Crip theory: Cultural signs of queerness and disability

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Abstract
Crip Theory attends to the contemporary cultures of disability and queerness that are coming out all over. Both disability studies and queer theory are centrally concerned with how bodies, pleasures, and identities are represented as "normal" or as abject, but Crip Theory is the first book to analyze thoroughly the ways in which these interdisciplinary fields inform each other. Drawing on feminist theory, African American and Latino/a cultural theories, composition studies, film and television studies, and theories of globalization and counter-globalization, Robert McRuer articulates the central concerns of crip theory and considers how such a critical perspective might impact cultural and historical inquiry in the humanities. Crip Theory puts forward readings of the Sharon Kowalski story, the performance art of Bob Flanagan, and the journals of Gary Fisher, as well as critiques of the domesticated queerness and disability marketed by the Millennium March, or Bravo TV's Queer Eye for the Straight Guy. McRuer examines how dominant and marginal bodily and sexual identities are composed, and considers the vibrant ways that disability and queerness unsettle and re-write those identities in order to insist that another world is possible.

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  • ... We will touch on this in parallel with crip theory, which studies the intersection of disability with LGBT identities. This work has primarily appeared in literature or film criticism, with some extension in the medical field (Egner 2016;McRuer 2006b). The climate for LGBT physicists is often unfriendly or unsafe (Atherton et al. 2016), and we hope to learn from this area of scholarship as well. ...
    ... Some DisCrit studies analyze how powerful racist stereotypes collide with officially diagnosed impairments-beliefs about natural and institutional identities-to produce overrepresentation by race in certain official categories of disability (Artiles et al. 2010;Connor et al. 2016). Crip theory has its origins in literary criticism, with a focus on discourse (Egner 2016;McRuer 2006b). In Gee's terminology, crip theory might be said to focus on institutional and discourse identities. ...
    ... Disability status interacts with other identities in interesting ways as well. McRuer (2006b) talks about the intersectionality of queerness and disability in his book Crip Theory. Examples he highlights include gay men living with HIV and the Sharon Kowalski case, where the courts had to intervene to allow Kowalski to recuperate with her same-sex partner after she was severely injured in a car accident. ...
    Chapter
    If you are White, male, cisgender, straight, and able-bodied, you can say something as simple as “I am a physicist” with relative ease. The more those descriptors are different, though, the more complex the story becomes in the minds of others, yourself, or both. A simple claim such as “I am a physicist” is more likely to be questioned by students or colleagues if a Black woman says it instead of a White man. The person who doesn’t fit the expected image of the identity is questioned, pushed against, and continues to be invisible in images and representations of the field. One of these dimensions of invisibility is disability. Students with disabilities face extra barriers coming into STEM fields, on top of those that physics already takes pride in (“you must be this brilliant to enter”). Some of these barriers are institutional, as in labs that have been physically constructed to be accessible only to a narrow range of bodies. Some of the barriers are social or emotional, as students must navigate choices about whether to request accommodations and stand out, or to stay silent and continue at a disadvantage. Until recently, disability has been virtually absent from the physics education research literature. Our goal in this chapter is to introduce frameworks from disability studies that are relevant to physics education, including critical perspectives to integrate disability with other identity facets such as gender or race and ethnicity.
  • ... To begin this analysis, I offer an overview of the history of disability accommodations in American colleges and universities in order to ground this critique in legal rhetoric and policy. I then describe theoretical bases for my rhetorical analysis centered in McRuer's (2006) crip theory and Crenshaw's (1989) theory of intersectionality and their attention to identity-based struggles. These reviews set up analyses of the process for obtaining accommodations, as well as the rhetorical functions of the term "accommodation" itself. ...
    ... This study is primarily built upon McRuer's (2006) crip theory. This theory is based on the social model of disability which posits that instead of stemming from internal issues within the body, what causes a disability is living in a society that does not account for a person's needs. ...
    ... Therefore, crip theory is a productive lens that encourages social change as opposed to medical models that emphasize individual error (see Davis, 2013). Beyond this social model core, crip theory poses significant attention to "compulsory able-bodiedness" (McRuer, 2006). Much like queer theory illuminates compulsory-heterosexuality as a normalizing force for gender and sexuality, crip theory shows that compulsory able-bodiedness/able-mindedness is a normative force that constructs social Others. ...
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    This paper examines the controversy surrounding American college students' use of disability accommodations, a process many find unfair or undue, in two ways: (1) by critically unpacking the processes for obtaining accommodations to highlight intersectional issues of who has—or is barred from—access to such services; and (2) by using a rhetorical lens to analyze how the term "accommodation" influences perceptions of disabled students. By combining these processual and rhetorical approaches, this work uncovers significant issues regarding how university students with disabilities are treated on college campuses. Such research is important because disabled individuals are less than half as likely as their nondisabled peers to earn college degrees. Thus, despite ADA laws and pushes for inclusivity and diversity on college campuses, the American higher education system continues to fail a significant part of the nation's population.
  • ... The use of caregiver romance in the described scene further complicates Laila's neoliberal identity. Caregiver romance is a commonplace narrative that shows caregivers as being uniquely capable of looking past disability, and, hence, being able to pursue intimate relationships with a disabled person (McRuer, 2006). 4 Caregiving facilitates empathy or even feelings of intimacy for the caregiver toward disabled people, but such romantic inclinations result in power imbalances (Kunow, 2015). ...
    ... The way Laila's relationship with Khanum develops suggests that queer/disability is something that must remain hidden, or at least not be fully visible. McRuer (2006) observes that the sexual desires of queer/disability cannot be in the public sphere. Bisexuality, in particular, challenges the norm because of the in-between-ness that is neither heterosexual nor homosexual (Meyer, 2010). ...
    ... However, the decision to choose singledom and survival is one that espouses neoliberal values as well. As McRuer (2006) writes, those who manage moments of subjective crisis embody neoliberalism. As the movie comes to a close, Laila manages her mother's rejection, the breakup with Khanum, and her mother's illness and death. ...
    Article
    Margarita with a Straw is an Indian movie about a queer/disabled woman exploring her sexuality. The article uses textual analysis with a discursive formation approach to analyze how the protagonist’s queer/disabled identity is constituted vis-à-vis intimate partnerships alongside the promotion of neoliberal values. One relationship with an able-bodied white man takes place within a caregiving dynamic that challenges her independence. The other relationship with a disabled South Asian woman creates an interdependence that bifurcates their identities as disabled-and-queer. The article argues that the promotion of neoliberal values in the context of queer/disability is about independence from dependence on sociopolitical systems.
  • ... Both Titchkosky (2015) and Lightfoot and Gustafson (2009) Titchkosky's (2015) examples of how one might apply the amputation metaphor are reminiscent of intersectionality exemplified in the burgeoning critical race theories and studies of education concerned with racism/ableism. Also relying on literature and the arts, Mitchell, Snyder, and Ware (2014) make use of crip theory at the intersection/ality with queer theory (McRuer, 2006) to advance curricular cripistemology. They argue crip/queer cultures, histories, and art are latent curricula; already there but requiring one to read differently and reject so-called "best practices" that amount to heteronormative, ableist, individualistic, neoliberal conditions for inclusion. ...
    ... • Fascinations with dead metaphors might be reimagined through the construct necropolitics (Mbembe, 2008) to further theorize itinerant curriculum related to curriculum epistemicide (Paraskeva, 2016) and cripistemology (McRuer, 2006). • Racism/ableism associated with assisted reproductive technology (ART), such as "wrongful birth" and "wrongful death," could be woven into curriculum via art while taking on problems with the language and intent of the law "stand your ground." ...
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    In this paper, the authors draw from critical disability scholarship (narrative prosthesis) and communications (intersectional rhetoric) to interrogate and illustrate how anti-oppressive curriculum advances deficit-ladenenss associated with dis/ability. They categorize deficit-laden constructs as negatively or positively oriented. Negative oriented constructs used to advance racial justice (i.e., color-blindness, color-mute, dysconscious racism, racial dyslexia) remind people not to be (blind, mute, dysconscious, dyslexic) racist. Positive oriented constructs (i.e., standpoint theory, voice, visible or non-visible disability) privilege ways of being, sensing, and expressing resistance to oppression using unimpaired abilities. The authors offer spectral curriculum theory based on materialist criticism to intervene in the deficit-laden use of constructs in anti-oppressive curriculum.
  • ... Recent studies focus on the dominance of normative over the "disabled body" sexuality (Esmail et al. 2010), and on interrelations of crip (which is short for cripple) and queer. McRuer (2006) explains how the dominant economic and cultural system of contemporary capitalist society implies compulsory able-bodiedness and heterosexuality. Neoliberalism, following McRuer, stigmatizes disability and queerness and promotes ableism as a system that privileges able-bodied members of society through institutional and cultural norms (Hartblay 2015). ...
    ... In response, however, disability and queer identities are produced and they open up the possibilities for formation of the crip and queer movements. The appearance of a "crip" in public provokes and actively works to undo ableism (McRuer 2006), confronting discrimination and exclusion. The word crip in the Western literature and social movements practice is associated with advocating the rights and justice for people with disabilities, while "queer" stands for LGBT solidarity (Hartblay 2015) and acceptance of different sexualities. ...
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    This article examines how disability and sexuality are represented in today’s Russian media, and how disabled people navigate these understandings. Drawing on online storytelling and first person stories about sexuality told by disabled people in the public sphere, the article provides a qualitative account of people with disabilities, journalists and civil rights advocates, analyzing how contemporary Russians with disabilities narrate their own lives in public forums. The focus of their stories, as well as the accounts of eyewitnesses, volunteers in the institutions, is on the constraints and limits of sexuality and intimacy spheres imposed by the professionals, families and wider society. This article also interprets the narratives behind disabled people’s sexuality circulating in contemporary Russia through digital networks, in combination with qualitative data from primary sources: disability activists and two journalists with and without disability in Moscow. It is argued that the telling of these stories in a public forum is a political act. In personal stories about sexual, bodily experiences told in the interviews or autobiographical texts, self-presentations and discussions in social networks, the voices of people are heard, permitting emancipation from previous categories. However, disability always remains with them, playing an important role in social lives of these people and in their sexual experiences and identities, becoming the cornerstone of the personal and collective re-defining of themselves. Using ideas of “visibility politics” (Arendt), queer/crip kinship and intimate citizenship (Plummer), the authors demonstrate how someone might choose to speak publicly about a topic and how this understanding develops cultural understandings of contemporary Russia.
  • ... A base teórica crítica do método apoiou-se nos estudos feministas sobre deficiência, especialmente na crítica capacitista da teoria crip 11 . A crítica feita não se aproxima do materialismo histórico da teoria marxista, mas de uma crítica social que busca expandir a compreensão dos sentidos atribuídos à participação em grupos ao refletir sobre as normas de regulação e hierarquização dos corpos. ...
    ... A teoria crip aproxima-se dessa crítica ao desestabilizar as representações convencionais ou práticas relacionadas ao corpo capaz e aos seus efeitos excludentes, expondo a hierarquização arbitrária entre o normal/anormal com base em ideais capacitistas que valorizam as potencialidades do corpo sem deficiência 11 . ...
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    O artigo analisa os sentidos atribuídos por adolescentes com deficiência às experiências de participação em grupos em contextos esportivos. O estudo qualitativo, fundamentado na análise compreensiva crítica, teve entrevistas semiestruturadas com adolescentes com deficiência física como acervo. Como resultados da análise, configuraram-se três eixos temáticos: (1) o corpo, (2) a sociabilidade e interações no grupo, e (3) as interações fora do grupo. No contexto do esporte, destacam-se os grupos como espaço de sociabilidade evocando autonomia, autoestima e desempenho. A reconfiguração do corpo com deficiência aproximou-se de um ideal capacitista capaz de configurar os desafios nas interações fora do grupo. Conclui-se que os sentidos legitimam modelos hegemônicos de masculinidade e feminilidade e que o capacitismo foi acionado como sistema comum de relevância entre os adolescentes com deficiência física que praticam esportes.
  • ... In this way, the rhizomal framework of Self captures agentivity in that the movement between nodes can be purposeful and meaningful, yet also highly social because the direction of movement is influenced but not determined by others and context. Such lines of flight can be seen in the contestation of essentialist and heteronormative categories of identity within queer and crip theory discussed by McRuer (2006) or the experimentations of Australian performance artist Stelarc (2012), who challenges notions of fixedness in arborescent thinking by breaking down traditional conceptualizations of the unity and stability of the body through performances such as his third mechanical arm project or the grafting of a third ear onto his arm. For social workers, such heterogeneity sits well with the commitment to cultural diversity, the uniqueness of the individual, the promotion of empowerment, and so on. ...
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    Theories of the Self abound both across and within disciplines. Following a discussion of two frameworks for understanding the Self—the essentialist and the dialogic—we explore the nature of what we call the rhizomal Self. Through autobiographical material we present a rhizomal narrative as a means of understanding the Self as narrative performance. We conclude with a brief discussion of some of the advantages of this way of conceptualizing and representing the Self.
  • ... Often, the critique points to theoretical shortcomings concerning the understanding of the individual and its impairments and to the limited explanation of the obstacles disabled people meet in the modern world. The model also fails to account for differences between disabled people [21][22][23][24]. Some critics argue that the UPIAS consisted of a small group of activists that were predominantly men with physical impairments, which could explain their "narrow understanding of disability" [20] (p. ...
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    Sweden was early to develop legislation related to accessible public transport for disabled people in 1979 and can therefore be seen as a forerunner. However, recent findings reveal widespread barriers in the Swedish public transport system and large variations between different parts of the country. This paper draws on empirical material consisting of complaints regarding accessibility left by travellers in Stockholm to a local transit company and aims to provide an overview of the character of complaints and to identify common themes through a qualitative content analysis. The results show that the most commonly reported challenge relates to boarding or getting off the vehicles, where the drivers are mostly described as the underlying reason for those difficulties. The narratives describe how some drivers misuse (or do not use) the accessibility equipment or show an abusive or attitudinal behaviour. The results support the body of literature on the meaning of continuous work with accessibility issues in public transport. Varying views on disability may have had a substantial impact on the development of our societies and on how the issues of accessibility in the public transport system have been prioritised or handled. Thus, this study highlights existing social barriers and variations in individual capacities as important factors that influence the experiences of public transport users. The study recommends an increased focus on educating drivers and staff about how to accommodate different groups of travellers. The study also recommends that transport providers consider drivers’ working conditions (i.e., with the consideration of timetables and high time-pressure). Further research on how well accessibility adaptations in public transport actually work and how the users perceive them is necessary.
  • ... The hierarchical (and gendered) organisation of disability in informal disability cultures and mainstream, 'ableist' cultures is discussed by a number of scholars (e.g. Gill, 2015;Kumari Campbell, 2009;McRuer, 2006McRuer, , 2018Roman, 2009) and, broadly speaking, I would argue that these are ways of cutting off people with a disability from their power of action and their capacity to be affected. I am certainly not alone in advancing this point of contention. ...
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    The field of disability studies has engaged with Deleuze and Guattari’s work in a fashion almost unprecedented by other empirically oriented disciplines, perhaps with the exception of education. In this chapter, I survey work on the sociology of disability, and disability studies more broadly, in which Deleuze, and Deleuze and Guattari’s, work has provided scholars with useful resources to think through social and cultural dynamics articulating across disability. The ways disability and masculinity are formulated in relation to each other is a contentious issue, because the social construction of disability often regulates the kinds of publics that are called to engage with texts featuring men with disabilities, and the kinds of context in which men with disabilities are welcomed. Taking my cue from the preceding chapter, I do not go so far as to suggest exactly what a Deleuzo-Guattarian informed version of disability studies might look like.
  • ... Similarly, CDT is versatile enough to inform a variety of research methodologies including narrative study (Smith-Chandler & Swart, 2014), participatory action research (Gillies & Dupuis, 2013), and ethnographic research (Davis, 2000). CDT is congruent with other post-conventional theoretical frameworks (Meekosha & Shuttleworth, 2009;Shildrick, 2009Shildrick, , 2012; researchers can draw on or engage with critical race theory (Campbell, 2008), feminism (Corker, 1999), and queer theory (McRuer, 2006) to explore intersectional topics. For instance, researchers might examine the consequences of ableism in particular student communities (e.g., autistic community college students of color or queer college athletes). ...
  • ... In contrast to the linear concept of clock time, feminist scholars have suggested process time (Davies, 1994;Lanoix, 2013) and relational time (Deery, 2008) as alternative temporal orientations that account for subjective, embodied, and gendered variations in pace. Well-theorized in the field of disability studies, crip time (Kafer, 2013;McRuer, 2010) similarly accounts for natural variations in temporal and other related resources that people with disabilities need and can access to accomplish everyday activities (Kafer, 2013). These alternative theories of time, grounded in lived experiences of marginalization, challenge the naturalized assumption that clock time can be used to quantify, standardize, and organize life. ...
  • ... Existe una amplia tradición de estudios de género y sexualidad, así como de "discapacidad", que ha influido considerablemente en el análisis de los procesos educativos. En este artículo se parte especialmente de la reflexión que desarrolla McRuer (2006McRuer ( , 2018, quien plantea que la demanda cul-tural por producir estudiantes que tengan habilidades medibles y que escriban de manera ordenada, está a su vez conectada con las demandas compulsivas de heterosexualidad y el capacitismo corporal (body ableness), las cuales conllevan habitar los cuerpos de manera ordenada, coherente y dirigida. ...
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    RESUMEN: En este trabajo se desarrolla un análisis de estrategias de atenuación en el discurso de docentes costarricenses sobre diversidad sexual y funcional. De acuerdo con los postulados del grupo de investigación VAL.ES.CO., las estrategias de atenuación constituyen un mecanismo pragmalingüístico a través del cual el hablante establece una distancia en el marco de una interacción comunicativa particular. Metodológicamente, la investigación es de carácter cualitativo y se aboca a tres procesos: la identificación y descripción de los recursos de atenuación a nivel del enunciado y la elaboración de inferencias mediante una articulación teórica-analítica. Los resultados muestran una tendencia hacia la deseabilidad social que se plasma en el intento de hacer elocuciones creíbles, aspecto que muestra el deseo por proteger la propia imagen (fachada) y que concomitantemente refleja la cautela del profesorado al abordar la diversidad sexual y funcional. ABSTRACT: The present paper analyses the attenuation strategies used in the discourse of Costa Rican school teachers on sexual and functional diversity. According to the postulates of the VAL.ES.CO research group, attenuation strategies constitute a pragmalinguistic mechanism through which the speaker stablishes a distance within the framework of a particular communicative interaction. Methodologically, the article proposes a qualitative approach based on three different processes: the identification and description of attenuation resources in the enunciative level and the elaboration of discursive inferences throughout an theoretical-analytical articulation. The results show a tendency towards social desirability, which is reflected in the attempt to make credible elocutions, an aspect that shows the desire to protect one’s own image (front) and which concomitantly reflects the caution of teachers when they are dealing with sexual and functional diversity.
  • ... Due partially to Soviet ideology, ableism (McRuer, 2006) was a dominating value in the Soviet time, in which all citizens were expected to work and uphold the ideology of communism. ...
    Article
    The main aim of this paper is to tease out the historical and deeply rooted ethical standards, spirituality, and social values that have long supported the social service system in Kyrgyzstan, which, today, faces pressure to align with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The data are based on an intervention conducted as part of the European Union‐Social Protection Systems programme in Kyrgyzstan between 2017 and 2018 where 30 university lecturers were part of. Interviews both to the Kyrgyz trainers with disabilities and to the trainees of the university lecturers as well as follow‐up survey conducted in 2019 form important part of data for this paper. We first investigate the conventional ethical standards, spiritual explanations, and social values related to disabilities within the Kyrgyz social protection system and social services. We elaborate on the Kyrgyz context of the societal ethics, spirituality, and values around disability in the Kyrgyz university education for social workers. Second, we analyse the transformation of the perception of disability among the university lecturers. We conclude this paper with a discussion on the negotiation between a charity‐based approach that reinforces the stigmatization of disability and a human rights‐based approach that promotes paradigm change, to contribute to global discourse of social change towards disability inclusion.
  • ... Geographers have long critiqued the hegemony of ableism and the ways in which everyday space is designed to be inhabited and used by non-disabled people (Chouinard et al., 2010;Hansen and Philo, 2007). Disability spaces can represent a 'cripping' of space, by identifying and subverting taken-for-granted and invisible able-body norms (Gahman, 2017;Kafer, 2013;McRuer, 2006). ...
    Article
    This article addresses embodied and emotional geographies of (not)belonging for disabled people in Aotearoa New Zealand. The concept of ‘embodied belonging’ is used to show that bodies, things, place and space intersect in complex ways to produce contradictory feeling of (not)belonging in ‘disability spaces’. Disability spaces can offer a direct challenge to ableism and create feelings of belonging for disabled people. They can also, however, reinforce normative identities and ideologies within and beyond disability spaces. We draw upon qualitative data collected through individual and focus group interviews, and written responses from 12 disabled people and three family members of disabled people to show that disability spaces are not inherently more inclusive of disabled people but rather bodies, things, place and space combine in various ways to produce shifting exclusionary and/or enabling arrangements. A focus on lived, felt and spatial elements of belonging to and in disability spaces can deepen understandings of what it means for disabled people to feel in and out of place. Keywords: Embodied belonging; Disability spaces; Disabled people;Emotions; More-than-human things
  • ... 5 Crip theory shares with queer theory a concern with challenging notions of normalcy and the adoption of an intersectionality perspective with the central focus of the former being the body and pleasure. Crip theory asks what makes some bodies "able" and others "disabled" and why the sexuality of disabled and/or queer bodies is deemed deviant (McRuer, 2006). Both queer and crip are words that have been reclaimed by queer and disability activists/scholars respectively. ...
  • ... Who are the new sexual outlaws? Those who have sex in public places, sex workers, transgenders/transsexuals, all those who do not conform to the norm and the privileges of the white, able-bodied, middle class, gay 'male' (perhaps Protestant or Catholic), so bisexuals (who never decide which side they are on: Monro, 2014), people who are into 'kinky' sex, BDSM or risky sexual practices (Dean, 2009), HIV+ individuals, disabled gay men and lesbians (McRuer, 2006;Shapiro, 2015), with elderly gay men and lesbians, and all those who annoy heterosexuals. Groups of gay men, often clashing with groups of lesbians, because of their 'normalization' as men, gay, virile, white, and middle class, need new opposition from which to distance themselves, to define a respectable identity that can be assimilated, and to create 'sexual enemies' (Seidman, 2002). ...
    Article
    The mediatization of emotions emerges as an affordance of social media, the study of which involves paying attention to digital practices and to the construction and expression of public affection. This happens both for the great events and for the daily demonstrations of support or its denial. In this article we work on the phenomenon of the mediatization of emotions linked to two LGBTQI+ icons and expressed in hashtags on Twitter. Placing it in a specific context – the one of well-known television characters who have declared their homosexual orientation or transgender identity. The objective is to understand if the cloud of feelings they have created on Twitter is to be attributed to a true globally mediatized emotional exchange, or just an expression of emotions on the social media, and discover which emotional dynamics, linked to the LGBTQI+ world, they express.
  • ... The experiences of disability oppression (i.e., ableism) may also interact with other aspects of identity, including race, gender, sexual orientation, class, and religion (Linton, 1998;McRuer, 2006;Vance, 2007). ...
  • ... In a stance toward disability justice, many disability studies scholars are reconceptualizing disability and the body as sites of becoming rather than of being (Hall 2014(Hall , 2015Kafer 2013;McRuer 2006;Shildrick 2009). After all, disability is not a limited casean extraordinary vulnerability or an extraordinary embodiment, although it is commonly represented that way (Kaul, 2013). ...
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    In order to shed personalized light upon some of the confusions surrounding dyslexia, this study draws upon critical disability studies to share the stories of mothers of children with dyslexia. This feminist autoethnography shares the voice of the researcher alongside interviews with 5 participants, all mothers of children with dyslexia, who were in their 40s, and ethnically and socioeconomically diverse. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis, results illustrated that the children inhabited an "in-betweenness" in their disability, in the ways dyslexia was less visual and therefore misunderstood. Likewise, the children presented a great deal of resistance in their learning, which was later understood as a way of protecting themselves. Parents faced several emotional and financial battles. Educational implications include suggestions for negotiating the "in-betweenness" of reading disability, as well as strategies for navigating resistance in learning. This study emphasizes the need for more participatory research that involves students with dyslexia, and their parents. In order to shed personalized light upon some of the confusions surrounding dyslexia, this study draws upon critical disability studies to share the stories of mothers of children with dyslexia. This feminist autoethnography shares the voice of the researcher alongside interviews with 5 participants, all mothers of children with dyslexia, who were in their 40s, and ethnically and socioeconomically diverse. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis, results illustrated that the children inhabited an "in-betweenness" in their disability, in the ways dyslexia was less visual and therefore misunderstood. Likewise, the children presented a great deal of resistance in their learning, which was later understood as a way of protecting themselves. Parents faced several emotional and financial battles. Educational implications include suggestions for negotiating the "in-betweenness" of reading disability, as well as strategies for navigating resistance in learning. This study emphasizes the need for more participatory research that involves students with dyslexia, and their parents.
  • ... Crip and mad are pejorative words reclaimed by disability communities as ways to describe new orientations to disability and mental illness. Crip and mad imagine what it is to desire disability (McRuer, 2006) and to desire what disability disrupts (Fritsch, 2013). In doing so, CRIPSiE reframes disability, impairment, and other experiences of marginalization as full of generative, creative potential. ...
    Article
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    The arts-based research paradigm prioritizes creativity, relationships and the potential of transformative change (Conrad & Beck, 2016). Arts-based research may be useful in disability communities where people may prefer to communicate artistically or through movement, rather than through spoken word (Eales & Peers, 2016). Participatory action research (PAR) involves researchers working with communities to create research critical of dominant power relations and responsive to the needs of communities (McIntyre, 2008). Both arts-based research and PAR value an axiological approach that is responsive to the community’s needs over a dogmatic procedure, meaning that researchers must be reflexive and responsive to the often unexpected realities of the field. Over four months in 2017, eight dancers/researchers from CRIPSiE (Collaborative Radically Integrated Performers Society in Edmonton), an integrated dance company, came together to investigate how integrated dancers practice elements of timing in rehearsal, through an arts-based, participatory process. In this paper I examine the gap between my assumptions of how research should be conducted and the reality of the field, specifically: the tension between university research ethics and the ethics of the CRIPSiE community, the differences between the value of the rehearsal process and the performance as sites of data collection, and the assumptions I had made about the necessity of a singular research question.
  • ... While human sexual physiology is universal, its triggers and the meanings ascribed to it vary according to time and place. People engage in the construction of sexuality in particular social, cultural and historical contexts and this process is related to power differentials, in which factors such as heteronormativity, gender order, social class, age and ability may all play a role [18][19][20][21][22]. Social norms prescribe with whom, when and how people should engage with one another sexually [23][24][25][26]. ...
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    Hypopituitarism means a partial or complete inability to produce pituitary hormones, including those regulating gonadal function. The condition therefore leads to hormone deficiencies that may affect sexuality in various ways. This study aimed to explore patients’ own experiences of hypopituitarism in relation to sexuality, and it is based on interviews with 19 men and women. A qualitative methodology inspired by Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics was used. Analysis revealed that current healthcare practices, which focus primarily on sexual functioning, fail to address patients’ existential concerns about loneliness, loving relationships and selfhood. Another important finding was that women felt that their sexual functioning and wellbeing tended to go unnoticed, while men said that healthcare professionals focused mainly on erectile function rather than problems with sexual wellbeing. Cultural and gender norms were apparent in these healthcare interactions, and proactive efforts to improve awareness is required in order to improve the quality of care provided to these patients. Healthcare professionals need time, space and support for reflection so that they may enhance their knowledge about the complexity of sexuality and discuss the results of research into hormone replacement in men and women. They also need support to develop critical awareness of how gendered norms about sexuality may negatively affect the care provided to persons with hypopituitarism.
  • ... mente la conseguenza di un particolare deficit, bensì il risultato di uno squilibrio tra la persona con disabilità e la società. È possibile dunque considerare le persone con disabilità come appartenenti a minoranze sia politiche sia identitarie, in quanto considerate diverse da una maggioranza abile e privilegiata, in continua negoziazione dei propri diritti e della facoltà di esistere al di sopra di ogni forma di patologizzazione della propria condizione (Kafer, 2013;McRuer, 2006;Sandahl, 2003). Secondo il documento redatto dall'UPIAS (Union of the Physically Impaired Against Segregation) nel 1976, chiamato Foundamental Principles of Disability, la definizione diagnostica della disabilità è la misura dell'anormalità rispetto agli standard funzionali che altro non sono se non un ideale di funzionamento del corpo adulto; se non venisse costruita culturalmente come stigma, la disabilità non sarebbe uno svantaggio, come non lo sarebbe il colore della pelle o l'orientamento sessuale. ...
    Article
    Obiettivo del presente studio esplorativo è indagare il ruolo dell’orientamento sessuale e della percezione della sordità come disabilità nell’influenzare il benessere delle persone sorde. Hanno partecipato allo studio 47 adulti sordi (28 donne e 19 uomini) di cui 21 si dichiarano lesbiche oppure gay. Per lo studio sono stati prodotti video di traduzione in lingua dei segni dell’intera batteria (consegne, item e alternative di risposta), mantenendo anche l’italiano scritto per le persone sorde oraliste. In linea con la letteratura, percepire la sordità come una caratteristica piuttosto che come una patologia è associato a maggiori livelli di soddisfazione di vita. L’orientamento sessuale non sembra invece influenzare i livelli di solitudine, evitamento sociale e soddisfazione di vita.
  • ... Scholars have advanced crip theory as a means of scrutinizing "the social norms that define particular attributes as impairments, as well as the social conditions that concentrate stigmatized attributes in particular populations"(Minich, 2016). See also(Garland-Thomson, 2011;Kafer, 2013;Patsavas, 2014;McRuer, 2006;Schalk, 2017). ...
  • ... Work within disability studies seeking to problematize autonomy has acknowledged the importance of interdependence in resisting binary definitions (McRuer, 2006). Here, there are no singularly 'dependent' or 'independent' bodies but a diverse range of body/minds that exist as a series of complex relations (Davis, 1995;Memmi, 1984). ...
    Thesis
    Full-text available
    Over the past 40 years within the UK the concept of self-advocacy has gained momentum by enabling learning disabled people to speak out in order to affect change. In the same period, inclusive approaches have been taken up both in research and in the arts, reflecting a growing recognition of learning disabled people as researchers, artists, performers and communicators. Yet curation has rarely been used as an inclusive practice and then principally in museums dealing with history rather than in the context of art galleries. Via a practice-led research approach, Art as Advocacy addressed this gap by exploring the potential for curatorial practice by learning disabled artists to act as a site for self-advocacy. It brought together members of self-advocacy group Halton Speak Out and members of Bluecoat's inclusive arts project Blue Room, to curate a visual arts exhibition titled Auto Agents. These curators developed an exhibition theme, collaborated with artists, commissioned new artwork and designed accessible interpretation for audiences. Through curating Auto Agents, the purpose of this research has been to produce a rich account of the ways in which curatorial and self-advocacy practices intersect. This intersection, whereby tools found in self-advocacy were carried over into curatorship, provided new methodologies that enabled curating to become an inclusive practice. This attention to process results not only in curating becoming more usable by more people, but also more transparent and rigorous. By achieving this, this research delineates to understanding the processes and practices by which our cultural spaces can become democratised.
  • ... It is not uncommon for students from low-SES backgrounds to attend low fee-paying independent schools. 3. It should be noted that disability studies 'have often debated the connection between illness and disability' (McRuer, 2006, p. 92) and there is little consensus. 4. The quality of schooling available in Australia significantly influences ATAR scores and thus potential university participation (Gemici, Lim, & Karmel, 2013). ...
    Article
    The study of masculinities and social change continues to gain prominence in the field of Critical Studies of Men and Masculinities (CSMM). This article presents a case study of one Anglo-Australian working-class male, Leo, as he experienced multiple transitions – from his final year at secondary school into various service sector jobs and eventually to becoming the first in his family to attend university. The article explores how he constructed his subjectivity in reference to his relationships and diverse experiences. Central to the analysis is the continual and contentious nature of identity work. Drawing on theories associated with both intersectionality and liminality (transitions, in-between-ness), the article explores Leo’s journey contributing to scholarship which seeks to complicate historical conceptions of working-class masculinities. As Leo navigates different spaces, we are compelled to think about the discursive construction of masculinity in reference to social change as well as the multiple axes of inequality which inform his subjectivity.
  • Article
    This paper primarily addresses the people of effectively mainstream embodiment who make up the bulk of the body psychotherapy profession. It suggests that we need to explore and deconstruct this subject position and to think about how it may set up oppressive assumptions about our task and how we carry it out, as well as about who is capable of becoming a practitioner. Drawing in particular on disability theory, I aim to bring into question notions of “normal,” ideal or optimal embodiment and to argue for a focus instead on the real, imperfect, damaged and unique bodies which we encounter in our practice.
  • Article
    The Paralympic games is a pedagogic, pervasive, political, powerful, and ‘popular’ cultural site where the heightened visibility of disability bring into being specific forms of disability as they articulate within cultures, institutions and practices. Regarded as a ‘positive charge’ by Stuart Hall, the Paralympics intends to challenge the devalued disabled body politic of typical disability representation. This has been stimulated by the entry of Channel 4 as the UK Paralympic rights holders in 2012 which has seen greater media coverage of certain technologically enhanced cyborgian parasport bodies and an emerging celebrity / sexualized disability culture. This contemporary moment in disability representation provides a compelling space in which to (re-)address the gendered nature of hyper-visible Parasport hybrids, their potential to disrupt ‘normative’ relations of power, and, the wider impact on disability politics in a neoliberalised culture of widening and affective circuits of bodily inclusion and control. Drawing on an integrated content and textual analysis of 90 h of Paralympic programming from the Rio 2016 Games we highlight two emblematic segments so as to enhance our appreciation of contemporary disabled politics as it intersects with gender, technology and nation. We analyse these emblematic segments at the intersection of critical disability studies, cultural studies and sport, using concept of ablenationalism to highlight the extent certain technological capacitated parasport bodies perform gendered representational work as part of the seductive apparatus of neoliberal micro-governance suggestive of an emerging ecology of disability-gender relations. In doing so, we highlight the Paralympic contradictions and interrogate the assumed ‘positive charge’ of the contemporary (re-)presentation of disability.
  • Chapter
    Full-text available
    How do we find disability in Indian literary texts? Disability studies have begun to murmur in the corridors of English departments or schools of humanities in India and the result is a large-scale hunt for disability in literary texts. Small streams of graduate students and researchers find themselves tied up in knots trying to identify, classify and qualify texts from the canon of Indian writing in English as having elements of disability or of being worthy of examination from a disability studies perspective. Many like to think what they've taken on is a worthy but difficult task and hope of being lauded for the very attempt they have made to bring "fresh" disability studies style thinking to "same old" English studies. While the search is underway, sometimes fruitful, at most times confusing, I want to take up for consideration this very question that has come to haunt our younger researchers. How do we engage with this convergence of disability studies and English studies in the Indian context?
  • Article
    This critical communication pedagogy study consists of a cripistemological analysis of two prominent communication theory textbooks to better understand the nondisableist assumptions embedded within these textbooks and, by extension, our field’s theories. Conceiving of the university classroom as an educational cultural performance, this study positions these textbooks to be scripts. Imitating the vignette-to-application format found in these communication theory textbooks, the study offers three new vignettes that center disability. Each vignette provides new insight into its corresponding communication theory: uncertainty reduction theory, sensemaking theory, and structuration theory. By inflecting the crip, the corresponding analyses provide lessons into the enactment of our theories within the educational cultural performances of our classrooms. Each is told from a crip perspective that rescripts compulsory nondisableist discourses to better understand crip as humanity, as evolutionarily superior, and as universal. This study helps model how to explore, explain, and refute embedded nondisableist assumptions within and across our field’s knowledge bases, as found in textbooks.
  • Article
    This is the introductory article to a special issue that foregrounds the centrality of an intersectional and enmeshed disability studies as an analytical framework in educational studies. The guest coeditors note that there has been a paucity of articles published in this journal that engage critical disability studies. This has occurred despite the fact that disability, as a pivotal analytic, is deployed in educational contacts to often simultaneously disrupt and reproduce the everyday workings of the settler colonial state that are simultaneously anti-Black, anti-Indigenous, anti-immigrant, antitransgender, antiqueer, antipoor, and also antidisability. And yet, notwithstanding its pivotal location, educational studies scholarship continues to enable the erasure and invisibility of disability in discussions of transformative educational praxis. The authors of the articles in this special issue break with this tradition and, instead, offer diverse and compelling analyses that critically engage disability at the intersections of race, sexuality, immigration/refugee, gender, class, and gender identity. The guest editors discuss the critiques and possibilities that enable/disenable critical disabilities studies at the intersections and enmeshments of social difference. The introduction describes how the articles included in this special issue explicate the problematic: What’s disability got to do with educational studies? Drawing on Robert McRuer’s (2006 McRuer, R. (2006). Crip theory: Cultural signs of queerness and disability. New York, NY: New York University Press. [Google Scholar]) conceptualization of “cripping as a paradoxical and transgressive act of talking back to discourses of compulsory normativity, the guest editors hope this special issue encourages readers to continue the critical work of crippin’ educational studies.
  • Article
    Medicalization occurs when an aspect of embodied humanity is scrutinized by the medical industry, claimed as pathological, and subsumed under medical intervention. Numerous critiques of medicalization appear in academic literature, often put forth by bioethicists who use a variety of “lenses” to make their case. Feminist critiques of medicalization raise the concerns of the politically disenfranchised, thus seeking to protect women—particularly natal sex women—from medical exploitation. This article will focus on three feminist critiques of medicalization, which offer an alternative narrative of sickness and health. I will first briefly describe the philosophical origins of medicalization. Then, I will present three feminist critiques of medicalization. Liberal feminism, trans feminism, and crip feminism tend to regard Western medicine with a hermeneutics of suspicion and draw out potential harms of medicalization of reproductive sexuality, gender, and disability, respectively. While neither these branches of feminism—nor their critiques—are homogenous, they provide much-needed commentaries on phallocentric medicine. I will conclude the paper by arguing for the continual need for feminist critiques of medicalization, using uterus transplantation as a relevant case study.
  • Article
    Aiming to place disability studies in conversation with other antioppressive educational frameworks, this article “crips” human rights education (HRE), a field that, by definition, teaches people about equality, dignity, and respect. A theoretical sampling of HRE journals and an online library database uncovers that human rights scholarship largely overlooks disability outside a medical or legal framework, though disability scholars consistently reference human rights in their work. We argue that these absences exemplify the active erasure of disability at the ontological level, and in response we urge scholars to reconceptualize where and how politics, activism, and social change take place. This “visibilizing” project follows Baxi's dictum that HRE must constantly adapt to people’s localized experiences and the needs of future generations. We offer a reading list to begin this “visibilizing” project in undergraduate university settings, proposing that teachers use “Disability and Human Rights Praxis: Intersectional, Interdisciplinary Readings for Educators” to conceptualize how they might pair disability studies in education and HRE texts to facilitate interdisciplinary class discussions and student projects.
  • Article
    Through the juxtaposition of 2 recent Supreme Court actions—Allston v. Lower Merion County School District (2015) and Endrew F. v. Douglas County School District (2017)—this article argues that special education is a neoliberal property that works to recruit disability through scientific-juridical qualifications of educational life that are more likely to be available for White students who have essentialized disabilities than students of color who are ascribed disability labels. This thesis draws from a variety of theoretical perspectives—including, racecraft, biopolitics, and immunization—to formulate a crip reading of present special education policy. Although critiquing overrepresentation and disproportionality, this article also suggests a way of dialectically attenting to the uses of disability labeling toward the reciprocal production of pathological ableism and biopolitical racism. Moving from a racecraft of disability labeling to a biopolitics of special education, this article concludes by arguing that Whiteness recruits disability into its self-enclosed and propertied boundaries with the effect that educational life is contractually immunized against communal obligations to human difference. James Baldwin’s (1963/1998), “A Talk to Teachers,” critically inflects this conclusion and also motivates the article’s analytical excursion into the troubling nexus of special education policy, neoliberalism, and Whiteness.
  • Article
    International human rights standards are clear that children and young people have a right to sexuality education. Nevertheless, the delivery of such education is often considered questionable, particularly for groups of children perceived as more ‘vulnerable’. In this article, the example of the right to access sexuality education for disabled children is used to explore the autonomy/vulnerability dynamic. Historically, sexuality education has been denied to disabled children, ostensibly to protect them from information and activities perceived as inappropriate due to their (perceived) greater vulnerabilities. It is argued, however, that discourses of sexual vulnerability can actually be dangerous in themselves. Sexuality education, rather than being a threat to disabled under-18s, serves as a way to increase their autonomy by equipping them with tools of knowledge around sex and relationships. This case study demonstrates how the autonomy of under-18s is not something inherent in them but something which can be enhanced through recognition of rights such as education and information, as well as recognition of adult responsibilities to facilitate this.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    This paper articulates our desire for new humanisms in a contemporary cultural, economic and global context that has been described as posthuman. As researchers committed to modes of radical, critical, politicised and inclusive education, we are mindful of the significance of social theory and its relationship with articulations of social justice. Whilst sympathetic to the potentiality of posthuman thought we grapple with the imperative to embrace new humanisms that historicise and recognise global inequalities that concurrently exist in relation to a myriad of human categories including class, age, geopolitical location, gender, sexuality, race and disability. We focus in on the latter two categories and draw on ideas from postcolonial and critical disability studies. Our argument considers the problem of humanism (as a product of colonial Western imaginaries), the critical responses offered by posthuman thinking and then seeks to rearticulate forms of new humanism that are responsive to the posthuman condition and, crucially, the political interventions of Postcolonial and Critical Disability Scholars. We then outline six new humanist projects that could productively feed into the work of the Journal of Disability Studies in Education .
  • Chapter
    This chapter focuses on ableism's effects for disabled people, the “targets” of prejudice. It begins by describing research on stigmatized group members in general and how chronic discrimination, or episodes of discrimination, can be associated with negative health, achievement, and self‐esteem patterns. The chapter also describes some of the unique features of disability prejudice that differ from prejudices against other groups. Then it compares and contrasts coping styles that disabled people might use to respond to prejudice. Specifically, social identity theory postulates that people may handle a devalued identity (such as having a disability) through either individualistic or collectivistic coping strategies. Individualistic strategies include minimizing, hiding, or otherwise distancing oneself from a disability identity. These strategies can help individuals escape stigma and discrimination at times. Collectivistic strategies include disability pride, affiliating with others who have disabilities, and engaging in collective action to redefine disability and counteract ableism.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Complete and accurate understandings of stratification depend on more regular consideration of disability. To build sociologists' recognition of disability as a socially constructed axis of stratification, we first demonstrate the construction of the disability category through classic legitimating processes: moral attributions, biological attributions, separation, and dichotomization. Expanding understandings of basic processes of stratification, we then document the centrality of disability in the social construction of class, race, gender, sexual orientation, and age. Finally, we show various ways disability functions as an axis of stratification in intersection with other key axes of stratification.
  • Article
    As the effects of high-stakes accountability mandates increasingly impact curricular enactments in schools, careful investigations of the “how” of inclusion may allow the disclosure of its complexity to stretch the ways in which it is currently theorized. Drawing on my prior research, I have extracted three canonical elements of schooling that have remained largely unexamined within curricular theorizing for social justice, namely: the durability of place and time in the discourse of schooling and inclusion; the centrality of learning need within conceptions of inclusion; and, the necessity for agents of change to promote inclusion. Deploying an intertwined theoretical framework that includes critical disability studies, spatial theory, and writings of US Third World feminists, I argue that these elements collectively compel a (re)consideration of capacity within the construct of inclusion that can then evoke alternate imaginings of inclusive practice.
  • Article
    In this presentation I trouble the ways that critical scholars of difference turn away from the spectral presence of disability in search of more empowering narratives. The alternative narratives they support recreate limiting theorizations of the human/posthuman that continue to support ableist representations of disability. Refusing this disavowal of disability, I insist on looking (not straight but queerly) at disability in a defiant refusal of ableism to argue that disability, rather than being an additive to the discourses of intersectionality, is constitutive of other categories of difference within the historical materialist conditions of transnational capitalism. Drawing on the work of African American literary scholar Saidiya Hartman, Indigenous scholar, Eve Tuck, and award winning fiction writer Jesmyn Ward, I discuss the implications for re-envisioning futures as if disability as a historical materialist category really matters in educational contexts at the intersections of social difference.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Petina Gappah's debut novel, The Book of Memory (2015), centres on the lives of two 'white' characters in post-independent Zimbabwe: Memory, the protagonist-narrator and a woman with albinism, and Lloyd, Memory's adoptive father and a white, closeted gay man. Both characters are rendered to the margins of Zimbabwean society. This paper analyses how Memory and Lloyd are brought together by their respective forms of marginalisation. Memory is a person with albinism and her whiteness is perceived as dirty and a contagion. On the other hand, Lloyd is a white, closeted gay man in Mugabe's homophobic Zimbabwe. Making use of Ann Cvet-kovich's reading of trauma and Robert McRuer's concept of 'compulsory able-bodiedness', in this paper we argue that Gappah's novel depicts a refiguring of the marginalised body as one capable of agency and existence in its own right. In the process, such refiguring destabilises race and sexuality as social constructs. (Re)drawing the limits of marginality: 'Whiteness', disability and queer sexuality in Petina Gappah's The Book of Memory (2015)
  • Article
    Background: In western societies, busy lifestyles that include long hours spent in paid employment are highly regarded. Given the ongoing primacy of men's roles as employees and providers, researchers need to understand men's mental health in terms of men's relationships to paid employment and expectations for "busyness". Objective: This study is an examination of if and how working men ascribe to workplace expectations for "busyness" and what mental health impacts these expectations can entail. Methods: We present a secondary analysis of narrative data drawn from three focus groups and 23 individual interviews with working men (n = 37) about work-related mental health. Results: We found two themes of workplace expectations for busyness: 1) immediate manifestations and 2) background manifestations. Immediate manifestations are intensity and volume of work while background manifestations include a) unspoken messages and b) mixed messages. We found a third theme of 3) impacts of expectations for busyness and this includes a) busyness pride/costs of being "unbusy" and b) trade-offs in self-care. Conclusions: Obvious and subtle workplace expectations for busyness are abundant and may obstruct attending to one's mental health as well as contribute to a frame of reference where not being busy precipitates feelings of anxiety and depression.
  • Article
    This paper examines the efficacy of sexual violence prevention education (SVPE) in the USA and Australasia: areas, which have some of the worst rates for sexual violence prevalence, globally. Paradoxically, they are also at the forefront of innovations in sexual violence prevention, compared to some European countries where SVPE is virtually non-existent or at the embryonic stage, such as the UK. Drawing upon the Authors’ previous research on the delivery of SVPE in New Zealand secondary schools, and literature reviews into these innovations, the authors argue that social work education is ideally placed to develop SVPE, due to the ways that some of these innovations, coalesce with social work theory, critical andragogy, and social work values. These synergies have the potential for transnational application through the ways that they can inform SVPE in those countries where it is delivered by social workers in schools, and via the ways it can enhance the social work curriculum to improve post-qualifying practice in addressing sexual violence (SV).
  • Article
    Full-text available
    En los últimos años hemos asistido a la proliferación de análisis académicos y ensayos basados en ficciones televisivas de gran alcance a través de su difusión por medios de masa; ensayos y artículos científicos sobre determinadas series (consideradas ya de culto) son ejemplos notorios de producciones audiovisuales de gran impacto en un porcentaje muy elevado de población que, por sus connotaciones filosóficas, ideológicas y políticas, merecen reflexiones desde diversas palestras (etnoliterarias, politológicas, antropológicas…), claramente comparables a los estudios sobre otro tipo de materiales más clásicos (obras literarias o filosóficas más canónicos, etc.). Esta propuesta se centra en la serie “Juego de Tronos” para usarla como pretexto de discusión desde/con la teoría de la interseccionalidad, con énfasis en los ejes transversales de los feminismos, la performatividad del género y, especialmente, la diversidad funcional como paradigma. La frase pronunciada por uno de los personajes clave de esta obra, Tyrion Lannister (con una diversidad funcional evidente), y que da lugar al nombre de uno de los capítulos: “Tengo un lugar sensible en mi corazón para tullidos y bastardos y cosas rotas”, resume magníficamente la orientación de esta propuesta. Así, proponemos un análisis sobre la diversidad funcional que atraviesa la serie desde sus inicios y en sus planteamientos más radicales, pero también con/desde la interseccionalidad en general: masculinidades y feminidades disidentes, minorías, alteridades radicales, monstruosidades que devienen, (casi) todas y de diferentes maneras, caminos de aprendizaje, de descubrimiento, de iniciación, de adquisición de un sentido moral a través, en muchos casos, de la aprehensión de la vulnerabilidad radical del ser humano. In recent years we have witnessed the proliferation of academic analyzes and essays based on powerful television fictions; philosophical books and scientific articles on certain series (considered already of cult) are notorious examples of audiovisual productions of great impact in a very high percentage of population that, due to their philosophical, ideological and political connotations, deserve reflections from different fields (ethnoliterary, political , anthropological ...), clearly comparable to studies on other types of more classical materials (literary works, more canonical philosophy essays, etc.). This proposal focuses on the series "Game of Thrones" to use as a pretext to discuss from / with the intersectionality theory, with emphasis on the transversal axes of feminisms, the performativity of gender and, especially, functional diversity as a paradigm. The phrase pronounced by one of the key characters of this work, Tyrion Lannister (with obvious functional diversity), and which gives rise to the name of one of the chapters: “I have a sensitive place in my heart for cripples and bastards and broken things”, magnificently sums up the orientation of this proposal. Thus, from the perspective of the “crippled policies” of Melania Moscoso, we propose an analysis of the functional diversity that the series goes through since its inception and in its more radical approaches, but also with / from intersectionality in general: dissenting masculinities and femininities, minorities, radical alterities, monstrosities that become, (almost) all and in different ways, paths of learning, of discovery, of initiation, of acquisition of a moral sense through, in many cases, of the apprehension of the radical vulnerability of the human being.
  • Article
    The core argument of this paper is that intersectionality provides a constructive conceptual lens for the convergence of ethnic minority status and childhood disability in Irish child protection and welfare. The utility of intersectionality in this paper lies in broadening the scope of reflection on the complex intersections of ethnic minority status and childhood disability. Within this, intersectionality is implicitly situated within an overarching critical disability studies perspective. Theoretically informed commentary on the literature attends to three aspects of practice. These are respectively novel intersections of ethnic minority status and childhood disability, as a consequence of intensifying globalization; compounded levels of risk; and the importance of nonconflation of potential sites of oppression, such as race and disability. Overall, the intention of the paper is to be illustrative. Specifically, analysis is presented as an aid to students and practitioners, moving forward, in negotiating a complex and dynamic field of practice.
  • Article
    In this study, we conducted a citation network analysis of intersectionality scholarship. We aimed to elucidate content domains in this scholarship’s citation network. In addition, we explored a citation-based genealogy of this scholarship, attending to the representation of women of color identified in prior critical analyses of intersectionality scholarship as key but under-acknowledged contributors to intersectional thought and praxis. We used CitNetExplorer to analyze a network of 17,332 records and 60,132 citation links. The analysis yielded 17 clusters, with the five largest clusters focusing on (1) conceptualizing intersectionality theory, methodology, and analysis; (2) psychology, identity stigma, and multiple minority statuses; (3) sociology of gender inequality, labor markets, and organizations; (4) political science, political systems and policy, including in the European context; and (5) violence against women, gender and health, and health equity. Although some of the key women of color contributors to intersectional thought were among the most cited authors in the network, others were cited infrequently or not at all across the network and clusters. Taken together, the analyses revealed substantial and ongoing engagement with efforts to define and refine intersectionality as epistemology and methodology. However, the analyses pointed to the need for scholars to reengage with, cite, and follow the examples of the women of color who contributed to intersectional thought by actually doing intersectional praxis that directly advances social justice aims. Some of the smaller clusters in the citation network reflected content domains, such as environmental justice and community planning, ripe for such activist-scholar work.
  • Article
    The singularity of the other, based on González Rey’s subjectivity, opens up the possibility in Sports Psychology of exploring the topic of the female body configured within the subjective experience of participating in Paralympic high-performance sports. In this way, we can consider sports and body practices to be spaces of transgression, where subjectively produced sports experience translates into a form of affirmation of female participation. Using the constructive-interpretative method, the case study of an outstanding Cuban Paralympic high-performance female athlete facilitated the construction of alternative ways of producing knowledge based on singularity and empathic dialogue. The sport is built as a multidimensional field, which has continued to be a spectacle, where the reproduction of an aesthetic and behavioural pattern on the concept of ‘what a woman should be’ – beyond an aesthetically shaped body based on normality – has also been reinforced. The research carried out has allowed us to reflect on reinterpretation processes of the sports experience where the productions of the order of subjectivity are brought to life.
  • Chapter
    There are few working in the social sciences or humanities today who have not at least heard of queer theory. That said, relatively few (not enough?) have an understanding of its theoretical and political underpinnings nor of its potential for enriching our understandings of a wide variety of fields. Queer theory is not simply a code name for gay and lesbian studies nor need it necessarily even be confined to studies of sexuality and while the term “queer” has become an often used shorthand for those lying outside the dominant sex/gender/sexuality paradigm, in the sense of queer theory it is meant more to imply “queering” something, that is to say questioning it, turning it inside out, and decentering it from the norm. This chapter will discuss the institutional and theoretical origins of queer theory including in gay and lesbian studies, social constructionism, and poststructuralism. It will also discuss what are widely considered to be the essential hallmarks of queer theory, its present state and potential future, its uneasy relationship with sociology and conclude with a number of critiques.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    In this article, I ask the question: when does research end? I am motivated to engage with this question because I still labour over my doctoral research that I completed a few years ago. Feelings of guilt, shame, and above all, abjection, continue to haunt my subject position of researcher and academic. I seek to trouble the idea that research has clear beginning, middle, and end points, and I reflect on the politics, labour and emotion involved in conducting research, particularly when it involves understandings and experiences of violence. I expose how theoretical and pragmatic decisions, as well as incidents and accidents, leave mnemic traces on our bodies. I demonstrate how personal, theoretical and methodological decisions are complexly intertwined in research, and I argue that it is incumbent upon researchers to think through what they research, why they do it, its effects, and consequences – for researcher, researched, and society.
  • Thesis
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    Disability is a unique dimension of diversity, yet structural, social and attitudinal barriers can make meaningful workforce participation difficult for individuals with disabilities. Faculty with disabilities are a particularly underrepresented population in academia, and even more so in social work programs. Based on this under-representation and a concern for the lack of attention this population has received, this project will explore a subset of this group. This thesis will focus on faculty with disabilities, first by looking into the scant research pertaining to FWD, then presenting the data from a qualitative study and demographic survey. Implications for policy, practice and future research needs will be examined with particular emphasis on the social work profession and education. This research will investigate the current climate of disability amongst social work faculties and education and provide meaningful recommendations for a more inclusive, equitable community of social workers and social work students and faculty.
  • Article
    Retention literature and concepts warrant examination through the lens of queer theory, a poststructural body of thought about sexuality and gender, to understand their implications for queer students. Five themes found in the retention literature are addressed from a queer perspective: framing retention as an economic and labor problem; campus climate; the focus on programs, policies, and services; psychological traits; and positivistic approaches. Queering retention involves deconstructing retention binaries; problematizing the production of normative subjects through retention theory; focusing on institutional transformation; and examining retention as heteronormative domination. Queer failure and futurity are offered as possible new frames for retention. This essay seeks to raise questions, tensions, and complexities with no clear or simple solutions. Tentative and limited implications for practice and research are offered; however, they raise more questions than provide answers.
  • Article
    An overview on the efforts done to narrow the gap between composition and cultural studies was presented. Much of the tension in composition studies involve the counts as knowledge within the discipline. The wholesale importing of theoretical work from other disciplines generated audible discontent among some in the field.
  • Gang related violence in Los Angeles County has increased, with homicides increasing from 205 in 1982 to 803 in 1992. This study examines the medical and financial consequences of such violence on a level I trauma center. Of 856 gunshot injuries over a 29-month period, 272 were gang related. There were 55 pediatric and 217 adult patients. Eighty-nine percent were male and 11% were female. Trauma Score averaged 14.7 +/- 3.1, Glasgow Coma Scale average score was 13.7 +/- 3.4, and the mean Injury Severity Score was 10.8 +/- 14. Twenty-two percent of the gunshots were to the head and neck, 20% to the chest, 20% to the abdomen, 6% had a peripheral vascular injury, and 33% sustained an extremity musculoskeletal injury. Emergency surgery was performed on 43%, including laparotomy 58 (49%), craniotomy 16 (13%), laparoscopy 14 (12%), vascular procedures 10 (8%), orthopedic procedures 6 (5%), head and neck endoscopies 4 (3%), thoracotomies 2 (2%), and 10 (8%) unspecified. There were 25 deaths (9%), primarily caused by head injuries and exsanguanating hemorrhage. Eighty-six percent entered the hospital during the hours of minimal staffing that pre-empted the use of facilities for other emergent patients. Charges totaled $4,828,828 (emergency room, surgical procedures, intensive care, and surgical ward stay) which equated to $5,550 per patient per day. Fifty-eight percent had no third party reimbursement, 22% had Medi-Cal, and 20% had medical insurance. Because of dismal reimbursement rates, the costs of gang violence are passed on to the tax payer. The cost of gang related violence cannot be derived from hospital charges only, because death, disability, and pain are not entered into the calculation. Education, increased social programs, and strict criminal justice laws and enforcement may decrease gang related violence and the drain it has on financial and medical resources.
  • Article
    Journal of Women's History 15.3 (2003) 63-76 Like many people, I first read Adrienne Rich's article, "Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence," in college. I cannot remember if it was assigned or if I stumbled across it during one of my many trips to the library to find something, anything on lesbians that was not a psychological tract on the dysfunctions of homosexuality. As it turned out Rich's essay was much more to me than a positive article about lesbianism, but rather a manifesto of lesbian existence that declared us pervasive and distinct. Still, I had no idea how profoundly Rich's words had influenced my consciousness until I was asked to write this essay. 1980 and 2003 are extremely different political and cultural moments. I say this obvious statement because this fact was ever so evident to me while re-reading "Compulsory Heterosexuality." As I read, I found myself listing all of the points where Rich relied on a myriad of assumptions that she could not today, including a lack of distinction between various genders and sexualities, claims of a uniform global lesbian sisterhood, the presence of ubiquitous and monolithic male oppressors, and the assertion of a universal lesbian experience. Her theory of a lesbian continuum reduces all intimacies between all people identified as women by the dominant culture as lesbian, thereby erasing bisexual and transgender experiences, not to mention a host of other identities, bodies, and histories. Nevertheless, I still find Rich's essay to be profoundly constructive. It was through her words that I started to question how structurally embedded heterosexism is. Rich challenged the notion that heterosexism is only an act by an individual bigot and demonstrated how it is part of a deeper, pervasive structural flaw that renders relationships between women invalid and invisible in every level of scholarship, including feminist scholarship. Her assessment of heterosexuality as an institution, like class and race, offered me a way to understand the compulsory component as creating lies and distortions maintained by every profession, cultural product, reference work, curriculum, and scholarship. This revelation made me a different kind of reader and thinker. The fact that she implicates feminist scholarship in the "closing of the archives" to lesbians made me more attentive to the misrepresentations that pervaded my most favorite and affirming works. It made me think about African American history. I read African American history as I would any other theoretical text—closely. African American history is a rich source for understanding how Black subjectivity has been theorized in the United States. The tradition of representing Black people as decent and moral historical agents has meant the erasure of the broad array of Black sexuality and gendered being in favor of a static heterosexual narrative. Far from being totally invisible, the "queer" is present in Black history as a threat to Black respectability. Black women's sexuality has been discussed as the "unspeakable thing unspoken" of Black life. However, in this essay, I show that variant sexualities and genders are the things always present in Black history by virtue of their constant disavowal. I want to get way from the notion of silence and discuss instead the ways in which Black people have written histories that exalted their manhood and heralded their femininity to protect themselves from defamation, and have proven their heterosexuality, thereby establishing themselves as decent, moral, and above all, "normal human beings." Sexual deviance is more than homosexuality. Many different sexual unions and behaviors come under this rubric, including male-female sexual intercourse before marriage and sex across racial lines. Any divergences from the social norms of marriage, domesticity, and the nuclear family have brought serious accusations of savagery, pathology, and deviance upon Black people. It is my job as an emerging scholar of African American literature and history not only to recover submerged voices but also to lay bare the conditions that create and subjugate black, female, woman-loving sexualities and transgressions of gender norms. In this way, I attempt not only to call attention to an absence but also to theorize a methodology. The process of distorting the complexities of Black women's sexuality has its roots in the...
  • Article
    Journal of Women's History 15.3 (2003) 9-10 Almost since she came to work for the Journal, managing editor Stephanie Gilmore has been lobbying for a retrospective on Adrienne Rich's classic article, "Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence." I knew from my partner, Verta Taylor, who has for many years co-edited the women's studies anthology Feminist Frontiers, that Rich had stopped giving permission to reprint her classic article. Not knowing exactly why, we bravely invited Rich to comment on the responses we were gathering, and to our delight, she not only graciously agreed to write a piece (forthcoming in the spring issue), but she also explained that she was refusing permission to reprint the original version of the article, published in Signs, because she preferred the version published in 1982 in Blood, Bread, and Poetry, since it includes a preface and postscript dealing with some of the most controversial aspects of this profoundly influential and provocative piece. Rich gave us permission to reprint that version and we are honored to do so. "Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence" has shaped our understanding of lesbian history and the history of sexuality in the most momentous ways, which is why we offer this retrospective. We decided to invite scholars working in different fields, from different generations, to comment on what the article has meant to them and to our understandings of sexuality. We are delighted with the results, and we think you will be, too. Joan Nestle, a feminist contemporary of Rich whose passionate scholarship and activism has transformed the field of the history of sexuality, offers a moving reflection on sex, war, the sex wars, and recent history. Judy Tzu-Chun Wu, who as an undergraduate first encountered Rich in person, in the classroom, reflects on the significance of the concepts of compulsory heterosexuality and lesbian existence for Asian American women's history. Mattie Richardson, who also encountered Rich as an undergraduate, although through the printed page, asks provocative questions, based on Rich's concepts, about African American women's history, suggesting that sexual and gender deviance and lesbian sexuality have been painted over in order to present a canvas of respectability. Finally, Alison Kafer, only ten years old when the article first appeared, extends Rich's concepts to the field of disability studies, raising thought-provoking challenges to scholars to think about able-bodiedness and its relationship to sexuality. These elegant essays urge us to consider not only what has changed since 1980, when Rich first shook the world of scholarship with her essay, but also the directions in which we are headed in what, from a historical perspective, is still the beginning of a new millennium.
  • Article
    Journal of Women's History 15.3 (2003) 77-89 In preparing to write this essay, I stumbled across a 1992 special issue of Feminism and Psychology devoted to the topic of "heterosexuality." The editors had collected seventeen short reflections from heterosexual feminists addressing the question "How does your heterosexuality contribute to your feminist politics (and/or your feminist psychology)?" As the editors acknowledge in their introduction, their project was inspired in part by Adrienne Rich's groundbreaking essay, "Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence." Indeed, the collection serves as an example of what Rich requested from feminist theorists and scholars; as she writes in the 1982 foreword to her article, her intent was "to encourage heterosexual feminists to examine heterosexuality as a political institution." I must confess, however, that I was not thinking about the political institution of heterosexuality while reading this special issue. As a queer feminist with disabilities, engaged in the field of disability studies, I found myself thinking about the political institution of able-bodiedness. Or, more to the point, I found myself imagining a special issue of Feminism and Psychology (or Feminist Studies, or Signs, or even the Journal of Women's History) asking nondisabled feminists to discuss how their able-bodied status contributes to their feminist politics. It is hard to imagine such a publication, and not simply because of the complexities of discerning who does and does not have a disability, or the difficulties of defining "disability," points to which I return below. It is hard to imagine because even with the dynamic growth of disability studies within U.S. universities and the persistence of the American disability rights movement, a political analysis of disability remains below the radar screen of many theorists and cultural critics. To quote and adapt Rich, it is still all too easy for "feminists to read, write, or teach from a perspective of unexamined [able-bodied]-centricity." As a result, it is difficult to find feminist theorists outside of the field of disability studies who address disability in their work, let alone theorists willing or interested in identifying themselves as nondisabled and interrogating the effects of such an identification on their work. Who, therefore, could I find to write for my special issue interrogating able-bodiedness ? Of course, I should note that the editors of the heterosexuality issue write in their introduction that they ran into similar problems in collecting submissions for their project. Their decision to send a call for papers to feminist scholars who had never identified themselves as lesbian, or written or publicly spoken as non-heterosexuals, met with several defensive and even hostile responses. Two of their recipients were, unbeknownst to the editors, out as lesbians; others were offended by the editors' presumption of heterosexuality, questioning how they could "know" them to be straight; and still others expressed discomfort with the label, explaining that the term was too narrow for their sexual identities, or was not an important enough aspect of their self-images to feel like a comfortable label. One respondent discussed the difference between choosing to call oneself something and being labeled by another as something, describing the latter as troubling and disempowering. Some of this discomfort arises in part, I think, because of the naturalization of heterosexuality. As Rich asserts in her essay, heterosexuality goes unquestioned because its alleged naturalness and normalcy place it beyond the realm of political analysis. Some of it, however, stems from the troubling aspects of identities in general, and identity politics in particular. Disability identities are no exception. Similar to the label "woman," the term "disabled" cannot easily be accepted as a self-evident phrase referring to a discrete group of particular people with certain similar essential qualities. "We" is a particularly unstable term when speaking of disability; it is very difficult to decide definitively whom the term does and does not include. Should it encompass all kinds of impairments—cognitive, psychiatric, sensory, and physical? Do people with chronic illnesses fit under the rubric of disability? Is an asymptomatic HIV+ person disabled? What about people with some forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) who experience different temporary impairments—from vision loss to mobility...
  • Article
    This essay analyzes the Kennedy Center's June 2003 solo autobiographical performance piece, Weights, by Lynn Manning, a blind African American performer and playwright. In Weights, Manning tells the story of his sudden transformation from life as a "black man" to life as a "blind man" after surviving a gunshot wound to the head. The essay argues for the continued relevance and efficacy of identity-based politics and representational practices by examining through the lens of "postpositivist realism" Manning's performance text and the audience, which included at least one hundred fifty people with disabilities.
  • Article
    In his contribution, Critical Investments: AIDS, Christopher Reeve, and Queer/Disability Studies, Robert McRuer calls for the recognition of the points of convergence between AIDS theory, queer theory, and disability theory. McRuer points out ways in which minority identity groups such as people with AIDS, gays, lesbians, and bisexuals, and those with so-called disabilities, whose status has been described by others as impaired, have resisted this judgment by calling its ideological underpinnings into question. He contends that a critical alliance between AIDS theory, queer theory, and disability theory will ultimately help us to realize the full range of different kinds of bodies and corporeal experiences, while also combating the application of normativizing judgments.