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Crip theory: Cultural signs of queerness and disability

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Crip Theory attends to the contemporary cultures of disability and queerness that are coming out all over. Both disability studies and queer theory are centrally concerned with how bodies, pleasures, and identities are represented as "normal" or as abject, but Crip Theory is the first book to analyze thoroughly the ways in which these interdisciplinary fields inform each other. Drawing on feminist theory, African American and Latino/a cultural theories, composition studies, film and television studies, and theories of globalization and counter-globalization, Robert McRuer articulates the central concerns of crip theory and considers how such a critical perspective might impact cultural and historical inquiry in the humanities. Crip Theory puts forward readings of the Sharon Kowalski story, the performance art of Bob Flanagan, and the journals of Gary Fisher, as well as critiques of the domesticated queerness and disability marketed by the Millennium March, or Bravo TV's Queer Eye for the Straight Guy. McRuer examines how dominant and marginal bodily and sexual identities are composed, and considers the vibrant ways that disability and queerness unsettle and re-write those identities in order to insist that another world is possible.

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... Produktivitet och socialt värde är en outtalad måttstock som människor i utsatthet jämförs med (Garland-Thomson 1997; Alftberg 2021). Det sociala arbetets stöd och behandling handlar då om att uppnå förväntat oberoende och att vara en god och produktiv medborgare (McRuer 2006). Här finns, med Esseds (2005) ord, en systemisk ojämlikhet. ...
... uppstod inom cultural studies i USA(McRuer 2006;Sandahl 2003) och har bidragit till att en kritisk blick har riktats mot ableistiska normer och det system som McRuer (2006) kallar obligatorisk funktionsfullkomlighet (compulsory able-bodiedness), och som i Sverige har benämnts som funktionsmaktordningen (se exempelvis Bahnér 2016; Palmqvist 2020). I ett sådant perspektiv är normbrytande funktionalitet en position från vilken vi kan betrakta världen och ifrågasätta hur ideal om funktionsfullkomlighet skapas och normaliseras(McRuer 2006). ...
... uppstod inom cultural studies i USA(McRuer 2006;Sandahl 2003) och har bidragit till att en kritisk blick har riktats mot ableistiska normer och det system som McRuer (2006) kallar obligatorisk funktionsfullkomlighet (compulsory able-bodiedness), och som i Sverige har benämnts som funktionsmaktordningen (se exempelvis Bahnér 2016; Palmqvist 2020). I ett sådant perspektiv är normbrytande funktionalitet en position från vilken vi kan betrakta världen och ifrågasätta hur ideal om funktionsfullkomlighet skapas och normaliseras(McRuer 2006). ...
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”Make room!” Concerning ableism, paternalism and the construction of dis/ability Within the social work profession, social vulnerability and social justice are central concerns. However, professional emphasis is on economic and social conditions and less on dis/ability, despite the fact that dis/ability is important, not only for services aimed specifically at people with dis/abilities, but the entire profession of social work is linked to dis/ability in various ways. The purpose of the article is to contribute to a deepened understanding of vulnerability in general and, in particular, the vulnerability of people with dis/abilities. An advertisement from the Swedish Public Employment Service’s campaign “Make room!” forms a point of departure for a theoretical discussion of how dis/ability is constructed. The article demonstrates how the advertisement is based on paternalistic and ableistic ways of thinking that connect dis/ability, gender, and race/ethnicity. Able-bodied perfection is regarded as desirable, while the deviant body is linked to deficiency and suffering. The article also deals with the critical discussion that followed the advertisement, which eventually led to the Swedish Public Employment Service withdrawing it. Finally, we argue in favour of a cripistemological perspective in social work. This means taking previously marginalized knowledge as a starting point and reformulate traditional perspectives. It also means seeking cross-border cooperation between social work and the disability rights movement as well as other social movements. Thus, the lived experience of vulnerability that can result from impairment and its effects, as well as the political vulnerability that arises due to lack of resources, are made visible, without vulnerability being interpreted from paternalistic and ableistic perspectives. Moreover, ideas of the normal body and the normal way of thinking and feeling can be
... If sport participates in the reproduction of social inequalities, it can also initiate processes of resistance (Burke 2015;Donnelly 1995). The authors of the crip theory (McRuer 2006;Sandahl 2003) proposed interesting avenues for reflection on these deconstruction mechanisms. The crip theory has its roots in gender studies, disability studies, and queer studies. ...
... The crip theory has its roots in gender studies, disability studies, and queer studies. The crip approach (McRuer 2006) consists of an intersectional understanding to the production of identities, a reflection on their plural and fluid character and their political significance. Crip theory aims to question 'the order of things, considering how and why it is constructed and naturalized; how it is embedded in complex economic, social, and cultural relations; how it might be changed' (McRuer 2006, 2). ...
... These spaces, where the competitive logic is absent (or sometimes mocked), challenge more directly the social hierarchies that sometimes seem to be naturalized in mainstream sport. Promoting the diversity of sport and physical activity practices of disabled people and encouraging the visibility of counter-hegemonic postures that emerge from the margins of sport will help tackle (dis)ableism and heteronormativity (McRuer 2006) and contribute to a more inclusive, inspiring and empowering environment. ...
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The objective of this article is to propose an intersectional approach to gender and disability in sport. Starting from the postulate that the production of gender and disability-related norms is based on similar social logics, we will first show how these normative systems intersect in the field of sport and participate in the construction of heteronormative and ableist patterns. Then, we will rely on crip theory to understand to what extent it is possible to consider sport and physical activity as opportunities to question these normative systems. In this way, we will defend the idea that sport and physical activity can support alternative experiences and visibility for disabled people and thus promote diversity.
... To that end, I interweave recent intersectional analyses of disability and spatial theory, alongside feminist scholarship, in an effort to construct a theoretical web that can more substantively sustain the complex demands for understanding the work of teachers to enact a disability studies-informed inclusive education (Kafer, 2013;McRuer, 2006;Mohanty, 2003;Puar, 2017Puar, , 2009Soja, 1996). I argue that these different frames can collectively sustain an understanding of inclusion that may be more responsive to the material-discursive conditions in which teachers find themselves called to enact socially just practices. ...
... "Cripping" inclusion: The affordances of crip theory, feminisms and spatial theory Deploying insights from "crip" theory, and "queer" theory, Kafer (2013) and McRuer (2006) take up a "contestatory" approach that allows them to eschew a "fixed" definition of disability in favor of "positioning disability as a set of practices and associations that can be critiqued, contested and transformed" (Kafer, 2015, p. 9). They explore how "compulsory ablebodiedness/ablemindedness along with compulsory heterosexuality intertwine in the service of normativity" (Kafer, 2013, 17). ...
... The "material turn" (McRuer, 2006;Erevelles, 2011) within recent disability theorizing additionally suggests generative linkages with spatial theory. and the writings of scholars associated with US Third World feminism (Sandoval, 2000). ...
... Considerations of the political economy of gender, sexuality, and disability in the context of a neoliberal global economic system by queer theorists has resulted in the development of Crip theory (Bennett, 2007;McRuer, 2006). Crip theorists offer robust critiques of normative expectations of gender expression, sexuality, and bodily form and function (McRuer, 2006;Sandahl, 2003). ...
... Considerations of the political economy of gender, sexuality, and disability in the context of a neoliberal global economic system by queer theorists has resulted in the development of Crip theory (Bennett, 2007;McRuer, 2006). Crip theorists offer robust critiques of normative expectations of gender expression, sexuality, and bodily form and function (McRuer, 2006;Sandahl, 2003). Crip theory has been particularly influential in offering a critique of normative notions of time in relation to disability (Kafer, 2013b). ...
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Número temático 64 - Antropologia e Deficiência, ano 28
... Considerations of the political economy of gender, sexuality, and disability in the context of a neoliberal global economic system by queer theorists has resulted in the development of Crip theory (Bennett, 2007;McRuer, 2006). Crip theorists offer robust critiques of normative expectations of gender expression, sexuality, and bodily form and function (McRuer, 2006;Sandahl, 2003). ...
... Considerations of the political economy of gender, sexuality, and disability in the context of a neoliberal global economic system by queer theorists has resulted in the development of Crip theory (Bennett, 2007;McRuer, 2006). Crip theorists offer robust critiques of normative expectations of gender expression, sexuality, and bodily form and function (McRuer, 2006;Sandahl, 2003). Crip theory has been particularly influential in offering a critique of normative notions of time in relation to disability (Kafer, 2013b). ...
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Infection with the Zika virus during pregnancy can cause disability, yet disability remains under theorised in studies on Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS). Existing studies are largely exploratory and descriptive in nature, and thus a deeper analysis is needed. Where theory has been applied, there is limited engagement with Latin American theoretical perspectives. The social construction of disability, and of caregiver identity in particular warrant further analysis. Understanding that disability is constructed through an ‘ideology of normality’ can help make sense of parents’ reactions to a diagnosis of CZS. Caregivers resistance to biomedical narratives about disability is apparent in the case of CZS and deserves further attention. Consideration has been given to the ways that social location and shared temporality in relationships of care shape caregiver identity. Here I read these together to reach a fuller understanding of how caregivers and the people they care for develop a shared embodiment. An analysis bringing together Latin American Critical Disability Studies with other critical theoretical perspectives can advance theorisations of disability and the experiences of caregivers in their social, political, economic and historical contexts.
... La información fue registrada a través de grabaciones, fotografías, videos de los recorridos y el diario de campo. Se utilizaron los recursos teóricos y metodológicos del Nuevo paradigma de las movilidades y la Teoría Crip o tullida, que aporta la visualización del capacitismo en las diferentes situaciones de la vida social (Moscoso Pérez & Arnau Ripollés, 2016;McRuer, 2006) que enriqueceremos con el abordaje de las desigualdades propuesto por Reygadas (2008), el cual puntuaremos más adelante. La perspectiva de la investigación recupera el paradigma del giro de la movilidad (Sheller & Urry, 2006) con el cual es posible pensar la ciudad de forma interconectada e investigarla con métodos móviles y enfoques en movimiento. ...
... que permitió comprender cómo se presenta y las consecuencias del capacitismo en el urbanismo y en nuestras ciudades, generando formas de valoración y disgregación que han sido desconocidas y poco discutidas. El capacitismo como sistema de dominación social se basa en valorar a los seres humanos y jerarquizarlos en función de sus capacidades o de cuánto se acercan a un cuerpo íntegramente sano o completo(McRuer, 2006;Moscoso Pérez & Arnau Ripollés, 2016). ...
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En las ciudades de América Latina las desigualdades urbanas se sostienen por el sistema económico, el Estado y la sociedad civil. Si comprendemos el urbanismo como el diseño, la construcción, el uso y la gestión del espacio urbano, es posible analizar cómo se centra la atención en las necesidades de unos cuerpos y movilidades en específico y no de toda la población que las utiliza o necesita emplearlas al habitar la ciudad; se expresa, entonces, el urbanismo capacitista. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar algunos hilos de un tejido para analizar las redes de desigualdades urbanas elaborado desde el acercamiento a las movilidades de las personas con discapacidad con el interés de conocer cómo se corporeizan dichos fenómenos sociales. El artículo presenta, a través de la exploración corporal, la experiencia de las personas con discapacidad en ciudades que arrinconan en Costa Rica.
... Es reseñable, además, el proceso por el que los «estudios sobre la discapacidad» («disability studies») entraron en contacto con las teorías feministas y de género, propiciando las sinergias que dieron lugar a los «estudios feministas sobre la discapacidad» («feminist disability studies»). Estos estudios incorporaron nuevas miradas epistemológicas que promovieron la igualdad y el cambio de paradigma, situando también a las mujeres con diversidad funcional y sus narrativas como participantes activas en la producción de conocimiento (Haraway, 1988;Lloyd, 1992;Morris, 1993;Butler, 1993;Garland-Thompson, 2005;McRuer, 2006). ...
... El concepto de «performatividad de género» de Judith Butler (2007), señala estas cuestiones y plantea que los ideales de masculinidad y feminidad generan contradicción e incoherencia cuando se tratan de alcanzar y reproducir. McRuer (2006) se apoya en las ideas de Butler (2007) para desarrollar el planteamiento de «compulsory able-bodiedness» o «capacidad corporal obligatoria» como causa y efecto de las formas tradicionales de género (masculinidad y feminidad) y sexualidad hegemónica (heterosexualidad). Por otro lado, coincide con Butler (2007) en que, al igual que los géneros y las sexualidades no normativas son subyugadas por el sistema de heterosexualidad obligatoria, los cuerpos y las mentes no normativas son oprimidos por el sistema «compulsory able-bodiedness». ...
Article
Este artículo presenta el proyecto Sui Géneris. Arte, publicidad y estereotipos, diseñado y llevado a cabo desde octubre de 2019 por el Área de Educación del Museo Nacional del Prado, en el marco del programa El Prado para todos. Se trata de una actividad dirigida a colectivos de personas con diversidad funcional intelectual y psíquica, que persigue el objetivo de crear conciencia y visibilizar -a través de algunas obras de la colección permanente- el modo en el que el arte crea y difunde determinados estereotipos de género que perpetúan situaciones de opresión y violencia. El diálogo entre las obras del Museo y algunas campañas publicitarias actuales propicia la reflexión en el seno de los grupos participantes, al evidenciarse que en pleno siglo XXI se mantienen intactas las estructuras de pensamiento y condicionamiento de género preponderantes en siglos pasados. Con esta propuesta, el Museo del Prado pretende colaborar en el abordaje integral de una problemática que afecta a toda la sociedad, apoyando la construcción de identidades de género más flexibles, ricas y diversas.
... Crip time is an important practice and concept that addresses the ultimate question of what makes life livable, affordable, and survivable. As a subtle form of activism, living with crip time challenges normative thinking associated with a market-driven society (McRuer, 2006). Crip time resists "neoliberal capitalism to be the dominant economic and cultural system" (McRuer, 2006, p. 2). ...
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This article introduces the work of five young disabled artists, creative workers, and scholars of color, who the authors invited to be on a panel titled Decentering Colonialism and Ableism in Artistic Practices at the 3rd International Conference on Disability Studies, Arts, and Education. In this article, we focus on three intersecting and interconnected themes that were discussed during the panel: crip time/wisdom, colonialism, and care. The artists work against colonial knowledge through lived experiences and desires that resist ableist, white, and normative structures. The power of artmaking materializes ideas through their bodies, writings, performances, and images through multiple media and technologies that elucidate the disabled bodymind conditions. The authors acknowledge how differently the pandemic allowed care to be offered for disabled, queer, Black, Indigenous, and people of color (BIPOC), particularly considering how black and brown people often provide the networks of care. We argue that the intersecting themes of crip time, colonialism, and care are significant for human ethical values and social justice.
... Nesse sentido, os participantes destacam a falta de preparo dos profissionais de saúde para trabalharem fora dos padrões normatizadores dos corpos, a partir dos quais uns corpos valem mais do que outros. Mcruer (2006) propõe o conceito de corponormatividade, problematizando como a noção de deficiência não só produz corpos "deficientes" (disabled bodies), mas também de corpos 'não deficientes' (abled bodies), permitindo questionar o caráter histórico e natural de corpos 'normais' que se produzem em oposição constitutiva a corpos 'desviantes'. Esse conceito-ferramenta parece útil para pensar como são produzidas as narratividades que dão sentido não apenas aos corpos com deficiência, mas a todos os demais que não se enquadrem nos padrões de dominação de classe, raça e gênero que atendem ao modelo capitalista. ...
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Resumo Este artigo analisa a oferta de um componente curricular na graduação de medicina da Universidade Federal da Paraíba. O módulo em questão foi ofertado como componente optativo, para estudantes do quarto período do curso, durante o ensino remoto emergencial imposto pela covid-19, em 2020. Seu objetivo era problematizar, por meio de rodas de conversa virtuais e outras estratégias pedagógicas participativas, os processos de vulnerabilidade e a produção do cuidado em saúde de diferentes grupos sociais. Para isso, foi utilizada uma triangulação de métodos (quanti-qualitativa) por meio da aplicação de um questionário eletrônico e entrevistas em profundidade com os discentes do módulo. Os dados do questionário passaram por uma análise descritiva, enquanto as entrevistas passaram por uma análise temática através do software IRAMUTEQ. A análise dos dados permitiu perceber os efeitos do módulo como uma forma contra-hegemônica ao modelo de formação biomédica, proporcionando um (re)posicionamento dos estudantes no âmbito acadêmico, social e médico. Percebe-se que a formação médica ainda é pautada em sistemas de opressão como o racismo, a corponormatividade e o patriarcado, porém o módulo permitiu a transgressão desse modelo biomédico ao proporcionar um processo formativo que abrange os cuidados às populações em situação de vulnerabilidade.
... Sin embargo, prevalecen diversos retos para garantizar el ejercicio pleno de la sexualidad, libre de violencia, en la población con discapacidad. Entre estos, se encuentra la (des)instauración del pensamiento heterosexual como norma que constriñe los vínculos erótico-sexuales y afectivos, y que al mismo tiempo limita la producción de conocimiento sobre las experiencias de personas LGBT -Lesbianas, Gais, Bisexuales y Trans-que viven con alguna discapacidad (Platero, 2013;McRuer, 2006). ...
Article
Este artículo de corte cualitativo y de diseño biográfico-narrativo tuvo por objetivo comprender cómo operan los ejercicios de violencia contra hombres gais con discapacidad. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a siete hombres gais con diferentes discapacidades —motrices, visuales y auditivas— pertenecientes a México, de un rango de edad de entre 19 y 57 años. Mediante un análisis de contenido y desde una perspectiva interseccional, en las narrativas compartidas se dio cuenta de las violencias a las que se enfrentaron los participantes. Estas iban desde lo institucional y relacional; también observamos cómo las violencias configuran formas particulares de pensar, sentir y relacionarse con las/los otras/os, y que dan paso a formas específicas de materialidad corporal y subjetiva a partir de las cuales significan esas experiencias. Concluimos que es necesario abordar la violencia desde la interseccionalidad, donde se posibilite recuperar la producción emocional y su impronta en el devenir de agencia que, en lugar de cristalizar las identidades, las comprende en un entramado de la complejidad en constante tensión y dinamismo.
... Sin embargo, prevalecen diversos retos para garantizar el ejercicio pleno de la sexualidad, libre de violencia, en la población con discapacidad. Entre estos, se encuentra la (des)instauración del pensamiento heterosexual como norma que constriñe los vínculos erótico-sexuales y afectivos, y que al mismo tiempo limita la producción de conocimiento sobre las experiencias de personas LGBT -Lesbianas, Gais, Bisexuales y Trans-que viven con alguna discapacidad (Platero, 2013;McRuer, 2006). ...
Article
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Las articulaciones interseccionales de la violencia en experiencias de hombres gais con discapacidad en México The intersectional articulations of violence in the experiences of gay men with disabilities in Mexico Resumen Este artículo de corte cualitativo y de diseño biográfico-narrativo tuvo por objetivo comprender cómo operan los ejercicios de violencia contra hombres gais con discapacidad. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a siete hombres gais con diferentes discapacidades-motrices, visuales y auditivas-pertenecientes a México, de un rango de edad de entre 19 y 57 años. Mediante un análisis de contenido y desde una perspectiva interseccional, en las narrativas compartidas se dio cuenta de las violencias a las que se enfrentaron los participantes. Estas iban desde lo institucional y relacional; también observamos cómo las violencias configuran formas particulares de pensar, sentir y relacionarse con las/los otras/os, y que dan paso a formas específicas de materialidad corporal y subjetiva a partir de las cuales signifcan esas experiencias. Concluimos que es necesario abordar la violencia desde la interseccionalidad, donde se posibilite recuperar la producción emocional y su impronta en el devenir de agencia que, en lugar de cristalizar las identidades, las comprende en un entramado de la complejidad en constante tensión y dinamismo. Palabras clave Interseccionalidad, violencia, gay, discapacidad. Abstract This qualitative article with a biographical-narrative design aimed to understand how violence exercises against homosexual men with disabilities operate. Semistructured interviews were conducted with seven Mexican homosexual men with different disabilities-motor, visual and hearing-ranging in age from 19 to 57 years. Through a content analysis and from an intersectional perspective, in the shared narratives the violence that the participants faced was analyzed. This violence ranged from the institutional to the relational. We also observed how violence shapes particular ways of thinking, feeling, and relating to others that give way to specifc forms of bodily and subjective materiality used to account for these experiences. We concluded it is necessary to approach violence from intersectionality in order to recover emotional production and its imprint in the individual's agency in a way that, instead of crystallizing identities, comprises them in a framework of complexity in constant tension and dynamism.
... Así se utiliza en el contexto anglosajón: Sandahl (2003) explica que, al igual que queer busca criticar y desestabilizar las identidades a las que remiten las siglas LGTBI, crip pretende ser un paraguas amplio que abarque todas aquellas identidades estigmatizadas por tener cuerpos, mentes, comportamientos que funcionan de manera no normativa. McRuer (2006) amplía el debate y, siguiendo la analogía con lo queer, sugiere que crip podría no limitarse a la designación de aquellas personas a las que la biomedicina diagnostica como «discapacitadas», sino que podría ser reivindicado políticamente también desde personas asumidas como «capacitadas». ...
Article
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La diversidad funcional ha sido tradicionalmente nombrada de forma estigmatizadora: discapacidad, minusvalía, invalidez, etc. El activismo de vida independiente español batalla contra esas heterodesignaciones, apostando por formas de auto-enunciación en positivo, incluso desde la reapropiación del insulto. Este artículo busca analizar este proceso a raíz del surgimiento y difusión del término tullido en un momento particular de confluencia entre activismos: las alianzas queer-crip o tullido-transfeministas. Para ello, se parte de los resultados de una investigación etnográfica, a caballo entre la academia y el activismo, que permite, por un lado, trazar una genealogía de lo tullido, y de su traducción como crip, en el contexto español; y, por otro lado, reflexionar, gracias a las entrevistas realizadas con activistas de la diversidad funcional, transfeministas y queer, sobre los diferentes posicionamientos en torno a la utilización, y posible politización, de estas injurias. Las conclusiones apuntan a las tensiones existentes en torno a la representación y la enunciación de/desde lo tullido y con relación a las lógicas coloniales subyacentes a la reivindicación de lo crip. No obstante, también se identifica el potencial político del término tullido que resulta subversivo cuando es reivindicado por los sujetos concernidos. Llamarse tullido conlleva no solo evidenciarse como diferente, sino como deficitario según los estándares vigentes de normalidad y deseabilidad y, por tanto, reírse de sus lógicas capacitistas y denunciar la biopolítica que los gobierna.
... Regardless of the abundant definitions, it is safe to assume that people experience perception differently. Artistic-research urges its practitioners to embrace non-neurotypical modalities of perception, not only as an audience that needs representation but as concept-creators of the Crip ontologies (McRuer, 2006). The urgent need to develop concepts and artistic processes from the point of view of neurodiversity is not an issue of identity politics but a reaction to a scenario that favours the typical autism essays that aim "to situate a bunch of neurotypical readers" (Yergeau, 2009). ...
... Denaturalizing eco-ableist assumptions facilitates understanding what makes "disability" a salient category at any particular cultural moment (Garland-Thomson, 2011;Kafer, 2013;Ray & Sibara, 2017), the misfit and normate template of built environments (Garland-Thomson, 2002Hamraie, 2017), norm technologies of access and design (Costanza-Chock, 2020;Hamraie, 2017), marks the individualization of condition "management" (Bennett, 2019;Cram, 2021) and map the constitutive intersections of environment, race, gender, sexuality, and disability (Clare, 2017a;Erevelles & Minear, 2010;McRuer, 2006;Schalk, 2018). ...
Article
The field of environmental communication has yet to integrate disability or ableism as a primary area of research or intersectional investment. The ableist silences and disability slights are notable, however. This review essay provides a working definition of eco-ableism, including a summary of disability imagined through medical and social models. Then, the authors reflect on the role of voice as a method. Next, the essay synthesizes existing interdisciplinary literature to establish three broad trajectories of environmental communication research: (1) ecoableism in wilderness and outdoor recreation; (2) eco-normativities in public health discourses; and (3) climate justice futurism as public advocacy. While not exhaustive, the authors hope this review essay will help prompt the overdue cripping of environmental communication.
... The resultant lack of communication could be rooted in two different forms of prejudice. While the first form appears to be related to the notion of a taboo and the belief that sexuality cannot concern people who are close to death (Malta & Wallach, 2020), the second is suggestive of an ableism bias, which denies the status of sexual being to people whose bodies are "non-able" (McRuer, 2006). Notably, both support a process of desexualization that denies the status of sexual being to older adults at the end of life-without offering the ill person the opportunity to affirm or disaffirm this belief. ...
Article
Background and objectives: The sexuality of older people, which has historically been invisible, is increasingly represented and promoted in the media. However, the sexuality of the oldest older adults showing signs of frailty remains obscure and subject to ageist and ableist biases. Studies on sexual expression at the end-of-life have shown that sexuality and the need for support related to it remain important for many people. Research design and methods: This article examines the perceptions and attitudes of professionals regarding the sexuality of older adults in palliative care, based on an exploratory qualitative study. Participants were recruited from several palliative care teams working either in hospital or in home settings, in Canada. Results: Professionals (n=16) held two main views of sexuality: broad and holistic or narrow and genital-focused. Perceptions of sexuality in later life were either described as a continuation of or distinct from middle adulthood. No matter what views were held, most professionals did not discuss sexuality with their patients at end-of-life. Discussion and implications: The lack of communication about sexuality may be largely due to professional's ageist, ableist and heterosexist views regarding the sexuality of this population group. Results confirm the relevance of providing palliative care training about diverse sexual experiences and the importance of supporting older adults at the end of life with respect to their intimate and sexual needs. Such an approach is in line with the holistic vocation of palliative care.
... Disability prejudice is a pervasive social reality; there is an unspoken expectation of "compulsory ablebodiedness," in that individuals who do not fit social definitions of normalcy, physical ability, health are expected to do their best to achieve the closest approximation of normalcy (McRuer, 2006). The process of socialization that individuals who do not fit into these social definitions of normalcy undergo, particularly in a society that devalues disability, colors their own sense of self owing to the constant awareness and evident reminders of their perceived marginal position in the society (Watermeyer & Swartz, 2008). ...
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This study aimed to identify the most common thinking styles of deaf/hard-of-hearing (DHH) and hearing adolescent students, and to examine the extent to which thinking styles predict self-efficacy. It also explored gender-based differences in the thinking styles and self-efficacy of DHH students. Data were collected from 145 DHH and 160 hearing adolescent students in Saudi Arabia (Mage = 17.8 years; SDage = 3.57 years) using the Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised II (TSI-R2) and Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Children (SEQ-C). Findings revealed that the executive, local, conservative, and chaotic thinking styles were more prevalent among DHH students, while the legislative, universal, liberal, and critical thinking styles were more prevalent among hearing students. Those with Type I thinking styles had higher levels of self-efficacy, while those with Type II thinking styles had lower levels of self-efficacy. There were gender-based differences in the self-efficacy of DHH and hearing students, with higher scores observed among females. Further, for DHH students, the Legislative, Liberal, and Internal thinking styles were more prevalent among males rather than females, while the Executive, Hierarchical, Conservative, External, Judicial, and Local thinking styles were more prevalent among females rather than males. For hearing students, males were more likely to exhibit the Liberal, External, and Oligarchic styles, while females were more likely to exhibit the Global, Executive, Conservative, Local, and Hierarchical styles. Together, these findings suggest the need to train DHH students to use positive thinking styles by implementing courses in their school curricula that enable them to reflect on their self-efficacy.
... The global transformations in disability over the past four decadessince at least the 1981 International Year of Disabled Persons-have seen many societies reorient their approach to disability, influenced by emancipatory and critical accounts of disability (Davis, 2002;Mitchell & Snyder, 2015;Stein & Langford, 2019). Accordingly, drawing from disability studies and human rights, we pivot away from "deficit" accounts to see disability as a desirable state and to use disability as the means to reorientate how society can think about exclusions and inclusions (Davis, 2002;McRuer, 2006;Mitchell & Snyder, 2015). As Goggin and Newell (2006) note, a commonly held stereotype is that emerging technology is a salvation and benefit to disabled people, which also forecloses other means of reorganizing society. ...
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A large influx of refugees in several European countries has created challenges at all levels of society, starting with the actors in charge of their integration. During this crisis, social media platforms seem to have played a major role in the refugees’ journey and inclusion in their host countries. Based on in-depth interviews with 28 Syrian refugees who settled in Belgium after 2015, this chapter looks at the ways they use social media in the hope of integrating in the host country and overcoming cultural challenges. Social media use has helped them alleviate their social isolation, access information in their native language, and find out about the rights and responsibilities of citizenship in their new country.
... The global transformations in disability over the past four decades -since at least the 1981 International Year of Disabled Persons -have seen many societies reorient their approach to disability, influenced by emancipatory and critical accounts of disability (Davis, 2002;Mitchell & Snyder, 2015;Stein & Langford, 2019). Accordingly, drawing from disability studies and human rights, we pivot away from "deficit" accounts to see disability as a desirable state and to use disability as the means to reorientate how society can think about exclusions and inclusions (Davis, 2002;McRuer, 2006;Mitchell & Snyder, 2015). As Goggin and Newell (2006) note, a commonly held stereotype is that emerging technology is a salvation and benefit to disabled people, which also forecloses other means of reorganising society. ...
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This chapter makes a two-fold argument concerning disability and digital inclusion. Firstly, it builds upon and extends existing research and conceptualizations of disability and digital inclusion, now recognized as an area that merits sustained attention by policymakers and practitioners. Secondly, it suggests that disability in its diversity and intersectionality offers many insights, as well as practical, design, conceptual and policy ideas, for rethinking digital inclusion to meet the new challenges of emerging technologies and their social coordinates. We call this approach “smart equality” and outline the ways in which disability helps us develop this concept. Our chapter is based on a study of disability and digital inclusion in Singapore, a country that prides itself on being a leader in social experiments in technology. We mobilize “smart equality” to think about how disability can be used to think through the implementation of digital inclusion in the case of Singapore and elsewhere.
... derived from the word cripple as a emancipatory and reclaiming action of individuals that identify as belonging to the disability community. For the queer community to adopt the word crip nomenclature is to be done in a provocative and boundary pushing way (Mcruer, 2006;Williams, 2017). As McRuer & Berube (2006) point out, disability and queer theory are centrally concerned with the way bodies are policed and expected to function through both a lens of ablebodieness and performativity. ...
... Although the existing models have much to say about disabilities after they are created, they have said little about why and how disabilities are created or the material conditions and historical processes surrounding their creation. In other words, DS is mostly interested in celebrating disability, embracing difference (Kafer, 2013;Kuppers, 2009;McRuer, 2006), and imagining radical possibilities, including intersubjectivity and interdependence (Fritsch, 2010;Shildrick, 2009) as necessary pillars for a just world, particularly in the global north. This approach is capable of radical possibilities. ...
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In this chapter, we engage with different forms of atrocities committed against imprisoned dissidents in post-revolutionary Iran. This is just a sample of state violence at large against its own people, from whom it seeks legitimacy and validation. This time, legitimacy is sort by a theocratic state. Through a case study, we demonstrate how madness can be both a product of and a response to state violence, namely, imprisonment and torture. Kazemi interviewed more than 30 former political prisoners who survived torture and imprisonment in the 1980s in Iran, and, now, live in exile, as part of the Iranian diaspora. Their testimonies demonstrate how human resilience can overcome the harshest of circumstances, sustain psychological harm, witness the madness and death of friends, and yet manage to carry it all to a harbor. By a harbor, we mean their own memoirs, silence, suicide, drawings, and even witnessing via “madness.” We investigate the processes and social relations involved in how some prisoners went “mad” and some remained “sane.” Using the Transnational Disability Model (Kazemi, Critical Disability Discourse Journal, 31–63: 2017), we defetishize their disability by demonstrating how madness and sanity can be deliberately created (i.e., socially organized and imposed) from within extremely brutal institutions. Also, we ponder the ways in which madness could be the bodymind’s “response” (Sakhi, Ethics and the resistant subject Levinas, Foucault, Marx. York University. Toronto: 2014) to power/violence or a “survival strategy” in the context of asymmetrical power relations (e.g., patriarchy, theocracy). As racialized activists-scholars from the global south, we strive in this chapter to re-articulate disabled-dissident subject’s “response-abilities” in the form of “madness.”
... It's not so much that I think they're comparable, but more than rubbing them together is generative and allows for certain kinds of solidarity work. I'm drawing from critical disability scholars here (e.g., Kafer, 2013;McRuer, 2006;Schalk, 2013), who have considered how different marginalized groups can prioritize overlapping political concerns to enable certain kinds of collective action. Or, what Schalk (2013) calls "identification-with." Viv: I know that you and Sarah Truman took Meeting the Universe Halfway with you on your very long songwriting walk (Truman & Shannon, 2018). ...
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In this article, the author considers his ongoing experience as a PhD student to argue for the significance of “trajectory” toward doctoral and early career research. He suggests that his background in special education shapes his methodology (critical disability studies), his research-creation praxis, and his approach to theory. He exemplifies this through two research-creation projects: Neuroqueer(ing) Noise, which was an in-school project in an early childhood classroom, and Oblique Curiosities, which is an ongoing composition project. The author then offers four propositions for doctoral students interested in drawing from “post philosophies.” This article is of relevance to postgraduate students interested in post philosophies, research-creation, or arts-based early childhood educational research.
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Nina Hartley is a legendary pornography star. She has performed in hundreds of videos and DVDs, starting with Educating Nina (Anderson) in 1984, and continuing more than three decades later. Hartley has been described as a “trailblazer,” an “outspoken feminist, sex educator and advocate for sexual freedom” (Comella, Nina Hartley’s adult film career has been long, distinguished and trailblazing—And it’s far from over. “The website for Las Vegas Weekly”, 2010). Hartley created the Nina Hartley Fan Club a year after her first video. Fans of pornography, like other pop-culture fans, sometimes correspond with a celebrity, and write letters of adoration or confession. Fans recognized and appreciated Hartley’s discernible enthusiasm for pornography: recognition as not ‘faking’ her performances. This enthusiasm, coupled with her sexual freedom activism, positioned her as an understanding, respectful, and perhaps entertained recipient of their sexual fantasies. Personal letters like these might be regarded as “the intimacy of heart and mind speaking to heart and mind across distance” (Kenyon, 800 years of women’s letters. Gloucester, UK: A. Sutton, 1992, p. viii). The majority of Hartley’s oeuvre is located in the mainstream, non-S/m, heterosexual, pornography genre. Yet the Hartley fan archive contains numerous fan letters from heterosexual-identified male authors, some claiming to not having engaged in S/m practices, describing their desire to be sexually dominated or humiliated. These lubricious kink fantasies are detailed, explicit descriptions of the male writer’s sexual submission to Hartley, or both Hartley and a man, that include scenarios of bondage, coprophilia, urophagia, anal sex, pegging, and fellatio. This chapter examines excerpts from Hartley’s fan mail archive to address the intersection of sexual freedom, the proliferation of pornography.
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This article reports on empirical findings from a Canadian study examining the experiences of carers who support a trans or non-binary person with dementia. Using a trans-affirmative, critical disability, anti-ageist, and intersectional approach, these findings fill an important gap in the literature. The narrative interviews with four participants reveal that there are unique features to caring for a trans or non-binary person with dementia, namely, becoming a carer due to marginalized status, performing care tasks linked to gender identity and expression, and managing multiple and specific forms of discrimination. Three of the four carers were themselves trans or non-binary, pointing to pathways into care that are linked to a shared marginalized identity. In addition to the traditional tasks of dementia care, the participants engaged in gender-related tasks such as gendered body care, sustaining the gendered self, and advocacy and future planning linked to gender identity and expression. The carers also had to manage numerous forms of cisgenderist, ageist, and cogniticist discrimination and violence directed at both the trans or non-binary person with dementia and themselves. This discrimination dramatically reduced care options, placing more responsibility on the shoulders of carers. The article ends with practical recommendations.
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This paper describes the stakes of ongoing conversations in areas of queer theory and black studies on the epistemological, ethical, and political role of unintelligibility. In line with longstanding philosophical questions about the value of aporia as gap or absence in or understanding, thinkers like Lee Edelman and Frank Wilderson III have articulated how black and queer people have regularly fallen into spaces of unintelligibility as they have run against given formations of the social world. These thinkers have theorized what this unintelligibility – what they will call this queerness or blackness – is other than an impetus for integration. The paper describes the dichotomy between two key positions in this conversation, resistance and refusal, suggesting these positions offer challenges better addressed through a conception of estrangement.
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In this chapter, I will start by providing a brief account of the main contributions to chronic illness, with a particular focus on the studies that explored LGBTQ+ experiences. I will then introduce crip theory as a crucial theoretical standpoint to critically explore the political meanings attached to disability, illness, and health. Finally, I will focus on time and chrononormativity as key elements of analysis for the intersections of LGBTQ+ trajectories and chronic illness. Through the contributions on chronic illness, crip studies, and time, I aim at composing a theoretical tool set that can guide the discussion of the following chapters.
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La teoría crip supone una confrontación a los fundamentos ideológicos tras los que subyace la exclusión en los entornos físicos de las personas con discapacidad. El objetivo de este trabajo es evidenciar la normalización del cuerpo, desde los supuestos de la teoría crip, como causa principal de la falta de accesibilidad en los entornos urbano-arquitectónicos. Metodológicamente se parte de la idea de la diversidad funcional para aproximarse a los preceptos de la teoría crip, para posteriormente analizar su repercusión en los planteamientos espaciales en la arquitectura y la ciudad a través de instrumentos de investigación de campo. Los resultados dan cuenta de una necesaria redención del espacio urbano arquitectónico, en que la accesibilidad sea una condición obligada.
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The lived realities of minority groups are getting increasingly dire owing to crisis situations such as climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic. Persons with physical disabilities and queer persons, who are already vulnerable and face discrimination on their grounds of their immutable identities are subject to increasing hardship at the hands of the public owing to how the assumptions made of them and the meanings associated with them. This study recognizes the double jeopardy that queer persons with disabilities face, particularly queer men with physical disabilities. This study also recognises that cinematic representations are path through public imagination and perceptions of the minorities are curated. As such cinematic representations of queer men with physical disabilities can be reconfigured to guide the public imagination towards the inclusivity of queer persons with disabilities. However, cinematic representations of queer men with physical disabilities are almost non-existent. It appears that queer men with disabilities simply do not exist in film, and as such they do not exist in public imagination and are not catered for law and policy. This translates to increased vulnerability. The erasure of queer men with physical disabilities from and public imagination translates to a ‘crisis of imagination’. This crisis of imagination of a result of displacement and erasure is borrowed from Ndopu’s description of the consequence of erasing 90% of children with disability from the world’s classrooms through the unjust sustenance of ableist structures. In the field of cinematic representation, this study addresses the erasure of queer men with physical disabilities through the conceptualization of international best practices through transdisciplinary, decolonial, crip, queer and critical disability theoretical groundings. Queer and disabled representations are outside ableist and heterosexual imaginations. As such this study, through a social justice and human rights lens, reads against grain of hegemonic cinematic representations in order a chart a more social justice compliance addressing of the crisis of imagination that erases queer men disabilities.
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In the context of experiencing many changes in South Africa over the past two decades, particularly politically and socially, many aspects of our society needed transformation. In the drafting of a new constitution that secured the protection of human rights, and in particular employment rights and employment equity, one particular aspect still remains largely unchanged-the manner in which people with disabilities, particularly those who suffer from Acquired Brain Injuries (ABI) are accommodated in the workplace. This article is based on an exploratory literature analysis of the ABI phenomenon and also assesses the policy framework, as well as the failure to implement what is already in existence. Examples are drawn from legal precedents, and the global context, and the provisional evidence leads to the understanding that there are deficiencies regarding the management of this particular issue in South Africa. The role of specific employment strategies, such as generic skill and learnership programmes needs to be further explored and developed for this specific category of disability. Continued research in this field is proposed, and in particular the development of a more comprehensive policy framework, guidelines and procedures for organisations in South Africa to accommodate persons with acquired brain injuries, and to facilitate their return to the workplace.
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This article offers insights into eating practices, conceptualising and making of 'good' food by people living with chronic disease. Based on ethnographic research focussing on people with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and undefined IBD) in the Czech Republic, we explore what it would mean to conceptualise disability from the non-normative gut. We trace the practices of tinkering with foods and one's body, and ways of learning to sense (with) dysbiotic guts that people with IBD develop. Departing from the established notions of digestion and metabolism as universal biological processes, people with IBD create an embodied crip archive of knowledge through their eating practices, ways of making and sensing food and metabolic sampling. Most importantly, these practices offer, as we argue, new pathways into exploring crip embodiments as a place from which to acknowledge and do more-than-human collaboration, heath and ecologies.
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In this paper, we are discussing the question of particular attitudes expressed by the professionals (teachers and therapists) in the context of sexual abuse of people (including children) with intellectual disabilities (ID) which we identify as tacit un-knowledge. Drawing from the concept of tacit knowledge introduced by Michael Po-lanyi we are looking closely into some sort of professional passivity and indulgence in reacting to the sexual abuse of people with ID and lack of adequate professional education and training on the other hand. These observations led us to formulate a Polanyi-inspired notion of un-knowledge expressed as a culture-based response to directly or indirectly reported incidents of sexual abuse of people with ID. Data discussed in this paper is a part of a broader research project on sexual abuse of people with disabilities in the narratives of teachers and therapists conducted by one of the authors. The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relation-ships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this article.
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Research in which technoscience, body, gender, and identity intersect is greatly indebted to the Foucauldian conceptualization of the apparatus, or dispositif, comprising materialities, discursive and nondiscursive practices. Its intrinsically ontotechnological character provides a most relevant interpretative framework for the understanding of the production of contemporary subjectivities, or processes of “assujettissement” in the age of biopolitics. Building on Foucauldian wide-range analyses, several authors shed light on the technologically mediated shaping and reshaping of identities, or the experimental exploration of neo- or counter-identities that are post-naturalist, post-essentialist, post-humanist, anti-ableist and anti-heteronormative, namely Donna Haraway, with her definition of figurations as material-semiotic tools, and Judith Butler’s queer theory, according to which materiality designates a certain effect of power in its formative constitution of the subject, simultaneously forming and regulating the “subject” of subjectivation. Butler’s insight has proved specially productive in the matter of understanding queer performativity i.e., the epistemo-political re-subjectivation programs and processes of impugned, abject and deteriorated identities. Finally, the most recent reflection on the uses of the body, by Giorgio Agamben, sheds light on the essential and deep bond between the ancient slave as animated object and modern technology as animated instrument, thus allowing for a radical contestation of the mere serviceability of both the body and technology. On these grounds, this essay is a critical survey of both the virtues and the ambiguities and risks of technoperformative projects, such as Paul Preciado’s countersexuality, balancing the vindication of morphological freedom against conservative anti-technological trends that go beyond traditional political oppositions.KeywordsOntotechnologiesBodyDispositifTechnoperformativitySubjectivation
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There is a gap between the desired outcomes of social inclusion policy and the everyday experiences of people labelled with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Despite belonging rhetorically named in social inclusion policy and practice, belonging is often absent in the lives of people labelled with intellectual and developmental disabilities and remains undertheorised in its relationship to social inclusion. In this paper, we explore the role belonging might play in narrowing the gap between how social inclusion is theorised and how it is experienced. Drawing on critical disability and feminist relational theories, we outline a relational conceptualisation of belonging and use it to ‘crip’ the construct of social inclusion. Exploring the synergies and tensions that surface when social inclusion and belonging are held together as discrete but interconnected constructs, we name four conceptual shifts and expansions that allow us to see social inclusion differently. Through the centring of the experiences of people labelled with intellectual and developmental disabilities, we explore the ways belonging can help to reimagine inclusion from assimilationist, static, objective and formal towards inclusion as fluid, negotiated, (inter)subjective, (in)formal and intimate.
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This chapter introduces prominent work in and around disability studies and Critical Disability Studies. I briefly explore the history of the field, its situation in parallel to political agendas and advocacy, and the emerging space for work done outside of the traditional boundaries. I return here to Rose (1999) to consider how the marrying of Goodley’s (2014) dis/ability studies and Rose’s unpacking of familial self-governance provides one of many starting points for families. I begin to formulate the foundations of what a project situated in dis/humanism would mean theoretically and methodologically. I ask, what would the theoretical underbelly of a project that embraced the terrains that I have mapped, in their junctures and divergence, look like? I ask, is it possible to queer the dominant orientations of each of these terrains’ gaze on childhood, autism and disability? To orientate is to turn towards, and turning one way is to turn away from another. The queering orientation described in this chapter may be the means by which the dis/orientation of the attention afforded to the lives of autistic children becomes possible. Away from the gaze of developmentalism, medicalisation, pathologisation, normalisation. I argue that when attention is afforded to everyday lives, to lived experiences, a queering phenomenology coupled with dis/humanism, which I term ‘dis/orientation’, that digs around the borders and boundaries of such an experience, may disrupt the dominant stories pervasive in children’s and families’ worlds.
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Turning away from the dominant methods of autism research in its disembodied, positivist form, I ask that we adopt dis/human methods of researching the everyday lives of autistic children. I tell an auto/ethnographic story of how both the research methodology and methods came to be through the projects’ three phases in turn ‘method/ology of talking’, ‘method/ology of being’ and ‘methodology of becoming’. This develops towards Chap. 5 in which I explore ethical issues as process and product of both methodology and analysis.
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The ‘expressivist objection’ (EO) refers to the notion that using reproductive (genetic) technologies to prevent the birth of future would‐be disabled people contain, and express, a negative valuation of life with disability. Whilst the EO has received increased attention in recent years in line with rapid technological and genomic developments, there remains scant research on how EO concerns are experienced and expressed by disabled people and their families, especially within and between impairment groups. Bringing together two studies—one with adults and family members living with genetic conditions (n = 62) and one with parents of children with Down’s syndrome (n = 22)—we argue that disabled people and their families variously embrace, reject or rework the EO across contexts, and yet also frequently situate it within broad support for reproductive technologies. We present three key factors that mediate responses to the EO: (1) the nature of impairment and its integration within identity; (2) social and cultural contexts relating to disability and (3) the (individual and collective) imagined futures of disabled people. In so doing, we blend the conceptual architecture of medical sociology and disability studies, arguing that this allows us to accurately illuminate the nuanced responses of disabled people and their families.
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This chapter applies the ideas developed in the first two chapters to the notion of race in America and in the psychology practiced in the West. It defines race and racism, using historical and psychological lenses. It applies binary thinking to the development of racism and explores the history of race thinking in the psy disciplines. It applies the concept of complicity to racialized binary thinking through the film Black Panther.KeywordsRaceRacismRace thinking in psychologyColonialismSlaveryEnlightenment Black Panther AfricaAfrican American
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This chapter lays out the argument for a psychological humanities, as well as the theoretical framework for ideas developed in the rest of the book. It explains the concept of complicity, which is the term developed in the book to argue against binary thinking as a way of understanding human being and human psychology. The history of psychology as a discipline is outlined, in order to connect it to processes of Western modernity. The chapter defines binary thinking, the notion of self and other, and outlines the relationships between the different branches of psychology.
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An increasing number of students labeled with intellectual disability are attending colleges and universities. Yet, their perspectives are underrepresented in the research. Grounded in Disability Studies in Education and Schlossberg's Transition Theory, this study reports on the transitional experiences of two emerging adults labeled with intellectual disability at a large public university with a particular focus on how the participants conceptualized their support systems during the moving in and through stages of transition to university. Three themes are discussed: supports the students brought with them to the university, reciprocal supports with peer mentors, and university-provided supports. As such, the findings contribute to and expand existing scholarship dedicated to the experiences of emerging adults labeled with intellectual disability at postsecondary institutions. Aligning with the research question and blended theoretical framing, implications for practice and research are discussed.
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Cette thèse ambitionne d’appliquer la géographie au secteur médico-social. Réalisée en Convention Industrielle de Formation par la Recherche (CIFRe) au sein de l’association LADAPT, elle a été menée auprès de personnes ayant subi des lésions cérébrales « acquises » accompagnées par les Établissements et Service d’Aide par le Travail (ESAT) des structures de Clermont-Ferrand et de Lyon. Défendant l’idée que le handicap est un phénomène n’existant pas en soi et intervenant uniquement dans l’interaction entre un individu et l’environnement dans lequel il évolue, cette recherche, s’appuyant sur le modèle conceptuel du Processus de Production du Handicap (PPH) prend le contre-pied de la perception individuelle, médicale et administrative du handicap véhiculée dans les politiques sociales françaises.Le postulat de départ s’articule autour de la mobilisation des rapports spatiaux et de l’habiter des individus dans le but d’appréhender l’ensemble des liens qui les unissent avec leur environnement social, culturel et spatial.En analysant les relations objectives et subjectives que chaque personne entretient avec les lieux qu’elle fréquente et les déplacements qu’elle effectue, le point de départ consiste dans le déploiement d’une approche spatiale et géographique pour identifier les ruptures entre l’individu et son environnement. Sur la base des situations de handicap constatées, la finalité est de comprendre et d’évaluer l’efficacité de l’accompagnement médico-social dans sa capacité à agir sur les freins, les limites et les obstacles existant dans le milieu de vie des personnes.
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The purpose of this article is to engage crip theory in a critical analysis of the calls within elementary education for a return to normalcy. I seek to question the ways Covid-19 has reinforced orientations towards normalcy by asking where normalcy went and how the calls for its return reveal the fundamental limits of inclusion within schools. Uses of the terms normalcy, normal, and normative within the context of this article refer to the mythical white, male, able-bodied, middle-class, heteronormative figure that remains hegemonic as well as widely resisted, questioned, and critiqued within critical disability studies. Through the application of crip theory and cripistemologies, I contend in this article that calls to return to normally engage in a persistent effort to erase and exclude disabled children and youth from a potentially transformative and necessary conversation about how we might pursue conceptualizations and enactments of inclusion outside of its current adherence to normative neoliberal aims and objectives. Rather than accepting the conditions of inclusion (i.e., the sustaining of normalcy) in its current neoliberal iteration, in this article I invite educators to crip calls for inclusion and crip calls for a return to normal.
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In this article, I call for a cripping of environmental education as a necessary move in shifting away from the field’s current conceptions of disability as defect and deficiency, and towards disrupting the structures and processes that operate as normalizing technologies within ableism/sanism. Through an examination of the ways that the field of environmental education has/has not engaged critical disability politics, I illuminate how disability is not often included within environmental education literature. When it is, it is often through the use of disability as metaphor or through recommendations for best practices in accommodating disabilities. More often though within environmental education, disability has operated as a hidden curriculum, underpinning much of the field’s curricular, pedagogical, and even philosophical foundations. Through a cripping of the field these compulsory able-bodied/able-minded assumptions are made apparent. I suggest that by centering crip bodies and minds through cripistemologies, we might enable new ways of knowing, being in, connecting to, and understanding the natural world.
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The book was inadvertently published without the acknowledgement texts of funding from the Library of the University of California, Berkeley, for this book in the front matter. This has been updated in the book.
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Temporal trajectories of health, illness, and disability - from biographical change to micro embodied practices within social time - are important strands within medical sociology and disability studies. Drawing upon a UK based qualitative study using diaries and follow-up interviews to explore everyday life with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), this paper explores routines when living with the condition. It focuses specifically on accounts of routines being anticipated, slowed down and stretched out to accommodate and/or care for bodies, with personal and social rhythms weaved in, out, and with each other. Such reflections are told through participants' accounts of knowing routines and rhythms, stretching out and pacing morning routines to care for the body and how everyday practices are reimagined as the body and the social meet. Drawing upon the concept of ‘Crip Time’ where the social bends to meet with the body, this paper seeks to illuminate important intersections between medical sociology and disability studies through accounts of living with IBS. This paper demonstrates the entanglement of structural, disabling temporal rhythms and embodied temporalities, through an acknowledgement of routines reimagined. It offers a contribution to both medical sociology and disability studies in reimagining social lives with embodied temporalities in mind.
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If (older) gay men have recurrently been stereotyped as hypersexual and as sexually voracious, they have also been represented as weak and effeminate, miserable and lonely, and as less manly than their heterosexual counterparts (Goltz, 2014; Freeman, 2010). Quite often, as Goltz reminds us, the two stereotypes intersect, as in classic films such as Death in Venice, Gods and Monsters, or Love and Death on Long Island, toto name but a few, where ageism and homophobia combine to judge intergenerational relations as inappropriate and gay characters as "dirty old men" eager to recover their lost youth. Given these negative images, it is no wonder, then, that both youthism and ableism have become part and parcel of contemporary gay culture, which may also be linked to the few positive cultural images available of aging or disabled gay male bodies (Goltz, 2014). Starting off from the assumption that bodies are shaped and reshaped in complex interactions between physical and symbolic dimensions , the paper will demonstrate, however, how (auto)biographical narratives of older gay men, what we call "egodocuments," may be useful to rethink such traditional (mis)conceptions. Crossing the traditional divide between the Social Sciences and the Humanities, the study will draw on both life stories and film representations of older gay men in Spain, focusing on Spanish director Pedro Almodóvar's (2019) latest film, Pain and Glory, as a (semi-)autobiographical revision of traditional representations of gay men's aging. While Almodovar's protagonist and alter-ego, Salvador Mallo, appears as "prematurely aged" (Curtis and Thompson, 2015) due to bodily pain and disability, the film also travels back and forth from Mallos's childhood and youth to his maturity. This shows aging not only as a life-course experience, but also helps redefine it as a "queer" rather than linear or "straight" experience (Halberstam), allowing for both "pain and glory" to coexist in old age. Almodóvar's portraiture of gay aging will be compared to the life stories collected in a number of focus groups with Spanish older gay men, which will provide equally complex, varied, and often contradictory narratives.
Article
From the 1990s onwards, inclusive education began to spread in many countries in line with the guidelines of various international organizations. These organizations came to recognize society as essentially diverse, and the need for education that catered for this diversity in an equitable manner so that no one was left out. However, this model had to be made compatible with other reforms geared towards the training of competitive individuals in an increasingly demanding labour market. This meant that inclusion ended up being reduced to individual training. Based on this fact, this article attempts to show that inclusion conceived in this way cannot truly be inclusion, since there needs to be an evaluative hierarchy regarding human abilities that prevents all of them from being socially recognized in the same way. We conclude by proposing an alternative education model that focuses on failure and vulnerability, rather than ability, in order to be truly inclusive.
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In 1995 Uganda adopted a new Constitution mandating parliament and local councils to include disabled members, elected by registered disabled people in each community. Consequently, Uganda has an unusually institutionalised disability movement, with over 45,000 disabled councillors and, theoretically, disabled people’s organisations in every village. The political position of ‘disabled person’ is closely tied to Uganda’s governing party, the NRM, as a structural client, encouraging a form of ‘quiet politics’ aimed at fostering relationships to bring about future opportunities rather than approaching government or NGOs as citizens demanding rights. This thesis uses an ethnographic study (based on eighteen months of fieldwork) of a disabled women’s organisation called DWG to investigate the effects in disabled people’s lives. With a focus on the social determinants of obligation, it expands critically on anthropological literature treating dependence as a mode of political action. DWG is based in a peri-urban market in Bunyoro, where the core members run small retail businesses. Members receive grants from government and NGO small business programmes, which form the overwhelming majority of support available to disabled people in Uganda. Through analysing the distribution of one grant, I detail the disciplinary effects produced: the programmes establish an idealised model of newly empowered (post-1995) disabled people as independent and self-sufficient. This advantages an elite group who present the desired financial behaviour, including some members of DWG. Disabled people who do not fit the behavioural expectations (particularly people living with mental health problems or intellectual disability) do not benefit. However, DWG's operations are not fully determined by powerful infrastructure or actors. While entitlement to business funding is judged on economic performance, obligations accruing to relationships within the group are based on long-term togetherness, especially co-residence, giving the group a gendered historico-spatial specificity. Chapters 4-6 look at elements of DWG sociality that exceed the model of self-sufficient businesspeople. Even the most financially successful members rely on long-term relationships providing care and (for deaf members) communication assistance based on linguistic community, repurposing disability movement-derived resources to foster them. In this space, obligations turn on what I call ‘claims in relationship,’ a concept that blends theoretical work on dependence, clientelism, and obligation. My interlocutors use two diverging discourses. One, characterised by the word ‘obulema’ [disability] is closely associated with legal structures; its usage is largely restricted to the political disability community. The other, using the term ‘abaceke’ [weak people], is more widely used, forming part of a moral system of provisioning in which people who live together accrue mutual obligations in misfortune. In chapters 6 and 7 I look at the differential distribution of these discourses. The second can be more inclusive, allowing partial identification with those excluded from mainstream disability sociality (especially ‘mad’ people). However, because it relies on non-systematic personal connection, this group's challenges are not thereby fed into the infrastructure or funded activities of the disability movement. Chapter 7 looks at problematic interactions between the discourses, which impact on the most excluded during land disputes, in the context of industrial sugar farming.
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This paper seeks to detail the experiences of the Deaf Indian community and the Deaf Indian-American community through different lenses such as cultural identity, public policy, and access to opportunities. It argues that social stigma in India is what directly results in the suppression of the Deaf community by the Indian government via policies that circumvent overarching anti-discrimination legislation. In the United States, Deaf Indians face racism from within the Deaf community as they are alienized and misrepresented. They are also ostracized from hearing Indian populations as they are not included in cultural traditions due to language barriers. As a result, the paper argues that the experience of the Deaf Indian needs to be analyzed from multiple axes of oppression such as race minority status, hearing status, socioeconomic status, etc. It operates under a framework of intersectionality while including critical literature from Critical Race Theory and disability studies.
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An overview on the efforts done to narrow the gap between composition and cultural studies was presented. Much of the tension in composition studies involve the counts as knowledge within the discipline. The wholesale importing of theoretical work from other disciplines generated audible discontent among some in the field.
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The students of the present generation are the first in a long time who will not take their cultural identities from books. Statistics reveal that film, museum, concert, and sports attendances are up but that fewer and fewer people are reading books. Those strange moments in nineteenth-century novels when young heroes strike poses, dress, coif, and woo by the book are gone, perhaps forever. Our students are more likely to take their models from television, films, glossy magazines, video games, or the Abercrombie and Fitch catalog. My colleagues in the profession report that, thanks to the expansion of visual culture, students now possess an enviable talent for decoding images, often to the detriment of reading ability. To be frank, I am not so convinced: in my experience, the most literate students continue to be the best readers of images. But I agree that we are in the midst of an unprecedented explosion of visuality. A new era has dawned, and we are not prepared for it. We need to change our teaching and scholarship to keep up with our students.
Gang related violence in Los Angeles County has increased, with homicides increasing from 205 in 1982 to 803 in 1992. This study examines the medical and financial consequences of such violence on a level I trauma center. Of 856 gunshot injuries over a 29-month period, 272 were gang related. There were 55 pediatric and 217 adult patients. Eighty-nine percent were male and 11% were female. Trauma Score averaged 14.7 +/- 3.1, Glasgow Coma Scale average score was 13.7 +/- 3.4, and the mean Injury Severity Score was 10.8 +/- 14. Twenty-two percent of the gunshots were to the head and neck, 20% to the chest, 20% to the abdomen, 6% had a peripheral vascular injury, and 33% sustained an extremity musculoskeletal injury. Emergency surgery was performed on 43%, including laparotomy 58 (49%), craniotomy 16 (13%), laparoscopy 14 (12%), vascular procedures 10 (8%), orthopedic procedures 6 (5%), head and neck endoscopies 4 (3%), thoracotomies 2 (2%), and 10 (8%) unspecified. There were 25 deaths (9%), primarily caused by head injuries and exsanguanating hemorrhage. Eighty-six percent entered the hospital during the hours of minimal staffing that pre-empted the use of facilities for other emergent patients. Charges totaled $4,828,828 (emergency room, surgical procedures, intensive care, and surgical ward stay) which equated to $5,550 per patient per day. Fifty-eight percent had no third party reimbursement, 22% had Medi-Cal, and 20% had medical insurance. Because of dismal reimbursement rates, the costs of gang violence are passed on to the tax payer. The cost of gang related violence cannot be derived from hospital charges only, because death, disability, and pain are not entered into the calculation. Education, increased social programs, and strict criminal justice laws and enforcement may decrease gang related violence and the drain it has on financial and medical resources.
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Journal of Women's History 15.3 (2003) 63-76 Like many people, I first read Adrienne Rich's article, "Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence," in college. I cannot remember if it was assigned or if I stumbled across it during one of my many trips to the library to find something, anything on lesbians that was not a psychological tract on the dysfunctions of homosexuality. As it turned out Rich's essay was much more to me than a positive article about lesbianism, but rather a manifesto of lesbian existence that declared us pervasive and distinct. Still, I had no idea how profoundly Rich's words had influenced my consciousness until I was asked to write this essay. 1980 and 2003 are extremely different political and cultural moments. I say this obvious statement because this fact was ever so evident to me while re-reading "Compulsory Heterosexuality." As I read, I found myself listing all of the points where Rich relied on a myriad of assumptions that she could not today, including a lack of distinction between various genders and sexualities, claims of a uniform global lesbian sisterhood, the presence of ubiquitous and monolithic male oppressors, and the assertion of a universal lesbian experience. Her theory of a lesbian continuum reduces all intimacies between all people identified as women by the dominant culture as lesbian, thereby erasing bisexual and transgender experiences, not to mention a host of other identities, bodies, and histories. Nevertheless, I still find Rich's essay to be profoundly constructive. It was through her words that I started to question how structurally embedded heterosexism is. Rich challenged the notion that heterosexism is only an act by an individual bigot and demonstrated how it is part of a deeper, pervasive structural flaw that renders relationships between women invalid and invisible in every level of scholarship, including feminist scholarship. Her assessment of heterosexuality as an institution, like class and race, offered me a way to understand the compulsory component as creating lies and distortions maintained by every profession, cultural product, reference work, curriculum, and scholarship. This revelation made me a different kind of reader and thinker. The fact that she implicates feminist scholarship in the "closing of the archives" to lesbians made me more attentive to the misrepresentations that pervaded my most favorite and affirming works. It made me think about African American history. I read African American history as I would any other theoretical text—closely. African American history is a rich source for understanding how Black subjectivity has been theorized in the United States. The tradition of representing Black people as decent and moral historical agents has meant the erasure of the broad array of Black sexuality and gendered being in favor of a static heterosexual narrative. Far from being totally invisible, the "queer" is present in Black history as a threat to Black respectability. Black women's sexuality has been discussed as the "unspeakable thing unspoken" of Black life. However, in this essay, I show that variant sexualities and genders are the things always present in Black history by virtue of their constant disavowal. I want to get way from the notion of silence and discuss instead the ways in which Black people have written histories that exalted their manhood and heralded their femininity to protect themselves from defamation, and have proven their heterosexuality, thereby establishing themselves as decent, moral, and above all, "normal human beings." Sexual deviance is more than homosexuality. Many different sexual unions and behaviors come under this rubric, including male-female sexual intercourse before marriage and sex across racial lines. Any divergences from the social norms of marriage, domesticity, and the nuclear family have brought serious accusations of savagery, pathology, and deviance upon Black people. It is my job as an emerging scholar of African American literature and history not only to recover submerged voices but also to lay bare the conditions that create and subjugate black, female, woman-loving sexualities and transgressions of gender norms. In this way, I attempt not only to call attention to an absence but also to theorize a methodology. The process of distorting the complexities of Black women's sexuality has its roots in the...
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Journal of Women's History 15.3 (2003) 9-10 Almost since she came to work for the Journal, managing editor Stephanie Gilmore has been lobbying for a retrospective on Adrienne Rich's classic article, "Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence." I knew from my partner, Verta Taylor, who has for many years co-edited the women's studies anthology Feminist Frontiers, that Rich had stopped giving permission to reprint her classic article. Not knowing exactly why, we bravely invited Rich to comment on the responses we were gathering, and to our delight, she not only graciously agreed to write a piece (forthcoming in the spring issue), but she also explained that she was refusing permission to reprint the original version of the article, published in Signs, because she preferred the version published in 1982 in Blood, Bread, and Poetry, since it includes a preface and postscript dealing with some of the most controversial aspects of this profoundly influential and provocative piece. Rich gave us permission to reprint that version and we are honored to do so. "Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence" has shaped our understanding of lesbian history and the history of sexuality in the most momentous ways, which is why we offer this retrospective. We decided to invite scholars working in different fields, from different generations, to comment on what the article has meant to them and to our understandings of sexuality. We are delighted with the results, and we think you will be, too. Joan Nestle, a feminist contemporary of Rich whose passionate scholarship and activism has transformed the field of the history of sexuality, offers a moving reflection on sex, war, the sex wars, and recent history. Judy Tzu-Chun Wu, who as an undergraduate first encountered Rich in person, in the classroom, reflects on the significance of the concepts of compulsory heterosexuality and lesbian existence for Asian American women's history. Mattie Richardson, who also encountered Rich as an undergraduate, although through the printed page, asks provocative questions, based on Rich's concepts, about African American women's history, suggesting that sexual and gender deviance and lesbian sexuality have been painted over in order to present a canvas of respectability. Finally, Alison Kafer, only ten years old when the article first appeared, extends Rich's concepts to the field of disability studies, raising thought-provoking challenges to scholars to think about able-bodiedness and its relationship to sexuality. These elegant essays urge us to consider not only what has changed since 1980, when Rich first shook the world of scholarship with her essay, but also the directions in which we are headed in what, from a historical perspective, is still the beginning of a new millennium.
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Journal of Women's History 15.3 (2003) 77-89 In preparing to write this essay, I stumbled across a 1992 special issue of Feminism and Psychology devoted to the topic of "heterosexuality." The editors had collected seventeen short reflections from heterosexual feminists addressing the question "How does your heterosexuality contribute to your feminist politics (and/or your feminist psychology)?" As the editors acknowledge in their introduction, their project was inspired in part by Adrienne Rich's groundbreaking essay, "Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence." Indeed, the collection serves as an example of what Rich requested from feminist theorists and scholars; as she writes in the 1982 foreword to her article, her intent was "to encourage heterosexual feminists to examine heterosexuality as a political institution." I must confess, however, that I was not thinking about the political institution of heterosexuality while reading this special issue. As a queer feminist with disabilities, engaged in the field of disability studies, I found myself thinking about the political institution of able-bodiedness. Or, more to the point, I found myself imagining a special issue of Feminism and Psychology (or Feminist Studies, or Signs, or even the Journal of Women's History) asking nondisabled feminists to discuss how their able-bodied status contributes to their feminist politics. It is hard to imagine such a publication, and not simply because of the complexities of discerning who does and does not have a disability, or the difficulties of defining "disability," points to which I return below. It is hard to imagine because even with the dynamic growth of disability studies within U.S. universities and the persistence of the American disability rights movement, a political analysis of disability remains below the radar screen of many theorists and cultural critics. To quote and adapt Rich, it is still all too easy for "feminists to read, write, or teach from a perspective of unexamined [able-bodied]-centricity." As a result, it is difficult to find feminist theorists outside of the field of disability studies who address disability in their work, let alone theorists willing or interested in identifying themselves as nondisabled and interrogating the effects of such an identification on their work. Who, therefore, could I find to write for my special issue interrogating able-bodiedness ? Of course, I should note that the editors of the heterosexuality issue write in their introduction that they ran into similar problems in collecting submissions for their project. Their decision to send a call for papers to feminist scholars who had never identified themselves as lesbian, or written or publicly spoken as non-heterosexuals, met with several defensive and even hostile responses. Two of their recipients were, unbeknownst to the editors, out as lesbians; others were offended by the editors' presumption of heterosexuality, questioning how they could "know" them to be straight; and still others expressed discomfort with the label, explaining that the term was too narrow for their sexual identities, or was not an important enough aspect of their self-images to feel like a comfortable label. One respondent discussed the difference between choosing to call oneself something and being labeled by another as something, describing the latter as troubling and disempowering. Some of this discomfort arises in part, I think, because of the naturalization of heterosexuality. As Rich asserts in her essay, heterosexuality goes unquestioned because its alleged naturalness and normalcy place it beyond the realm of political analysis. Some of it, however, stems from the troubling aspects of identities in general, and identity politics in particular. Disability identities are no exception. Similar to the label "woman," the term "disabled" cannot easily be accepted as a self-evident phrase referring to a discrete group of particular people with certain similar essential qualities. "We" is a particularly unstable term when speaking of disability; it is very difficult to decide definitively whom the term does and does not include. Should it encompass all kinds of impairments—cognitive, psychiatric, sensory, and physical? Do people with chronic illnesses fit under the rubric of disability? Is an asymptomatic HIV+ person disabled? What about people with some forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) who experience different temporary impairments—from vision loss to mobility...
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This essay analyzes the Kennedy Center's June 2003 solo autobiographical performance piece, Weights, by Lynn Manning, a blind African American performer and playwright. In Weights, Manning tells the story of his sudden transformation from life as a "black man" to life as a "blind man" after surviving a gunshot wound to the head. The essay argues for the continued relevance and efficacy of identity-based politics and representational practices by examining through the lens of "postpositivist realism" Manning's performance text and the audience, which included at least one hundred fifty people with disabilities.
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In his contribution, Critical Investments: AIDS, Christopher Reeve, and Queer/Disability Studies, Robert McRuer calls for the recognition of the points of convergence between AIDS theory, queer theory, and disability theory. McRuer points out ways in which minority identity groups such as people with AIDS, gays, lesbians, and bisexuals, and those with so-called disabilities, whose status has been described by others as impaired, have resisted this judgment by calling its ideological underpinnings into question. He contends that a critical alliance between AIDS theory, queer theory, and disability theory will ultimately help us to realize the full range of different kinds of bodies and corporeal experiences, while also combating the application of normativizing judgments.