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Feminism and method : ethnography, discourse analysis, and activist research

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... Their caution was to assure they accurately represented the views of the organization rather My research was a collective activity that practiced ongoing dialogue between myself and my research participants (Naples 2003 Ricans), participants commonly qualified me as an outsider even if I was given some privileges of insider status. I am aware that in some cases I was viewed as an outsider and in others I was viewed as a mixture of the two, as "insider" and "outsider" do not exist in a simplistic binary; attempts to homogenize these distinctions mask the complex dynamics representations (Naples 2003). ...
... Their caution was to assure they accurately represented the views of the organization rather My research was a collective activity that practiced ongoing dialogue between myself and my research participants (Naples 2003 Ricans), participants commonly qualified me as an outsider even if I was given some privileges of insider status. I am aware that in some cases I was viewed as an outsider and in others I was viewed as a mixture of the two, as "insider" and "outsider" do not exist in a simplistic binary; attempts to homogenize these distinctions mask the complex dynamics representations (Naples 2003). Traditional approaches to ethnographies that distance the researcher from the research participants tend to "other" the research participants and perform the project in an authoritarian manner (Hesse-Bibber and Piatelli 2012). ...
... Therefore, I align with feminist critiques about assumed "scientific objectivity" and support that there is no one fixed reality; rather, the world is historically and socially constructed and consists of multiple realities and perspectives (Hesse-Bibber and Piatelli 2012). My project aligns with feminist methodological approaches that (1) challenge assumed "universal" truths; (2) that design research projects to produce social change; and (3) that design research projects to promote equality in the research process and beyond (Naples 2003). ...
Research
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Would an intersectional approach be effective to mainstream into the United Nations human rights framework? Scholarship queries if and how an intersectional approach to human rights would be effective. I build on the scholarship and make a unique contribution to it by examining such questions when focusing on the United States/Puerto Rico relationship. The Puerto Rican collective identity has distinct intersectional needs regarding human rights that are not adequately addressed in the UN human rights framework, and thus, it would be useful for the UN to transform to adopt an intersectional approach. The chapters are as follows: “Chapter 1: Troubling ‘Universalism’ in Human Rights Through an Intersectional Analysis,” “Chapter 2: The Benefits and Shortcomings of Strategic Essentialism and Intersectional Strategic Essentialism,” “Chapter 3: Community Strength and Resilience in Response to Hurricane Maria, Earthquakes, and COVID-19,” and the “Conclusion: Activism and Human Rights.” This dissertation focuses on the global human rights system, the United Nations, and the United States/Puerto Rico relationship as a case study to exemplify useful activist strategies for any activist movement where empowerment around a collective identity is the goal.
... Hasil observasi dan catatan lapangan tersebut kemudian direfleksikan. Saya menggunakan praktek refleksi seperti yang dilakukan oleh Naples (2003). Refleksi memungkinkan saya untuk mendialogkan temuan-temuan lapangan tentang proses-proses penelitian etnografi saya dengan teori ethnography feminis dari berbagai bahan bacaan yang telah saya baca. ...
... Sementara yang dimaksud pengetahuan dalam artikel ini mengacu pada definisi pengetahuan yang dirujuk oleh para peneliti atau ilmuwan feminis, yaitu pengalaman hidup perempuan. Pengalaman hidup termasuk aktivitas perempuan sehari-hari bisa menjadi sebuah pengetahuan perempuan (Naples, 2003;Pineda & Purdue, 2019;Smith, 2021) ANALISIS Memahami daerah, memahami masyarakat dan memahami pandemic Selama di Aceh Utara, saya tinggal di dua kecamatan secara bergantian. Krueng Mane merupakan kawasan dataran rendah, daerah pesisir. ...
... Hubungan antara peneliti dengan subjek penelitian juga menjadi ranah yang dikaji dan direfleksikan. Seorang peneliti feminis yang baik harus menyadari posisinya terhadap subjek yang diteliti, hubungan kuasa yang terbangun antara peneliti dengan subject serta tanggung jawab moral peneliti terhadap posisi tidak seimbang antara peneliti dan subjek yang diteliti (Naples, 2003;Pineda & Purdue, 2019). Sebagai seorang peneliti, yang dilengkapi dengan semua privilege seperti pendidikan tinggi, memiliki akses terhadap informasi, ekonomi dan kekuasaan yang lebih dibanding subject, mengakibatkan subject penelitian tidak hanya rentan terdominasi oleh peneliti tapi juga sangat rentan mengalami eksploitasi dalam proses penelitian tersebut. ...
... -Mason & Stubbs, 2010, p. 8 Orthodox criminology, arguably, does not fully embrace feminist research because of its epistemic tenets and preferred methodologies. Feminists' perspective on subjectivity and power shape feminist epistemology-by addressing how researchers understand knowledge-and their methodology-by informing the practicalities of how they execute research (Naples, 2003;Nencel, 2014). While feminist researchers go about their work differently, their approach often includes conceptual similarities. ...
... Instead, feminist researchers try to bridge the distance between themselves and those in their studies to minimize power differences among the parties involved. Relatedly, feminist researchers practice reflexivity, which means they are transparent about how they influence their research findings (Ball, 2021;Naples, 2003;Renzetti, 2013). Some feminist researchers engage in "me-search" to sidestep research power imbalances. ...
Article
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The phrase "the personal is political" is commonly associated with 1970s feminists, for whom it denoted the relationship between personal experiences and broad systems of inequality. However, considering bell hooks' argument that feminists have lost the power analysis fundamental to the relationship between the personal and the political, we assess the relevance of the notion the 'personal is political,' to our work as feminist criminologists. Building on hooks' insight, we argue there is a need to take up an intersectional and anti-racist feminist praxis that centers multiple forms of oppression in scholarship and seeks greater accountability for sexism, racism, and transphobia both within and beyond academic spaces. We elaborate our ideas by, first, outlining the intellectual history and evolution of feminist criminol-ogy. Second, we examine how the relationship between the personal and political figures in the work of minoritized scholars. Third, we discuss the necessary discomforts associated with working towards an intersectional and antiracist feminist criminology.
... Consistent with Dr. Frank's lived experience with opioid use and MMT, the authors used a situated theoretical approach to data collection and analysis. Situated approaches are those that acknowledge the positionality and power relationships existing between researcher, subject, and participant [33][34][35]. They are often used when studying groups that are structurally and/or ideologically marginalized, and generally place a greater emphasis on transparency and reflexivity than on neutrality and objectivity. ...
... Situated approaches are also more comfortable with the political and activist concerns of research than other methodological approaches that focus primarily on uncovering objective knowledge. In situated approaches, challenging power is seen as a valuable part of the process [33,36]. ...
Article
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Background Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) is widely recognized as one of the most effective ways of reducing risk of overdose, arrest, and transmission of blood-borne viruses like HIV and HCV among people that use opioids. Yet, MMT’s use of restrictive take-home dose policies that force most patients to attend their clinic on a daily, or near-daily, basis may be unpopular with many patients and lead to low rates of treatment uptake and retention. In response, this article examines how clinics’ take-home dosing policies have affected patients’ experiences of treatment and lives in general. Methods This article is based on semi-structured, qualitative interviews with a variety of stakeholders in MMT. Interviews explored: reasons for engaging with, or not engaging with MMT; how MMT is conceptualized by patients and treatment providers (e.g., as harm reduction or route to abstinence and/or recovery); experiences with MMT; perception of barriers to MMT (e.g., organizational/regulatory, social) and how MMT might be improved to support peoples’ substance use treatment needs and goals. Results Nearly all of the patients with past or present MMT use were highly critical of the limited access to take-home doses and consequent need for daily or near daily clinic attendance. Participants described how the use of restrictive take-home dose policies negatively impacted their ability to meet day-to-day responsibilities and also cited the need for daily attendance as a reason for quitting or avoiding OAT. Responses also demonstrate how such policies contribute to an environment of cruelty and stigma within many clinics that exposes this already-stigmatized population to additional trauma. Conclusions Take-home dose policies in MMT are not working for a substantial number of patients and are reasonably seen by participants as degrading and dehumanizing. Revision of MMT regulations and policies regarding take home doses are essential to improve patient satisfaction and the quality and effectiveness of MMT as a key evidence-based treatment and harm reduction strategy.
... Com base no conceito de "objetividade posicionada", mais recentemente vários autores reivindicaram as contribuições epistemológicas da antropologia ativista (NAPLES, 2003;HALE, 2008;SPEED, 2008) definindo-a como aquela que se desenvolve em alinhamento ou vínculo com um grupo de pessoas organizadas em luta, e em relações de colaboração com esse grupo na produção de conhecimento, que, argumentam, fornece uma perspectiva privilegiada de dentro e uma certa inovação teórica que não seria alcançada se o pesquisado restivesse posicionado como um observador externo e distante. ...
Chapter
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O caminho que nos levou até este livro vem sendo trilhado faz alguns anos. Transitando por distintos territórios, nossos caminhos se cruzaram pela primeira vez no processo de preparação de uma coletânea sobre autodeterminação, autonomia territorial e acesso à justiça de povos indígenas na América Latina. Em tempos mais recentes, na organização de um dossiê temático para uma revista dedicada ao tema do acesso à justiça e direitos nas Américas, e na coordenação de um simpósio no 3º Congresso Internacional Povos Indígenas da América Latina (CIPIAL). Neste livro, pretendemos dar mais um passo nesta caminhada colaborativa de reflexão sobre memória. Reunir pesquisadores que, a partir do seu trabalho de investigações, aprofundassem a discussão e trouxessem relevantes contribuições teóricas, metodológicas e éticas para o estudo de processos socioculturais com pessoas e comunidades vivendo em contextos de violência e terror ou que foram afetadas por ações de violência política na América Latina.
... Secondly, we show that the transnational surrogacy market in India, which is largely based out of Indian metropolises, is a complex development involving cross-national linkages, renting a woman's womb for birthing, monetary transactions, and questions of sexuality, kinship, family and citizenship. Feminists have adopted the life history method as a way to document the voices and narratives of marginalized women (Alcoff and Potter 1993;Naples 2003), and are invested in theorizing women's corporeal experiences. Oral narratives of different actors involved in the surrogacy arrangement have helped the researcher to document women's embodied experiences in multiple spatial contexts in Kolkata. ...
Article
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In this article, we explore the duality and performativity of bodies as they move through multiple social, sexual and fiscal economies of Kolkata. We offer the story of Sonia, a middle-aged feminine man, who despite a number of obstacles within his family, experiments with a range of sexual identities, and in the process challenges the notion of conformist heteronormative trajectories in the city. Our second character, Nirmala, works as a commercial surrogate in Kolkata. Nirmala's story shows how the cultural script of the pregnant body, associated with heterosexual intercourse and motherhood, is defied by the renting of wombs for profit within the assisted reproductive sector in the city. The personal accounts of Sonia and Nirmala eventually tell a story of Kolkata itself. They underline its transition from older post/colonial economies towards neoliberal aspirations and gendered freedoms. These processes of change remain imprinted in the rebellious, unorthodox bodies of ordinary citizens.
... Although Women of Color activists persistently contribute to transforming their local contexts, psychological inquiry into local activism is underexplored (Lind 2005). In depth analysis of the perspectives and life experiences of Women of Color who are working to create change in local context can reveal motivations related to resisting and addressing inequities that result in community transformation (Cahill 2007;Dutt and Grabe 2019;Grabe 2016;Hernandez and Rehman 2002;Linder and Rodriguez 2012;Naples 2003;Stewart et al. 2011). Moreover, studying the lives and perspectives of Women of Color activists can unveil insights into various factors that shape women's self-understandings as individual and collective agents of change (Naples and Gurr 2013;Morris 2000). ...
Article
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Despite a long history of critical engagement in local justice movements, the efforts of U.S. Women of Color activists remain understudied. In the present study we examine the manifestations of opposition and care that Women of Color utilize in exercising and sustaining their activism as they work to build justice-oriented change in their communities. We specifically explore how oppositional consciousness and ethics of care shape the perspectives and actions of local Women of Color activists. Qualitative data were collected via oral history interviews with eight local Women of Color activists in Cincinnati, Ohio. Using thematic narrative analysis, we identified three overarching thematic phases: building awareness of inequity, conscious interdependence , and putting awareness into action. These three phases aid in understanding how the women developed their commitment to social justice activism both as individuals and in consideration of their relationships with others in the community. Furthermore, we consider theories of oppositional consciousness and ethics of care and how they manifest in each phase. We then discuss how these findings contribute to understanding the experiences and efforts of local Women of Color activists. Findings from our research suggest timely incentives for broader inclusion of underrepresented voices to better inform decision-making bodies.
... Asimismo, nuestra aproximación teórica supone convertir las críticas en acciones, porque creemos que, a pesar de las dificultades, estos sistemas y prácticas generalizadas pueden optimizarse con el objetivo de mejorar la calidad y bienestar de las personas migrantes así como la asistencia ofrecida por los centros de atención sanitaria. Insistimos en el valor de tender puentes entre los académicos, los profesionales y la comunidad, al tiempo que reconocemos el vínculo intrínseco entre la academia y la política, y diseñamos e implementamos, conjuntamente, programas de acción que atiendan los problemas a los cuales hemos hecho referencia (Esterberg, 2002;Naples, 2003;Hale, 2008;Shayne 2014;Villalón, 2011Villalón, , 2014Connell, 2007;Jaggar, 2008;Zuberi & Bonilla-Silva, 2008). Con el presente proyecto, pretendemos aportar un mayor conocimiento sobre las experiencias de marginalización con el propósito de reducir las desigualdades en salud que, en muchas ocasiones, los han revictimizado. ...
Chapter
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The International Platform of Cooperation and Migration (IPCM) was created by a group of social entities and NGOS of several countries. This paper studies the role of IPCM and its main activities and documents.
... La consecución de esta finalidad parte del método de investigación-acción participativa, cuyos exponentes fundamentales son Fals Borda (1990), Foote (1991), Kemmis (1992), Villasnte (2002), Noffke & Somekh (2009) y Caballero, Martín y Villasante (2019). También experiencias de aplicación de la IAP en estudios de género desde el ámbito de las ciencias sociales (Orefice, 2014;Breckmans, Velasco & Loots, 2016), donde resultan destacables los casos de Berge & Ve (2000) y Naples (2003), los cuales aplican este método en el campo del feminismo. En España hay que destacar los estudios y prácticas docentes de Oliveira & Waldenez (2010), Barba, Martín & Barba (2015), Barba, Barba & Martínez (2016) y Barba & Sanz (2019) en el campo de la educación, y el de Barba (2019) en relación con la formación de maestras. ...
Article
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ES. Las metodologías participativas en el ámbito docente universitario tienen especial relevancia considerando las últimas reformas legislativas en torno a los Espacios Europeos de Educación Superior (EEES). En este artículo se analizan las dinámicas de participación del alumnado y el profesorado universitario desde un enfoque de género dentro del marco de un proyecto de innovación docente, aplicado en diversas asignaturas y facultades de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid en el curso 2019-20. La metodología de esta iniciativa parte de un proceso de investigación acción participativa (IAP), que se ha desarrollado en tres fases: observación, autorreflexiones y propuestas de transformación. Tras el análisis de las dinámicas de clase, se ha evidenciado que existen desigualdades en la participación del alumnado en función del género, y a partir de éstas se proponen estrategias de mejora que promuevan una formación del profesorado universitario en igualdad. EN. Participatory methodologies in the university teaching field have special relevance considering the latest legislative reforms around the European Higher Education Spaces (EHEA). This article analyzes the dynamics of partici-pation of students and university teachers from a gender perspective within the framework of a teaching innovation project, applied in various subjects and facul-ties of the Complutense University of Madrid (2019-20). The methodology of this initiative is based on a participatory action research (IAP) process, which has been developed in three phases: observation, self-reflections and transformation pro-posals. After the analysis of class dynamics, it has been shown that there are ine-qualities in the participation of students according to gender and from these, im-provement strategies are proposed that promote a training of university teachers in equality.
... Com base no conceito de "objetividade posicionada", mais recentemente vários autores reivindicaram as contribuições epistemológicas da antropologia ativista (NAPLES, 2003;HALE, 2008;SPEED, 2008) definindo-a como aquela que se desenvolve em alinhamento ou vínculo com um grupo de pessoas organizadas em luta, e em relações de colaboração com esse grupo na produção de conhecimento, que, argumentam, fornece uma perspectiva privilegiada de dentro e uma certa inovação teórica que não seria alcançada se o pesquisado restivesse posicionado como um observador externo e distante. ...
Book
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O caminho que nos levou até este livro vem sendo trilhado faz alguns anos. Transitando por distintos territórios, nossos caminhos se cruzaram pela primeira vez no processo de preparação de uma coletânea sobre autodeterminação, autonomia territorial e acesso à justiça de povos indígenas na América Latina. Em tempos mais recentes, na organização de um dossiê temático para uma revista dedicada ao tema do acesso à justiça e direitos nas Américas, e na coordenação de um simpósio no 3º Congresso Internacional Povos Indígenas da América Latina (CIPIAL). Neste livro, pretendemos dar mais um passo nesta caminhada colaborativa de reflexão sobre memória. Reunir pesquisadores que, a partir do seu trabalho de investigações, aprofundassem a discussão e trouxessem relevantes contribuições teóricas, metodológicas e éticas para o estudo de processos socioculturais com pessoas e comunidades vivendo em contextos de violência e terror ou que foram afetadas por ações de violência política na América Latina.
... Com base no conceito de "objetividade posicionada", mais recentemente vários autores reivindicaram as contribuições epistemológicas da antropologia ativista (NAPLES, 2003;HALE, 2008;SPEED, 2008) definindo-a como aquela que se desenvolve em alinhamento ou vínculo com um grupo de pessoas organizadas em luta, e em relações de colaboração com esse grupo na produção de conhecimento, que, argumentam, fornece uma perspectiva privilegiada de dentro e uma certa inovação teórica que não seria alcançada se o pesquisado restivesse posicionado como um observador externo e distante. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
O caminho que nos levou até este livro vem sendo trilhado faz alguns anos. Transitando por distintos territórios, nossos caminhos se cruzaram pela primeira vez no processo de preparação de uma coletânea sobre autodeterminação, autonomia territorial e acesso à justiça de povos indígenas na América Latina. Em tempos mais recentes, na organização de um dossiê temático para uma revista dedicada ao tema do acesso à justiça e direitos nas Américas, e na coordenação de um simpósio no 3º Congresso Internacional Povos Indígenas da América Latina (CIPIAL). Neste livro, pretendemos dar mais um passo nesta caminhada colaborativa de reflexão sobre memória. Reunir pesquisadores que, a partir do seu trabalho de investigações, aprofundassem a discussão e trouxessem relevantes contribuições teóricas, metodológicas e éticas para o estudo de processos socioculturais com pessoas e comunidades vivendo em contextos de violência e terror ou que foram afetadas por ações de violência política na América Latina.
... Asimismo, nuestra aproximación teórica supone convertir las críticas en acciones, porque creemos que, a pesar de las dificultades, estos sistemas y prácticas generalizadas pueden optimizarse con el objetivo de mejorar la calidad y bienestar de las personas migrantes así como la asistencia ofrecida por los centros de atención sanitaria. Insistimos en el valor de tender puentes entre los académicos, los profesionales y la comunidad, al tiempo que reconocemos el vínculo intrínseco entre la academia y la política, y diseñamos e implementamos, conjuntamente, programas de acción que atiendan los problemas a los cuales hemos hecho referencia (Esterberg, 2002;Naples, 2003;Hale, 2008;Shayne 2014;Villalón, 2011Villalón, , 2014Connell, 2007;Jaggar, 2008;Zuberi & Bonilla-Silva, 2008). Con el presente proyecto, pretendemos aportar un mayor conocimiento sobre las experiencias de marginalización con el propósito de reducir las desigualdades en salud que, en muchas ocasiones, los han revictimizado. ...
... Debates within feminist research extend as far as the name of the term itself. Naples (2003) promotes the use of the term 'reflective practice', arguing that a reflex is an unconscious response, whilst a researcher engaged in reflective practice is deliberately raising their consciousness, however Bondi (2009) argues that 'reflexivity involves something more than reflection' (p.327). Therefore, different feminist researchers may adopt different approaches to reflexivity, which may fall under one or more of the categories identified by Finlay (2002). ...
Thesis
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https://hydra.hull.ac.uk/resources/hull:17083 Background: A significant number of women experience childbirth as traumatic, with long-term negative sequelae. Little is known about the choices women make in subsequent pregnancy(s)/birth(s). Understanding the choices women make, and why, is necessary to offer appropriate support to women traumatised by their previous birth(s). Question: What choices do women make in the perinatal period, when they have previously experienced a traumatic birth? Method: Nine pregnant UK-based women who had previously experienced a traumatic birth were recruited to a longitudinal feminist grounded theory study, via online pregnancy and parenting forums. Interviews were carried out in early pregnancy, pre-birth, and postnatally (27 interviews). Results: Findings suggest that women gathered and analysed information from a variety of sources, often at an early stage (even pre-conception) to make choices about birth. Women made decisions throughout pregnancy in order to have the birth they wanted. Participants expressed difficulty in trusting healthcare professionals because of their previous experiences, and needed recognition that trust had to be rebuilt. Each woman located the power to support her birthplan in someone different. Anticipating a lack of support for their plans, women prepared for appointments as though each would be a battle. When each woman met the person whom she believed could agree her choices, if they offered support for her plans, she experienced relief. If that support was denied, it was devastating. If women were able to develop trusting relationships with healthcare professionals during pregnancy, this birth was likely to be a positive experience. Similarly, support from partners was an indicator for a positive birth experience. Conclusions: This thesis explores relationships between women, information, birthplans and trust, and proposes a care pathway for women who have previously experienced a traumatic birth. The care pathway advocates continuity of care from a single appropriate carer, who provides information, and supports the early formulation of a birthplan.
... It has been argued, however, that the insider-outsider dichotomy is a false one (Banks, 1998;Chavez, 2008;Merton, 1972;Naples, 2003); it has even been suggested that the role of the researcher be conceptualized on a continuum, rather than as an either/or dichotomy (Breen, 2007;Trowler, 2011). Certainly, both insider and outsider researchers have to deal with similar methodological issues around positionality, among other issues not pertinent to this discussion. ...
Article
As qualitative researchers, what stories we are told, how they are relayed to us, and the narratives that we form and share with others are inevitably influenced by our position and experiences as a researcher in relation to our participants. This is particularly true for insider research, which is concerned with the study of one’s own social group or society. This paper explores some of the possible methodological insights and challenges that may arise from insider research, and suggests several techniques and tools that may be utilized to aid in, rather than hinder, the process of the telling and sharing of participants’ stories. Such strategies may also be used to minimize ethical implications, avoid potential bias and increase the trustworthiness of the data gathered. This analysis draws on the author’s own experiences as an insider researcher and principal investigator on a research project that employed qualitative methodologies.
... De acuerdo con estos puntos de vista, el investigador debe aspirar a la inmersión total dentro de la cultura por investigar, de manera que se pueda desarrollar un alto grado de comprensión reflexiva y una capacidad interpretativa máxima desde el punto de vista del sujeto social. Otras metodologías más recientes, como la "investigación interior" (Kanuha, 2000;Labaree, 2002) y la "investigación activista" (Naples, 2003;Speed, 2006), colocan la posibilidad de que tanto los miembros completamente enculturados pertenecientes a un grupo social, como sujetos externos que eventualmente se han convertido en "nativos", pueden llevar a cabo investigación social legítima sobre el grupo mismo. 4 Si bien estos últimos dos métodos son propuestas extremas en cuanto a maximizar la cantidad de afecto que puede existir entre investigador e investigado, la comprensión participante comparte la firme convicción de que minimizar la distancia conceptual y lingüística entre analistas y actores sociales es un ideal metodológico. ...
Article
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Este artículo presenta el método microsociológico de "comprensión participante", volcado hacia los Estudios Sociales de la Ciencia y la Tecnología (ESCT), cuya aplicación concreta se ilustra mediante la descripción de dos proyectos de investigación desarrollados con dicha metodología. La presentación comparativa busca evidenciar dos dimensiones cruciales para todo investigador que desarrolle un estudio de caso dentro del campo: 1) el nivel de socialización lingüística del investigador dentro de la comunidad científica que es objeto de estudio y 2) el nivel de socialización lingüística dentro de la cultura de los estudios sobre ciencia contemporáneos. Abstract: This paper discusses the micro-sociological method of "participant comprehension", as applied in Science and Technology Studies (STS). To illustrate the concrete application of this method, the article describes two research projects developed within this framework. The comparative presentation of these projects seeks to highlight two crucial dimensions for individuals doing field research in STS 1) the researcher's levels of linguistic socialization into the scientific community under study and 2) the level of linguistic socialization into the cultures of contemporary STS.
... Therefore, it aligns itself closely with feminist research, as both expose similar concerns with including women or marginalised populations as independent actors (Lykes and Coquillon 2007). PAR, underpinned by feminist discourse and values, can be critical of social power structures, can create democratic spaces that account for women's voices and explore hidden gender inequalities (Naples 2003), and can contribute to unearthing a feminist epistemology (Fine 2007). Feminist PAR has the potential to, empower women, demystify the research itself (Reinharz 1992), and create advocacy for and critical consciousness about one's self and the wider social and political context participants are situated in. ...
Chapter
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This chapter looks at how arts-based feminist participatory action research (PAR) can be utilised for developing political capabilities of women and facilitate their contribution to epistemic justice. The data draws on co-production of 8 videos with 24 young conservative women university students in Istanbul, and the videos display these women’s multiple and diverse experiences of gender inequality. In this research, we approach PAR as a means of reducing political poverty (Bohman, Public deliberation: Pluralism, complexity, and democracy, 1996) whilst redressing the epistemic injustice (Fricker, Epistemic injustice: Power and the ethics of knowing, 2007) the women had been exposed to. Thus, we conceptualise feminist and political functionings as complementary concepts essential for influencing the outcomes of public deliberation and initiating public dialogue. The research shows that PAR espoused by feminism can create counter public space as a response to anti-egalitarian spaces that favour dominant voices. It can also contribute a counter narrative and confront a one-dimensional depiction of what gender equality is and what feminism should look like.
... As a component of clarifying their role in the research, these researcher often position themselves as either insiders or outsider to their research domain (Bonner & Tolhurst 2002). However, insider researcher has been defined as the study of one's own social group or society (Naples 2003 was important for the rural dwellers to trust and have confidence in me, therefore considerable skills were required to negotiate access to the villagers, particularly when visiting community of ethnic and religious group different from mine. As a result, some strategies were adopted by the researcher, aside from the letter of introduction presented to the community leaders (village head) and community meeting conducted with the farm families, the researcher also developed a close working relationships with the smallholder farmers, the youths and strong friendships with many community members. ...
Thesis
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In recent years growing attention has been given to use of ICT and adoption of improved technologies within the farming setting in both developed and developing countries. In the developing world this is generally in order to tackle low agricultural productivity amongst smallholders who are the major producers of food crops and to foster their adoption of GAP technologies to meet the food needs of ever-increasing populations. However, traditional approaches to knowledge exchange and extension has limitations in many countries. Given its potential amongst rural farmers, combined mobile phone-SMS text reminders and GAP participatory training could significantly promote greater adoption amongst farmers. Little is known about this unique approach in facilitating farmer adoption of GAP technologies in developing economies and, specifically, no Nigerian study has been found that examines such a role amongst rural communities. The principal aim was to evaluate smallholder uptake of Good Agricultural Practices and whether tactical use of ICT (SMS text reminders) can improve adoption of practices to enhance the effectiveness of extension to farmers. Secondly, the study sought to evaluate the use of ICT in relation to market communications. After a critical review of smallholder farming, extension and the use of ICT in communications, focus group discussions, household survey questionnaires and an in-depth constructivist case study were used. As such the study can be categorised as a participatory research methods using mixed methods triangulation strategy to address the study aims and objectives. Field studies in Nigeria involved three phases: After introducing the purpose of the study to two communities, the first phase focused on baseline livelihoods survey and an evaluation of farming practices. From the two closely related communities (Bassawa and Shika) in northern Nigeria, a total of 200 smallholder farmers were selected for the survey. The communities were located close together; however, in 2012 the Bassawa community had benefited from the NAERLS Adopted Village Concept community initiative. The second phase focused on GAP participatory training, the development of a lead-farmer extension model, extension visits, SMS text reminders, focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with both extension workers and farmers. The third phase included evaluation survey questionnaires of the effectiveness of GAP participatory training, impact of SMS text reminders and barriers to adoption of GAP technologies. In addition, the use of SMS linked to market strategies was reviewed. Whilst quantitative data were analysis using SPSS and descriptive statistics, qualitative data were thematically analysed. Overall, this study found that 13 GAP technologies were fully adopted, and the interviews as well as the evaluating survey provided a richer understanding of the motivating factors that triggered the adoption. These included GAP participatory training, access to timely information via SMS text reminders, access to extension visits and trust invested in the lead farmers. The study also found that the farmers who received SMS reminders estimated that they had a 42% increase in their agricultural productivity as a result of GAP intervention in the community. The thesis also identified a couple of barriers influencing extension delivery and found that mobile phones can be tactically used to support traditional extension and communication. To address the identified barriers to smallholders improving the sustainability of their agricultural practices there is the need for a radical reform in agricultural extension in Nigeria. The focus of this reform should consider building capacity in good agricultural practices in extension staff and lead farmers so that they can disseminate such practices. Throughout, such capacity building should seek to empower decision making in farmers. In order to address the high farmer to extension worker ratios, there is a need to extend rural ICT facilities and link extension staff to lead farmers while encouraging clusters of farmers around each lead farmer. In addition to facilitated training, the use of timely reminders via SMS has the potential to improve uptake of practices. The thesis develops a new model for mobile technology supporting traditional extension approaches in order to improve extension services to smallholder farmers in Nigeria. Currently, the extension officer ratio to famers in Nigeria is 1:3000, however, the new model revealed that if each extension officer has a portfolio of 300 lead farmers working with them and each lead farmer has 10 trainee farmers locally, then extension officer is directly communicating with 300 farmers and indirectly contacting 3000 smallholder farmers. Moreover, if the extension officer then have the ability to communicate with these smallholder farmers through Mobile phone technology as supposed to travelling to villages by car or motorcycle considering the restriction of bad roads network. Then the extension officer can remind farmers on what to do via contact of the lead farmers through SMS text. This actually means instantaneously all the farmers would get the text message at the right time. Meanwhile, extension visit to smallholder farmers in the villages would take the officer more than two weeks.
... As a component of clarifying their role in the research, these researcher often position themselves as either insiders or outsider to their research domain (Bonner & Tolhurst 2002). However, insider researcher has been defined as the study of one's own social group or society (Naples 2003 was important for the rural dwellers to trust and have confidence in me, therefore considerable skills were required to negotiate access to the villagers, particularly when visiting community of ethnic and religious group different from mine. As a result, some strategies were adopted by the researcher, aside from the letter of introduction presented to the community leaders (village head) and community meeting conducted with the farm families, the researcher also developed a close working relationships with the smallholder farmers, the youths and strong friendships with many community members. ...
Article
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In recent years growing attention has been given to use of ICT and adoption of improved technologies within the farming setting in both developed and developing countries. In the developing world this is generally in order to tackle low agricultural productivity amongst smallholders who are the major producers of food crops and to foster their adoption of GAP technologies to meet the food needs of ever-increasing populations. However, traditional approaches to knowledge exchange and extension has limitations in many countries. Given its potential amongst rural farmers, combined mobile phone-SMS text reminders and GAP participatory training could significantly promote greater adoption amongst farmers. Little is known about this unique approach in facilitating farmer adoption of GAP technologies in developing economies and, specifically, no Nigerian study has been found that examines such a role amongst rural communities. The principal aim was to evaluate smallholder uptake of Good Agricultural Practices and whether tactical use of ICT (SMS text reminders) can improve adoption of practices to enhance the effectiveness of extension to farmers. Secondly, the study sought to evaluate the use of ICT in relation to market communications. After a critical review of smallholder farming, extension and the use of ICT in communications, focus group discussions, household survey questionnaires and an in-depth constructivist case study were used. As such the study can be categorised as a participatory research methods using mixed methods triangulation strategy to address the study aims and objectives. Field studies in Nigeria involved three phases: After introducing the purpose of the study to two communities, the first phase focused on baseline livelihoods survey and an evaluation of farming practices. From the two closely related communities (Bassawa and Shika) in northern Nigeria, a total of 200 smallholder farmers were selected for the survey. The communities were located close together; however, in 2012 the Bassawa community had benefited from the NAERLS Adopted Village Concept community initiative. The second phase focused on GAP participatory training, the development of a lead-farmer extension model, extension visits, SMS text reminders, focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with both extension workers and farmers.
... Ortner (1995) championed the need for ethnographic narratives to provide a degree of 'thickness' in relation to the subjects of study, specifically calling for: i) contextualising issues regarding the subject's place in systems of oppression and resistance, ii) explaining political systems of power relations and inequality between different groups, iii) reflecting on the importance of cultural issues, and iv) attending to the individual as a person and agent with human desires and emotions. Naples (2003) advocated for reflective practice, calling for feminist researchers to consider insider/outsider dynamics and use multidimensional frameworks taking into account community dynamics, not least whether a researcher's standpoint is affected by differences with their subject's race, class and culture. The need for thick narrative techniques and reflective practice are all the more important given post-modern approaches in ethnographic migration studies 'stressing the diversity and complexity of human behaviour, and the alleged impossibility of squeezing this diversity into overarching, all-explaining theoretical frameworks' (Bakewell, De Haas and Kubal 2011, 8). ...
Thesis
Filipino migrant wives occupy a unique space in South Korean society. They are pioneers of South Korea's distinct version of multiculturalism, having been among the first wave of migrant wives to enter Korea. Some have broken through intersectional barriers to become politicians, civil servants and film stars. Many more have pushed boundaries in their marriages and challenged patriarchal and patrilocal expectations that migrant wives should be confined to the home, deferential to husbands and focussed on caring for children and in-laws. This is even more striking given that husband dominance and Confucian values remain embedded in religious practices, education and immigration policies in South Korea. My research introduces the term 'reproductive citizenship' to explain how the Korean state encourages migrant wives to reproduce both biologically and culturally, giving birth to biracial children who they raise with Korean cultural values. If migrant wives fulfil the tenets of reproductive citizenship, then they are afforded social acceptance and security over residency. The state's vision of reproductive citizenship is a gendered concept based on norms of female deference and husband control, designed to disincentivise migrant wives from leaving their husbands. Reproductive citizenship is the acceptable face of multiculturalism in Korea amidst record low birth and marriage rates. It enables Korean men at the bottom of the marriage market to find a wife whom they expect to focus on producing and raising children in a society with deep-rooted cultural expectations, where male maturity is linked with marriage and fatherhood. My research examines how the state's framework of reproductive citizenship influences the key decisions and fertility choices of migrant wives. I find that Filipinas face discrimination linked to their gender, race and class regardless of whether they arrive as marriage migrants, migrant workers or as entertainers catering to US soldiers. Each type of migrant is separated by the boundaries of citizenship that divide groups within a society based on their legal and economic entitlements. Migrant workers and entertainers are incentivised to work and refrain from having children as their visas are tied to employer sponsors. For migrant wives, producing a child and devotion to one's husband is the only way to attain substantive rights, respect and the protection of the Korean state. Reproductive citizenship attempts to push migrant women to maintain marriage as the only socially acceptable form of conjugal relationship. Multicultural programs focus on migrant wives and attempt to control and monitor their bodies, autonomy and agency using legal citizenship, welfare and social acceptance as rewards. However migrant wives, who have come to embody multiculturalism in South Korea, have their own dreams, which in the case of Filipinas extend beyond domestic care and raising children. Filipino wives are creating media and forming community groups to challenge cultural perspectives of Koreans who associate migrants from developing countries as being inferior and a homogenous collective group. Rather than being passive citizens, as envisaged by the state's ill-conceived frameworks of multiculturalism and reproductive citizenship, Filipino wives are proactively reshaping practices of cross-cultural communication so that different races and cultures can be accepted in a more expansive multicultural Korea.
... Asimismo, nuestra aproximación teórica supone convertir las críticas en acciones, porque creemos que, a pesar de las dificultades, estos sistemas y prácticas generalizadas pueden optimizarse con el objetivo de mejorar la calidad y bienestar de las personas migrantes así como la asistencia ofrecida por los centros de atención sanitaria. Insistimos en el valor de tender puentes entre los académicos, los profesionales y la comunidad, al tiempo que reconocemos el vínculo intrínseco entre la academia y la política, y diseñamos e implementamos, conjuntamente, programas de acción que atiendan los problemas a los cuales hemos hecho referencia (Esterberg, 2002;Naples, 2003;Hale, 2008;Shayne 2014;Villalón, 2011Villalón, , 2014Connell, 2007;Jaggar, 2008;Zuberi & Bonilla-Silva, 2008). Con el presente proyecto, pretendemos aportar un mayor conocimiento sobre las experiencias de marginalización con el propósito de reducir las desigualdades en salud que, en muchas ocasiones, los han revictimizado. ...
... Asimismo, nuestra aproximación teórica supone convertir las críticas en acciones, porque creemos que, a pesar de las dificultades, estos sistemas y prácticas generalizadas pueden optimizarse con el objetivo de mejorar la calidad y bienestar de las personas migrantes así como la asistencia ofrecida por los centros de atención sanitaria. Insistimos en el valor de tender puentes entre los académicos, los profesionales y la comunidad, al tiempo que reconocemos el vínculo intrínseco entre la academia y la política, y diseñamos e implementamos, conjuntamente, programas de acción que atiendan los problemas a los cuales hemos hecho referencia (Esterberg, 2002;Naples, 2003;Hale, 2008;Shayne 2014;Villalón, 2011Villalón, , 2014Connell, 2007;Jaggar, 2008;Zuberi & Bonilla-Silva, 2008). Con el presente proyecto, pretendemos aportar un mayor conocimiento sobre las experiencias de marginalización con el propósito de reducir las desigualdades en salud que, en muchas ocasiones, los han revictimizado. ...
... Students stated their sex-assigned-at birth in their housing application and were slotted into "male" or "female" rooms accordingly. Institutions used sex-segregation, even as researchers on their campuses have long argued that medically defined sex categories are discursively rather than biologically formed [10,23,36,52]. No institution offered gender-mixed housing as an initial choice. ...
Article
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Under President Trump, the Department of Education narrowed the definition of and protections for gender inequality in U.S. higher education (U.S. Department of Education, Dear Colleague Letter on Transgender, 2017). These changes drew criticism and concern for legal remedies for gender inequality. This study positions Trump’s actions as an extension of rather than a deviation from past state actions towards gender in higher education. Drawing upon Brown’s (Fem Stud 18(1):7–34, 1992; States of injury: power and freedom in late modernity, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995) theory of the masculinist state, we examined how liberal feminists sought state protection through Title-IX and, in doing so, formalized state control over gender equity in schools. Using instrumental case study methodology (Creswell, Qualitative inquiry and research design: choosing among five approaches, SAGE, Thousand Oaks, 2013; Stake, The art of case study research, SAGE, Thousand Oaks, 1995) we analyzed campus housing policies and found three themes—segregation, visitation, and demarcation—that entrench masculinist state power across public, private, and religious institutions. We conclude by discussing the on-going contradictions for feminists seeking the state’s protection.
... Grâce à elle, je dispose d'une connaissance étendue de la scène féministe et d'une sensibilité aux préoccupations des militant.e.s. Cela dit, je reconnais que ma position d'initié ou d'insider est nécessairement conjoncturelle et partielle et ne peut prétendre à l'exhaustivité (Naples 2003). Une limitation notable tient par exemple au fait que mon expérience est propre à Moscou et en conséquence pas toujours applicable à ce qu'on appelle les « provinces » russes. ...
Article
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Despite neopatriarchal state policies and increasing repressions against feminists, the Russian feminist movement has grown dramatically in the last 15 years and made itself increasingly heard in the public sphere and the media. This paper argues that a crucial reason for these impressive, albeit still little acknowledged successes is the feminist movement’s emphasis on constructing and maintaining a feminist community and collective identity. Drawing on interviews with feminist activists, it examines how communities are created as supportive spaces that empower members for collective action and shelter them from outside hostility. Bringing the findings into dialogue with existing social movement research, it argues that rather than being defining characteristic of Russia, hostility towards feminism is a temporary aspect of the political situation which is already receding in response to feminists’ continued efforts. En dépit d’une politique étatique néo-patriarcale et d’une répression accrue contre les féministes, le mouvement féministe s’est profondément développé en Russie ces quinze dernières années et s’est fait de plus en plus entendre dans la sphère publique et les médias. Cet article avance qu’une des raisons essentielles de ces avancées marquantes, bien que sous-estimées, tient à l’importance accordée par le mouvement féministe à la construction et au maintien d’une communauté et d’une identité féministes collectives. S’appuyant sur des entretiens avec des militantes féministes, j’examine la manière dont les communautés se constituent en tant qu’espaces de soutien qui apportent à leurs membres la force nécessaire pour mener des actions collectives tout en les protégeant contre l’hostilité environnante. Mettant ces observations de terrain en parallèle avec la recherche existante sur les mouvements sociaux, cet article suggère que plutôt qu’un trait définitoire de la Russie, l’hostilité envers le féminisme constitue un aspect éphémère de la situation politique ; les initiatives permanentes des féministes ont d’ailleurs déjà commencé à la faire reculer.
... Insider and outsider positionalities are simultaneous and fluid (Herr and Anderson 2015), and are dynamics and complex, rather than being fixed (Ryan 2015). This means that the researcher's positionalities of insider and outsider can change as the time progresses (Herr and Anderson 2015), and the researcher cannot be a completely insider and outsider (Silva and Parker Webster 2018;Naples 2003). The researcher's positionalities are 'negotiated and renegotiated through interactions which are acted in fluid' (Silva and Parker Webster 2018, 503) as each time the researcher needs to secure her/his access to settings. ...
Article
This paper discusses advantages and disadvantages of being a researcher in a familiar setting. This study was conducted in a nursery in Turkey. In ethnographic research, conducting research in a familiar setting plays an important role in collecting and analysing data. Familiarisation with participants and settings is associated with ‘insiderness’ that a researcher shares the same language and culture with participants. The concept of positionality will be used to discuss the researcher’s positionalities during the fieldwork. There has been a discussion about the role of familiarisation in conducting ethnographic studies and insider/outsider dichotomy. This study argues that the research process is not unproblematic for an insider researcher. It also indicates that there are advantages (e.g. ethnicity and former teacher) and disadvantages (being a male researcher) of being an insider in a familiar setting. The study highlights that the researcher made the arrangements to overcome challenges resulted from the researcher’s gender.
... The journal allowed the researcher to describe her feelings about conducting research in this area of study, including obstacles and challenges (Henderson, 2006) and adjust fieldwork methods appropriately. The field journal allows feminist researchers to engage in reflexive practice about power dynamics in ethnographic analysis (Naples, 2003), particularly in non-Western contexts. Field notes also provided additional data for the analysis and supplement the quantitative free-listing data. ...
Article
While much of modern tourism research centers on the tourist as a leisure consumer, workers are frequently overlooked. Despite a recent uptick in attention to tourism work, the primary focus remains on employee’s skills and qualifications. In contrast, the key contextual factors of race, ethnicity, and gender that surround tourism work are seldom examined. This comparative study addresses the theme of traditional gender roles, particularly in patriarchal societies, and how they affect tourism work. Specifically, it investigates how the presence of tourism influences cultural norms determining appropriate jobs for men and women. Utilizing an ethnographic field research approach, data were collected from participants in two indigenous Maya communities in Guatemala, each with differing models and lengths of tourism development. Free-listing exercises were used to elicit residents’ perceptions of employment as it relates to gender in their community and cultural consensus analysis was used to analyze the data. Results show that neither community shares consensus on jobs for women and only one community shares consensus on men’s jobs. Results suggest that tourism disrupts cultural norms related to gender roles; yet this may not always benefit women.
... Feminist ethnography (Naples, 2003) and narrative inquiry (Clandinin, 2016), were used to capture an enriched understanding and analysis of rural women's community involvement. By recognizing women as social actors and key participants in communities, this research sought to identify and examine women's situated experiences and knowledge (Haraway 1988) in complex and dynamic socio-cultural, economic and political rural contexts. ...
... In her thesis, Hochfeld (2015, 27) thus aligns herself with the aim of feminist theorists who seek to "unsettle the social hierarchies of gender and other inequalities in both the production of knowledge and in the lived experience of everyday life" (Harding 1993;Hesse-Biber and Leckenby 2004;Naples 2003). Ultimately, substantive equality supersedes formal notions of equality. ...
Article
This article is written in honour of Professor Tessa Hochfeld’s life and work, as part of the special issue on social and gender justice. In the article, we seek to show that Hochfeld positioned herself within the social justice research tradition but was not satisfied with normative ideas of utopian societies; rather theory was only useful in its ability to present solutions to and highlight gaps in states’ efforts to create just societies. We propose several characteristics of theory within social justice-oriented research aiming towards positive change, which Hochfeld through her methodological approach and empirical investigations contributed to. These characteristics of social justice theory are that it is instrumental, emancipatory, incomplete, paradox-sensitive, and relational. We end by bringing these characteristics together to discuss implications for the epistemology of social justice research, for the nature of the state and for the nature of social policy solutions.
... This shows how my position as an insider was problematic in this case. This resulted in having participants recruitment and data collection overlapping because of participants withdrawal and because I found out that A level of engagement is required from researchers, otherwise a failure in expressing one's personal position brings biases into our work (Naples, 2003). However, this could result in over-engagement. ...
Thesis
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This study aimed to investigate English as an Additional Language (EAL) academic literacies development of four Syrian established academics in exile in relation to their (i) academic networking, (ii) co-authorship practices, (iii) and authorial voice. Ethnography was used as a method via talk-around-text interviews; as a methodology, via questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, writing logs, academic network plots, and Text Histories; and as deep theorizing (Lillis, 2008) via conducting analysis of both conceptual as well as textual authorial voice. In relation to academic networking, it was found that all the types of networks, i.e., strong/weak, formal/informal, symmetrical/asymmetrical, durable/temporary, direct/indirect, and local/global played a role in the development of EAL academic literacies. Additionally, the relevant properties of nodes the co-authors possessed, i.e., the ability to conduct network, text-production, disciplinary, and publishing interventions, were essential for the Syrian academics’ EAL academic literacies development. Co-authorship was found to be a two-way interactive relation where EAL academic literacies development occurred as a result of a mutual investment by both sides. The participants and their co-authors invested in the collaborative work to different extents each depending on their level of motivation. Authorial voice was examined as conceptualisation and as a textual practice; the latter was investigated through a combination of a priori categories (metadiscourse features) and a posteriori categories, emerging as relevant from the data (disciplinary discourse conventions, textual positioning, and textual ownership). These components of voice were found to be in a dynamic interactive relationship, with the participants’ use of the relevant textual features becoming more frequent, more appropriate, and employed with more awareness as they progressed in their academic journeys. The study concludes with theoretical, methodological, and pedagogical implications.
... It is important to note our personal perspectives and identities as they may relate to our coding and understanding of incel issues (McCorkel & Meyers, 2003;Naples, 2003). We are both cisgender, heterosexual women, and these identities may affect the way that we viewed some of the content in the posts, and in particular, those which denigrated women. ...
... The positionality of the research team is important in all qualitative methodologies (McCorkel & Meyers, 2003;Naples, 2003). As a feminist research team, our ideologies and beliefs often conflicted with those of the participants and more specifically, larger incel notions. ...
Article
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Involuntary celibates, or “incels,” have received increased public attention in past years, likely as a result of media reports that link incels to incidents of mass violence. Although prior research has examined various elements of the online community, none have directly engaged with incels to understand the causes and effects of their inceldom. Using a hegemonic masculinity framework, this article analyzes data from interviews with incels (N = 10) to identify emergent themes about their situations, attitudes, and experiences. The data reveal that the participants feel that they 1) experience masculinity challenges that affect their romantic opportunities, 2) are marginalized or treated as “subhumans” due to their appearance or other characteristics, and as a result, 3) experience negative emotions related to their inceldom. This, in turn, affects their belief in the BlackPill and their online behavior such as shit-posting. Supported by interview data, these findings can highlight both the similarities and diversity of thought within the incel community while also examining the ways that hegemonic masculinity can lead to the marginalization of specific groups of men. As such, this study can inform future research about incels, suggesting that it should include continued interaction with members of the community and quantitative survey research about incels. Furthermore, it can outline and inform intervention strategies addressing the negative effects of gender hegemony that should be considered for individual approaches to inceldom.
... These positions put me in the role of an insider. Insider research is the research done in one's own social group or society (Chavez, 2008;Greene, 2014;Naples, 2003), the researcher shares the language and experiential base with the study participants (Asselin, 2003). Although one of the benefits of being an insider researcher is acceptability and easy access to the study participants, the initial "rejection" I got from the first set of artisans I approached proves it otherwise. ...
Article
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This article presents the challenges a social scientist can encounter in studying workers in an informal sector. It is written from a doctoral researcher's perspective and draws on her fieldwork experience among informal automobile artisans in Osun State, Nigeria. The paper intends to share insights into navigating the challenges in conducting social inquiry among workers in the informal sector for fruitful outcomes. Particular attention is paid to some of the more common challenges researchers may encounter when conducting research in the informal sector. These challenges include project entry, participant recruitment, and retention. This article concludes with suggestions which researchers can use to study informal workers, especially in developing countries.
... Our perspective on power is informed by critical and post structural/postmodern feminisms (c.f. Hesse-Biber & Piatelli, 2007;Jaggar, 2015;Naples, 2003;Tilley, 2016;Weedon, 1997) wherein power can act as an oppressive force as well as a force of resistance to oppression. We also see power in research as shaping (perhaps determining) what is known and what is knowable (Harding, 1991;Letherby, 2003;Smith, 1974Smith, , 1987. ...
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Reporting on the development of an ongoing qualitative research project with clients of midwifery care in New Brunswick, Canada, this article details the ways that methodology is complexly interwoven with political praxis. Working through the development of this project, this article models one way to enact politically engaged feminist research at each stage of the research process, from developing the research question, through research design, data collection, analysis, and theory generation. In the process, three core principles of feminist research methodologies are extended: co-construction of knowledge, researcher reflexivity, and reciprocal relationships in research. This research is caught up in and responds to a fraught political context where supports for reproductive healthcare are limited, and midwifery, abortion, and gender-affirming care are all framed as “fringe” services that exceed the austerity budget of the province. Participants engaged in this study with a clear understanding of this political terrain and approached interviews as an opportunity to share their experiences, and to advocate for the continuation and expansion of midwifery and related services in the province. Through the research process, it has become evident that midwifery must be understood as part of the struggle toward reproductive justice in this province. These reflections will direct further stages of the project, including ongoing research and dissemination.
... In this article we use a feminist standpoint (Buikema, Plate, & Thiele, 2009;Hartsock, 1983;Larry, 1997;Naples, 2013) to conduct a discourse analysis of all of Trudeau's public speeches available at the time of study, spanning three years (November 2015 to May 2018), with two objectives in mind: first, to examine how the prime minister's selfdeclared feminist stance takes shape in his public communications before Canadian and international audiences; and second, to situate the prime minister's self-described feminism with respect to current understandings of intersectional feminism. Our findings suggest two main points: (1) that there is little to no articulation of a feminist discourse in the prime minister's official speeches and (2) that the prime minister's understanding of feminism is only loosely informed by contemporary discourses on intersectional feminism and rather largely informed by neoliberal ideology (Collier, 2015). ...
Article
Justin Trudeau, the current prime minister of Canada, says he is a feminist. His government has formulated a feminist foreign policy and has presented official budgets alluding to intersectional feminism. Through discourse analysis, we examine how Trudeau’s self-description as a feminist manifests in his official speeches spanning from 2015 to 2018; we also situate his positioning in relation to contemporary literature on intersectional feminism. Our study illustrates what other scholars have identified as an increasingly difficult relationship between feminism and the dominant discourse of neoliberalism in political and policy circles. Our findings suggest that Prime Minister Trudeau’s understanding of feminism appears contained within and limited by a discourse of economic prosperity, which puts his positioning in line with a form of neoliberal feminism. We conclude that, in the analyzed speeches, the prime minister frames matters of gender equality primarily as a means to unleash women’s potential to contribute to economic prosperity, portraying them as an untapped resource.
... Wie in der Einleitung angedeutet werden Narrative häufig von politischen Akteur:innen genutzt, um ihren Ansätzen Legitimität zu verleihen (Yildiz et al. 2018) und ihre Agenda durch bekannte ,Erzählungen' in nachvollziehbarer oder identitätsstiftender Weise zu kommunizieren. Politische Narrative werden so zu performativen ,Sprechakten' politischer Entscheidungsträger:innen (Gadinger et al. 2014 Narrative können auch als eine Form persuasiver Kommunikation von Akteur:innen eingesetzt werden, welche nur beschränkten Zugang zu technischen, wissenschaftlichen oder fachlichen Diskursen (Polletta 1998a, b) oder traditionellen Kommunikationswegen haben (Naples 2003). Diese (Rand-)Gruppen nutzen Storytelling, indem persönliche Erfahrungen kommuniziert und somit vermeintlich "unangreifbare" Tatsachen in den Diskurs eingebracht werden sollen (Nepstad 2002;Polletta 1998a). ...
Research
Over the last decades, the U.S. has seen increasing income inequality and a widening wealth gap. Donald Trump’s presidency has deepened the political and cultural divide among Americans even more. As a result of these developments, many Americans have started to question the idea of the American Dream. For many, its promises of equal opportunity and upward social mobility no longer hold true. Young Americans, who are particularly affected by these trends, have started to demand big structural change in the American political and economic system. In line with that, they have championed progressive reform ideas and actors in the Democratic Party. While progressive politicians such as Bernie Sanders or Elizabeth Warren did not secure the presidency in 2020, they were among the Democratic Party’s highest-polling contenders for a considerable portion of the campaign.Although Elizabeth Warren eventually dropped out of the presidential race, she often managed to drive its political agenda. Taking her strategic communication during the 2019/2020 primaries as an example, this paper analyzes which narratives of inequality are utilized in American progressive political discourse, how these are communicated, and which interpretations of economic inequality her strategic framing suggests. A corpus-based analysis of Warren’s framing reveals that two frames are prevalent in her discourse on inequality: the fairness-frame and the wealth-frame. These highlight to what extent the American Dream has proven unattainable to many Americans and indicate why an increasing number of voters support candidates who demand structural change in the US.
... A sense of responsibility in our relationships was differently constituted by the various researchers and influenced by our particular orientations to the community and the academy, and our various senses of research protocol in general and especially this project. The feminist research principles many of us shared pulled us to respond to inequities between and among the researchers (Naples, 2003) and were in constant tension. Would we-would I-be able to make a substantive contribution acting out of a "sacred epistemology" that is ethical, political, and transformative, and based in reciprocity and care (Lincoln & Denzin, 2000)? ...
Article
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Through an autoethnographic account the authors explore the various entanglements, ambiguities, and conflicts inherent in the research relationships of institutionally marginalized communities. Agency and moral coherence are constructs with which personal, political, and sociocultural dimensions of negotiating a research identity are framed. They use a feminist lens to examine relations, autoethnography to reflexively examine these relations, and poststructuralist notions to illuminate cultural influences on the shifting identity of one actor.
... It is important for researchers to recognize their own personal biography when conducting research as their unique experiences work to shape how they conceptualize the research design and interact with the research participants (Naples, 2003). One author entered this project having virtually no contact with the criminal justice system; the other having extensive contact, being formerly incarcerated himself. ...
... Throughout my research, I realized that my status as an insider/outsider (Naples 2003;Collins 2000) was fluid and ever changing. I was neither outside nor inside, navigating a distinct and in-between space similar to Anzaldúa's "nepantla." ...
Article
Issues of power, inequality, and representation in the production of knowledge have a long history in transnational feminist research. And yet the unequal relationship between ethnographers and participants continues to haunt feminist research. Drawing from ethnographic fieldwork with the cooperative Sulá Batsú in Costa Rica between 2015 and 2019, in this essay I argue that centering solidarity and working through discomfort creates relationships that can reinvent and endure the persistent imbalance of power between researcher and participant. I conceptualize a solidarity-based methodology that is uncomfortable, tossing between "us and them," the objective and the subjective, akin to Gloria Anzaldúa's "nepantla," a liminal space of both fragmentation and unification, of both anguish and healing: a methodology from the cracks. In this essay, I reflect upon my experiences as a Puerto Rican feminist researcher focusing on Sulá Batsú, specifically on my relationship with the coop's general coordinator. I conducted ethnographic fieldwork with the coop, including participant observation, in-depth interviews, and textual analysis of their research, briefs, blog posts, presentations, and promotional literature.
... For example, the participants appealed for increasing the loan amount or remission of repayment, the staff requested me to inform the higher authority to change their unfavourable job conditions. Both roles brought the challenge of imbalance power relations between the research participants and me (Bondy;Naples, 2003;Soni-Sinha, 2008). ...
Article
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While volumes of procedural guidelines are available on how to conduct fieldwork, in practice a researcher encounters various challenges and dilemmas in the field. This paper presents a holistic view of the puzzles this researcher encountered in gaining access, negotiating positionality, application of the pre�determined methodology, and ensuring ethics during his fieldwork with microfinance program participants in a non-Western setting. This paper contributes to the fieldwork literature by enhancing a researcher’s understanding of the unanticipated challenges.
... It is important to note our personal perspectives and identities as they may relate to our coding and understanding of incel issues (McCorkel & Meyers, 2003;Naples, 2003). We are both cisgender, heterosexual women, and these identities may affect the way that we viewed some of the content in the posts, and in particular, those which denigrated women. ...
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The year 2019 celebrated the thirtieth anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. This milestone gives researchers cause to reflect on what has been learned about facilitating children’s empowerment and agency in the context of research. We might consider how such learnings have been applied and what remains to be achieved. That context gives rise to this chapter, which presents the author’s ongoing interest in collaborative approaches to rights-based narrative research with children and young people. It is proposed here that the cornerstones of a rights-based framework for children’s research comprise inclusion, participation, empowerment and advocacy. These four elements are complementary to the co-creation of narratives drawing on constructivist linguistic concepts. Together, those perspectives offer a framework for critically examining opportunities and challenges encountered in developing rights-based narrative research with children and young people with trauma experience. Core to that framework are issues of ideology, ethics, recruitment, agency, maturation and change, culture and language, gender and dissemination. A single Australian case study which formed part of cross-national research in child and family welfare is utilized to illustrate these issues. Based on this critique and the author’s broader narrative research experience, a set of principles to guide the conduct of rights-based narrative research with children and young people is suggested.
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My paper explores the possibility of practising feminist ethnography in the ethnographic settings in Turkey. I argue that feminist ethnography, as it has been practised, found resistance in anthropology and developed partly in sociology, communication, and media studies. However, feminist ethnographies both within and outside anthropology bypass an occasion to set themselves with a dialogue on textual, genre-related issues in the feminist ethnographic examples. Thus, I pinpoint feminist ethnography at the creative tension between ‘strong feminist activism’, an impetus that came from women’s movements, and ‘weak feminist textuality’, a textual feature that ethnographies seem to suffer in their writing. To demonstrate my points, I discuss the emergence of anthropology in Turkey and its relation to state formation and nationalism, whereby I consider how far feminist thought and action impacted ethnographic studies in the country. As I present critical accounts of anthropology and feminist ethnography, I explore the reasons for the lack of ethnographic feminist writing and propose strategies on how to overcome this ineptitude.
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The chapter beings by examining contributions from the early 1980s, identifying themes and issues that have remained important in discussions of feminist methodologies, including a focus on epistemology, a critique of positivism, an acknowledgment that quantitative as well as qualitative empirical research can be feminist, and an understanding that all knowledge is situated. Reflexivity by the researcher regarding their own social location is relevant as are power relations between the researcher and those studied, and a commitment to research for social change. Several newer directions explored include feminist methodological work in feminist autoethnography and feminist archival research. Ongoing challenges identified include moving beyond a gender binary, decolonizing and globalizing research, making quantitative research more feminist, and grappling with methodological implications of and for intersectional research.
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Feminist pedagogy has historically emphasized the lack of women's voices and women's experiences evident in teaching, learning, and knowledge creation. In recent years, the latter have expanded to address interlocking systems of oppression including race, class, ethnicity, sexuality, nationality, religion, ability, and other categories of difference and to respond to trans and queer critiques of gender essentialism in earlier approaches. The major tenets of feminist pedagogy are: critiquing and dismantling the various interlocking systems of oppression (sexism, racism, classism, ableism, transphobia, and homophobia) evident in education by challenging traditional ways of teaching and learning that create and maintain power differentials; creating and promoting equity and equality in and out of the classroom (through individual, social, and institutional change); emphasizing inclusion and intersectionality; and hearing and honoring the experiences and reflexive analysis of those who have historically been silenced, erased, or ignored. This chapter defines feminist pedagogy and reviews its history. It also examines intersectionality in education and the myriad ways it can be applied to other areas of social life, intellectual endeavors, and social justice work.
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Is feminist ethnography an epistemological perspective, a particular constellation of methods, a writing style, a commitment to social justice, or activist‐scholarship – or a combination of all of these? Attempts to define feminist ethnography reveal there is no one single definition. What is also clear is that in defining feminist ethnography one inevitably ends up discussing the “doing” of feminist ethnography. Although feminist ethnography does not have a single scholarly trajectory, historical course, or topical focus, this chapter lays out some of the domains in which feminist ethnography has intervened.
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