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# Effects of metal-contaminated soils on the accumulation of heavy metals in gotu kola (Centella asiatica) and the potential health risks: a study in Peninsular Malaysia

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Centella asiatica is a commonly used medicinal plant in Malaysia. As heavy metal accumulation in medicinal plants which are highly consumed by human is a serious issue, thus the assessment of heavy metals in C. asiatica is important for the safety of consumers. In this study, the heavy metal accumulation in C. asiatica and the potential health risks were investigated. Samples of C. asiatica and surface soils were collected from nine different sites around Peninsular Malaysia. The concentration of six heavy metals namely Cd, Cu, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn were determined by air-acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The degree of anthropogenic influence was assessed by calculating the enrichment factor (EF) and index of geoaccumulation (Igeo). The heavy metal uptake into the plant was estimated through the calculation of translocation factor (TF), bioconcentration factor (BCF) and correlation study. Estimated daily intakes (EDI) and target hazard quotients (THQ) were used to determine the potential health risk of consuming C. asiatica. The results showed that the overall surface soil was polluted by Cd, Cu and Pb, while the uptake of Zn and Ni by the plants was high. The value of EDI and THQ showed that the potential of Pb toxicity in C. asiatica was high as well. As heavy metal accumulation was confirmed in C. asiatica, daily consumption of the plant derived from polluted sites in Malaysia was not recommended.
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... In general, the Cd ions tend to retain in the roots, and only a modest portion is actually translocated to shoots depending upon the plant types (Abe et al. 2008;Gill et al. 2011). The Cd distribution from belowground (roots) to aboveground (shoots/ leaves) plant parts is driven by means of plasma membrane transporters (especially diverse transporters like Fe) enabling xylem/phloem loading (Nakanishi et al. 2006;Ong et al. 2016;Ibrahim et al. 2017); further, it is an unaggressive method which is motivated by the process of plant transpiration. ...
Chapter
Cadmium (Cd) is one of the common toxic heavy metals (HMs), having harmful effects on the environment and potential health hazards allied with food chain contamination due to higher mobility, easy integration capacity in ion channels, and prolonged persistence. At present, Cd toxicity has become a serious social issue, since the use of Cd has increased alarmingly owing to industrial development and advanced agricultural practices throughout the world. In the current chapter, we aim to summarize the latest research outcomes on the consequence of Cd toxicity on plants and human health. We discuss the sources of Cd and the mechanisms behind the contamination of agricultural soil along with the environment by Cd. The chapter also covers the exploration of Cd uptake, its transport and accumulation in plants, and the detrimental effects of Cd on seed germination, plant growth, photosynthetic efficiency, mineral nutrition, protein homeostasis, antioxidant potential, reactive oxygen species generation, oxidative damage, and relevant metabolic changes. The current knowledge of recent research advances would aid future research for developing new approaches in recovering the hazardous effect of Cd on plants and human health as well as benefit the farming societies and consumers, thereby mitigating concerns about food safety.
... Out of 20 comparisons in Table 6 for Pb Igeo, the present mean Pb I geo of all sampling sites of Peninsular Malaysia was higher in 13 comparisons but lower than those reported for Dabaoshan mine [67], Khatoon Iran [82], Hyderabad industrial area of India [61], habitat topsoils of Centella asiatica from Peninsular Malaysia [87], Seri Kembangan industrial area [84], mining area in Huize of China [85], and Bestari mine dump [17]. ...
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This study reported the ecological risks and human health risk assessments of five potentially toxic metals in the topsoils of six land uses in Peninsular Malaysia. It was found that industry, landfill, rubbish heap, and mining areas were categorized as “very high ecological risk”. The land uses of industry, landfill and rubbish heap were found to have higher hazard quotient values for the three pathways of the five metals for children and adults, when compared to the mining, plantation, and residential areas. The values for both the non-carcinogenic (Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn), and carcinogenic risks for inhalation (Cd and Ni) obtained for children and adults in this study showed no harmful health effects on their health. However, of public concern, the hazard index, for Pb of children at the landfill and the rubbish heap showed non-carcinogenic risk for children. Therefore, children need to be taken care from public standpoint. They should be advised not to play in the topsoils near industry, landfill and rubbish heap areas. The present findings are important for the environmental management of potentially toxic metals especially in the land uses of industry, landfill and rubbish heap in Peninsular Malaysia.
... Estimated daily intakes (EDI) and target hazard quotients (THQ) originally established by the USEPA (2005) are widely used in human health risk assessment of heavy metals through oral intake of a wide range of food sources (Zheng et al. 2007;Liu et al. 2013;Jolly et al. 2013;Cheng and Yap 2015;Ong et al. 2015;Li et al. 2016Li et al. , 2018Yaacob et al. 2018). Food consumption patterns based on the various ethnicities in Malaysia were crucial to obtain an accurate HHRA as the average body weight and the food consumption pattern could be vastly different among different localities, cultural ethnicities and age groups. ...
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Along with the growing utilization of zinc (Zn) and Zn-containing nanoparticles in various industries, Zn ecotoxicological evaluation on human food supply is necessary even though Zn is generally considered safe and rarely concentrated ecotoxicologically. This study aimed to investigate the bioaccumulation of Zn in 18 species of vegetables (seven leafy, nine fruity vegetables and one species each of tuber and legume) collected from two farming sites in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. A human health risk assessment (HHRA) was also conducted. In addition to HHRA based on the general population, HHRA based on each major ethnic group of the Malaysian society was also determined considering that the food consumption pattern would definitely be varied across ethnicities and age groups (children and adults). The study results showed that Zn concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in leafy vegetables than in other types of vegetables. However, the target hazard quotient (THQ) values were all found to be < 1.0. Therefore, based on the Malaysian ethnicities and age groups with their respective vegetable consumption patterns, the results indicated insignificant noncarcinogenic human health risk of Zn via oral consumption of vegetables by the Malaysian population. As a metric of measurement of HHRA, a comparison of THQ values could yield previously unreported insights into HHRA differences among the compared populations. A comparison of THQ values among the consumer groups indicated higher HHR for Chinese Malaysians and children due to their higher vegetable consumption and lower body weight, respectively. A comparison the Zn intakes of all the consumer groups with the recommended nutrient intakes indicated that the oral consumption of the vegetable species collected in this study would not result in Zn-related hazards and would not be able to fulfil the Zn dietary need of the individual consumer.
... There was no significant variation of the Cd and Pb concentrations in leaves among the study sites during both sampling seasons. However, the Cr concentration in the leaves of Centella asiatica collected from the nonorganic study sites were significantly higher than that of the organic study sites in both sampling seasons ( [26][27][28]. The roots are the major route of taking up water and nutrients into the plants. ...
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Centella asiatica is a commonly consumed green leafy vegetable in many developing countries due its high nutritious value and availability at low cost. The present study was conducted to assess the Cd, Cr and Pb uptake associated health risks of Centella asiatica harvested from organic and non-organic cultivations in a chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDue) prevalent area in Sri Lanka. The health risk assessment was conducted in terms of the bioconcentration factor (BCF), soil-to-root and root-to-leaf translocation factors ( $${\text{TF}}\,({\text{soil-root}})$$ TF ( soil-root ) and $${\text{TF}}\,({\text{root-leaf}})$$ TF ( root-leaf ) ), Target hazard quotient for each heavy metal (THQ) and hazard index (HI). In addition, the spatial variation of physical and chemical parameters of the root zone soil were assessed using MINITAB 17 statistical software. Results indicated significant spatial variations in conductivity, organic matter content and Cr concentrations among organic and non-organic study sites. The Cr, Cd and Pb concentrations recorded from roots and leaves of Centella asiatica were higher than the safe limits for consumption established by the European Union. The health risk analysis indicated that there is a potential of hyper-accumulating Cd in the roots of Centella asiatica . Further, the THQ and HI of the heavy metals indicated possible adverse non-cancer health risks associated with long-term consumption of leaves of Centella asiatica . Therefore, necessary precautionary actions to prevent the excessive buildup of Cr, Cd and Pb in the edible portions of Centella asiatica are essential in order to ensure consumer safety.
... Other anthropogenic activities such as automobile exhaust, urbanization, and industrialization also contribute directly or indirectly to the elemental content in plants (Coşkun et al., 2006;Schulze et al., 1997;Stafilov et al., 2010;Tóth et al., 2016). Several studies of multi-element concentration in soil and plant have been extensively carried out by many scientists with different methods such as neutron activation analysis, mass spectrometry, x-ray fluorescence, and chemical method (Jolly et al., 2013;Nordløkken et al., 2015;Ong et al., 2016;Zinicovscaia et al., 2019). The ratio between element concentration in plant and element concentration in soil was proposed as soil-to-plant transfer factor to evaluate the uptake of elements in plants and assess the health risk of heavy metals to human (Ehlken and Kirchner, 2002;IAEA, 2010;Yang et al., 2014). ...
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A R T I C L E I N F O Keywords: Heavy metal Instrumental neutron activation analysis Soil-to-plant transfer factor Target hazard quotient A B S T R A C T The contamination of heavy metals in agricultural ecosystem is one of the most important problems in developing countries as Vietnam. In this study, we investigated the multi-element concentrations in soil, vegetables, soil-to-plant transfer factors and target hazard quotient (THQ) due to the consumption of heavy metals in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. In general, the element concentrations in soil and plants were similar to different studies in the world and in the range of allowable values provided by WHO and the Ministry of Health of Vietnam. The transfer factors indicated the influence of element characteristics and plant genotypes on the accumulation and translocation of elements from soil to plants. It is found that I. batatas, B. alba, A, tricolor, O. basilicum, and B. juncea could be potential candidates for phytoremediation in soil contaminated of heavy metals. The results of individual and total THQ were below unity for Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, As, and Sb. The total THQ is in the range from 0.11 for R. sativus to 0.84 for B. alba with the average value of 0.43, in which Mn and As are the major contributions to the total THQ with the average values of 75% and 18%, respectively. The safety assessment based on national regulations and THQ indicated that the consumption of investigated vegetables poses no risk to the consumers.
... Exposure to heavy metals through water will then enter the soil (Ong et al., 2016), thus threatening human health (Karbassi et al., 2008), because it easily enters the human body through the mouth and can also enter through skin contact. The inclusion of these heavy metals for a long time causes a decrease in soil carrying capacity, which ultimately threatens the environment. ...
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Coal stockpile activities have a positive impact on the economy of the community, on the other hand, the negative impact of pollution. This study aims to examine the magnitude of heavy metals content in soil and water (run off) and how the pattern of clustering of heavy metals is the result of coal stockpile activity. A sampling of coal, soil, and water using sample grid method. The amount of heavy metal content of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the soil respectively 0.17; 2.99; 7.32; 1.41; 16.00; 18.76 mg/g, relatively larger than in coal and runoff water. The heavy metals content of Cd and Cr in coal are not detected respectively, while for Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn are respectively 0.63; 0.62; 3.93 and 2.58 mg / g. The content of heavy metals in runoff water respectively 0.08; 6.00; 15.00; 15.00; 10.00 and 25.00 mg/L. The pattern of clustering of heavy metals in soil and water media has 2 groups that have similarities with heavy metal patterns in coal. Group 1 consists of Cd, Cr, Cu and Ni and group 2 consists of Pb and Zn.
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In fly ash–contaminated soils, metal buildup and translocation and their subsequent uptake in different parts of naturally growing plants were studied. The mean metal levels in soil and plants at uncontaminated site were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than the contaminated site. In polluted soils, metal enrichment factor (EF) was observed in order of Cd > Fe> Cr > Zn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Mn. The shoot enrichment factor (SEF) of Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce) was Cd > Fe > Zn > Cr > Ni > Cu > Mn > Pb, whereas for Azadirachta indica (A. Indica) and Cassia fistula (C. fistula), the SEF was of the order Fe > Cd > Cr > Zn> Ni > Mn > Cu > Pb, respectively. Root enrichment factor (REF) for P. dulce was Cd > Fe > Zn > Ni > Cu > Cr = Mn > Pb, but in A. indica, the REF was Fe > Cd > Zn > Ni > Mn > Pb > Cu > Cr, and in C. fistula, this order was Fe > Cd > Zn > Ni > Cr > Cu > Mn > Pb. Metal mobilization ratio in plants at both sites were below 1, except Mn and Fe at contaminated site. Single and combined element pollution indexes (SEPI and CPI) and shoot contamination factor (SCF) at contaminated soil were higher than uncontaminated, but root contamination factor (RCF) between sites shows a variable response. From ANOVA results, metal concentration showed significant variation due to site, plants, location, and season interactions.
Thesis
In this contribution, we have evaluated the impact of irrigation with treated wastewater (TWW) in comparison with conventional water (CW), on the evolution of morphological and agronomic parameters throughout the cycle of a strawberry crop. Besides, we have assessed the cumulative effect of heavy metals in the soil through long-term irrigation with TWW in vineyards, as well as table grapes. Therefore, the obtained results in the strawberry experiment show that the growth characteristics (diameter, height, number of leaves, number of fully developed buds, chlorophyll content), production and morphological parameters of the fruits observed during the two seasons (cycle 1 and cycle 2) do not significantly differ between the two qualities of irrigation water (TWW and CW). This result is endorsed by the fact that we have obtained similar strawberry plant development for both treatments. This makes it possible to consider the possibility of using TWW without leading to a negative impact on the main agronomic parameters of the crop. On the other hand, soils that receive wastewater, due to the unavailability of fresh water for irrigation, can accumulate a considerable amount of heavy metals. Our results show that the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in soils did not exceed the safety limits set by FAO/WHO. In addition, concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in strawberries irrigated with TWW in comparison with CW. However, the quantified concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in strawberries were below the maximum allowable limits set by FAO/WHO. As a result, the long-term application of treated or untreated wastewater has resulted in a significant accumulation of heavy metals in the soil. For example, heavy metals are priority toxic pollutants that significantly limit the beneficial use of treated or untreated wastewater. For this, the results of analyses on the vineyard soils showed that the heavy metal contents (Cu, Cr, Mg and Pb) increased in the ploughing area "H1" (0 to 20 cm) and sub-surface "H2" (20 to 40 cm) with subsequent irrigation with TWW (15 years), these contents are higher compared to the non-irrigated control soil. On the other hand, Zn contents were decreased in H1 and increased in H2 with continuous irrigation with TWW, these contents are lower than those obtained in the non-irrigated control soil. However, no contamination was found in relation to Cd levels. Thus, the results showed that the contamination of soil irrigated with treated wastewater with heavy metals is significant, but does not present a major problem since the total levels do not exceed the permitted limits for soil set by FAO/WHO. In addition, analytical results obtained on grape juice have shown that grapes irrigated with TWW are contaminated with heavy metals. The levels of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb obtained in the sabelle juices did not present a toxicity problem since the levels did not exceed the permitted limits for juices set by FAO/WHO, except for Cr, which exceeded the standard. Thus, for Redglobe juices, the levels of Zn, Cu, Cd and Cr did not exceed the permitted limits for juices set by FAO/WHO, with the exception of Pb, which was well above the standard. Indeed, the reuse of treated wastewater for crop irrigation could help mitigate or even reduce water deficit, support the agricultural sector and protect groundwater resources. However, it is necessary to mention that appropriate management of agricultural treated wastewater reuse procedures as well as periodic monitoring of water, soil and agricultural product quality parameters are mandatory for reliable and long periods.
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The aim of this study is to provide information on the concentration of metals in cockles (Anadara granosa) from Kuala Selangor, Malaysia. Cockles in this study area were taken by local people as part of their diet, therefore necessary to determine metal concentrations in the cockles. Sample collection activity was conducted at Kuala Selangor (03°20'N - 101°15'E) between the month of March, and April 2012. About two kilograms of samples were purchased from local fish market at Kuala Selangor. The concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Fe and Zn in the samples were analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission (ICP-OES). The observed mean concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Fe and Zn is 1.48 ± 0.33, 1.43 ± 0.91, 15.78 ± 5.28, 1.11 ± 0.46, 875.55 ± 343.43 and 94.17 ± 7.91 mg/kg respectively. From the public health point of view, these metal concentrations were below the maximum permissible levels set by the Malaysian Food Act (1983) and Regulations (1985). Therefore, cockles from Kuala Selangor are safe for human consumption. © 2014, Malaysian Society of Analytical Sciences. All rights reserved.
Book
An understanding of the mineral nutrition of plants is of fundamental importance in both basic and applied plant sciences. The Second Edition of this book retains the aim of the first in presenting the principles of mineral nutrition in the light of current advances. This volume retains the structure of the first edition, being divided into two parts: Nutritional Physiology and Soil-Plant Relationships. In Part I, more emphasis has been placed on root-shoot interactions, stress physiology, water relations, and functions of micronutrients. In view of the worldwide increasing interest in plant-soil interactions, Part II has been considerably altered and extended, particularly on the effects of external and interal factors on root growth and chapter 15 on the root-soil interface. The second edition will be invaluable to both advanced students and researchers.
Chapter
Iron (Fe) is an intriguing nutrient due to its dual nature. Its redox properties make it essential for different vital processes in plant cells. But an excess of Fe can be toxic as it catalyses the formation of reactive oxygen species. Therefore Fe homeostasis must be tightly regulated. Different mechanisms contribute to the regulation, including the control of uptake, the intracellular chelation by different molecules and the partitioning into the organelles and storage locations. Despite its high abundance in soil, Fe solubility is extremely low. Fe availability represents a significant constraint to plant growth and plants have developed distinct strategies to ensure Fe solubilisation and uptake. The Fe-S clusters in the electron transport chain of mitochondria and chloroplasts represent an important sink of Fe. Recent observations suggest that a co-regulation exists between Fe and sulfur metabolism. This is most likely the outcome of the high demand for Fe and S required for the biosynthesis of Fe-S clusters. In the following chapter the uptake strategies and their regulation mechanisms will be introduced. Moreover, different aspects of the regulation of Fe homeostasis in the cell will be presented, including the partitioning in the organelles. In the last section different evidences towards the interaction between Fe and S metabolism will be discussed.