HİÇs: one is npi while the other is the negative counterpart of BİT. ...
Thesis
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The need to study aspectual marking in TİD lies in the fact that a small number of studies in the literature mention manual aspectual markers but do not provide a detailed analysis. Understanding the aspectual marking in TİD will present a comprehensive understanding of the event structure in TİD and how it is mapped to syntax. In this thesis, I discuss the implications of my findings for aspect projections in Turkish Sign Language (TİD). I especially focus on viewpoint aspect based on an empirical study that investigates how the manual aspect marker BİT 'finish' and the nonmanual marker 'bn' differ in terms of their aspectual functions. First of all, I present data that these signs are functional signs used to mark viewpoint aspect in TİD. The evidence comes from empirical data presenting their interaction with negation. Secondly, I discuss that the manual marker BİT has a significantly different aspectual function from the nonmanual marker ‘bn’ by providing their sub-categorizational frames. Even though Dikyuva (2011) analyzed 'bn' as a completive marker, I show that 'bn' is compatible with both termination and completion. Building upon the syntactic representation proposed for TİD by Gökgöz (2009), I propose that TİD has a set of aspectual projections and BİT and 'bn' enter the syntactic composition at different levels of hierarchical structure of these functional categories. These findings will shed light on the discussions and studies on event structure, complexity in the verbal domain, and how semantic notions interact with syntax.
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