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Abstract

Coparenting is examined as an explanatory link between marital conflict and parent-child relations in 2-parent families. Data were collected from 3 samples (pilot sample, n = 220 mothers; preadolescent sample, n = 75 couples; preschool sample, n = 172 couples) by using the Coparenting Questionnaire (G. Margolin, 1992b) to assess parents' perceptions of one another on 3 dimensions-cooperation, triangulation, and conflict. Main effects for child's age and for parents' gender were found for cooperation, and an interaction between parent and child gender was found for triangulation. Regression analyses were consistent with a model of coparenting mediating the relationship between marital conflict and parenting. Discussion addresses the theoretical and clinical importance of viewing coparenting as conceptually separate from other family processes.

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... Within family systems theory, the coparenting relationship constitutes a pivotal subsystem, distinct from all other family subsystems (such as the dyadic parents' relationship; the dyadic parenting relationships of each parent with each child; the siblings' subsystem). The coparenting relationship is different from-and should not be conflated with or reduced to-the sum of all the relationships within the family system, including the marital-relationship, the parent-child relationship, and the whole family system (e.g., Kerig, 2019;Minuchin, 1974;Margolin, 2001;McHale, 1997;Van Egeren & Hawkins, 2004;Teubert & Pinquart, 2010). Within this family systems perspective, the construct of coparenting elucidates why conflicted and even highly conflicted parents can nevertheless still parent their child(ren) competently and effectively (Pruett et al., 2017. ...
... Coparenting research has tended so far to focus on families adjusting to parental separation/divorce, which was the original context in which attention to coparenting first emerged 5 decades ago (Margolin et al., 2001). However, coparenting refers to the coordination and distribution of parental tasks and roles taking place across all forms of family dynamics and arrangements. ...
... Though significant heterogeneity exists across studies of the various constructs of coparenting, most studies have identified two high-order dimensions, conflict and support, and several lower-order dimensions, including triangulation (in the special and limited sense of involving parent-child coalitions that undermine the other parent and blur parentchild boundaries; Margolin et al., 2001); coparenting alliance (Hock & Mooradian, 2012, 2013Van Egeren & Hawkins, 2004); childrearing agreement; division of labor in childrearing; support and undermining actions between co-parents; and joint family management of interactions (Feinberg, 2003;McHale & Irace, 2011). ...
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To further refine the measurement of coparenting across family dynamics, this article presents data from 2 separately collected samples, the first consisting of 252 parents and the second consisting of 329 parents, analyzed as a pilot study of the Short-Form of the Coparenting Across Family Structures Scale (CoPAFS 27-Items). The purpose of the revised shortened tool is to further the design of an efficient and psychometrically strong tool to aid research and clinical practice with coparents. Our intent was to differentiate coparenting in intact, separated/divorced, and families where the parents were never romantically involved, between mothers and fathers, and between high- and low-income levels. This pilot test assessed psychometric properties (stability, reliability, and internal consistency) of the CoPAFS to determine whether the measure could be useful for evaluating the core dimensions of coparenting. Analyses reduced the 56-item CoPAFS scale developed from existing scales and literature to a 5-component scale of 27 items, including Respect, Trust, Valuing the other parent, Communication and Hostility. Implications for interventions and future research are briefly discussed.
... Research has shown that one factor relevant to cooperation is how parents communicate with each other, whether they discuss parental issues, and even if direct communication with their children about the co-parent seems to be an important to cooperation . A study by Margolin et al. (2001) assessed three samples with a co-parenting questionnaire to analyse parents' perception of one another on three dimensions: cooperation, triangulation, and conflict. The results showed that main effects for child's age and for parents' gender were found for the dimension cooperation. ...
... An interaction between parent and child gender was found for triangulation. Regression analyses were consistent with a model of co-parenting that mediates the relationship between marital conflict and parenting (Margolin et al., 2001). ...
... There are various studies on this subject of separate custody, but cooperation as such is rarely investigated as construct alone. Nonetheless, there are some instruments for this purpose (Margolin et al., 2001), usually within the framework of marriage relationships. ...
... Whereas distressed couples tend to be ineffective in working as a team in child-rearing (Stroud, Durbin, Wilson, & Mendelsohn, 2011), constructive interparental conflict contributes to a healthy family climate through parents' successful coparenting (Christopher, Umemura, Mann, Jacobvitz, & Hazen, 2015) and positive parenting practices (McCoy et al., 2013). That is, parents with high levels of constructive communication provide mutual support and show less coparenting conflict, which, in turn, likely boosts positive parenting (Margolin, Gordis, & John, 2001). The complexity of family interactions calls for further research on the protective influence of constructive interparental conflict in a larger parenting context. ...
... We further expect that successful coparenting and positive parenting mediate this link in a double mediation. More specifically, it is assumed that constructive interparental conflict enhances coparenting behavior (Christopher et al., 2015), which in turn contributes to higher levels of positive parenting (Margolin et al, 2001) and, ultimately, to better children's health. We control for child age in all analyses. ...
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Objective To examine how constructiveness in interparental conflict affects mothers' perception of children's psychological and physical health and whether coparenting and positive parenting mediate these effects. Background Children exposed to high levels of interparental conflict are at elevated risk of developing health problems. However, previous research suggests that constructive and destructive interparental conflict may affect children's health differently. Method Mothers (n = 289) with at least one child aged 3.5 to 8 years completed an online survey about parenting, coparenting, interparental conflict, and different aspects of child health. Results Results suggest that higher constructiveness in interparental conflict is related to fewer emotional problems, less pain, and fewer infectious diseases in children, independent of gender. The effects were fully mediated by coparenting. Conclusion Constructive interparental conflict promotes children's physical and psychological health and coparenting emerged as an important mechanism for this link. Implications Enhancement of constructive interparental conflict and coparenting are promising avenues to foster children's healthy development.
... Respondents completed 4 items of the Coparental Interaction Scale (Ahrons, 1981) on a 6-point response scale (1 = "never", to 6 = "always") to assess coparent conflict (e.g., "When you and your coparent discussed parenting issues how often did an argument result;" α = 0.849). Respondents completed 12 items primarily from the conflict and triangulation subscales of the Coparenting Questionnaire (CQ; Margolin, 1992;Margolin, Gordis, & John, 2001) on a 6-point response scale (1 = "never", to 6 = "always") to assess coparent triangulation (e.g., "My coparent tried to get our child(ren) to take sides when we argue," "My coparent undermined my parenting," "My coparent used our child(ren) to irritate or upset me;" α = 0.954). Lastly, respondents completed 4 items primarily from the conflict subscale of the Coparenting Questionnaire (CQ; Margolin, 1992;Margolin et al., 2001) on a 6-point response scale (1 = "never", to 6 = "always") to assess coparent disagreement (e.g., "My coparent and I disagreed on how to parent our child (ren),"My coparent and I had different standards for our child(ren)'s behavior;" α = 0.861). ...
... Respondents completed 12 items primarily from the conflict and triangulation subscales of the Coparenting Questionnaire (CQ; Margolin, 1992;Margolin, Gordis, & John, 2001) on a 6-point response scale (1 = "never", to 6 = "always") to assess coparent triangulation (e.g., "My coparent tried to get our child(ren) to take sides when we argue," "My coparent undermined my parenting," "My coparent used our child(ren) to irritate or upset me;" α = 0.954). Lastly, respondents completed 4 items primarily from the conflict subscale of the Coparenting Questionnaire (CQ; Margolin, 1992;Margolin et al., 2001) on a 6-point response scale (1 = "never", to 6 = "always") to assess coparent disagreement (e.g., "My coparent and I disagreed on how to parent our child (ren),"My coparent and I had different standards for our child(ren)'s behavior;" α = 0.861). Given their similarity of focus and fairly strong correlations/collinearity in the current sample, scores on these three scales were averaged to represent overall coparent discord (α = 0.963). ...
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Background The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and the historic economic shutdown and stay-at-home efforts to slow its spread have radically impacted the lives of families across the world, completely disrupting routines and challenging them to adjust to new health risks as well as to new work and family demands. The current study applied a contextual behavioral science lens to the spillover hypothesis of Family Systems Theory to develop a multi-stage mechanistic model for how COVID-19 stress could impact family and child functioning and how parents’ psychological flexibility could shape those processes. Methods A total of 742 coparents (71% female; 84% Caucasian, 85% married, M = 41 years old) of children (ages 5-18, M = 9.4 years old, 50% male) completed an online survey from March 27th to the end of April, 2014. Results Path analyses highlighted robust links from parent inflexibility to all components of the model, predicting: greater COVID-19 stress, greater coparenting discord and family discord, greater caustic parenting, and greater parent and child distress. Parent flexibility was associated with greater family cohesion, lower family discord and greater use of constructive parenting strategies (inductive, democratic/autonomy supportive, positive). Results further suggested that COVID-19 stressors predicted greater family and coparent discord, which in turn predicted greater use of caustic parenting (reactive, inconsistent, aggressive), which in turn predicted greater child and parent distress. Conclusions: The current results highlight parental flexibility and inflexibility as key points of intervention for helping families navigate the current global health crisis, highlighting the crucial role they play in the lives of families.
... Coparenting consists of several key dimensions including support and solidarity, joint management of family interactions, division of child-related labor, and conflict or disagreement surrounding childrearing (Feinberg 2003). Coparenting has been identified as a stronger predictor of child adjustment than marital or individual parenting qualities alone (Margolin et al. 2001). Coparenting conflict, in particular, has been linked with a range of emotional and behavioral adjustment problems among children (Teubert and Pinquart 2010) and adolescents (Feinberg et al. 2007). ...
... Although there is little evidence for longitudinal change in coparenting quality during earlier developmental transitions, such as from pregnancy to infancy (Van Egeren 2004), prior research points to coparenting differences between families with young children and those with preadolescents. Specifically, parents with preschoolers tend to report higher levels of coparenting cooperation and support, compared to parents of early adolescents who report more triangulation and family alliances (Margolin et al. 2001). Prior research also suggests that coparenting quality may suffer during youth's adolescence with findings that coparenting satisfaction (Riina and McHale 2014) and coparenting support (Riina and Feinberg 2018) decline during youth's adolescence. ...
Article
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Research demonstrates significant associations between coparenting conflict and child adjustment problems. However, the implications of youth adjustment for coparenting, especially during youth’s adolescence, remain poorly understood. Addressing several gaps in the literature, this study examines the longitudinal trajectory of mothers’ and fathers’ reported coparenting conflict from youth ages 10–17 and tests bidirectional associations between youth social anxiety, hostility, risk-taking behaviors, and mothers’ and fathers’ coparenting conflict. Participants include 757 mothers, fathers, and youth in two-parent families (M youth age = 11.28, SD = 0.49; 53% female) who participated in 5 waves of data collection when youth were in the 6th to 9th grades. Multilevel growth curve models revealed significant non-linear change in mothers’ and fathers’ coparenting conflict, such that coparenting conflict declined through youth’s transition to adolescence, leveled off in early adolescence, and declined in the mid-late adolescent years. Cross-lagged models showed significant positive associations between youth social anxiety and hostility and coparenting conflict at the following time point, but coparenting conflict did not predict later youth adjustment problems in these domains. There were significant bidirectional associations between mother-reported coparenting conflict and youth risk-taking behaviors; the associations between coparenting conflict and risk-taking were not significant for fathers. The findings demonstrate that investigating longitudinal associations between youth adjustment and coparenting conflict may provide new insights into the role of child effects for mothers’ and fathers’ coparenting experiences.
... A coparentalidade pode ser definida pelo modo como dois ou mais cuidadores realizam as suas práticas parentais, fornecem suporte ou boicotam o papel do outro e administram os conflitos decorrentes da criação dos filhos, ou seja, o compartilhamento das tarefas relacionadas ao papel parental (Feinberg, 2003;Margolin, Gordis, & John, 2001;McHale, 1997;Van Egeren & Hawkins, 2004). ...
... Pesquisadores têm utilizado diferentes dimensionalidades para definir o termo coparentalidade, o que reflete a divergência na compreensão do fenômeno e se transforma num desafio para novas investigações nesse campo. Os principais modelos teóricos sobre coparentalidade são o de McHale (1997), Margolin et al. (2001), Feinberg (2003 e Van Egeren e Hawkins (2004). O modelo teórico de Feinberg (2003) será utilizado nessa pesquisa por adotar uma visão sistêmica sobre o fenômeno da coparentalidade e ir ao encontro dos princípios teóricos do modelo bioecológico do desenvolvimento humano de Bronfenbrenner. ...
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The purpose of this study was to understand the perception of the parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) on the coparenting relationship. This research is characterized as exploratory and descriptive with a qualitative approach. Participants included 9 couples, fathers (n = 9) and mothers (n = 9) of children with ASD aged 3 to 7 years. Data were collected in a specialized care service in the south of Brazil. First, a sociodemographic questionnaire was applied and then a semi-structured interview was applied with each member of the couple on the coparenting relationship. For the data treatment, the Bardin content analysis method was used. The analysis of these interviews with the couples allowed the construction of categories according to the dimensions of the theoretical model of the Internal Structure and Ecological Context of Coparentingby Feinberg. Agreement on parenting practices was highlighted in the discourse of couples, although mothers emphasize that partners have a tendency to present a relaxed discipline with the child with ASD. The division of labor evidences an imbalance of tasks performed by the members of the couple, which evidences a feeling of stress in the mothers on the care of their child. Nonetheless, the spouses recognize parental support and recognize the efforts of their partners in parental activities with few moments of sabotage of the partner and exposure of the child to the couple’s conflicts. At the end, the limitations of this research are pointed out and some suggestions for future studies in the area are raised, as well as the implications of the results for the intervention.
... The contemporary concept of coparenting, in turn, has its main exponents in the theoretical models of Feinberg (2003), Margolin, Gordis, and John (2001) and McHale (1997). The authors diff er in aspects of concept defi nition, in the dimensions and in the measurement of the construct through means of diff erent instruments. ...
... Coparenting for McHale (1997) is understood from four factors: family integrity, disparagement, confl ict, and reprimand. For Margolin et al. (2001), the construct is understood through the analysis of three dimensions: confl ict, cooperation and triangulation. The Model of the Internal Structure and Ecological Context of Coparenting of Feinberg, in turn, was constructed based on pre-existing models (Feinberg, 2003). ...
Article
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The aim of this review was to analyze the empirical studies that have measured temperament and coparenting. Accordingly, we sought to answer the question: “What is the relationship between the variables of coparenting and temperament in empirical studies, considering the different theoretical approaches, the different instruments used and families with children between zero and 11 years of age?” The databases chosen for this review were VHL-Psi, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. The VHL-Psi database was searched, however, no articles were found. A total of 28 articles were selected, which were analyzed in their entirety and described regarding the number of participants, method, instruments used and other variables measured. The results regarding the relationship between coparenting and temperament were organized into six categories. Only two articles indicated a lack of significant relationships between the two variables. Temperament as a predictor of coparenting and the moderating role of coparenting as a risk and protection factor were highlighted. Bidirectional relationships between variables were addressed in only three articles and the lack of studies in this direction was evident. Differences in the coparenting of fathers and mothers highlight the importance of gender discussions.
... Consequently, co-parenting becomes an important factor that plays a mediating role in parenting and marital relationships [17]. Co-parenting implies that both parents are aware of their roles and participate in parenting [21]. It means not only sharing responsibility for raising children, but also cooperating and supporting each other in the parenting process. ...
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Background: It is important for healthcare providers to pay attention to parents’ rearing style and children’s physical symptoms to promote a healthy quality of life among children with atopic dermatitis. We aimed to identify effects of parenting stress and co-parenting on marital conflict among parents of children with atopic dermatitis. Methods: Participants were 161 fathers and 161 mothers raising seven-year-old children treated for atopic dermatitis. To confirm the effects of parenting stress and co-parenting on marital conflict, the “actor-partner interdependence mediation model” was used. To verify goodness-of-fit, maximum likelihood method was used, and a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to confirm the validity of latent variables for model analysis. Results: Fathers’ parenting stress had actor (β = -.46, p
... Consequently, co-parenting becomes an important factor that plays a mediating role in parenting and marital relationships [17]. Co-parenting implies that both parents are aware of their roles and participate in parenting [21]. It means not only sharing responsibility for raising children, but also cooperating and supporting each other in the parenting process. ...
Article
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Background It is important for healthcare providers to pay attention to parents’ rearing style and children’s physical symptoms to promote a healthy quality of life among children with atopic dermatitis. We aimed to identify effects of parenting stress and co-parenting on marital conflict among parents of children with atopic dermatitis. Methods Participants were 161 fathers and 161 mothers raising seven-year-old children treated for atopic dermatitis. To confirm the effects of parenting stress and co-parenting on marital conflict, the “actor-partner interdependence mediation model” was used. To verify goodness-of-fit, maximum likelihood method was used, and a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to confirm the validity of latent variables for model analysis. Results Fathers’ parenting stress had actor (β = −.46, p < .001) and partner (β = −.22, p < .001) effects on co-parenting, and mothers’ parenting stress had actor (β = −.20, p < .001) and partner (β = −.36, p < .001) effects on co-parenting. Fathers’ parenting stress only had an actor effect on marital conflict (β = .32, p < .001). Father’s co-parenting had actor (β = −.29, p < .001) and partner (β = −.22, p < .001) effects on marital conflict, and mothers’ co-parenting had actor (β = −.39, p < .001) and partner (β = −.19, p < .001) effects on marital conflict. There were significant differences between the two groups concerning three path coefficients: fathers’ parenting stress affected fathers’ marital conflict, fathers’ co-parenting affected fathers’ marital conflict, and mothers’ co-parenting affected fathers’ marital conflict. Conclusions It is vital for healthcare providers to seek ways to reduce the marital conflicts of parents of children with atopic dermatitis, including further examination of the role of co-parenting, to address children’s physical symptoms and promote their health. Our findings inform management and intervention programs for the families of children with atopic dermatitis.
... Previous research suggested that co-parenting plays an important role in an array of parental outcomes, such as parental mental health (Cabrera et al., 2012), marital relationship (Feinberg et al., 2009), parenting stress (Margolin et al., 2001), and parenting practices (Lindsey & Mize, 2001;Pedro et al., 2012). Studies also demonstrated the role of parenting practices in mediating the effects of co-parenting on child outcomes (Kwon et al., 2013;Parkes et al., 2019). ...
Article
Co-parenting quality has frequently been linked to young children’s social–emotional functioning, but limited research has focused on the relationship between co-parenting and children’s early academic skills, or the underlying mechanisms through which co-parenting influences children’s development. Using data collected from urban China, the present study examined how fathers’ perceptions of co- parenting quality was related to their preschool-aged children’s academic readiness (i.e., receptive vocabulary, reading, early math; N = 336), and whether father’s parenting practices and children’s behav- ioral regulation mediated the link between co-parenting quality and child outcomes. Findings suggested that the relation between co-parenting quality and children’s academic readiness was mediated by children’s behavioral regulation. However, fathers’ parenting practices were not related to children’s academic readiness, nor did fathers’ parenting practices mediate the relations between co-parenting and child outcomes. The present findings were consistent between boys and girls. That is, the mediating process did not differ as a function of child gender. The study highlights the importance of fostering a quality co-parenting relationship to better support children’s development of behavioral regulation and academic readiness.
... Initially, 'co-parenting' was considered to comprise the two entities of support and mutuality (McHale, 1995). Others argued that co-parenting involves cooperation, conflict and triangulation (Margolin et al., 2001). Then, the Ecological Model of Co-parenting was proposed and has been widely accepted (Feinberg, 2003). ...
Article
Most studies conducted in the West on the role played by intergenerational families in co‐parenting have focused mostly on families with a single mother or those in difficult circumstances, while little is known about the experiences of members of intergenerational intact families during the early postpartum period. This study aimed to explore the intergenerational co‐parenting experiences of young parents and grandmothers in China, focusing on how they shared the responsibility of caring for the new mother and infant during the postpartum period. A total of 16 eligible intergenerational intact families, including 16 mothers, 15 fathers and 12 grandmothers, were interviewed. The data set was analysed using the approach of directed content analysis guided by Feinberg's Ecological Model of Co‐parenting. The data were categorized into four themes: ‘division of labour’, ‘postpartum and infant care agreement’, ‘support‐undermining’ and ‘joint family management’. An additional theme, ‘expressed a need for family support’, emerged from the data on these intergenerational families. The findings emphasize the importance of intergenerational co‐parenting relationships in families where two generations co‐parent the newborn together.
... Coparenting conflicts. Coparenting conflicts were measured using the 5-item coparenting conflict subscale of the Coparenting Questionnaire [Margolin, Gordis, & John, 2001]. Sample items were "My spouse and I have different standards for this child's behavior" and "My spouse argues with me about this child." ...
Article
Research shows that parenting a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with increased marital conflicts and reduced marital love. Less is known, however, about the potential mechanism underlying these associations. The present study tested a family process model linking child autism to parental marriage. We hypothesized that child autistic symptoms would be associated with increased marital conflicts and reduced marital love among parents of children with ASD, and that these associations would be mediated by parenting stress and coparenting conflicts. A total of 382 parents of children with ASD from Hong Kong, China completed questionnaire measures of child autistic symptoms, parenting stress, coparenting conflicts, marital conflicts, and marital love. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and Bootstrap analyses were conducted to analyze the relations among the variables. SEM showed that child autistic symptoms were related to higher levels of parenting stress and coparenting conflicts, which were, in turn, related to increased marital conflicts and reduced marital love among parents of children with ASD. Bootstrap analyses further demonstrated that child autistic symptoms had significant indirect effects on marital conflicts and marital love via parenting stress and coparenting conflicts. Theoretically, this study revealed the potential pathways through which child autism symptomatology may adversely impact the family processes and compromise the marital relationships of parents of children with ASD. Practically, this study pointed to the utility of helping parents of children with ASD to manage child autistic symptoms, alleviate parenting stress, and reduce coparenting conflicts in improving their marital qualities. Lay Summary This study showed that child autistic symptoms were related to higher levels of parenting stress and coparenting conflicts, which were, in turn, related to increased marital conflicts and reduced marital love among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These findings pointed to the importance of helping parents of children with ASD to manage child autistic symptoms, alleviate parenting stress, and reduce coparenting conflicts in improving their marital qualities. © 2020 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... Nevertheless, deficits in positive parenting also pose a threat to children's psychological and behavioral functioning after divorce. This supports the idea that interparental conflict would leave parents emotionally drained and therefore less attentive to their children (Emde & Easterbrooks, 1985;Katz & Gottman, 1996;Margolin et al., 2001). ...
Article
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Every year, parental divorce becomes the reality of many families. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify post-divorce family processes to explain child functioning. Both direct and indirect associations between interparental conflict, parenting, and child adjustment were examined. After a systematic search for articles published before October 2019, we coded 2257 correlations in 115 samples of N = 24,854 divorced families. Analyses consisted of: (1) Performing multiple three-level meta-analyses to calculate the overall correlations between interparental conflict, parenting (i.e., support, hostility, structuring, intrusiveness, parent-child relationship quality, parent-child conflict, and role diffusion) and child psychosocial adjustment. (2) Testing four meta-analytic structural equation models in which parenting dimensions were examined as potential mediators. First, results showed that correlations between interparental conflict, parenting, and child adjustment were mostly significant, in the expected direction, and of small effect size. Second, parental support, hostility, structuring, intrusiveness, and role diffusion indeed served as mediating mechanisms underlying the persistent link between interparental conflict and children's internalizing and externalizing problems. This was not true for dyadic parent-child processes. Third, our findings hinted towards a stronger impact of negative versus positive parenting behaviors, and parental role diffusion was considered a particular risk in the context of post-divorce interparental conflict.
... The potentially greater appeal to fathers is important as men are generally less amenable to help-seeking than women, and this has been observed for couple-based interventions specifically [54]. Additionally, work in other populations has shown that co-parenting is likely a link between relationship satisfaction and child adjustment [2,13,55]. Co-parenting interventions may be easier to train for delivery by para-professionals, and thus improve accessibility and cost-effectiveness. In real world settings, it may also be important to blend these intervention types depending on the specific needs of the couple. ...
Article
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The transition to parenthood has been identified as a significant relationship stressor. Many couples report declines in relationship satisfaction and difficulty with individual stress and co-parenting—problems that have been associated with both child temperament as well as emotional and behavioral problems. Several parenting and relationship interventions have been developed to buffer against these difficulties. In the current study, we report secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial of brief (6-hr) interventions that focused on improving either relationship satisfaction or co-parenting, delivered during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. In this trial, 90 opposite-sex couples (180 participants), who were pregnant with their first child, and were assessed as being at high risk for declines in relationship satisfaction, were randomized to receive either (1) a relationship intervention, (2) a co-parenting intervention, or (3) an information control. At 12 months postpartum, couples who received either the relationship or co-parenting intervention rated their infants as having lower negative emotionality and as having fewer externalizing symptoms compared to the information-only control. Lower externalizing symptoms at 12 months were, in turn, associated with reduced externalizing symptoms at 24 months postpartum. Whereas, lower ratings of child negative emotionality at 12 months were associated with reduced internalizing symptoms at 24 months postpartum. These results indicate that brief relationship or co-parenting interventions delivered during the transition to parenthood have secondary benefits for child mental health.
... Although coparenting was described as a purposeful, necessary, and a perpetual force for foster family management, foster couples routinely described having little time to nurture the couple relationship given the perceived demands of fostering, lack of support for respite care, and foster system policies that limit the use of or access to appropriate childcare. Couple relationship functioning and quality are closely linked with coparenting (Margolin et al., 2001), and providing foster parents with opportunities to nurture their relationship could allow them to build mutual appreciation and make coparental adjustments outside of the everyday chaos of parenting. ...
Article
Coparenting is well established as important for parental, child, and family outcomes among those who are not involved in the child welfare system; however, limited research has examined coparenting among foster parents. This study examined how foster parents worked together to parent foster children, how they described their roles and involvement with their foster children, how fostering impacted their coparenting and couple relationship, and their experiences and needs of working together with and within the foster care system. Ten foster parents couples from different locations across the United States were recruited using a non-random purposive sample. Grounded theory analysis led to the generation of four overarching themes: (a) foster parent roles; (b) the conditions and challenges of foster parenting; (c) adjustment as a coparental team; and (d) individual and family functioning within the foster home. Results highlight that the coparental relationship was not overtly recognized as a foremost concern of foster parents; however, participants described the coparental relationship as a system that was crucial for making adjustments to the challenges and conditions of fostering while providing a stable environment for children. Implications for future research on factors associated with coparenting among foster parents and the need to enhance support to foster parents are discussed.
... Children were supposedly 1.5-4 years old, with most children being around 3 years of age. A comparison might not be meaningful unless the age difference is higher among participants, such as Margolin et al. (2001). ...
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The present dissertation is aimed towards examining whether the nanny-child relationship has an impact on the psychological well-being of cared child. In the first study, we have examined relationships among the coparenting dynamics between mothers and nannies, their sensitivities towards the child, and child well-being, through home-visit observation of the mother-nanny-child play interaction. In the second study, through administering an online survey in Turkey and UK, we have sought to explore mothers’ and fathers’ perceptions on families’ nanny care processes, nanny-family relationships and child well-being, and to understand the associations between nanny-child relationship, child well-being, and relationships in the family. The results pointed out at a positive direct relationship between nanny-child relationship and child well-being, and a relatively weak indirect influence of parent-nanny, parent-child, and interparental relationships on this association. This dissertation is important as a first quantitative step in understanding nannies, nanny-child relationship and their impact on child well-being.
... Fourth, the current study focused on supportive and undermining coparenting. Coparenting is a multifaceted construct that also includes dimensions such as conflict and triangulation (Margolin, Gordis, & John, 2001). Future research needs to extend our current focus to other dimensions of coparenting when examining the relationships among child temperament, marital quality, and coparenting. ...
Article
Given the importance of coparenting in children’s development, examining antecedents of coparenting quality is imperative. However, existing research has primarily focused on Western contexts. Using data collected from 714 Chinese families with preschool-aged children, the current study examined the associations between child temperament and coparenting quality. We further explored the potential moderating role of marital quality in such associations. The results showed that a child’s negative affect was negatively related, while child effortful control was positively related, to mother-perceived coparental support (i.e., fathers’ contributions to coparenting). However, child temperament was not associated with father-perceived coparental support (i.e., mothers’ contributions to coparenting). Marital quality did not moderate the relationships between child temperament and coparenting, whereas marital satisfaction was positively linked to coparenting quality for both fathers and mothers. The findings revealed that the relationships among child temperament, marital quality, and coparenting could vary by parent gender in the Chinese context. For both mothers and fathers, improving marital satisfaction may be the key to ensuring higher quality coparenting. It is especially important to support fathers with temperamentally difficult children to improve their coparenting quality.
... Additionally, some work has linked technoference with lower coparenting quality, or the ability of partners to work together in parenting their children (McDaniel & Coyne, 2016b;McDaniel, Galovan, et al., 2018). We also know that the quality of the couple and coparenting relationship (in families with multiple caregivers) spills out into the quality of parenting that children receive as well as how secure children feel in their family relationships (e.g., Davies & Cummings, 1994;Erel & Burman, 1995;Margolin et al., 2001). In other words, technoference could negatively impact the quality of the interparental or other family relationships which then could negatively impact parenting quality and the child-yet no research has directly examined the link yet between technoference in the interparental relationship and child outcomes. ...
Article
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The increase in the prevalence of smartphones and mobile devices has spurred changes in the caregiving environment of infants and young children, as phones and mobile devices are used at times during caregiving and in caregiving spaces. This use could create disruptions and cause distractions during parenting (termed technoference). This article summarizes the potential impacts on parent responsiveness and the experiences of infants and young children. Yet, it also warns that it is important to consider the reason for and type of parent use. Finally, the article ends with practical tips for working with parents concerning mobile device use.
... Demgegenüber fand Gibson-Davis (2008), dass Mütter sich von neuen Partnern, die in den Familienhaushalt eingezogen waren, in der Erziehung sogar besser unterstützt fühlten als von den biologischen Vätern. Christensen und Rettig (1996) Es wurden nur Studien einbezogen, in denen Coparenting explizit als Konzept genannt wurde, das sich auf eines der oben diskutierten theoretischen Modelle bezieht (Feinberg, 2003;Maccoby et al. 1993;Margolin et al., 2001;McHale, 1995;oder Teubert & Pinquart, 2009 (Mitnick, Heyman & Smith Slep, 2009;Nelson, Kushlev & Lyubomirsky, 2014;Twenge, Campbell & Foster, 2003 Cohen (1988) ab einer Höhe von r resp. β = .10 ...
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Die Qualität der elterlichen Partnerschaft und des Coparenting zählen zu den wichtigsten familiären Schutzfaktoren für die kindliche Entwicklung, wobei sie vielschichtig zusammenhängen. Aufgrund der unterschiedlichen Familiensysteme und -beziehungen könnten sich diese Zusammenhänge zwischen Kern-, Trennungs- und Stieffamilien unterscheiden, was bislang noch kaum untersucht wurde. Diese Übersichtsarbeit vergleicht Studien zum Zusammenhang zwischen Partnerschaftsqualität und Coparenting in verschiedenen Familienformen. Deskriptiv unterscheidet sich die Stärke des Zusammenhangs kaum zwischen Kern- und Trennungsfamilien, während in Stieffamilien ein tendenziell schwächerer Zusammenhang besteht. Allerdings konnte eine Varianzanalyse keine signifikanten Unterschiede nachweisen. Der Beitrag diskutiert die Rolle der Paarbeziehung und des Coparenting in verschiedenen Familienformen und die praktische Bedeutung ihres Zusammenspiels für die kindliche Entwicklung.
... Supportive and undermining coparenting are the most acknowledged key dimensions (Feinberg et al., 2012). The former is defined as the parents' agreement and supportiveness in parenting behaviors and goals, whereas the latter is defined as the parents' disagreement, conflict, and disparagement in parenting a child (Margolin et al., 2001;. Coparenting has been identified as a central family system dynamic (Feinberg, 2003;Riina et al., 2020), which significantly affects family outcomes, especially on parental depressive symptoms (Solmeyer & Feinberg, 2011;Tissot et al., 2017). ...
Article
Parental depressive symptoms and their related factors have not been widely examined during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Therefore, the current study examined the actor and partner associations of work–family conflict and parental depressive symptoms. Considering the new demands and challenges for families during the COVID‐19 pandemic, we further explored the moderation effect of coparenting. A cross‐sectional online survey with 985 paired fathers and mothers was conducted in Mainland China. In 11.6% of families, only mothers reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms; in 10.6% families, only fathers reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms; in 9.5% families, the mother and father reported mild to moderate depressive symptoms. Results of the actor–partner interdependence model showed that parental family‐to‐work conflict was negatively associated with their own depressive symptoms. The negative actor association of maternal family‐to‐work conflict and depressive symptoms was moderated by undermining coparenting. The partner effects of maternal family‐to‐work and work‐to‐family conflicts on paternal depressive symptoms were moderated by undermining coparenting. Moreover, supportive coparenting moderated the actor association of work‐to‐family conflict and the depressive symptoms of fathers. Results highlight the importance of family‐to‐work conflict and family function for parental depressive symptoms. These findings can help promote parental well‐being during the COVID‐19 pandemic.
... A triangulációs működés -ahogyan erre már korábban is utaltunk -megnyilvánulhat egyrészt abban, ahogy a gyermek előtt kommunikálnak a szülők, illetve ahogy a gyermekkel beszélnek a másik szülőről. A különböző közös szülőségre vonatkozó mérőeszközökben külön alskálaként jelenik meg például a gyermek konfliktusoknak való kitettsége (Feinberg és mtsai, 2012;Margolin, Gordis, & John, 2001). A trianguláció leírható a szülői alrendszer problémáinak a gyermeki alrendszer felé történő továbbgyűrűződésével. Ennek során előfordulhat, hogy a szülők a gyermek lojalitásáért versengenek, esetleg elidegenítik a gyermeket a másik szülőtől. ...
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Tanulmányunk célja áttekintést nyújtani a válás utáni közös szülőségre, a szülők együttműködésére és konfliktusaira vonatkozó főbb kutatási eredményekről. A közös szülőség fogalma a szülők közötti interakciókat, kapcsolatot jelenti, amit a válást követően is szükséges fenntartani. Tanulmányunkban egyrészt kitérünk a közös szülőség egyes aspektusaira (szülői kommunikáció, egymás támogatása–aláásása, konfliktusok és konfliktuskezelés), másrészt a vonatkozó vizsgálatokban leggyakrabban megjelenő háttérváltozókra (válási folyamat, elhelyezés típusa). A válás következményei, az új helyzethez való alkalmazkodás sikeressége mind a szülők, mind a gyerekek részéről jelentős társadalmi fontossággal bír, ennek ellenére a válás utáni közös szülőség témája csak egy-egy hazai publikációban jelenik meg. Jelen tanulmánnyal célunk ennek a hiánynak a pótlása, valamint a kérdéskör hazai kutatásának inicializálása. A vizsgált szakirodalom alapján elmondható, hogy a párkapcsolat felbomlása után kiemelten fontos egy új egyensúlyi állapot kialakítása, mivel a közös szülőség minősége összefüggést mutat a gyermekek és a felnőttek jóllétével is. A vonatkozó empirikus szakirodalom egy része azokra a preventív képzési programokra irányul, amelyek a válás utáni közös szülőség minőségének fejlesztését tűzték ki célul. Említést teszünk ezért több ilyen programról, röviden ismertetve a sajátosságaikat és a kapcsolatos empirikus eredményeket. Következtetésként elmondható, hogy a válást követő közös szülőség komplex témaköre és a szülők sokszor eltérő narratívája miatt olyan diádikus kutatási megközelítés választása indokolt, amellyel ez az összetettség megragadható. Felhívjuk továbbá a figyelmet arra, hogy hazánkban hiányoznak az elvált szülőknek kínált edukációs programok, pedig a szülők és gyermekek jóllétének érdekében fontos lenne ezek kifejlesztése, hatékonyságuk vizsgálata és a megfelelő hatékonyságú programok rendszerszintű elterjesztése. This study aims to provide a review of the main research findings on coparenting after divorce, parental cooperation and conflicts. The concept of coparenting refers to the interactions and relationship between parents which must be maintained even after divorce. In our paper, we cover some aspects of coparenting (parental communication, mutual support, undermining, conflicts and conflict management) and the most common background variables in the relevant studies (divorce process, type of custody). The consequences of divorce and the success of adapting to the new situation are of significant importance for both parents and children, however, the topic of coparenting after divorce appears in few Hungarian publications. With the present study, we aim to fill this gap and to initialize domestic research on the issue. Based on the examined literature, it can be stated that the formation of a new state of equilibrium after the dissolution of the relationship is of great importance, as the quality of coparenting is related to the well-being of children and adults as well. Some of the relevant empirical literature relates to preventive training programs aimed at improving the quality of coparenting after divorce. We, therefore, mention several such programs, briefly describing their specifics and related empirical results. In conclusion, due to the complex topic of coparenting after divorce and the often different narratives of parents, it is justified to choose a dyadic research approach that can capture this complexity. We would also like to draw attention to the fact that there is a lack of educational programs for divorced parents in Hungary, although it would be important to develop and disseminate them widely for the well-being of parents and children.
... Coparenting relationship quality was measured using the Coparenting Questionnaire (Margolin et al., 2001). This measure is a 14-item self-report instrument examining (1) the amount of conflict between parents surrounding parenting issues; (2) extent of cooperation between mothers and fathers, including support, value, respect, and the degree to which they ease one another's parenting burden; and (3) triangulation, the extent to which parents distort parent-child boundaries by attempting to form a coalition with the child that undermines or excludes the other parent. ...
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Research indicates that children with involved fathers fare better than children with disengaged fathers. In response, 4 Your Child provides fatherhood-specific parent education and solution-focused case management services aimed at helping nonresident fathers increase their capacity for taking more active roles in their children’s lives. The purpose of this study was to present the results of preliminary analyses from a sample of 508 nonresident fathers enrolled in 4 Your Child. The results reveal high levels of participant satisfaction and statistically significant increases in parenting knowledge and conflict resolution skills for program participants from pre- to postintervention. Recommendations for future research and practice are also included.
... However, triangulating the child through the use of overprotective practices is problematic in the long term, as the family system continues to need the child to maintain its homeostasis (Bell et al., 2001;Kerig, 1995;Minuchin et al., 1978). In addition, these triadic Running head: COPARENTING AND OVERPROTECTION 8 interaction patterns imply boundary violations as the child must negotiate between parents and manage conflicting loyalties (Amato & Afifi, 2006;Margolin et al., 2001). This is particularly problematic during the transitional phase of adolescence, where the principal developmental tasks (e.g., identity formation, demands for independence, orientation towards peers) necessitate a rebalancing of the family system and a (re-)negotiation of the rules and roles, thus challenging the entire system (Bowen, 1978;Grych, 2002;Minuchin, 1975). ...
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Previous research offered evidence for how overprotective parenting is related to psychosocial maladjustment among adolescents and documented the parent-related and child-related antecedents of overprotective parenting. Using a family systems perspective, the present study aimed at extending this knowledge by looking into contextual determinants of overprotective parenting. More specifically, the goal of this study was to examine associations between adolescents’ perceptions of the coparental relationship (i.e., the way parental figures relate to each other in their role as parents) and overprotective parenting, which in turn was expected to relate to more adolescent anxiety symptoms. A sample of 174 adolescents (Mage = 16.99 years, 73% girls) completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions of the coparental relationship (in terms of cooperation, conflict, and triangulation), overprotective parenting, and symptoms of anxiety. Analyses indicated that triangulation, in particular, uniquely predicted higher levels of overprotective parenting, which in turn was associated with more anxiety symptoms among adolescents. These results provide evidence for the importance of considering the larger family systems context for understanding the dynamics involved in overprotective parenting. The discussion focuses on theoretical and clinical implications of these findings.
... The literature on coparenting refers to a number of specific components that comprise the coparenting relationship, including cooperation, childrearing agreement/disagreement, support, undermining, the division of labor, joint management of family dynamics, and promoting family integrity (Feinberg et al., 2012;Margolin et al., 2001;McHale, 1997;Van Egeren & Hawkins, 2004). Important coparenting differences exist between two parent households and families with parents in separate households because of the context of separation, divorce, issues of custody and visitation, financial agreements, and work arrangements (Adamsons & Pasley, 2006). ...
Article
This article presents a conceptual model drawing from family systems theory that focuses on the intersection of coparenting and routine development and maintenance as a key process in family management. The importance of both coparenting and routines for family management has been clearly articulated in the literature; however, how they impact one another and work together in family management has not been conceptualized. After briefly reviewing the literature, we articulate a model of family management that includes the establishment, monitoring, and adjustment of routines, orchestrated by the coparental subsystem. We then explore the intersection of coparenting and routine development, examining how both systems of family management influence each other. We argue that when coparenting and routines work effectively together, the result is greater levels of family integrity and continuity. Finally, we provide suggestions for further empirical work and practical implications.
... Couples' conflict can also spill over to impact broader family interactions. Effective conflict recovery requires transitioning from conflictual dyadic exchanges to cooperative co-parenting with partners in subsequent family interactions 127,128 . People high in attachment anxiety and avoidance are likely to be less able to contain couple conflict and more likely to experience conflict-co-parenting spillover (Table 3) than individuals who are low in attachment anxiety and avoidance. ...
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Close relationships are crucial to health and well-being. However, anxious expectations of rejection (attachment anxiety) and avoidant beliefs that romantic partners cannot be trusted (attachment avoidance) undermine long-term relationship functioning and well-being. In this Review, we outline how romantic attachment anxiety and avoidance create harmful cognitive, affective and behavioural responses in stressful couple contexts, and summarize partner buffering processes that can mitigate these harmful effects. Next, we expand the focus on within-couple processes by describing how romantic attachment insecurities and associated responses within stressful couple interactions spill over to shape functioning in non-stressful couple contexts as well as family contexts, such as parent–child and co-parenting interactions. We also consider how partners might contain spillover processes to mitigate the risk that romantic attachment insecurities create maladaptive outcomes for couples and their children. Finally, we propose new research directions that require expanding current methods and collaborations to identify and address the diverse ways in which romantic attachment impacts couple, family and child well-being. Romantic attachment insecurity undermines long-term relationship functioning and well-being. In this Review, Overall and colleagues describe processes that buffer the effects of attachment insecurity within couple interactions, associated spillover effects that shape functioning across couple and family contexts, and ways to contain spillover to improve well-being.
... İşbirliği, çatışma ve üçgenleşme boyutları ortak ebeveynliğe ilişkin çeşitli araştırmalarda ele alınmıştır (Baum, 2003;Macie ve Stolberg, 2003;Margolin, Gordis ve John, 2001;Mullett ve Stolberg, 1999). Araştırma bulgularına göre; çocuklar için en fayda sağlayan ortak ebeveynlik stilinin işbirliğine dayanan ortak ebeveynlik olduğu (Macie ve Stolberg, 2003;Marriott, 2011;McHale, 1995), çocuklar için en zarar veren ebeveynlik stillerinin ise çatışmalı ve kopuk ortak ebeveynlik olduğu bildirilmektedir (Roberson vd., 2011;Umemura, Christopher, Mann, Jacobvitz ve Hazen, 2015). ...
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This study explored the unique effect of fathers’ parenting behaviors and the quality of co-parenting described as the degree of consistency between paternal and maternal parenting behaviors on children’s academic self-efficacy. The power of both pancultural parenting behaviors (i.e., emotional warmth and rejection) and specific parenting controlling behaviors that are relatively common in Turkish culture (i.e., intrusion and guilt induction) in predicting academic self-efficacy was tested. A total of 1,931 children completed measures of parenting behaviors and academic self-efficacy in math and literature courses in their school. Overall, girls reported higher levels of literature self-efficacy, whereas boys reported higher levels of math self-efficacy. Compared to boys, girls perceived higher levels of positive parenting behaviors from both their fathers and mothers. The results of the regression analyses showed that, whereas father warmth had stronger effects on boys’ math self-efficacy, mother warmth had stronger effects on girls’ literature self-efficacy. Examination of the effects of co-parenting quality demonstrated that children with positively consistent parents (i.e., both parents having high positive and low negative parenting behaviors) reported the highest level of academic self-efficacy, whereas those having negatively consistent parents had the lowest level of academic self-efficacy. Analyses on inconsistent co-parenting, however, yielded compensatory effects, which were similar to positively consistent parents, and deterioration effects, which were similar to negatively consistent parents depending on the gender of parent and child, domain of parenting behavior, and academic efficacy. This study contributed to the current literature by showing the unique role of fathers over and beyond mothers, and confirmed the importance of positive parenting and parenting consistency in promoting children’s academic efficacy. Cultural and practical implications of the findings were discussed.
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Esse artigo apresenta o estudo de caso de um atendimento psicoterapêutico realizado com uma adolescente e sua família, com base na terapia sistêmica individual. O objetivo é mostrar como a terapia sistêmica pode ser realizada com crianças e adolescentes de modo individual, incluindo também a família no formato de orientação de pais. Metáforas, perguntas circulares e jogos terapêuticos foram utilizados ao longo do atendimento, realizado em sessões individuais com a adolescente e sessões de orientação de pais. As sessões individuais e sessões de orientação de pais mantiveram o foco na dinâmica relacional do grupo familiar e suas ressonâncias no desenvolvimento da adolescente, destacando aspectos da complexidade, instabilidade e intersubjetividade presente na relação pais e filhos.http://dx.doi.org/10.21452/2594-43632019v28n64a05
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The present study examined the role of father sensitivity and couple coparenting quality in the first 2 years of life in relation to the development of externalizing behavior problems in middle childhood, focusing on the unique role of fathers. In this study, 125 mothers, fathers, and their first-born children were followed from 8 months to age 7 years. Paternal sensitivity was rated when infants were 8 and 24 months old. Fathers were videotaped at home playing, feeding, and changing their 8-month-old infants’ clothes. They also were videotaped in a lab playing with their 24-month-olds and solving a variety of challenging tasks. At 24 months, competitive coparenting was assessed via videotaped triadic family interactions at home in which families participated in a variety of tasks (i.e., clothes change, eating a snack together and solving tasks). Teachers rated externalizing behavior problems when the children were age 7. Continuity in paternal sensitivity was documented from 8 to 24 months, and paternal sensitivity at 8 months predicted externalizing behavior in middle childhood through father sensitivity at 24 months. Moreover, paternal sensitivity at 8 months predicted competitive coparenting which, in turn, forecast externalizing behavior problems in middle childhood, even after controlling for maternal sensitivity at 8 and 24 months. These findings highlight the unique role of paternal caregiving quality during the first year of life on couple coparenting and children’s subsequent development of externalizing problems and have implications for creating effective interventions to prevent children from developing externalizing disorders.
Thesis
One of the biggest determinants of preschool children's behavior is the behaviors of parents. All verbal and non-verbal behaviors of parents towards their children are defined as parental behaviors. The purpose of this study is to test a hypothetical model developed based on the literature to determine parenting behaviors that affect children's development. Parenting Behavior Scale and Child Temperament Scale were developed within the scope of the study. The study group of the research consists of 448 parents who have children in kindergartens affiliated to Ministry of National Education (MNE) in various districts of Ankara in the 2019-2020 Academic Year. Temperament Scale in Children, Adjective Based Personality Test, Marital Life Scale, The Parenting Sense of Competence (PSOC) Scale, Parenting Stress Tool and Parenting Behavior Scale were used to collect data in the study. The research was carried out with the correlational model. MANOVA and Structural Equation Modeling were used for data analysis. In the analysis of demographic variables, it was observed that parenting behaviors differ according to gender and employment status, but no significant difference was observed according to age. In the model in which the predicted variable is negative parenting behavior and parental stress is mediator variable, parental stress, marital satisfaction and personality traits were negatively correlated, while parental stress and temperament traits were positively correlated. Parental stress also showed a positive relationship with negative parenting. In the model in which the predicted variable is negative parental behavior and the mediator variable is parental self-efficacy, parental self-efficacy, marital satisfaction and personality traits were positively correlated, while parental self-efficacy and temperament traits were negatively correlated. Parental self-efficacy also showed a negative correlation with negative parenting. In the model in which the predicted variable is positive parenting behavior and the mediator variable is parental stress, parental stress, marital satisfaction and personality traits were negatively correlated while parental stress and temperament traits were positively correlated. Parental stress also showed a negative relationship with negative parenting. In the model in which the predicted variable is positive parenting behavior and the mediator variable is parental self-efficacy, parental self-efficacy, marital satisfaction and personality traits were positively correlated while parental self-efficacy and temperament traits were negatively correlated. Parental self-efficacy also showed a positive relationship with positive parenting.
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Difficulties in coparenting performance reverberate in externalizing problems in adolescents. However, understanding on the mechanisms mediating this relationship is scarce. Emotion regulation is a possible link between these constructs. This study aims to test a structural model in which emotional dysregulation mediates coparenting and externalizing problems in adolescents. This is a quantitative, cross-sectional, and explanatory study. The sample consisted of 229 adolescents aged between 11 and 18, living in inland cities of Rio Grande do Sul. Structural equation modeling was used to test the empirical validity of the proposed theoretical model. Results provided evidence for the advance of the study on family relationships and explanatory mechanisms in the development of externalizing problems. Some domains of emotion deregulation mediate the association between coparenting negative dimensions and externalizing problems. Direct and indirect relationships between the model variables are analyzed and discussed.
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Research on coparenting has been quite developed in the last four decades. In Indonesia, research related to coparenting still deals with father involvement in child care. While in other countries various coparenting behavior models have been developed in various context. This systematic review examines the empirical literature in the last ten years focusing on the determinants of coparenting behavior in intact family. Although at the beginning of its development coparenting research was carried out on divorced couples, this review examined the determinants of coparenting behavior in married couples. From several databases, the results show that determinants of coparenting behavior are involving of parental characteristics, child characteristics, marital relationships, and intervention program. It is expected that the results of this study can become a reference for conducting researchers on coparenting behavior especially in Indonesian family. Keywords: parenting, coparenting, intact family
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Objectives Maternal postpartum depression (PPD) has been recognized as a serious and wide-spread mental health disorder that has long-term negative impacts on children’s cognitive, social, and emotional development. This study extends prior research by examining the associations among predictors of PPD, including two different facets of father involvement and couple relationship quality, with a focus on testing these pathways across ethnic groups. Method This study analyzed data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS) including mothers’ baseline interviews and one-year follow-up data sets (n = 2,794). Several models were tested using bootstrapping in structural equation modeling to explore the mediating paths and ethnic differences. Results This study found that father involvement in sharing childcare responsibility had direct effects on reducing mothers’ parenting stress and promoted maternal psychological adjustment, which was consistent across the three ethnic groups. The mediation pathways through couple relationship quality between father involvement (both father involvement in direct infant care and shared responsibilities) and PPD were detected significant for Black and white mothers. Conclusions for Practice This study provided empirical evidence that father involvement in infant care is critical for mothers’ perceived relationship quality. Maternal postpartum mental health may benefit from interventions and policies that encourage positive father engagement in infant care.
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This paper is a case study about the individual systemic therapy with one teenager and her parents. It´s objective is to show to show the importance of individual systemic therapy with children and adolescents also including the family in the orientation of parents. Metaphors, circular questions and therapeutic games were used in individual sessions and sessions of orientation of parents. Individual sessions and parenting sessions were focused on the dynamical relationships of the family group and their impact in adolescent development, emphasizing the complexity, instability and intersubjectivity that exist in the parents and children relationship.
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Low parental coparenting and self-efficacy negatively impact children’s development. Our study sought to describe and analyze the parental coparenting and self-efficacy of 84 caregivers of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in Brazil. We used a Sociodemographic Inventory (SDI), Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Self-efficacy Scale and Coparenting Questionnaire (CQ). Data were subjected to descriptive statistics and Correspondence Analysis. ISD results showed the mothers as the main caregivers of children with CP, being mostly girls at level V in the GMFCS scale. Low levels of coparenting and self-efficacy were observed in young caregivers, caring for girls older than six years old. Self-efficacy was higher regarding basic and daily care such as feeding and performing personal hygiene, and lower regarding seizures and subjective aspects. No significant correlations were found between coparenting and self-efficacy. We concluded that interventions should be planned to increase parental coparenting and parental self-efficacy.
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Little research has examined the potential spillover of parenting difficulties in the coparental stepfamily subsystem. Using family systems theory as a guide, we longitudinally examined: (a) whether early parenting difficulties within stepfamilies persist 1 year later and (b) whether the parenting difficulties experienced by one partner impact the parenting difficulties of the other partner within remarriages. Copies of marriage licenses were used to identify remarried individuals. Surveys were mailed out, with follow‐up surveys mailed a year later, resulting in a sample of 676 remarried couples (the majority of which were White and college educated). The sample was split into three groups, according to stepfamily constellation: (a) families with a stepfather and biological mother; (b) families with a biological father and a stepmother; and (c) families with both stepfathers and stepmothers. We estimated three different actor‐partner interdependence models (APIM), one for each group. Consistent with family systems theory, our findings showed that parenting and stepparenting difficulties were interrelated, though gendered in effect. All parenting and stepparenting difficulties displayed actor effects, suggesting that parenting difficulties persist 1 year later. However, the only cross‐spouse influences (partner effects) were such that the mother's parenting difficulties (of her own biological children) were predicted by the father's parenting and stepparenting difficulties, and these differed by stepfamily constellation. Implications regarding gendered expectations, the importance of the coparenting subsystem in stepfamilies, early establishment of parental boundaries, and the (potentially important) inclusion of the stepfather in the parenting dynamics are discussed. 很少有研究考察再婚家庭中父母面对继子继女养育困难的潜在溢出效应。以家庭系统理论为指导,我们纵向考察: (a)再婚家庭中的早期养育困难是否在一年后仍然存在; (b)再婚家庭中,一方经历的养育困难是否影响另一方的育儿困难。结婚证的复印件被用来识别再婚的人。调查通过邮寄的方式进行,一年后又通过邮寄的方式进行了后续调查,结果得出了676对再婚夫妇的样本(其中大多数是白人,受过大学教育)。根据再婚家庭的分布情况,样本被分成三组: (a)有继父和生母的家庭; (b)有生父和继母的家庭; (c)有继父和继母的家庭。我们估计了三个不同的行动者‐对象相互依赖模型(APIM),每个组一个。与家庭系统理论相一致的是,研究发现表明,养育子女和继父或继母的困难是相互关联的,尽管在效果上存在性别差异。所有的养育孩子和继父育儿困难都表现出行动者效应,这表明育儿困难在一年后仍然存在。然而,唯一的跨配偶影响(伴侣效应)是这样的: 母亲的养育困难(她自己的亲生子女)被父亲的养育和继父母的困难所预测,而且这些困难因再婚重组家庭的组成而不同。本文讨论了有关性别期望、再婚家庭中共同养育子系统的重要性、父母界限的早期建立以及将继父纳入育儿动态的(潜在的重要)影响。.
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The family is considered important in promoting adequate physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development. This study aimed to analyzethe associations between the dimensions of positive parenting, co-parenting and socioemotional development of children aged 12 to 36 months. For data collection, we used a sociodemographic data questionnaire, the Positive Parenting Scale, the Coparenting Scale, and the Socioemotional Development Scale, filled out by parents on paper. Participants included 347 children (50.3% girls), aged between 10 and 35 months. The mothers of these children were, on average, 34.76 (SD= 4.79) years old and more than halfhad completed higher education (62.1%). The father was, on average, 36.79 (SD= 4.95) years old and 48.3% had completed higher education. The results show the existence of low, positive correlations between socioemotional development and the dimensions ofpositive parenting. In addition, there is a low, negative and statistically significant relationship between cognitive development and one of the dimensions of positive parenting. The dimensions of co-parenting do not show statistically significant correlations with either socioemotional development or cognitive development. In the multivariate regression analysis, it was found that socioemotional development is associated with the child's age and family involvement.
Thesis
One of the biggest determinants of preschool children's behavior is the behaviors of parents. All verbal and non-verbal behaviors of parents towards their children are defined as parental behaviors. The purpose of this study is to test a hypothetical model developed based on the literature to determine parenting behaviors that affect children's development. Parenting Behavior Scale and Child Temperament Scale were developed within the scope of the study. The study group of the research consists of 448 parents who have children in kindergartens affiliated to Ministry of National Education (MNE) in various districts of Ankara in the 2019-2020 Academic Year. Temperament Scale in Children, Adjective Based Personality Test, Marital Life Scale, The Parenting Sense of Competence (PSOC) Scale, Parenting Stress Tool and Parenting Behavior Scale were used to collect data in the study. The research was carried out with the correlational model. MANOVA and Structural Equation Modeling were used for data analysis. In the analysis of demographic variables, it was observed that parenting behaviors differ according to gender and employment status, but no significant difference was observed according to age. In the model in which the predicted variable is negative parenting behavior and parental stress is mediator variable, parental stress, marital satisfaction and personality traits were negatively correlated, while parental stress and temperament traits were positively correlated. Parental stress also showed a positive relationship with negative parenting. In the model in which the predicted variable is negative parental behavior and the mediator variable is parental self-efficacy, parental self-efficacy, marital satisfaction and personality traits were positively correlated, while parental self-efficacy and temperament traits were negatively correlated. Parental self-efficacy also showed a negative correlation with negative parenting. In the model in which the predicted variable is positive parenting behavior and the mediator variable is parental stress, parental stress, marital satisfaction and personality traits were negatively correlated while parental stress and temperament traits were positively correlated. Parental stress also showed a negative relationship with negative parenting. In the model in which the predicted variable is positive parenting behavior and the mediator variable is parental self-efficacy, parental self-efficacy, marital satisfaction and personality traits were positively correlated while parental self-efficacy and temperament traits were negatively correlated. Parental self-efficacy also showed a positive relationship with positive parenting.
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Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi testar um modelo estrutural no qual a regulação emocional é mediadora entre dimensões negativas da coparentalidade e sintomas internalizantes em adolescentes. A amostra foi composta de 229 adolescentes entre 11 a 18 anos. Modelagem de equações estruturais foi utilizada para testar a validade empírica do modelo teórico proposto. Os resultados indicaram que regulação emocional é mediadora da associação entre dimensões negativas de coparentalidade e sintomas internalizantes em adolescentes. Em contraste, associação direta entre coparentalidade e sintomas internalizantes não se manteve significativa no modelo com mediação. Conclui-se que a regulação emocional possui papel determinante para o desenvolvimento de sintomas internalizantes no contexto de dificuldades coparentais.
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The main aim of the present study was to examine the psychological adaptation and beliefs of parents who identified themselves as experiencing a situation of parental alienation (targeted parents). Firstly, we compared psychological adaptation (depression, satisfaction with life) and belief in an unjust world in targeted parents and parents from the community. Secondly, we examined the associations between individual (depression, belief in an unjust world) and family (child behavior related to parental alienation, other parent’s alienating behavior and triangulation) factors and satisfaction with life in targeted parents. A cross-sectional study was conducted with two sub-samples (N = 106) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression symptoms, belief in an unjust world, and satisfaction with life. Targeted parents additionally reported on parental alienation and triangulation measures. Results showed that targeted parents presented higher scores of depression symptoms and of beliefs in an unjust world and lower scores in satisfaction with life, compared to parents in the community. Standard multiple regression analysis showed a significant contribution of depression, belief in an unjust world and child behavior related to parental alienation for the satisfaction with life of targeted parents. The findings provide an important contribution to characterize targeted parents’ psychological adaptation and beliefs, and to identify correlates of poorer satisfaction with life in the adverse context of parental alienation.
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In light of the increasing variability in family structures, coparenting has attracted growing attention as a crucial dimension on which to evaluate children’s mental health across different family structures. In this study, we present a systematic review of the available measures for the assessment of coparenting. After duplicate removal, screening, and eligibility assessment, 26 instruments were selected. Due to the importance of the coparental relationship to children’s mental health, special attention was paid to the characteristics that contribute to enhancing the instruments’ suitability for use in clinical contexts. The results show a great increase in the number of published instruments designed to assess coparenting. The review also found some instruments to be more suitable than others for use in clinical contexts due to their time-efficiency, their psychometric properties and/or to other dimensions. This review reinforces the importance of developing instruments that allow for the assessment of coparenting and contributes to the body of knowledge in the field by offering information of interest to professionals dealing with families.
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Parenting Coordination is a “hybrid legal‐mental health role that combines assessment, education, case management, conflict management, dispute resolution and, often times, decision‐making functions (AFCC, 2019, https://www.afccnet.org/Portals/0/PublicDocuments/Guidelines%20for%20PC%20with%20Appendex.pdf?ver=2020-01-30-190220-990). This article addresses issues that arise when the case has allegations or findings of intimate partner violence (IPV). Considerations of the type of IPV, the severity, timing, perpetrator and effects on coparenting are discussed in the context of the parenting coordinator's role. Through screening and assessment, we differentiate the kinds of cases with the presence of IPV where a PC may be effective as opposed to other IPV cases that may not predict success for retaining a PC.
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Resumo Coparentalidade é definida como a relação estabelecida entre os cuidadores e a forma como compartilham os cuidados com seus filhos. Suas reverberações nos filhos adolescentes podem ser associadas a problemas de comportamento, condutas antissociais. Investigou-se o efeito preditor das dimensões da coparentalidade e do conflito pais-filhos em condutas antissociais de adolescentes em conflito com a lei no contexto das práticas restaurativas. Sessenta e dois adolescentes vinculados a projeto do Ministério Público no Rio Grande do Sul que responderam quatro escalas. Os resultados, a partir de regressão linear, sustentam que as variáveis - triangulação coparental familiar, intensidade e motivo de conflito com o pai são preditoras de comportamentos antissociais leves. Nos severos, o conflito coparental familiar teve o maior poder preditivo. Esses dados evidenciam a necessidade de valoração da relação familiar - coparental, instrumentalizando medidas protetivas que garantam a saúde mental do adolescente, buscando sua proteção à de condutas de risco.
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Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) in the family context has detrimental effects for children’s physical health and psychological adjustment. The current study examined the direct links between IPV and children’s externalizing and internalizing behavior problems and the indirect effect of coparenting quality as reported by a sample of 79 (80% African American, 11% Latina, and 9% Multiracial/Other), low-income mothers of children aged 2–12 years, the majority of whom were not in a romantic relationship (61%) or cohabitating with their child’s biological father (64%). Results indicated that IPV history was directly associated with higher rates of internalizing behaviors, but not with externalizing behaviors. Coparenting quality mediated the association between IPV and child externalizing and internalizing behaviors, when controlling for parent relationship status, such that IPV history was associated with lower levels of coparenting quality, which was associated with higher rates of child behavior problems. Findings highlight the importance of culturally appropriate self-report measures of coparenting and implications of IPV in racially and ethnically diverse low-income families on child adjustment.
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A Escala de Relação Coparental (ERC) é uma das medidas mais utilizadas para avaliar a relação de coparentalidade. Pretendeu-se avaliar as propriedades psicométricas das versões completa e breve da ERC numa amostra comunitária de 779 pais e mães portugueses, com idades entre os 23 e os 65 anos (M = 42.73; DP = 5.27). As análises fatoriais confirmatórias forneceram evidências de um bom ajustamento dos dados, fiabilidade interna e validade convergente, ainda que em ambas as versões tenha sido eliminada a dimensão Divisão de tarefas parentais. Quando à validade discriminante, duas das sete dimensões – Acordo nas práticas parentais e Suporte coparental – não evidenciaram validade discriminante. A validade concorrente também foi testada e confirmada através das correlações entre das dimensões da ERC e as dimensões da RDAS (ajustamento diádico) e do SDQ (ajustamento infantil).
Chapter
Married couples are still the dominant form of couple relationships, but there are now rising numbers of cohabitating and single expectant parents with implications for couple relationships and relationship functioning. The couple relationship is associated with maternal well-being during pregnancy, earlier entry into prenatal care, length of gestation and preterm birth, and small-for-gestational-age infants. Social support from a spouse/partner is related to decreased levels of prenatal anxiety and depression. Both maternal and paternal happiness about pregnancy are associated with increased infant birth weight. Couples who report high prenatal relationship quality also are more likely to remain involved in co-parenting postpartally. To evaluate the marital bond during pregnancy, four areas were evaluated: (1) the husband’s concern for his wife’s needs as an expectant mother, (2) the wife’s concern for her husband’s needs as an expectant father, (3) the effects of the pregnancy on marital closeness and marital conflicts, and (4) The husband’s adjustment to his new role, and his identification of a fatherhood role. A developmental shift that occurs in both partners in the transition to parenthood is the shift in their behavior toward each other, i.e., becoming parental partners in addition to marital partners. Paternal transition to fatherhood is influenced by the partner’s readiness for fatherhood and its associated stresses. Paternal–infant attachment and paternal involvement in childcare have an impact on the marital relationship and on child development. Health-care providers who understand the transition to parenthood from the perspective of both fathers and mothers are better able to tailor support and counseling appropriate to each couple’s circumstances. An assessment of partner attachment, of individual partner attachment relational representations, and conceptions of parenthood and co-parenting is warranted during pregnancy. Preventive intervention programs for mothers, fathers, and couples can increase coping and communication skills in interpersonal relationships, as well as adaptation to pregnancy.
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RESUMO: O objetivo deste artigo foi verificar a associação entre a qualidade da coparentalidade e o estresse em pais de crianças com paralisia cerebral (PC). Trata-se de um estudo transversal e descritivo. Foram incluídos 81 pais de crianças com até 12 anos de idade diagnosticadas com PC. Os instrumentos utilizados foram Inventário sociodemográfico, Escala de classificação funcional motora grossa, Índice de estresse parental e Questionário de coparentalidade submetidos na Técnica de Análise de Correspondência (ANCOR). Altos níveis de estresse total estão associados a elevados índices de estresse nas subescalas sofrimento parental, interação disfuncional pai e filho e criança difícil. Os pais avaliados no Questionário de Coparentalidade com baixa cooperação foram registrados com elevados índices de estresse na subescala sofrimento parental. Os dados mostraram relação significativa entre a qualidade da coparentalidade e o nível de estresse em pais de crianças com PC.
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COPARENTING: DETERMINATION, CHARACTERISTICS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FAMILY MEDIATION ABSTRACT The definition, conceptualization and the first research studies of coparenting appeared in the beginning of this century, and ever since this process of mutual enterprise of two or more persons who co-operate in the upbringing of a child for whom they share responsibility has aroused a considerable research interest. The primary aim of this review is to present the existing understandings of coparenting as an important family process which influences the entire family, and which is of particular developmental importance for the children. An additional aim is to point to the implications of the united knowledge about coparenting on the family mediation practice in the Republic of Croatia in order to contribute to its development and scientific foundation. The first part of the review represents the theoretical origins for understanding the coparenting, as well as the results of the domestic and foreign research on the connection between coparenting and the characteristics of parental behaviour and the child’s psychosocial adjustment and the specific features of the coparenting after divorce are examined. The second part of the review discusses the implications of the presented knowledge on coparenting for family mediation, which is recognised as a method which is appropriate for helping families in which there are conflicts and problems in various domains of coparenting. The empirical foundation of the need to expand the area of mediation beyond divorce is emphasised, as well as for the development of different models of family mediation practice and for the usage of preventive mediation in the construction of quality family relationships in two-parent families. The importance of the possibility to integrate scientific knowledge on coparenting into the system of knowledge and skills of family mediators is pointed out. Key words: coparenting,parenting, divorce, family mediation.
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Consumption of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs in adolescence may increase the risk of future dependence, be associated with a range of risk behaviors, and lead to the development of emotional and behavioral problems. The objective of this study was to characterize the profile of use of alcohol and other drugs by adolescents from a rural sample and to analyze possible associations between consumption, the variables cooperation, co-parental conflict and triangulation, family cohesion, parent-child conflict, and emotional and behavioral problems. It is a descriptive study with 126 adolescents of municipal and state schools in Southern Brazil. A sociodemographic survey was employed, as well as Faces III, ECPF, CIPA, YSR and ASSIST scales. Inferential and descriptive analyses found that 49.2% of the adolescents had used alcohol, and 8.7%, tobacco. Alcohol use was correlated to conflicts with the mother, and marijuana use to those with the father. The father's co-parental cooperation was a protection factor for alcohol consumption, whereas the intensity of an adolescent's conflict with the father and the parents' co-parental conflict were risk factors. The data are discussed in view of the scientific literature and taking into account its social and clinical relevance. Directions for further investigation are suggested.
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