To achieve low and zero net energy performance objectives in buildings, designers must make optimal use of passive environmental design strategies. The objective of this research is to demonstrate the application of a novel Passive Performance Optimization Framework (PPOF) to improve the performance of daylighting, solar control, and natural ventilation strategies in the early design stages of architectural projects. The PPOF is executed through a novel, simulation-based parametric modeling workflow capable of optimizing building geometry, building orientation, fenestration configurations, and other building parameters in response to program requirements, site-specific building adjacencies, and climate-based daylighting and whole-building energy use performance metrics. The applicability of the workflow is quantified by comparing results from the workflow to an ASHRAE 90.1 compliant reference model for four different climate zones, incorporating real sites and urban overshadowing conditions. Results show that the PPOF can deliver between a 4% and 17% reduction in Energy Use Intensity (EUI) while simultaneously improving daylighting performance by between 27% and 65% depending on the local site and climatic conditions. The PPOF and simulation-based workflow help to make generative modeling, informed by powerful energy and lighting simulation engines, more accessible to designers working on regular projects and schedules to create high-performance buildings.
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... -Les approches d'optimisation basées sur un flux exploitant des outils de modélisation et des outils de simulation [5,8,14,3]. -Les approches d'optimisation reposant sur une modélisation paramétrique permettant d'optimiser des alternatives de conception [11,1], ou encore de générer des masses paramétriques utiles à l'exploration des alternatives de conception [17,18]. ...
La compétence en Simulations de la Performance Energétique (SPE) est un atout fondamental pour un architecte. Être capable de lire des résultats de simulation et d'adapter sa conception en conséquence est devenu une capacité essentielle chez les architectes diplômés. Cependant, enseigner la SPE aux étudiants peut être difficile, souvent en raison de la complexité des logiciels et des méthodes, mais aussi de la multitude des informations qui entrent en jeu. Afin de sensibiliser au rôle des outils BIM dans l'amélioration de la performance énergétique, cet article propose et expérimente une approche d'optimisation simplifiée basée sur trois différentes méthodes de simulation qui dépendent de la phase de conception en question et du niveau de maitrise des étudiants cibles. L'expérimentation de ces méthodes a démontré leur capacité à guider la prise de décision vers une conception plus performante et plus respectueuse de son environnement et a suggéré une expérimentation future plus globale de l'approche proposée.
... The first 25 simulation iterations of an optimization conducted at the early design phases.Source:Konis, K., A. Gamas, and K. Kensek (2016). Passive performance and building form: An optimization framework for early-stage design support. ...
During the last decades, the increasing need to ensure building performance during architectural design practices has led to highly interactive relations between architecture and various other disciplines, in which performance concepts are tightly integrated into the building design process. Computational tools supporting performative architectural design processes make this interdisciplinary integration possible. The critical consequence of the early consideration of performative principles and the collaborative synthesis process is widely emphasized both in theory and practice. This research aims to contribute to the current understanding of performance-based architectural design practices by investigating the key performance concepts, supporting computational tools and finally the current practices of performative design through case studies. The main research aim is to explore, understand and conceptualize the performative architectural design and the existing practices. It is also aimed to demonstrate the integrated design strategies along with the potentials of computational design throughout the design process including early phases.
... Urban building energy consumption is the total energy consumption of buildings in the city, including Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning energy consumption (Sadineni et al., 2011;Nguyen et al., 2014) lighting energy consumption, the electrical energy consumption of sockets, etc., which can account for the total energy consumption 30-40% of the whole society (Li et al., 2011;Nguyen et al., 2014;Zhu et al., 2020) (that is, the sum of all energy consumption of industry, agriculture, and residents, etc.). The energy performance of a building depends on the building envelopes, especially windows, which frequently let in or let out energy and are responsible for 20-40% of wasted energy in a building (Hee et al., 2015;Konis et al., 2016). The energy saving potentials of windows are important determinants in building energy saving, and window glazing selection is one of the crucial issues in designing windows. ...
Thermochromic glass possesses great potential for reducing the energy demand and providing indoor comfort in buildings. Suitable atomization temperature change points have a great influence on the application of thermochromic glass. Based on energy consumption simulations and theoretical calculations by introducing solar radiation in a transparent envelope, this paper investigates the atomization temperature change point of thermochromic glass in hot summer and cold winter zones in Chongqing, showing that the suitable temperature change point of the thermochromic glass is 39°C with air conditioning and 42.9°C without air conditioning. Furthermore, the results of simulations and theoretical calculations are applied to a test model, revealing that thermochromic glass with the temperature change point of 42.9°C compared with Low-E glass can reduce the temperature of a sunlight room by up to 5°C in the summer and displays a certain thermal insulation effect in winter.
Ceaseless increase of energy demand in building sector has become a challenge for designers, which is often combines with some goals like indoor air quality, environmental impact, and building costs. To support designers, building performance simulation is a common technique in development-design stages, however, its implementation in early stages is limited, even though early decisions have higher impact upon final performance and costs of buildings. Architects have to design more energy-efficient buildings due to the requirements of energy efficiency regulations in various countries. There are several simulation tools, which may help designers during the design process, to estimate the thermal performance of the building under consideration. However, architects are reluctant to use these tools for several reasons: they are not user-friendly, need detailed information about the specifications of the building elements, which are not known at the initial phase of the architectural design; building simulation models are time-consuming and the interpretation of the simulation results is difficult for architects. In this paper, we present a method for energy efficiency optimization that can be applied in the initial architectural design process. This method will help architects to select the optimized floor plan regarding the functional, thermal and lighting parameters in the preliminary stage of building design. Here we implement sensitivity analysis and simulation-based optimization in order to optimize the thermal comfort, energy and daylight performance of residential buildings in Tehran. These objective functions were simulated using EnergyPlus and Radiance software programs for individual residential building configurations that were generated by parametric modeling techniques. Two thousand simulations for one hundred building floor plans were performed to create a comprehensive dataset covering full ranges of design parameters. The floor plans were created using an algorithm developed by Eugenio Rodrigues. The algorithm generates floor plans regarding the adjacency and dimensions of the rooms, location, and size of door and window, together with the entrance location. The main distinction of this study compared to the similar researches is including floor plan design as one of the parameters of optimization in the hot-dry climate of Tehran. A residential unit, which is situated on the middle floor of a mid-rise apartment, was selected as the base model. The present study considered building floor plan, building construction materials, glass type, insulation thickness, floor height, WWRs for kitchen, bedroom and living room and color of the floor finishing, walls, and ceiling as design variables to achieve the optimize Energy Use Intensity (EUI), useful daylight illumination, and occupants’ adaptive comfort. A simulation-optimization tool that couples a multi-objective genetic algorithm to a whole-building performance simulation engine was applied in order to find the optimal set of design variables, and finally, the results of the energy and daylight simulations were implemented into a set of regression and simple sensitive analysis equation to predict the most effective variable in each objective. Sensitivity analysis showed that the type of floor planning is most effective parameter for all objectives except that external wall material is an effective parameter for EUI, and occupant comfort and WWR are effective for daylight quality.
We propose the use of solar exoskeletons, an integrated building system that combines material efficiency in structural load transfer with passive solar gain control. This offers an impactful way to respond to the UN climate goals, as the architecture and engineering disciplines face the challenge of delivering low carbon buildings. While reducing operational and embodied emissions is often considered independently, we can show how approaching them in tandem, through a novel building system, can offer significant savings. With large spans for maximum spatial flexibility and full glazing maximizing daylight, high-rise buildings are often suboptimal in terms of their material usage from steel frame construction and cooling demand from uncontrolled solar gains. We view solar exoskeletons as a sustainable pathway for future high-rise structures – combining solar gain control through external shading with a highly efficient structural system optimized for lateral loads in tall buildings. We present an automated workflow that combines parametric modeling of architectural elements and structural simulation with Radiance-based annual radiation simulations and an operational energy model in EnergyPlus. Evaluating embodied carbon and energy use intensity of midrise and tower buildings in timber and steel, we compare hundreds of iterations for a prototypical building in Phoenix, USA. Our results show that exoskeletons can lead to embodied and operational carbon reductions in the lateral load-resisting structural system of 37–80% and 24–48%, respectively, vis-à-vis conventional construction techniques. Adding photovoltaic modules to the external shading system can lead to net zero building solutions for the buildings investigated in this case study.
The world is changing. Temperatures are rising and becoming extreme and
unpredictable. Technologies becoming smarter. Computers are playing an increasingly
important role in every aspect of our lives. Architecture is no exception, every day the
introduction of new technologies helps professionals (architects and urban planning
designers) to solve our problems and ease our life. This research aims to explore the
possibilities and limits of parametric design as a tool to optimize thermal comfort in urban
areas. We made several experiments with the visual programming software grasshopper
(Plugin of the CAD software Rhinoceros). We chose Bou Saâda city, characterized by a
semi-arid climate and located 245 km south of the Algerian capital, Algiers. Through our
readings, we found that urban morphology and vegetation have a considerable impact on
urban microclimate. In this work, we have only explored, urban form part. We wrote several
algorithms exploring different aspects of urban design and comfort each time. Because
comfort is subjective, then we explored different approaches to quantify this sensation. We
concluded that the Universal thermal comfort Index (UTCI) is the most accurate index,
because it gives the real sensation of temperature. Therefore, we chosen solar radiation as an
evaluation parameter because it is more significant related to outdoor thermal comfort and
needs less calculation. Secondly, this research aims to define the generation and automation
of the building form (Length, width, height, of the blocks and street width) in order to ensure
a suitable urban thermal regulation with the appropriate urban building grid.The automation
of form generation is the third pillar of our work because we wanted to explore the power of
performance-guided form finding through computation.
Through our experiments, we found that the integration of the finding results in the
urban design workflow has a major impact on urban thermal regulation of newly designed
urban areas. The proposed methodology provides an exploration and investigation platform
for architects and urban designers.
Keyword: Parametric design, Thermal comfort, urban thermal regulation, Form finding,
Performative design, evolutionary design.
Tall buildings with irregular forms are gaining popularity in creating the vertical city model, and they are designed and built today with the help of computational technologies. This paper aims to highlight the significant link between the architectural and structural conceptual design of tall buildings with irregular geometries by using performance-driven evaluation and parametric design approach at conceptual stage to develop a sustainable design. Initially the review of previous research shows how the form of tall building is be defined. Furthermore, the parametric design approach is investigated for generating alternative options to satisfy building aesthetic and structural performance criteria with the aid of aerodynamic optimization technicque to generate an optimum solution for decision-making at an early stage, as well as allowing modifications in the later stages of design, and making it possible to handle the design process in a repetitive manner. Finally, a framework is proposed where computational techniques are integrated and an effective collaboration between professional designers is achieved in order to produce an optimal complex-tall building conceptual design that is architecturally pleasing, structurally efficient, and environmentally sustainable.
Although countries have reduced their total greenhouse gas emissions by improving energy and transportation policies, the contribution of the building sector has been widely overlooked. Embodied emissions (EE) are particularly important since they are released upfront rather than over building lifespans, making them critical for near-term emission reduction targets. Accordingly, this study developed a tool to reduce EE at the conceptual stage of high-rise residential buildings. The tool combines generative design with goals and constraints inherent to conceptual building design: maximizing site use, views, and building code compliance. In a case study, it was able to achieve a 7% reduction in EE compared to a sub-optimal solution. This research elucidated the potential of using generative design in early-stage design, proposed novel systems for the generation and evaluation of design alternatives, and delivered GenGHG, a ready-to-use, open-source tool for conceptual building design.
Due to the lack of effective supervision, guidance, training mechanism, there are serious problems in daylighting, energy efficiency, and thermal comfort of the existing rural residences in cold climate zone, China. In this paper, the multi-objective optimization was introduced to study the shape, size and constructure of the transparent building envelope of rural residences in cold climate zone, China. It began with the field investigation and the establishment of the prototypical models. Then the daylighting, heating and cooling load and thermal comfort of the building were simulated, and the multi-objective optimization was performed. The results indicated that the multi-objective optimization of the transparent building envelope could significantly improve daylighting, energy efficiency, and thermal comfort performance of the rural residences. The best values of the northward, the westward and the southward window-to-wall ratio are 0.10, 0.11, 0.12 respectively for the no-sunspace model, and that is 0.13, 0.13, 0.43 respectively for the sunspace model. Compared with the prototypical models, the useful daylight illuminances for the optimal no-sunspace model and sunspace model increased by 6% and 17% respectively, the heating and cooling load decreased by 23% and 17% respectively, and the predicted percentage of dissatisfied decreased by 12% and 9% respectively.
Contemporary high-rise buildings can have complex façade configurations, but existing building simulation programs may not have either the capability or user-friendliness to help architects make better decisions early in the design process that could reduce energy use for these forms. This is especially true with faceted and curvilinear building facades where the glazing is not necessarily vertical. Building codes and software often cannot handle these more unusual curtain wall constructions and dynamic geometries. Consideration of these aspects will become increasingly important as parametric forms become more common. Advances in technology have been improving the building design process. One of the important competencies of building professionals is controlling the tremendous amount of data and information that is now associated with buildings. Intelligent software programs allow architects to study design parameters in the design phase, and some of the programs can even suggest design solutions. The ability to use the appropriate software programs and integrate them with design intuition has become one of the most important criteria for a technology-savvy architect in the burgeoning filed of computational design. This paper focuses on tilted glazing and the effect of its angular dependence on direct solar heat gain (DSHG). Spreadsheet calculations were conducted, and the results were linked to an algorithm developed in Grasshopper to demonstrate form refinement of faceted building facades with an emphasis on the angle-dependent DSHG of glazing. This tool can be used at the outset of design or later as one of the components of an energy simulation program where architects can fine tune their initial ideas for the massing of a building. It can help them determine a better tilt angle of glazing for the building and its overall geometry in a specific climate.
By utilizing highly specular surfaces and engineered profile geometry, optical sunlight redirecting systems integrated into the overhead “clerestory” zone of the building facade present the potential to enlarge the daylighting zone by redirecting the luminous flux incident on the window deeper into the space than conventional shading systems. In addition, by developing system geometry to redirect daylight to specific zones within the space, optical light redirecting systems have the potential to avoid the glare conditions commonly produced by conventional facade shading systems that direct significant amounts of daylight below head height into the occupant's field of view. In this case study, side-by-side comparisons were made over solstice-to-solstice changes in sun and sky conditions between an optical louver system (OLS) and a conventional Venetian blind set at a horizontal slat angle and located inboard of a south-facing, small-area, clerestory window in a full-scale office testbed. Daylight autonomy (DA), window luminance, and ceiling luminance uniformity were used to assess performance. The performance of both systems was found to have significant seasonal variation, where performance under clear sky conditions improved as maximum solar altitude angles transitioned from solstice to equinox. Although the OLS produced fewer hours per day of DA on average than the Venetian blind, the OLS never exceeded the designated 2000 cd/m2 threshold for window glare. In contrast, the Venetian blind was found to exceed the visual discomfort threshold over a large fraction of the day during equinox conditions (from 40 to 64% of the test day between August 22 and October 12). Notably, these peak periods of visual discomfort occurred during the best periods of daylighting performance. Luminance uniformity was analyzed using calibrated high dynamic range luminance images. Under clear sky conditions, the OLS was found to increase the luminance of the ceiling as well as produce a more uniform distribution of luminance over the ceiling. Compared to conventional venetian blinds, the static optical sunlight redirecting system studied has the potential to significantly reduce the annual electrical lighting energy demand of a daylit space and improve the quality from the perspective of building occupants by consistently transmitting useful daylight while eliminating window glare.
Although visual programming is being broadly implemented in other disciplines, it has only relatively recently become an important supplement to three-dimensional modeling programs in the architecture, engineering, and construction industry. Currently, Grasshopper in conjunction with Rhino is a leading example of a visual programming environment that is strongly supported by a user community that is developing additional functionality, but Grasshopper does not yet work directly with building information modeling (BIM) software. Dynamo is relatively new, but shows considerable promise in becoming a constructive tool to complement BIM, 3D modeling, and analysis programs because it includes parametric geometries and works with Revit, a leading BIM software program. Three case studies are described: extensibility of Dynamo through the use of a building energy simulation package, controlling a virtual model’s response through light level sensors, and interactively updating shading components for a building facade based on solar angles. They demonstrate that one can work directly within building information models (BIM) using a visual programming language through updating component parameters. These case studies demonstrate the feasibility of a workflow for sustainable design simulations that is different than that more commonly used -- having a separation between design and analysis models and using a neutral file format exchange such as IFC or gbXML to transfer data. As visual programming languages are still a bit uncommon in the building industry, a short background is provided to place them within the tool set of other customizable tools that designers have been developing.
This paper describes interrelationships between engineering design, construction, and operation costs for a facility, and shows how the ″level of influence″ over those costs decreases precipitously as the project evolves. The level of influence is by far the greatest during engineering and design, while actual expenditures at that stage are relatively small. The level of influence concept can be helpful in forming contractual arrangements that minimize the suboptimization of costs for one party at the expense of overall project costs and benefits. Contractual arrangements should be drawn so as to assure that current construction and operations knowledge will be injected in the design process. ″Construction Management″ and ″design-construct″ , if appropriately tailored to the needs of a particular situation, can be helpful for this purpose. A second important conclusion is that efforts to suboptimize design costs by requiring competitive bidding for professional services are likely to produce much higher project costs in the long run.
The majority of decisions in the building design process are taken in the early design stage. This delicate phase presents the greatest opportunity to obtain high performance buildings, but pertinent performance information is needed for designers to be able to deal with multidisciplinary and contrasting objectives.
In the present work, an integrative approach for the early stages of building design is proposed to obtain detailed information on energy efficient envelope configurations. By means of genetic algorithms, a multi-objective search was performed with the aim of minimising the energy need for heating, cooling and lighting of a case study. The investigation was carried out for an open space office building by varying number, position, shape and type of windows and the thickness of the masonry walls.
The search was performed through an implementation of the NSGA-II algorithm, which was made capable of exchanging information with the EnergyPlus building energy simulation tool. The analyses were conducted both in absence and in presence of an urban context in the climates of Palermo, Torino, Frankfurt and Oslo. In addition, a preliminary analysis on the Pareto front solutions was performed to investigate the statistical variation of the values assumed by the input variables in all the non-dominated solutions.
For the analysed case study, results highlighted a small overall Window-to-Wall Ratio (WWR) of the building in all locations. Pareto front solutions were characterised by low WWR values especially in east, west and north exposed façades. The area of the south facing windows was higher compared to the other orientations and characterised by a higher variability.
A new Radiance-based modelling approach called Fener is presented. The motivation is to be able to perform detailed analyses of complex fenestration systems (CFS) from the energetic and daylighting points of view in a computationally efficient manner, so the benefits of innovative products can be easily quantified. The model couples daylighting and thermal simulations in a time-step basis, so that shading control strategies that depend on thermal variables, such as indoor air temperature and energy load, can be simulated without iterating between full-year simulations of a thermal model and a daylighting model. Fener is a single-zone energy model that uses the three-phase method and bi-directional scattering distribution functions (BSDF) to predict the transmitted solar irradiance and indoor illuminance of office spaces with CFS. An evaluation of the model is presented. Fener is tested against EnergyPlus and classic Radiance for different fenestration systems and sky conditions. Cooling and heating energy demand, transmitted solar irradiance and indoor illuminance are compared. As an exemplary application, Fener is used to assess the performance of an innovative perforated lamella system together with a control strategy that depends on indoor air temperature.
This is a design guide for architects, engineers, and contractors concerning the principles and specific applications of building information modeling (BIM). BIM has the potential to revolutionize the building industry, and yet not all architects and construction professionals fully understand what the benefits of BIM are or even the fundamental concepts behind it. As part of the PocketArchitecture Series it includes two parts: fundamentals and applications, which provide a comprehensive overview of all the necessary and essential issues. It also includes case studies from a range of project sizes that illustrate the key concepts clearly and use a wide range of visual aids. Building Information Modeling addresses the key role that BIM is playing in shaping the software tools and office processes in the architecture, engineering, and construction professions. Primarily aimed at professionals, it is also useful for faculty who wish to incorporate this information into their courses on digital design, BIM, and professional practice. As a compact summary of key ideas it is ideal for anyone implementing BIM.
Daylighting controls have the potential to reduce the substantial amount of electricity consumed for lighting in commercial buildings. Material science research is now pursuing the development of a dynamic prismatic optical element (dPOE) window coating that can continuously readjust incoming light to maximize the performance and energy savings available from daylighting controls. This study estimates the technical potential for energy savings available from vertical daylighting strategies and explores additional savings that may be available if current dPOE research culminates in a successful market-ready product. Radiance daylight simulations are conducted with a multi-shape prismatic window coating. Simulated lighting energy savings are then applied to perimeter floorspace estimates generated from U.S. commercial building stock data. Results indicate that fully functional dPOE coatings, when paired with conventional vertical daylight strategies, have the potential to reduce energy use associated with U.S. commercial electric lighting demand by as much as 930TBtu. This reduction in electric lighting demand represents an approximately 85% increase in the energy savings estimated from implementing conventional vertical daylight strategies alone. Results presented in this study provide insight into energy and cost performance targets for dPOE coatings, which can help accelerate the development process and establish a successful new daylighting technology. Published by Elsevier B.V.