Article

Effect of integrated nutrient management on productivity, profitability, nutrient uptake and soil fertility in rainfed maize (Zea mays)

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Sub Station, Aklera, Jhalawar (Rajasthan) in two consecutive rainy (kharif) seasons of 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the effect of integrated nutrient management on productivity, profitability, nutrient uptake and soil fertility in maize (Zea mays L.). Application of 150 % RDF (N60 P22.5) produced significantly higher plant height (207.3 cm), dry matter (149.1 g/plant), number of cobs/plant (1.4), number of grains/cob (209), grain (3.22 t/ha) and biological (8.23 t/ha) yield, net return (̀19,251/ha) and B: C ratio (1.90), N, P and Zn uptake compared to control. However, RDF + FYM 10 t/ha produced higher plant height, dry matter, number of cobs/plant, number of grains/cob, grain, biological yield and Zn uptake and RDF + Zn in net return, B: C ratio and Zn uptake. Significant built up of organic carbon (0.74%), available N (316.0 kg/ha) and available P (10.8 kg/ha) was registered with RDF + FYM 10 t/ha. Maximum P balance (3.3 kg/ha) was recorded under application of FYM 10 t/ha alone and Zn content (0.45 mg/kg) was recorded under RDF + Zn.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... This practice, in addition to many other problems, contributes to reduced maize production and productivity in the country . Various studies have indicated that the application of FYM and other organic nutrients enhances soil fertility and improves crop yields while sustaining productivity when integrated with inorganic fertilizers (Negassa et al. , 2007Tetarwal et al. 2011). The presence of a high cattle population in the maize growing districts creates an opportunity for the availability of an enormous amount of FYM in the study area. ...
... The shortest period for 50% tasseling (61 days) was recorded from the combined application of 150 kg ha -1 NPS fertilizer and 12 t ha -1 FYM whereas, the largest number of days to 50% tasseling (80) was registered for the control treatment (Table 1). These results are in line with those of Ayoola et al. (2008) and Tetarwal et al. (2011), who observed a reduction in the number of days to 50% tasseling in maize with increased rates of fertilizers. This might be due to efficient use of nutrients by plants extended through the vegetative growth stage resulting in a prolonged period for tasseling. ...
... The increase in above ground biomass yield of maize as a result of the combined application of NPS fertilizer and FYM may be attributed to increased photosynthetic area because of enhanced vegetative growth due to increased availability of N. High nutrient application also promotes dry matter accumulation and translocation to the economic yield. Tetarwal et al. (2011) reported that the increase in dry biomass yield due to integrated nutrient management approach might be attributed to the favourable effect of organic manure (FYM) in the steady supply of additional nutrients through mineralization and improvement in physicochemical properties of the soil. Similar findings were reported by who indicated that higher biomass production by maize crop was due to greater LAI, plant height, major and micronutrients availability through both the organic and inorganic fertilizers in suitable proportions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Maize (Zea mays L.) productivity is very low mainly on account of the status of soil fertility in Ethiopia. Integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizers for maize production has not been investigated in the study area Bench Shako zone, southwestern Ethiopia. A field experiment was planned to evaluate the effect of combined application of NPS fertilizer and farmyard manure on the yield of maize. The experiment consisted of four rates of NPS fertilizer (0, 50, 100, 150 kg ha-1) and four rates of farmyard manure (0, 6, 12, and 18 t ha-1). The maximum grain yield (4890 kg ha-1) was recorded from the treatment that received 150 kg ha-1 NPS fertilizer + 12 t ha-1 farmyard manure whereas, the minimum grain yield (2541 kg ha-1) was obtained from the control treatment. Partial budget analysis revealed that the combined application of 150 kg ha-1 NPS fertilizer with 12 t ha-1 farmyard manure fetched the maximum net return of 59,414 Ethiopian Birr ha-1 , hence this combination of fertilizers is recommended for maize production in the study area.
... This was because of proportionally greater partitioning of photosynthate in controlled plots as compare to application of various combinations of RDF with FYM. Kumar et al., (2005) [6] , Singh and Nepalia (2009) [10] , Tetarwal et al., (2011) [11] and Balai et al. (2011) [2] also reported significantly high grain, stover and biological yield of maize due to integration of FYM with various levels of recommended fertilizer doses. This was because of significantly more values of yield attributes at higher levels of RDF with various doses of FYM and more number of plants at the time of maize harvest. ...
... This was because of proportionally greater partitioning of photosynthate in controlled plots as compare to application of various combinations of RDF with FYM. Kumar et al., (2005) [6] , Singh and Nepalia (2009) [10] , Tetarwal et al., (2011) [11] and Balai et al. (2011) [2] also reported significantly high grain, stover and biological yield of maize due to integration of FYM with various levels of recommended fertilizer doses. This was because of significantly more values of yield attributes at higher levels of RDF with various doses of FYM and more number of plants at the time of maize harvest. ...
... Despite lowest cost of cultivation in control plots, significantly lower gross return was responsible for lowest B:C ratio in this treatment. Similar trend in economic returns from maize was also observed by Kumar and Thakur (2009) [7] , Jat et al., (2010) [4] Kumar et al., (2005) [6] , Singh and Nepalia (2009) [10] , Tetarwal et al., (2011) [11] and Balai et al. (2011) [2] due to various integration of green manuring, FYM and fertilizers. Thus, the study reveals that an integrated application of green manure, FYM and fertilizers would be a better alternative for sustainable production of QPM over the fertilizer as sole source for nutrient application. ...
Article
Full-text available
In North Eastern Region (NER) of India, an imbalance supply of fertilizers and lack of proper recommendations of fertilizer application for hybrid maize leading to a wide gap in yield. Thus, a field experiment was conducted during kharif 2011 on the Experimental Farm of the College of Post Graduate Studies (CAU-Imphal), Umiam, Meghalaya to evaluate the effect of in-situ green manuring of intercropped cowpea (Vigna uniguiculata L) and combined application of fertilizer with FYM on productivity, protein content and economic returns of quality protein maize (QPM). Higher yield attributes, yield and economic return over sole maize were recorded due to green manuring in maize though the difference for most of the parameters between the treatments was statistically at par. Grain yield obtained from green manured maize plots (5.39 t ha-1) was 22 per cent higher as compared to sole maize (4.42 t ha-1). Among the integrated nutrient management practices, maximum yield (5.64 t ha-1) of maize was recorded in 75% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) + FYM 5 t ha-1 which was at par with 50% RDF + FYM 7.5 t ha-1 (5.50 t ha-1), RDF (5.36 t ha-1) and 75% RDF + FYM 2.5 t ha-1 (4.83 t ha-1) but significantly superior over 50% RDF + FYM 7.5 t ha-1 (4.53 t ha-1) and control (3.58 t ha-1). The highest economic return was recorded under 75% RDF + FYM 5 t ha-1 (Rs. 30,300 ha-1) however; maximum benefit cost ratio (1.99) was obtained from RDF alone. Thus, treatment 75% RDF + FYM 5 t ha-1 was proved as the best combination for higher productivity of QPM in hill ecosystems of NER.
... addition to pre and post-harvest observation were also studied to find out the best treatment combination for higher yield of maize. [25] . Similar results were also reported by Adiloglu et al. (2005) [1] . ...
... This result obtained might be due to application of zinc along with recommended dose of fertilizer may be responsible for the availability of nitrogen which resulted in increased growth parameters, which increased the dry matter accumulation. These findings are in relevance with the findings ofTetarwal et al. (2011) ...
Article
Full-text available
A field experiment was conducted during Kharif 2021 at Crop Research Farm. Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P). The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.1), low in organic carbon (0.36%), available N (171.48 kg/ha), available P (15.2 kg/ha) and available K (232.5 kg/ha). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with Ten treatments each replicated thrice on the basis of one year of experimentation. The treatments which are T1-Control (120 kg N/ ha: 60kg P2O5/ ha: 60kg K2O/ha.), T2-Vermicompost-3.3 t/ha + Urea-130.5 kg/ha + Zinc-5 kg/ha, T3-Vermicompost-3.3 t/ha + Urea-130.5 kg/ha + Boron-0.5 kg/ha, T4-Vermicompost-3.3 t/ha + Urea-130.5 kg/ha + Zinc-5 kg/ha + Boron-0.5 kg/ha, T5-Neem cake-1.154 t/ha + Urea-130.5 kg/ha + Zinc-5 kg/ha, T6-Neem cake-1.154 t/ha + Urea-130.5 kg/ha + Boron 0.5 kg/ha, T7-Neem cake-1.154 t/ha + Urea-130.5 kg/ha + Zinc-5kg/ha + Boron-0.5 kg/ha, T8-Vermicompost-1.66 t/ha + Neem cake-0.57 t/ha + Urea-130.5 kg/ha + Zinc-5 kg/ha, T9-Vermicompost-1.66 t/ha + Neem cake-0.57 t/ha + Urea-130.5 kg/ha + Boron-0.5 kg/ha, T10-Vermicompost-1.66 t/ha + Neem cake-0.57 t/ha + Urea-130.5 kg/ha + Zinc-5 kg/ha + Boron-0.5 kg/ha used. The results showed that application of Vermicompost-1.66 t/ha + Neem cake-0.57 t/ha + Urea-130.5 kg/ha + Zinc-5 kg/ha + Boron-0.5 kg/ha was recorded maximum plant height (207.20 cm), plant dry weight (179.52 g/plant), crop growth rate (41.38 g/m2/day), number of cobs per plant (1.80), length of cob (17.43 cm), diameter of cob (12.37 cm), number of grains per Cob (358.27), test weight (254.16 g), grain yield (9.73 t/ha), straw yield (21.20 t/ha) and harvest index (31.45) as compared to other treatments.
... Application of FYM @ 10 t ha-1 on 1000 grain weight of maize crop increase the production which is found in kharif season maize in different states of India (Tetarwal et al., 2011). Thousand grain weight will be significantly higher with 100 % (210 g) than 75% (201 g) N of recommended dose during kharif season in India (Singh et al., 2009). ...
... The application of 100% RDF (40-15-00 kg N-P-K/ha) + 10 t/ha FYM registered maximum NPK uptake by maize and available N and P status to the tune of 1.28 and 14.89 % respectively over initial status of soil fertility (Tetarwal et al., 2011). Significantly higher grain yield, straw yield and NPK uptake were recorded with NPK + FYM @ 12.5 t/ha + Biochar @15 t /ha + Azospirillum @ 2 kg/ha which was at par with NPK + FYM @ 12.5 t/ha + Biochar @ 10 t/ ha + Azospirillum @ 2 kg/ha (Coumaravel et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Maize is one of the main staple crops of Nepalese diet grown throughout the country during summer season as single crop or relayed with millet. This short review article analyses the previous works & studies on impact of INM in maize production. Long-time research which was conducted in different areas has shown that in addition to natural resources deterioration, abiotic-biotic stress, deficiency of several macro & micro nutrients is also an essential factor which influences yield reduction, productivity declination, and shrinkage in net profit. Therefore, Integrated use of chemical and organic fertilizer on yield and yield attributes component of maize is very crucial for assurance of food security & food self-sufficiency. Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) aims at adjustment of soil fertility and plant nutrient supply to an optimum level for sustaining the desired crop productivity through optimization of benefit from all possible sources of plant nutrients. The integrated use of major plant nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash) along with different organic carbon sources (animal manures and plant residues) together with bio-fertilizers (beneficial microbes) significantly improves maize growth, yield and yield components together with grower’s income.
... A field experiment conducted by Panwar [48] also showed that the growth, yield attributes, and economics of maize were optimum when 50% of the recommended dose of NPK was substituted by farmyard manure. Baes on Tetarwal et al. [49] recommended dose of fertilizer (40-15 kg·N-P/ha) + FYM 10 t/ha produced higher plant height, dry matter, number of cobs/plant, number of grains/cob, grain, and biological yields of maize. ...
... Tetarwal et al. [49] reported that significant buildup of organic carbon (0.74%), available N (316.0 kg/ha), available P (10.8 kg/ha), and Zn uptake were observed with the application of the recommended dose of fertilizer (40-15 kg N-P/ha) + FYM 10 t/ha. ...
Article
Full-text available
Boosting crop productivity can be attained through the application of inorganic fertilizer; however, safeguarding the environment for future generations is overbearing especially for continuous increase in the world population. Sustainable crop productivity might be attained through the judicious use of both organic and inorganic fertilizers. The substitution of parts of inorganic fertilizers with organic fertilizer could maintain and sustain soil productivity and improve crop productivity. This paper has reviewed the past research work carried out by various scientists. A comprehensive literature review revealed that integrated nutrient management enhances maize yield, nutrient uptake, and economic return compared with the sole application of organic and inorganic fertilizers.
... Application of FYM @ 10 t ha-1 on 1000 grain weight of maize crop increase the production which is found in kharif season maize in different states of India (Tetarwal et al., 2011). Thousand grain weight will be significantly higher with 100 % (210 g) than 75% (201 g) N of recommended dose during kharif season in India (Singh et al., 2009). ...
... The application of 100% RDF (40-15-00 kg N-P-K/ha) + 10 t/ha FYM registered maximum NPK uptake by maize and available N and P status to the tune of 1.28 and 14.89 % respectively over initial status of soil fertility (Tetarwal et al., 2011). Significantly higher grain yield, straw yield and NPK uptake were recorded with NPK + FYM @ 12.5 t/ha + Biochar @15 t /ha + Azospirillum @ 2 kg/ha which was at par with NPK + FYM @ 12.5 t/ha + Biochar @ 10 t/ ha + Azospirillum @ 2 kg/ha (Coumaravel et al., 2015). ...
... Application of Azospirillum increased the germination percentage, plant height, leaf area index and dry matter production by fixing atmospheric nitrogen and solubilizing nutrients and it secretes growth promoting hormones like auxins, gibberllins, cytokinins etc., to enhance the shoot and root growth of the crop and it is ecofriendly in nature. These results are accordance with the findings of Tetarwal et al. (2012) [21] and Iwuagwu et al. (2013) [8] . ...
... Application of Azospirillum increased the germination percentage, plant height, leaf area index and dry matter production by fixing atmospheric nitrogen and solubilizing nutrients and it secretes growth promoting hormones like auxins, gibberllins, cytokinins etc., to enhance the shoot and root growth of the crop and it is ecofriendly in nature. These results are accordance with the findings of Tetarwal et al. (2012) [21] and Iwuagwu et al. (2013) [8] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Field experiment was conducted at Farmer’s field, Koothampoondi Village, Anthiyur Taluk, Erode District, Tamil Nadu to study the effect of integrated nutrient management on growth, yield and economics of maize. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with ten treatments replicated thrice by using maize hybrid NK6240. Among the various treatments, the application of 100% Recommended Dose of Fertilizer + vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1 + seed treatment (Azospirillum) @ 600 g ha-1 + soil application (Azospirillum) @ 2000 g ha-1 (T9) recorded maximum growth, yield attributes, yield and economics.
... At Jhalawar, application of RDF + FYM at 10 t/ha resulted in higher grain yield (3.12 t/ha) in maize. The lowest grain yield of 1.19 was registered under control plot without FYM (Tetarwal et al., 2011) [10] . ...
... At Jhalawar, application of RDF + FYM at 10 t/ha resulted in higher grain yield (3.12 t/ha) in maize. The lowest grain yield of 1.19 was registered under control plot without FYM (Tetarwal et al., 2011) [10] . ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was aimed to determine the effects of organic and inorganic manures and lime application on growth and yield of maize and their impacts on soil physico-chemical characteristics. Vermicompost, and biofertilizers were applied as organic nutrient source while urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP) and Murate of potash (MOP) were used at different concentrations as inorganic nutrients source viz., T1: Unfertilized control; T2: Vermicompost (7 tha-1) T3 Lime applaction 3 tha-1year-1 T4 50% RDF with lime application T5 50% RDF T6 100% RDF T7 Biofertilizers. Results showed that growth and yield of maize were substantially improved by fertilizer application alongside organic manures whereas soil total organic C and availble N, P, K contents increased when inorganic fertilizers were applied alone or in combined with organic manures. However, soil pH and soil bulk density decreased due to application of vermicompost. The highest plant height, were obtained in application 100% RDF at Vegetative stage while at the time of harvesting highest plant height was obtained in 50% RDF with lime application The highest yield was obtained in 100% RDF followed by the application of 50% RDF with lime application. Conclusively, integration of inorganic fertilizers with organic manures can be used with optimum rates to improve crop productivity on sustainable basis. Keywords: Lime application, acidic soil yield of maize & mid hill of Arunachal Pradesh
... The yield attributes (Table 1) were significantly higher with FYM @ 10 t ha -1 than without it, however, significant difference was obtained in thousand grain weight. Significant effect of FYM application @ 10 t ha -1 on 1000 grain weight of maize crop was also recorded by Dutta et al, (2014); Tetwarlal et al,( 2011);Bunker et al (2012) and Singh et al, (2009) in comparison to control during kharif season of Uttarkhand, Rajasthan, Gujrat and Udaipur of India, respectively. Significant increment in thousand grain weight assisted to produce significantly higher grain yield in 100 than 75 and 50% N of the recommended dose (Table 2) through significantly higher weight of grains per cob and number of cobs harvested per hectare. ...
... Grain yield (4.58 t ha -1 ) obtained with the application of FYM @ 10 t ha -1 was insignificantly higher than no FYM (3.91 t ha -1 ). Application of FYM with nitrogen increases the uptake of nutrients due to release of sufficient amount of nutrients by mineralization which in turn gives higher yield (Karki et al., Tetwarlal et al., 2011, concluded that application of 10 t/ha FYM along with RDF is the right choice for increasing the grain yield of rainfed hybrid maize in Rajasthan. Increasing nitrogen rates significantly increased the grain yield. ...
... While the B:C ratio was higher in T 5 >T 10 and than T 8 treatments, respectively. The results were in close conformity with those reported Bassiouny and Shaban (2010) in maize, Tetarwal et al. (2011) in maize and Ravi et al. (2012) in maize. The net realization and benefit cost ratio obtained during course of investigation from green gram crop under influence of different treatments are presented in Table 4. ...
... The B:C ratio value of 3.1 and 3.0 was the highest due to application of 75% as SSP+AM (T 10 ) and 75P as RP (composted)+AM (T 8 ) through rabi maize. The results were in close conformity with those reported Gudadhe et al. (2008) under cotton-chickpea, Bassiouny and Shaban (2010), Tetarwal et al. (2011) and Ravi et al. (2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
The relative the maximum agronomical phosphorus use efficiency was recorded (18.0 kg/kg) with the T8F1 treated plot. While the physiological efficiency was higher (205.8, 204.9, 204.8 and 200.9 kg/kg) with the application of T12F1, T6F1, T14F2 and T13F1 treated plots, respectively. The phosphorus use efficiency was maximum (40.8 kg/kg) with the application of T8F1. Highest net monetary returns from maize were (T8, 58390 /h followed by (T5, 57817 /ha), (T10, 55756 /ha) and (T14, 55348/ha). The highest net returns from green gram 76808 per hectare with B:C ratio of 3.8 was observed under the treatment T8F1 followed by treatment T8F2 with net returns of 69676 per hectare and B:C ratio of 3.4. The lowest net realization of 14905 and 14818 per hectare and B:C ratio of 0.7 was noted under T2F1 and T2F2 plots. on the basis of maize equelvent yield the maximium net returns was recorded under treatment T8 131632 follwed by T10, 119881 and T14, 117446 while B:C ratio was higher under treatment T10 (3.1) fallowed by treatment T8 (3.0). The highest balance of available P2O5 was recorded after harvesting green gram with the addition of (T8F1) and (T8F2) treatments respectively fallowed (T7F2), (F5F1), and (T5F2) treatments respectively.
... Verma et al. (2006) observed that significantly higher plant height, LAI at 60 DAS and grain yield as well as straw yield were recorded with application of 150% NPK which was statistically at par with 100% NPK + Azotobacter, 100% NPK + FYM @ 10 t/ha and different rate of inorganic fertilizers alone or its combination with Zn and/or S. Sujatha et al. (2008) noticed that significantly higher growth, yield attributes and yield were recorded with sunnhemp + poultry manure @ 1t/ha + 100% RDN which was at par with sunnhemp + poultry manure @ 1t/ha + 75% RDN and cowpea + poultry manure @ 1t/ha + 100% RDN in case of grain and straw yields. Tetarwal et al. (2011) found significantly higher plant height, cobs/plant, grains/cob, grain and biological yield were recorded with 150% RDF which was at par with RDF + 10 t/ha FYM, however significantly higher dry matter at harvest was recorded with RDF + 10t/ha FYM which was at par with150% RDF. Shilpashree et al. (2012) indicated that significantly higher straw and grain yields recorded with application of 100% N through inorganic fertilizers + 7.5 t/ha FYM which was at par with 150% N through inorganic fertilizers + 7.5 t/ha FYM, 100% (50 % N through inorganic fertilizers + 50% N through FYM/vermicompost), 150% (75% N through inorganic fertilizers + 75% N through FYM/vermicompost). ...
... Sujatha et al. (2008) noticed that significantly higher available NPK status in soil were recorded with sunnhemp + poultry manure @ 1t/ha + 100% RDN which was at par with sunnhemp + vermicompost @ 3.67 t/ha + 75% RDN. Tetarwal et al. (2011) stated that significantly higher organic carbon (%) and available NP status in soil were recorded with RDF + 10 t FYM/ha. Coumaravel et al. (2015) concluded that among all the treatments, NPK + FYM @12.5 t/ha + Biochar @ 15 t/ha + Azospirillum @ 2 kg/ha had registered significantly higher available N, P and K status which was on par with NPK + FYM @ 12.5 t/ha + Biochar @ 10 t/ha + Azospirillum @ 2 kg/ha, NPK + FYM @ 12.5 t/ha + Biochar @ 5 t/ha + Azospirillum @ 2 kg/ha and NPK + FYM @ 12.5 t /ha+ Azospirillum @ 2 kg ha -1 . ...
... The better effect of combined use of fertilizers and FYM might be due to increased growth and yield attributes. These results corroborated the findings of Tetarwal et al (2011). The interaction affect of treatments on yield was found statistically non-significant. ...
... This might be due to higher productivity owing to increased economic returns. These results are in close conformity with the findings of Tetarwal et al. (2011). Highest output/input and energy productivity of 26.69 and 1.82 kgMJ -1 , respectively, were found in control, which implies that energy output in terms of yield was compensated by energy input through manures and fertilizers. ...
Article
A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2011 and 2012 at Sartangal to study the effect of intercropping and nutrient management on productivity and profitability of cultivating maize under sub-alpine conditions of Jammu. The inter-cropping systems were sole maize, sole rajmash, maize + rajmash in a 1:1 row (1 rows of maize alternating with 1 row of rajmash) and maize + rajmash in 2:1 row (2 rows of maize alternating with 1 row of rajmash). The nutrient management treatments were, T1 =control (no fertility), T2 = 100% NPK (RDF, recommended dose of fertilizers), T3 = 75% RDF + 25% N through farmyard manure (FYM) and T4=50% RDF + 50% N (FYM). Among cropping system maize + rajmash (1:1) produced highest maize grain equivalent yield (MEY, 7772 kg ha-1), net returns (INR 52190 ha-1), B:C ratio (1.81), land equivalent ratio (LER, 1.40) and area time equivalent ratio (ATER, 1.38). Whereas among nutrient management techniques, 75% RDF + 25% N (FYM) produced highest MEY (7681 kg ha-1), net returns (INR 52585 ha-1) and B:C ratio of 1.88 with highest LER (1.36) and ATER (1.33).
... These micronutrients are required in small amounts (ranging from a few grams to a few hundred grams per hectare) for the proper functioning of plant metabolism. The absolute or relative absence of any of these nutrients can hamper plant growth; alternatively, too high a concentration can be toxic to the plant or to humans [26][27][28][29][30]. Volume 4 Issue 2 -2016 Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is identified as one of the most valuable veggies packed with essential nutrients [8,10]. ...
... Highest productivity of crops in sustainable manner without deteriorating the soil and other natural resources could be achieved only by applying appropriate combination of different organic manures and inorganic fertilizers [24,43,44]. It is important to identify the best type of available organic resources which can be used as fertilizers and their best combination with appropriate proportion of inorganic fertilizers [27,37,42]. Sufficient and balanced application of organic and inorganic fertilizers is a major component of INM [24,43]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of integrated nutrient management practices on soil fertility and crop yield of hybrid cultivar of brinjal (Solanum melongena L. cv. F1 Hybrid purple long) under field conditions. During the study, ten nutrients treatments viz., without nutrient (control) (T1), recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) (T2), vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1 (T3), sugarcane pressmud compost (SPC) @ 5 t ha-1 (T4), farm yard manure (FYM) @ 12.5 t ha-1 (T5), sewage sludge (SS) @ 2 t ha-1 (T6), T7 (50 % RDF + vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1), T8 (50 % RDF + SPC @ 5 t ha-1), T9 (50 % RDF + FYM @ 12.5 t ha-1) and T10 (50% RDF + SS @ 2 t ha-1) were used for the cultivation of S. melongena. The results revealed that different treatments showed significant (P<0.05/P<0.01) change in the soil characteristics viz., EC, OC, TKN, PO43-, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn of the soil. Among various treatments the most plant height, root length, dry weight, chlorophyll content, LAI, number of flowers/plant, fruits/plant, crop yield/plant, crude protein, dietary fiber, total carbohydrates and total sugar of S. melongena was recorded with 50% RDF + vermin compost @ 5 t ha-1. The agronomical performance of S. melongena was observed in the order of T7 > T10 > T9 > T8 > T3 > T6 > T5 > T4 > T2 > T1 treatments. Therefore, sole vermin compost and 50% RDF along with vermicompost
... These micronutrients are required in small amounts (ranging from a few grams to a few hundred grams per hectare) for the proper functioning of plant metabolism. The absolute or relative absence of any of these nutrients can hamper plant growth; alternatively, too high a concentration can be toxic to the plant or to humans [26][27][28][29][30]. Volume 4 Issue 2 -2016 Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is identified as one of the most valuable veggies packed with essential nutrients [8,10]. ...
... Highest productivity of crops in sustainable manner without deteriorating the soil and other natural resources could be achieved only by applying appropriate combination of different organic manures and inorganic fertilizers [24,43,44]. It is important to identify the best type of available organic resources which can be used as fertilizers and their best combination with appropriate proportion of inorganic fertilizers [27,37,42]. Sufficient and balanced application of organic and inorganic fertilizers is a major component of INM [24,43]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of integrated nutrient management practices on soil fertility and crop yield of hybrid cultivar of brinjal (Solanum melongena L. cv. F1 Hybrid purple long) under field conditions. During the study, ten nutrients treatments viz., without nutrient (control) (T1), recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) (T2), vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1 (T3), sugarcane pressmud compost (SPC) @ 5 t ha-1 (T4), farm yard manure (FYM) @ 12.5 t ha-1 (T5), sewage sludge (SS) @ 2 t ha-1 (T6), T7 (50 % RDF + vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1), T8 (50 % RDF + SPC @ 5 t ha-1), T9 (50 % RDF + FYM @ 12.5 t ha-1) and T10 (50% RDF + SS @ 2 t ha-1) were used for the cultivation of S. melongena. The results revealed that different treatments showed significant (P<0.05/P<0.01) change in the soil characteristics viz., EC, OC, TKN, PO43-, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn of the soil. Among various treatments the most plant height, root length, dry weight, chlorophyll content, LAI, number of flowers/plant, fruits/plant, crop yield/plant, crude protein, dietary fiber, total carbohydrates and total sugar of S. melongena was recorded with 50% RDF + vermin compost @ 5 t ha-1. The agronomical performance of S. melongena was observed in the order of T7 > T10 > T9 > T8 > T3 > T6 > T5 > T4 > T2 > T1 treatments. Therefore, sole vermin compost and 50% RDF along with vermicompost
... It might be because of more crop growth, yield and minimum support price during 2012. This confirms the findings of Kumar et al. (2007). In case of wheat, higher cost of cultivation was observed with the treatment which received 37.5% RDF + 37.5% RDN + BF and minimum cost of cultivation was observed with 75% RDF. ...
... Higher cost of cultivation was observed with the treatment which received the maximum amount of recommended dose of nitrogen through CRFYM. This confirms the findings of Kumar et al. (2007) and Kumari et al. (2010). Hence application of 50% RDF through fertilizers and 50% RDN through CRFYM in maize and 37.5% RDF through fertilizers 37.5% RDN through CRFYM and use of biofertilizers in wheat was found better nutrient-management practice using fertilizers and crop residues in the form of FYM for higher growth, yield, and net returns from maize–wheat cropping system. ...
Article
Full-text available
A field experiment was conducted during 2011–12 and 2012–13 at New Delhi, to evaluate the effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield attributes, yield and economics of maize (Zea mays L.)–wheat {Triticum aestivum (L.) emend. Fiori & Paol.} cropping system. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design (RBD) during the first year of maize and in factorial randomized block design (FRBD) in successive crops with 3 replications, consisting of 5 different treatments in rainy and winter season each comprising 25 treatment combinations. The results revealed that 50% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF-120 kg N, 60 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O/ha) + 50% recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN-120 kg N/ha) through crop residue mixed farmyard manure resulted in significantly higher maize grain yield (4.24 t/ha) over the control (2.23 t/ha) during first year, but during the second year (5.25 t/ha) it was significantly higher than the control (3.07 t/ha) and 50% RDF + 25% RDN + biofertilizer (4.83 t/ha). Application of 100% RDF to maize recorded significantly maximum net profit (₹ 28.22 × 103, 42.74 × 103 ₹ /ha), followed by 75% RDF + 25% RDN. However, benefit: cost (B:C) ratio of 1.33 and 1.60 were recorded significantly higher under the control over the other treatments followed by 100% RDF, during 2011 and 2012 respectively. In wheat crop, 100% RDF showed significantly higher growth and yield attributes over the control. The maximum wheat grain yield (4.97 t/ha) and net returns (66.96 × 103) were recorded with the application of 100% RDF through chemical fertilizers, whereas, maximum B: C ratio (2.76) was recorded in control.
... The increased availability of nitrogen from T 4 (100% RDP + AM @ 12.5 kg ha -1 + PSB @ 5 kg ha -1 ) during the later part of the crop growth was attributed to positive influence of adequate P nutrition on N availability. The decrease in post-harvest nutrient (N, P and K) status of soil compared to initial soil nutrient status was might be due to crop removal and its transformation in the soil as reported by Tetarwal., et al. [7], Singh., et al. [8] and Sharma., et al. [9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
A field trial entitled "Evaluation of biofertilizers for phosphorus economy in sweet corn (Zea mays L.)" was executed during kharif, 2018 on sandy loam soils of S.V. Agricultural College, Tirupati campus of Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University. The experiment was structured in a randomized block design with ten treatments and three replications. The different experimental treatments consists different phosphorus management practices. Phosphorus levels failed to exert significant influence on nitrogen and potassium content of sweet corn. The higher post-harvest soil available nitrogen and phosphorus status was noticed with 100% recommended
... Maize crop requires higher amount of nutrients to achieve higher productivity and to attain higher yields balanced and timely supply of nutrients is needed. (Taterwal et al., 2011 and Sampath kumar and Pandian 2010) [39,31] similar finding reported that maize crop responded well to fertigation and application of nutrients up to 150 per cent of RDF and maximized the grain yield. [33,36] found the maximum LAI in balanced supply of fertilizer. ...
Article
Full-text available
Conservation agriculture is the effective way of utilization of natural resources and sustainable crop production. In CA practices we use in this experiment maize+pigeon pea intercropping that increase the crop intensification that lead to increase crop production. This experiment on "Effect of conservation tillage and nutrient management on maize in maize-pigeon pea intercropping system" was conducted during 2019-2020 at TCA research farm, Dholi (Dr. RPCAU, Pusa). The experiment was laid out in split plot design with 4 main plot treatment viz., T1: Permanent bed (PB), T2: Zero tillage (ZT), T3: Fresh bed (FB) and T4: Conventional tillage (CT) and 3 sub-plot treatment viz., N1: 100% Recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF), N2: 120% Recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) and N3: 80% Recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) which were replicated thrice. The result indicated that the parameters of growth, yield attributes and yield of maize crop was affected by tillage and nutrient management. The plant height and LAI of maize were significant influenced by tillage and nutrient management and it were higher in PB and 120% RDF application and it at par with ZT and 100% RDF application which were compared to CT and 80% RDF application. The higher growth under these treatments were also associated with yield attributing character of maize viz., length of cob, number of rows per cob, number of grains per row, test weight. Maize grown under PB tillage recorded (58.9 q/ha) of grain yield being at par with grown under ZT (56.4 q/ha) compared to CT (49.0 q/ha) while, under the nutrient management practices recorded highest yield with 120% RDF application in maize (58.1 q/ha). Harvest index of maize was higher in PB and 120% RDF applications which was closely followed by ZT and 100% RDF application.
... It was also found that application of no nitrogen (N 1 ) registered the lowest available K 2 O in the soil after maize harvest. It might be due to the fact that higher potassium content in PM and FYM (Kalhapure et al., 2014) [12] and release of organic acids and other microbial products (Badiyala and Chopra, 2011) which might have improved availability of both native as well as added potassium through transformation of solid phase to soluble complex (Tetrawal et al. 2011). These results are in consonance with those of Manjhi et al. (2014) [15] and Kumar (2015) [14] . ...
Preprint
Full-text available
An investigation was carried out during two consecutive kharif and rabi seasons of 2015 and 2016 on sandy loam soils of dryland farm of S.V. Agricultural College, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three replications to study the direct and residual effect of live mulching and nitrogen management practices on post-harvest nutrient availability in maize-groundnut sequence. Live mulching with annual legumes (sesbania or sunhemp or cowpea) significantly influenced post-harvest nutrient availability. Live mulching with sesbania recorded significantly higher soil available N after harvest of preceding maize as well as succeeding groundnut whereas live mulching with sunhemp recorded significantly higher P2O5 and K2O being on par with cowpea live mulching than no mulching. Similarly, application of 75 per cent of RDN through urea + 25 per cent of RDN through FYM or PM recorded significantly higher soil available N, P2O5 and K2O after harvest of preceding maize as well as succeeding groundnut than100 per cent RDN through urea and control during both the years.
... The increase in biomass might be due to PSB and KSB applications along with Phosphorus and Potassium fertilizers which helped to increase their intake and also helped to produce some natural acids with inside the rhizosphere which helped to promote cell wall permeability and photosynthetic activity ultimately increased plant growth and dry weight. Plant development is boosted by PSB inoculation due to increased synthesis of growth promoting chemicals and the complimentary effect of increased phosphorus availability (Tetarwal et al. 2011) [25] in maize. The findings are consistent with those of Jordan and Caldwell (2012) [14] in wheat and maize, Abbas et al. (2013) [1] in maize, Hussain et al. (2013a) [12] in maize, Hussain et al. (2013b) [12] in maize, Tipodiya and Yubby (2013) in maize, Amanullah and Shah (2015) [3] in maize, Manzoor et al. (2016) [17] in maize, Viruel et al. (2014) 29 in maize and Hashem et al. (2017) [17] in maize. ...
Thesis
The area experiment was laid out during Zaid season of 2021 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (U.P). The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with ten treatments and each replicated three times. Results obtained that notably maximum plant height (173.05 cm), number of leaves (6/plant), leaf area index (3.81), dry weight (140.08 g/plant), crop growth rate (229.95 g/m 2 /day), cobs (1.67/plant), cob girth (10.97 cm), rows/cob (12.13), kernels/row (34.07), cob weight with husk (55.47 g), seed index (17.32 g), kernel yield (3.56 t/ha) and stover yield (5.62 t/ha) have been recorded with application of 45 kg P/ha + PSB (seed + soil) along with 45 kg K/ha + KSB (seed + soil). However, cob length (18.13 cm), cob weight without husk (43.89 g) and harvest index (39.24%) were obtained significantly highest values in 45 kg P/ha + PSB (seed + soil) along with 45 kg K/ha + KSB (soil). Maximum gross returns (Rs. 79,698.60/ha), net returns (Rs. 51,589.65/ha) and benefit: cost ratio (1.84) were obtained highest in the treatment combination of 45 kg Phosphorus and potassium/ha along with PSB and KSB (seed + soil) compared to control plot.
... These results are in line with the findings of (Almaz et al. 2017), who reported that the integrated application of 50% NPK +50% PM increased nutrients (N, P, and K) uptake of maize over single applications of PM and inorganic fertilizer. Several other researchers reported higher NPK uptake in the combined application of PM and NPK than in the single application (Ghosh et al. 2012;Prasad et al. 2010;Quansah 2010;Tetarwal et al. 2011). This increase in uptake could be ascribed to the maximum recovery of nutrients in soils from organic and inorganic sources (Gezahegn 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
Integrated nutrient management (INM) got substantial attention to decrease reliance on synthetic fertilizer applications in agricultural soils. However, the concept of INM in nutrient-deficient alkaline calcareous soil of the semi-arid climate is not sufficient. This study investigated the effect of single and facile combinations of poultry manure (PM) and compound fertilizer NPK on soil physicochemical parameters, NPK availability, and its uptake by spring maize in alkaline-calcareous soil. A field experiment in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates and with three rates of PM (0, 5, and 10 t ha⁻¹) and three rates of compound fertilizer NPK (0, 25, 50, and 75%) of the recommended dose of 120: 90: 60 kg ha⁻¹ was conducted. The facile combination of 10 tons ha⁻¹ PM & 75% NPK fertilizer synergistically improved soil total nitrogen (N) from 0.04 to 0.10%, extractable soil phosphorus (P) from 2.29 to 5.9 mg kg⁻¹ with a percent (%) increase of 157.6, potassium (K) from 83.2 to 123.3 mg kg⁻¹ with a percent (%) increase of 48.19, N uptake from 35.0 to 92 kg ha⁻¹ with a percent (%) increase of 162.8, P uptake from 3.6 to 9.3 kg ha⁻¹ and K uptake from 30.0 to 79.0 kg ha⁻¹ with a percent (%) increase of 154.07 and 163.33, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between soil pH and NPK uptake, while soil organic matter and NPK uptake had a significant positive correlation. It also improved post-harvest soil organic matter from 0.61 to 1.48%, reduced soil pH from 8.12 to 7.1, and bulk density from 1.34 to 1.04 g cm⁻³. These changes in soil physicochemical parameters further open up NPK availability and its uptake by spring maize. As an INM strategy, PM combined with compound fertilizer NPK could increase NPK pools and crop yield in alkaline calcareous soils while reducing dependency on synthetic fertilizers.
... In beans, corn, and potato, they improve grain production by 10-18% [3]. In wheat, maize, and cotton, Azotobactor inoculations considerably improve plant weight and grain content [4][5]. ...
Article
Increasing worldwide demand for food items with limited per capita land for cropping will be a major challenge. Corn (Zea mays L.) is one of the world's most important cereal crops, second only to wheat and rice. To increase crop output and maintain soil health, Integrated Nutrient Management combines chemical fertilizers with organic manures through a biological process. An integrated plant nutrient supply system could aid in achieving balanced fertilization goals, which would improve the soil's physicochemical qualities on a long-term basis. The treatment T2 (100 percent N2 through Urea + Boron @ 3 kg. ha-1 ) has emerged superior over other treatments and shows better growth, yield, followed by T14 (50 percent N2 through Urea + 25 percent N2 through FYM + 25 percent N2 through Azotobactor @ 3 kg. ha-1 ), while the treatment T4 (50 percent N2 through Urea + 25 percent N2 through FYM + 25 percent N2 through Azotobactor @ 3 kg. ha-1 ).
... (2011) [14] . ...
Article
Full-text available
The present field experiment was conducted at an Agricultural Farm Rama University, Kanpur (U.P) India. the Central Plain zone of Uttar Pradesh, during Rabi season of 2020-21. The experiment comprised of 7 treatment combinations in randomized block design with three replications consisted of T1: 100% RDF, T2: 100% RDF + FYM @ 5 t ha-1 , T3: 100% RDF + FYM @ 10 t ha-1 , T4: 100% RDF + FYM @ 15 t ha-1 ,T5: 75% RDF + FYM @ 5 t ha-1 , T6: 75% RDF + FYM @ 10 t ha-1 , T7: 75% RDF + FYM @ 15 t ha-1. On the basis of the results emanated from present investigation, it could be concluded that application of 100% RDF + FYM @ 15 t ha-1 applied in wheat to significantly increases growth parameter i.e. plant height and yield attributes i.e. length of cob, no. of cob per plant, no. of grain per cobs and seed index (g). Results also showed that among the different fertility levels, application of 100% RDF + FYM @ 15 t ha-1 significantly enhanced productivity parameters i.e. grain yield, straw yield, biomass yield except harvest index over the 100% RDF. Higher values of economics viz., gross return (Rs. 140822 ha-1), net return (Rs. 79495 ha-1) and B:C ratio (1.30) in maize was observed with the application of 100% RDF + FYM @ 15 t ha-1 except cost of cultivation.
... The increment in plant height at harvest due to residual of T5 was the tune of 36% over control. An increase in plant height due to the residual effect of different levels of RDF along with FYM and liquid bio-fertilizer was probably likely to be cell and internodal elongation, promoting vegetative growth resultant in the increase in plant height which corroborates with the results of [10][11][12][13]. The dry weight of root nodules (Table 2) was found significantly higher (75.81 mg plant -1 ) due to residual effect of 15 t FYM ha -1 + 5.0 t Vermicompost ha -1 + Bio NP Consortia (T10). ...
Article
A Field experiment was conducted to evaluate the residual effect of nutrient management on growth, yield attributes and yield of mungbean. The experiment was conducted in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with 10 treatments and 4 replications during kharif, 2019 at Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat. All the nutrient management practices were followed in the previously sown pearlmillet crop. The Present experiment evaluates the residual effect of these nutrient management practices on mungbean. The residual effect of 100 % RDF + 15 t FYM ha-1 + Bio NP Consortia was recorded in plant height, number of pods per plant, test weight and protein content. The total number of nodules and the dry weight of nodules were significantly higher under the residual effect of 15 t FYM ha-1 + 5.0 t Vermicompost ha-1 + Bio NP Consortia (T10). The partial nutrient balance of the whole cropping system showed that nitrogen fertilization showed a positive balance, whereas phosphorus and potassium showed a negative nutrient balance under different nutrient management practices. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International License.
... This could be owing to better growth of plant in terms of dry matter accumulation under inoculation of azotobacter. The present results are in accordance with those reported by Tetarwal et al., (2011), Baral and Adhikari (2013), Tomar et al., (2017) and Panchal et al., (2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops in the world agricultural economy, both as food for human beings and feed for animal. Among the plant nutrients, macro nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium play a crucial role in deciding the maize growth and yield. The response of crops to macronutrients varies widely from place to place, depending upon the fertility level of soil and other environmental conditions. A field experiment was conducted to study the optimization of NPK with zinc fertilizer on yield, yield attributes and nutrients uptake of hybrid maize in sandy loam soil of Vanniyarpalayam village belongs to Vadalapakkam series (Typic Rhodustalf), low in organic carbon, low in available N, low in available P and medium in available K. Field experiment was conducted with seven treatments viz., T 1-50% RDF, T 2-100% RDF, T 3-150% RDF, T 4-150% RDF + ZnSO 4 @ 25 kg ha-1 , T 5-150% RDF + ZnSO 4 @ 25 kg ha-1 + Neem cake @ 200 kg ha-1 , T 6-150% RDF + ZnSO 4 @ 25 kg ha-1 + Azotobacter @ 2 kg ha-1 , T 7-150% RDF + ZnSO 4 @ 25 kg ha-1 + Neem cake @ 200 kg ha-1 + Azotobacter @ 2 kg ha-1. The experiment was carried out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with four replications and tested with maize var. Dhanvi-166 as test crop. The results of the study indicated that the application of 150 % recommended dose of fertilizer, zinc sulphate @ 25 kg ha-1 and neem cake @ 200 kg ha-1 along with azotobacter @ 2 kg ha-1 was significantly registered the maximum grain yield of 620.48 kg ha-1 and Stover yield is 8951.91kg ha-1. Lowest grain yield, Stover yield and nutrient uptake is was noticed in 50 % recommended dose of fertilizer treatment.
... This might be due to the reason that vermicompost or FYM or sheep manure with its comparatively slower oxidisable nature might have released the nutrients slowly up to maturity stage of crop which accounted for better mobilization of nutrients to seeds thereby enhancing the seed weight. Similar findings were also reported by Tetarwal et al. (2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
A field experiment was conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Polasa, Jagtial during kharif, 2018 and 2019 to study the effect of integrated nutrient management practices on yield attributes and yield of maize. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design during kharif, 2018 with nine treatments comprising of T 1-100% RDF, T 2-75% RDN + 25% N through FYM, T 3-75% RDN + 25% N through vermicompost, T 4-75% RDN + 25% N through poultry manure, T 5-75% RDN+ 25% N through sheep manure, T 6-75% RDN + 25% N through neem cake, T 7-75 % RDN + Azotobacter @ 5 kg ha-1 , T 8-75% RDN + Azospirillum @ 5 kg ha-1 , T 9-75 % RDN + Azotobacter @ 2.5 kg ha-1 + Azospirillum @ 2.5 kg ha-1 replicated thrice. Significantly higher cob length, cob girth, number of rows cob-1 , number of kernels row-1 , number of kernels cob-1 , test weight (g), grain yield (kg ha-1) and stover yield (kg ha-1) were recorded. Among the different treatments, application of 75% RDN + 25% N through vermicompost recorded longest cobs (16.33 cm and 16.57 cm in 2018 and 2019, respectively), increased cob girth (15.23 cm and 16.00 cm in 2018 and 2019, respectively), registered higher kernel rows cob-1 (13.37 and 15.00 in 2018 and 2019 respectively), number of kernels row-1 (22.4 and 23.33 in 2018 and 2019 respectively), highest number of kernels cob-1 (302 and 348 in 2018 and 2019, respectively) more test weight (30.57 and 30.07 in 2018 and 2019, respectively), more grain yield (6349 and 6514 kg ha-1 in 2018 and 2019, respectively) and stover yield (8259 and 8460 kg ha-1 in 2018 and 2019, respectively) over 75% RDN + 25% N through poultry manure, 75% RDN + 25% N through neem cake, 75 % RDN + Azotobacter @ 2.5 kg ha-1 + Azospirillum @ 2.5 kg ha-1 , 75% RDN + Azospirillum @ 5 kg ha-1 , 75% RDN + Azotobacter @ 5 kg ha-1. While, it is comparable with 100 % RDF, 75 % RDN + 25% N through FYM and 75 % RDN + 25% N through sheep manure.
... Hybrid maize is a nutrient-responsive heavy feeder (Tetarwal et al., 2011) and has a high soil fertility requirement to achieve maximum yield (Uribelarrea et al., 2009). Hybrid maize requires an appropriate supply of nutrients, particularly nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, for improved and sustained yield (Asghar et al., 2010;Banerjee et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Field experiments were conducted to evaluate yield and nutrient use efficiency in maize in response to various rates of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in silty clay loam soil of Khumaltar, Nepal during 2019 and 2020. Three factorial randomized complete block designs with 27 treatment combinations were used in experiments, which were repeated three times. Three factors were N levels (150, 180, 210 N kg ha-1), P levels (40, 60, 80 P2O5 kg ha-1), and K levels (40, 60, 80 K2O kg ha-1). The results recommend to revise fertilizer dose since N210 kg ha-1 and K2O 80 kg/ha were optimum for increased maize production with grain yields of 10.95 t ha-1 and 10.54 t ha-1, respectively. Partial factor productivity, partial nutrient budget, internal efficiency, physiological efficiency, recovery efficiency, and agronomic efficiency of NPK for hybrid maize were mostly influenced by nutrient levels. Application of higher rate of P and K fertilizer improved maize N efficiencies, and case was valid for P and K efficiencies. Maize was more responsive to N and K fertilizer and lower rate of P application limited efficient use of applied N and K. To increase overall NUE, we recommend to revise dose of fertilizer for hybrid maize under mid hill condition of Nepal.
... The organic manure incorporated has the properties of enhanced soil quality by the way of increasing soil organic carbon and microbial activities (Jat et al. 2013). The similar effects of different organic and inorganic sources of nutrients on the organic status of soil after harvest of the crop were revealed by Tetarwal, Ram, and Meena (2011) in rainfed maize. ...
Article
The present experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of the foliar application of growth stimulators and harvest date on plant growth and quality attributes of safflower at the Agricultural Research station of Urmia (Iran) during the 2015–2016 and 2016–2017 growing seasons.The experiment was carried out in a factorial randomized complete block design with 10 treatments and four replications. The first factor was the foliar application of (i) nano-Fe 2 mg L�1, (ii) humic acid 2.5 mL L�1, (iii) magnetic water at 2 L m�2, (iv) ascorbic acid 30 mg L�1, and (v) control (distilled water), and the second factor was two harvest dates including of 121 and 136 days after sowing. The highest total unsaturated fatty acid content was obtained from the foliar application of nano-Fe. This treatment also resulted in a 12% increase in the total unsaturated fatty acid. The foliar application of humic acid and nano-Fe significantly promoted the growth of the safflowers via improving photosynthetic characteristics, such as chlorophyll index. The highest total N (3.65 ppm), available P (0.362 ppm), and K (1.32 ppm) contents of the seeds were obtained from the second harvest date. As well, the total unsaturated and saturated fatty acid percentage and harvest index were significantly affected by the second harvest date. Percent of chromosome abnormality was also ggdecreased on the second harvest date
... The organic manure incorporated has the properties of enhanced soil quality by the way of increasing soil organic carbon and microbial activities (Jat et al. 2013). The similar effects of different organic and inorganic sources of nutrients on the organic status of soil after harvest of the crop were revealed by Tetarwal, Ram, and Meena (2011) in rainfed maize. ...
Article
Full-text available
Maize, being a nutrient exhaustive crop and also grown as a monocrop season after season, is leading to drastic deterioration of the soil fertility status. Hence green manure legumes initially grown in situ and later incorporated before flowering stage into the soil will help to rejuvenate the soil health. An experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Vizianagaram for three consecutive years during kharif 2015, 2016 and 2017 to evaluate the effect of green manures on soil health, nutrient bioavailability and yield attributes of the succeeding maize crop. Three green manure legumes viz., sunhemp, dhaincha and green gram were grown in situ and incorporated into the soil before sowing of the maize crop in the respective treatments and different doses of fertilizer levels were applied to study the cumulative effect of green manures and inorganic fertilizers on the growth and yield attributes, economics and nutrient uptake of succeeding maize. Pooled data of all three years proved that the grain and straw yield was found to be the highest in the treatment of in situ incorporation of dhaincha with 100% RDF (65.2 q/ha and 74.0 q/ha). Moreover, the soil available nitrogen was also found highest in the same treatment (230 kg/ha), whereas the available P2O5 (73 kg/ha) and K2O (318 kg/ha) was found highest in the treatment with in situ incorporation of sunhemp with 100% RDF, but these treatments are at par with in situ incorporation of dhaincha with 75% RDF. The soil available Fe was found high in the treatment with in situ incorporation of dhaincha with 100% RDF (12.98 ppm), whereas soil available Mn was found highest in the treatment with in situ incorporation of sunhemp with 100% RDF (12.43 ppm) but at par with in situ incorporation of dhaincha with 100% RDF and in situ incorporation of dhaincha with 75% RDF. The N and K uptake by maize plant was found highest in the treatment with in situ incorporation of dhaincha with 100% RDF (110.0 kg/ha and 87.5 kg/ha) whereas the uptake of P was found highest in the treatment with in situ incorporation of sunhemp with 100% RDF (39.1 kg/ha), but both the treatments are at par with each other in the uptake of N, P and K nutrients and significantly higher than sole crop of maize with 100% RDF.
... The available nitrogen and phosphorus were significantly higher in 125 % RDF, which was at par with 100 % RDF. This was might be due to the fact that adequate supply of nutrients meets the crop demand (Tetarwal et al., 2011). Significantly maximum available nitrogen and phosphorus were obtained under application of interculturing along with hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS and was at par with treatment atrazine @ 0.5 kg ha -1 + pendimethalin @ 0.25 kg ha -1 as PE, over rest of the treatments. ...
... The increased availability of nitrogen from T 4 (100% RDP + AM @ 12.5 kg ha -1 + PSB @ 5 kg ha -1 ) during the later part of the crop growth was attributed to positive influence of adequate P nutrition on N availability. The decrease in post-harvest nutrient (N, P and K) status of soil compared to initial soil nutrient status was might be due to crop removal and its transformation in the soil as reported by Tetarwal., et al. [7], Singh., et al. [8] and Sharma., et al. [9]. ...
... The dry matter accumulation and distribution are the innate characteristics of the government by many factors such as cultivar and nutrient management [21,22]. The dry matter distribution in different plant parts at different growth stages has been presented in (Fig. 1 The increase in DM accumulation maybe because K plays an essential role in plant enzymatic response, increase in metabolite concentration and protein synthesis [23,24]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: This field experiment was conducted to compare the combined application of different rates of potassium and zinc application against the standard farmers practised application rate based on dry matter distribution, net photosynthesis, transpiration rate, sub stomatal C0 2 concentration, stomatal conductance, grain yield and quality attributes (protein and carbohydrate content and yield). Place and Duration of Study: This short-term field trial was conducted on the Agronomy Research Original Research Article Bhattacharjee et al.; CJAST, 39(47): 35-44, 2020; Article no.CJAST.64620 36 Farm of Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola, Maharashtra, India on the Kharif (Post monsoon) season of 2016. Methodology: The experiment was conducted in Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD) with two factors i.e., potassium and zinc, each having three levels. The experiment was replicated thrice. The three potassium levels were 30, 60 and 90 kg K 2 O ha-1 while the zinc was applied 20, 30 and 40 kg ZnSO 4 .7H 2 O ha-1 as three distinctive levels. A short duration dwarf maize cultivar Ravi-81 was used for the experiment. Results: Perusal of experiment results confirmed that potassium and zinc have positive interaction even in short duration crop under dryland condition. The higher dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate, photosynthetic attributes, yield, protein content, protein yield, and carbohydrate yield has been recorded with the application of potassium at a rate of 60 kg K 2 O ha-1 along with zinc application of 30 kg ZnSO 4 .7H 2 O ha-1 which has been found to be statistically superior over farmers adopted practice (30 kg K 2 O ha-1 along with zinc application of 20 kg ZnSO 4 .7H 2 O ha-1). Conclusion: Combined application of potassium and zinc has positive interaction on each other, and the increased rate is needed to meet the demand for short duration high yielding maize crop for enhanced growth, yield and quality attributes.
... These results are in conformity with the work done by Stalin et al., (2011). Soil application of Zinc enhanced the nutrient availability in deficit soil and showed more response to the soil applied Zinc (Tetarwal et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
A field experiment was conducted at Experimental Farm, AICRP on Integrated Farming Systems, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani. The experiment was laid in split plot design comprising two main plot factors i.e., Nitrogen, Zinc and Phosphorus as Sub-plot factor. Nitrogen was taken at three levels (100,125 and 150 kg ha-1), Zinc at two levels (25 and 35 kg ZnSO4 kg ha-1) and Phosphorus at three levels (50, 75 and 100 kg ha-1). Application of 150 kg N ha-1, 100 kg P ha-1 and 35 kg Zn ha-1 recorded significantly higher grain yield (6705.8 kg ha-1) and Stover yield (7161 kg ha-1). The uptake of the nutrients viz., Nitrogen (167.41 kg ha-1), Phosphorus (49.72 kg ha-1) and Zinc (17.4 kg ha-1) as well as nutrient status post harvest of maize was highest with the 150 kg N ha-1, 75 kg P ha-1 and 35 kg ZnSO4 ha-1. But the results were at par with the 125 kg N ha-1, 75 kg P ha-1 and 25 kg ZnSO4 ha-1. From the results, it was concluded that the maximum yield, uptake by maize & post harvest nutrient status could be achieved by judicious application of chemical fertilizers (N, P & Zn).
... (2011) [28] , Haque et al. (2012) [29] , Karforma et al. (2012) [15] , Pathan et al. (2012) [25] , Channabasamma et al. (2013) [23] , Hussain et al. (2013) [10] , Joshi et al. (2013) [12] , Kalhapure et al. (2013) [13] , Masih et al. (2016) [19] , Pathan et al. (2014) [26] , Kumar et al. (2015) [16] and Yadav et al. (2013) [31] . Green forage and dry fodder yield were affected significantly due to different fertilizer treatment. ...
Article
Full-text available
A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2016 at Jorapura Farm of Livestock Research Station, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar to study the "Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of rabi forage maize (Zea mays L.)." Ten treatment combinations comprising of two factors viz., farm yard manure levels (M1: 10 t/ha, M2: 15 t/ha) and fertilizers (F1): RDF, (F2): Azotobacter + PSB, (F3): 50 % RDF + Azotobacter + PSB, (F4): 75 % RDF + Azotobacter + PSB and (F5): 100 % RDF + Azotobacter + PSB was laid out in randomised block design (factorial concept) with four replications. The results revealed that 15 t FYM/ha performed better by recording 5.67 and 5 per cent higher green forage (503 q/ha) and dry fodder (105 q/ha) yield, respectively over 10 t FYM/ha. Combined application of 100 % RDF + Azotobacter + PSB performed better by recording 58.23 and 52.63 per cent higher green forage (557 q/ha) and dry fodder (116 q/ha) yield over other treatments. The results revealed that application of 15 t FYM/ha performed better by recording higher plant height (165.9 cm), number of leaves per plant (12.6), stem girth of 3 rd internode (7.96 cm), leaf area per plant (3624 cm 2), leaf: stem ratio (0.34) and length of internodes (12.1 cm) respectively over application of 10 t FYM/ha. Combined application of 100 % RDF + Azotobacter + PSB recorded higher values of plant height (175.8 cm), number of leaves per plant (13.5), stem girth of 3 rd internode (9.28 cm), leaf area per plant (4000 cm 2), leaf: stem ratio (0.37) and length of internodes (12.7 cm) over other combinations. It is concluded that the application of 15 tonnes farm yard manure per hectare along with 100 % RDF + Azotobacter + PSB found superior followed by the application of 15 tonnes farm yard manure per hectare along with 75 % RDF + Azotobacter + PSB.
... Further, application of 75% recommended dose of fertilizer + maize stalk incorporation with cellulolytic culture + biofertilizer (Azospirillum+ PSB) and one row of sunhemp between two rows of maize (sunhemp incorporated at 40 days after sowing) recorded at par values of green fodder yield and NPK uptake with 100 % recommended dose of fertilizers during fifth year of experiment (Gundlur et al., 2015). Tetarwal et al., (2011) from Jhalawad (Rajasthan) recorded significantly higher plant height, cobs/plant, grains/cob, grain and biological yield of maize with 150% RDF which was at par with RDF + 10 tha -1 FYM, however significantly higher dry matter at harvest was recorded with RDF + 10 tha -1 FYM which was at par with150% RDF. ...
Article
Full-text available
Supply of good quality and adequate quantities of fodder play an important role in improving the health and productivity of animals. Green and dry fodders are cheaper sources than concentrate feed, hence its inclusion would curtail the cost of feed purchase. Unfortunately, in our country there is acute scarcity of green and dry fodder mainly due to very less area available for its cultivation. In future also there are less chances to increase area under forage cultivation because of heavy pressure of burgeoning human and livestock population on meager land. Among various improved agro techniques Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) has been proved to be the best options to augment good quality forage production per unit area by sustaining soil fertility and its productivity under limited land resources available today.
... Integrated use of improved fallow (IF) along with application of FYM at 4 t/ha recorded significantly higher plant height (312 cm) and was on par with the treatments IF + 55/10 kg N/P ha -1 and IF + 2.5 t/ha FYM (311 and 309 cm, respectively) on Alfisol under agroclimatic conditions of Ethiopia. Tetarwal et al., (2011) at Jhalawar noticed that among different treatments, application of RDF + FYM at 10 t/ha resulted in higher plant height (198.5 cm) and dry matter (150.9 g) in maize, which was at par with application of 150 per cent RDF alone (207.3 cm and 149.1 g of plant height and dry matter, respectively). Application of FYM at 2.5 t/ha + Eupatorium at 2.5 t/ha resulted in higher plant height (222.79 cm) in maize compared to rest of the treatments. ...
Article
Full-text available
The costs of feeding dairy animals can make up to 50-70 % of the total cost of producing milk. Therefore, it is important to find ways of minimizing feed costs to improve the economic efficiency of any dairy enterprise. Producing economical fodder to feed dairy animals is of great importance to the farming system. Further in India the total feed requirement for the country’s livestock population is also increasing rapidly in order to sustain milk production. In the country majority of the farmers are small and marginal who use most of their land for agricultural crop cultivation. But a large number of farmers among them are dairy farmers whose income relies on the milk production of the dairy animals. Therefore, it is important to look at the farm as a whole system and determine whether it is worthwhile to grow more fodder to ensure feed is available for the dairy herd. Imbalanced use of chemicals and second generation problems of green revolution in agriculture has weakened the ecological base in addition to degradation of soil, water resources, food quality, crop productivity and farm profitability especially in cereal based intensive cropping systems in the country especially in North India. Human health hazards and environmental degradation associated with this input intensive cropping system has renewed the interest in the organic cultivation of crops. Global warming led climate changes are further aggravating the agro-ecological imbalance. Hence the current scenario firmly emphasizes the need to adopt eco-friendly agricultural practices for sustainable food production.
... As a result, available nutrients are utilized and lost rapidly by different means. Alternatively, organic fertilizers were decomposed gradually and nutrients are accessible for longer period of time which help to preserve soil nutrient status [Praharaj and Rajendran (2007), Tetarwal et al. (2011)]. Among the organic manures, Farm Yard Manures and Vermicompost are available in plenty in the locality and can be efficiently utilized for vegetable production. ...
... As a result, available nutrients are utilized and lost rapidly by different means. Alternatively, organic fertilizers were decomposed gradually and nutrients are accessible for longer period of time which help to preserve soil nutrient status [Praharaj and Rajendran (2007), Tetarwal et al. (2011)]. Among the organic manures, Farm Yard Manures and Vermicompost are available in plenty in the locality and can be efficiently utilized for vegetable production. ...
Article
Full-text available
A field experiment was conducted at Horticultural Research Centre (HRC) of SVPUAT, Meerut during the year 2017-18 to investigate the effect of integrated use of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients on growth, yield and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) var. Pusa Rohini under field condition. There were 6 treatments of integrated nutrient management, viz. T 1-NPK 100% (120:60:50 kg/ha), T 2-FYM 100% (25 t/ha), T 3-VC 100% (8 t/ha), T 4-NPK 75% + FYM 25% (6.25 t/ha), T 5-NPK 75% + VC 25% (2 t/ha), T 6-NPK 50% + FYM 50% (12.5 t/ha), T 7-NPK 50% + VC 50% (4 t/ha), T 8-NPK 50% + FYM 25% (6.25 t/ha) + VC 25% (2 t/ha) and T 9-Control (No organic and inorganic fertilizers). The findings revealed that the treatment T 4-NPK 75% + FYM 25% (6.25 t/ha) was found superior in terms of plant height, plant spread, number of primary branches plant-1 , number of leaves plant-1 and diameter of main shoot as compared to control. However, minimum days taken to first flowering and days taken to first fruit formation exhibited by the application of T 8-NPK 50% + FYM 25% (6.25 t ha-1) + VC 25% (2 t ha-1). The yield parameters like maximum number of fruit/plant, length of fruit, fruit weight plant-1 , fruit yield plot-1 and fruit yield ha-1 produced by the treatment T 4-NPK 75% + FYM 25% (6.25 t/ha). The maximum peel thickness was observed under the treatment T 4-NPK 75% + FYM 25% (6.25 t/ha) while, maximum total soluble solids (TSS) and ascorbic acid was obtained from the fruits treated with T 8-NPK 50% + FYM 25% (6.25 t ha-1) + VC 25% (2 t ha-1) during course of study.
... This finding is also supported by Rasool et al., (2015) and Singh et al., (2018). The beneficial effect of incorporation of FYM and nitrogen on plant height of maize was also reported by Oad et al., (2004), Karki et al., (2005) and Tetarwal et al., (2011). Among the different integrated nitrogen management, the highest plant dry weight was observed in treatment N3 which remained at par to N 2 at 25 DAS but significantly superior at 50, 75, 100 DAS and at harvest. ...
Article
A field experiment was conducted during the pre-kharif season of 2018 at experimental field of College of Agriculture, Central Agricultural University, Imphal, Manipur to study the influence of sowing time and integrated nitrogen management on growth and yield of local glutinous maize (Zea mays L.). The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design (FRBD) with 12 treatments and 3 replications. The treatment consisted of four different integrated nitrogen management practices and three sowing dates. The result revealed that maximum plant height, plant fresh weight, number of leaves and LAI were recorded with the application of RDN- 75% through urea + 25% through FYM (N3) for the crop sown on 9th April (S3). Similarly maximum number of cobs per plant, number of grain rows per cob, cob length, number of grains per cob and test weight of maize was observed in the treatment N3S3. The maximum grain and stover yield were obtained with the application of RDN- 75% through urea + 25% through FYM and the crop sown on 9th April. It can be concluded that the local glutinous maize (Zea mays L.) responded well to the integrated nitrogen management for the crop sown on 9th April (N3S3) as expressed in growth and yield.
... Addition of zinc along with RDF may be responsible for the availability of nitrogen which reflected into increased growth parameters, which ultimately increased the dry matter accumulation. These findings are in conformity with those of Pokharel et al., (2009), Tetarwal et al., (2011) and Ravi et al., (2012. ...
Article
Full-text available
Field studies were carried out during the growing season 2015-16 at Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (Maharashtra) to study “Effect of different nutrient management practices and zinc fertilization on various growth and development stages of maize (Zea mays L) under dryland condition”. The treatments were laid out in a randomized block design (FRBD) with three replications. The experimental results indicate that application of RDF 125% along with ZnSO4 @ 20 kg ha-1 procured the best result in maximum growth parameters and sometime found to be at par with the application of RDF 125% along with ZnSO4 40 kg ha-1.
... This was mainly attributed to proportionate increase in dry matter production and increase in total biological yield (grain + stover yield) which ultimately increased the total uptake of nitrogen. This result was in conformity with the findings of Kumar et al. (2007) and Rani et al. (2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Field investigation carried out during kharif2013 in college farm, Professor Jayashanar telangana state Agricultural University Rajendranagar, at Hyderabad. Soil of experimental field was sandy loam in texture neutral in reaction (pH 7.4), free from salts (EC 0.28 dSm-1), low in organic carbon (0.4%), nitrogen (175 kg ha-1), Olsen s available phosphorus (36 kg ha-1) and rich in potassium (342 kg ha-1). The study was comprised of 3 levels of plant populations (66,666, 88,888 and 1,11,111 plants ha-1) and 4 levels of nitrogen (120, 180, 240 and 300 kg ha-1). The study revealed that plant population of 1,11,111 plants ha-1 recorded higher PAR and RUE. Whereas, significantly higher nitrogen uptake (2.21 g plant-1) was observed with 66,666plants ha-1.Among nitrogen levels application of 300 kg N ha-1 recorded higher PAR and RUE. Significantly higher nitrogen uptake was found with application of 240 kg N ha-1. However, it is comparable with 300 kg N ha-
... Higher dry matter production with residual effect of manure and RDF could be attributed to enhanced plant height, leaf area index and photosynthates accumulation, thereby improving the plant vigor due to source-sink relationship. These findings are in conformity with those of Pokharel et al. (2009), Tetarwal et al. (2011) andRavi et al. (2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
A field experiment was conducted during 2014-2015 and 2015-16 on integrated nutrient management in maize and its residual effect on groundnut under maize-groundnut crop sequence in Southern telanagana region. The plot receiving combination of residual 50% RDF+50% RDN through urban compost (M 5) and 100% RDF (S 1) exerted significant effect on most of the growth parameters at different stages of succeeding groundnut. The maximum increase in the growth parameters like plant height, dry matter accumulation of groundnut were obtained due to residual effect of residual 50% RDF+50% RDN through urban compost (M 5) through 100% RDF (S 1) and was closely followed by the treatments having residual 50% RDF+50% RDN through FYM (M 3) and 100% RDF(S 1). With regard to interaction between residual treatments and fertilizer levels was not observed during both years of study.
... This was mainly attributed to proportionate increase in dry matter production and increase in total biological yield (grain + stover yield) which ultimately increased the total uptake of nitrogen. This result was in conformity with the findings of Kumar et al. (2007) and Rani et al. (2013). ...
... Higher dry matter production with residual effect of manure and RDF could be attributed to enhanced plant height, leaf area index and photosynthates accumulation, thereby improving the plant vigor due to source-sink relationship. These findings are in conformity with those of Pokharel et al. (2009), Tetarwal et al. (2011) andRavi et al. (2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
A field experiment was conducted during 2014-2015 and 2015-16 on integrated nutrient management in maize and its residual effect on groundnut under maize-groundnut crop sequence in Southern telanagana region. The plot receiving combination of residual 50% RDF+50% RDN through urban compost (M 5) and 100% RDF (S 1) exerted significant effect on most of the growth parameters at different stages of succeeding groundnut. The maximum increase in the growth parameters like plant height, dry matter accumulation of groundnut were obtained due to residual effect of residual 50% RDF+50% RDN through urban compost (M 5) through 100% RDF (S 1) and was closely followed by the treatments having residual 50% RDF+50% RDN through FYM (M 3) and 100% RDF(S 1). With regard to interaction between residual treatments and fertilizer levels was not observed during both years of study.
... The increased seed and straw yields can also be ascribed to the effect of adequate availability of NPK in soil solution, may cause increase in root growth, thereby increasing uptake of nutrients. These findings are in close agreement with the results obtained by Tetarwal et al., (2011) andJoshi et al., (2013). Similar results were also reported by Singh et al., (2015). ...
... The present findings are in close agreement with the results obtained by Dadarwal et al. (2009) They reported that application of 75% NPK along with 2.25 t ha -1 vermicompost + biofertilizers significantly increased net returns, B:C and uptake and available N, P and K status of soil after harvest of baby corn. The application of RDF + Azotobacter + PSB gave significantly higher amount of uptake of N, P and Zn and benefit: cost ratio as compared to control (Tetarwal et al., 2011) CONCLUSION Thus, it can be concluded that the integration of different sources of nutrients either from chemical, organic and biofertilizers sources have been proven to be recorded success in different part of the world than sole use of either chemical fertilizers or organic manures and this system is not only improving the total crop productivity and food quality but it also maintain and sustains soil health for future generation as well as improving the economic stability of the farmers. ...
Article
Full-text available
A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2011-12 on heavy black soil to study the effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of baby corn. The treatments comprising all possible combinations of five levels of nitrogen (chemical and vermicompost fertilizer) with and without bio-fertilizer (Azotobacter and PSB) were laid out in randomized block design with three replications. These were significantly higher with application of 100% RDN from chemical fertilizer with bio-fertilizer over 100% RDN from vermicompost. The cob and fodder yields significantly differed with different integrated nutrient management treatment. Significantly the higher growth and yield attributes yield and fodder yield were recorded with the application of 100% RDF from chemical fertilizer with bio-fertilizer. Application of 100% RDN from chemical fertilizer with biofertilizer was recorded higher net returns over 100% RDN from vermicompost (Rs. 220775/ha) and BCR (12.54).
Research
Full-text available
In coming decades, a major issue in designing sustainable agricultural system will be the management of soil organic matter and the rational use of inputs such as animal manures, crop residue, green manures, sewage sludge and food industry wastes. However, since organic manures cannot meet modern agriculture, integrated use of nutrients from the fertilizers and organic sources seems to be a need of the time. The continuous use of high levels of chemical fertilizers is adversely affecting the sustainability of agriculture production and causing environmental pollution. It is ultimately viable to achieve such a target through the wise application of INM approach, which is known as a balanced mixture of organic, inorganic and bio-fertilizers in suitable combinations. The basic concept underlying the integrated management system (INMS), nevertheless, is the maintenance and possible improvement of soil fertility for sustaining crop productivity on long term basis and also to reduce fertilizer input cost. The different components of integrated nutrient management process have great diversity in terms of chemical and physical properties and nutrient release patterns.
Article
Full-text available
Agronomic biofortification increases the concentration of target mineral in edible portions of crops by the use of mineral fertilizers to increase dietary intake of target minerals. Among these iron and zinc deficiencies in human nutrition are noticed in countries where maize is the staple food. The objective of this study was to evaluate agronomic biofortification performance in association with Integrated Nutrient Management in maize (Zea mays .L). The study was conducted under field conditions in Chinnakandiankuppam village, Vriddhachalam Taluk, in the North-eastern region of Tamil Nadu state, India of Kharif 2020 season. Two hybrids in main plots (M1 – Non biofortified and M2 – Biofortified) were combined with six treatments in sub-plots (100 % RDF through NPK (S1), 100 % RDF through FYM (S2), 50% RDF through NPK + 50% through FYM (S3) as soil application, S1+ Zinc + Iron (S4), S2 +Zinc + Iron (S5) and S3 + Zinc + Iron (S6) as foliar application with evaluations were carried out in wet season period of the year. Application of 50 percent RDF through NPK + 50 percent RDF through FYM with Fe, Zn, foliar applications (S6) was the most efficient agronomic biofortification practice for growth attributes, yield and yield attributes, nutrient uptake, and quality parameters for the maize cropping system under the irrigated condition of the northeastern zone of Tamilnadu State, India.
Article
Full-text available
The field experiment was carried out at the farmer's field in Chella Kamarpara village, Chella G.P, Chella Mouza of Illambazar Block, Birbhum, West Bengal which is situated at 23 o 37.374' latitude and 87 o 37.170'E longitudes with an average altitude of 58.9 m above mean sea level under sub-humid, subtropical belt under the prevailing climatic conditions of West Bengal during the Kharif season of 2013. The experiment consisted of the five levels of nutrient management i.e., N 1 : State recommendation (150:75:75), N 2 : Nutrient expert (NE) recommendation (120:34:51), N 3 : Farmers practices (80:40:40), and N 4 : Basal application of 50:75:75 with split N application on basis of LCC (leaf colour chart), N 5 :control and two level of varieties viz. V 1 : Sona and V 2 : Rajkumar, the total number of treatment combinations are ten, which were replicated thrice and was laid out in factorial randomized block design (FRBD). To evaluate the effect of nutrient management on the growth, productivity and economics of hybrid maize cultivation. Nutrient management has played an important role in achieving sustainability of grain production. The chemical fertilizer consumption coupled with their limited production, fertilizer cost, soil health and pollution have given rise to interest in precision nutrient management tools. It was the found that the Growth, productivity, nutrient uptake and economics of hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) as influenced by precision nutrient management which was significantly affected by different level of nutrient management and varieties. Whereas, LCC based application of fertilizer gave better result than all other treatment but it was also statistically at par with Nutrient expert based recommendation. Highlights m User-friendly nutrient decision support tool that enables researchers, extension experts and industry. m Based on nutrient expert tool is a better option of nutrient management for maize crops. m Enhance productivity and sustainability of maize cultivation.
Article
Full-text available
Field experiment was conducted to study Integrated Nutrient Management for increasing Growth with Sustainability of Baby Corn on sandy loam soils, low in available N, high in available P and K for two consecutive kharif seasons of 2014 and 2015. The experiment was laid down in randomized block design having seven treatments i.e. T1= Control, T2= 100 per cent recommended dose of N, T3 = 5 tones of FYM + 100 kg inorganic N ha-1, T4= 10 tonne of FYM + 75kg inorganic N ha-1, T5= 15tonne of FYM + 50 kg inorganic N ha-1, T6= 20tonne of FYM + 25 kg inorganic N ha-1, T7= 25 tonne of FYM ha-1 replicated four times. Significant increase in all growth parameters of baby corn was observed with Integrated Nutrient Management over control. Moreover, among nutrient management treatments, the integration of 5 tonne of FYM with 100 kg of inorganic N ha-1 came out to be the best for all growth characters viz. plant height, number of leaves per plant, leaf area index and dry matter accumulation.
Article
Full-text available
To characterize the fertility status of soils under dryland agriculture in the semi-arid regions of India, we collected 3622 soil samples from farmers' fields in watersheds, spread in several districts of Andhra Pradesh (AP; 5 districts), Karnataka (5 districts), Tamil Nadu (TN; 5 districts), Rajasthan (3 districts), Madhya Pradesh (MP; 2 districts), and Junagadh District, Gujarat. Results of the analysis of soil samples showed that almost all farmers' fields sampled were low in organic carbon and low-to-moderate in extractable phosphorus, but generally adequate in extractable potassium. The widespread deficiencies of sulphur (S), boron (B) and zinc (Zn) were most revealing; their deficiencies varied with nutrient, district and state. The deficiencies of S, B and Zn nutrients were more widespread in farmers' fields in AP, Karnataka, MP, TN and Gujarat than in the Rajasthan watersheds. Our results demonstrate that crops grown under rainfed agriculture in the semi-arid tropical regions of India not only face water shortages and deficiencies of major plant nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), but they also suffer from multi-nutrient deficiencies of S, B and Zn.
Article
A field investigation involving three sources (chemical, organic and chemical + organic) and three levels of nitrogen (50, 75 and 100% of the recommended dose), in conjunction with two levels of bio-inoculant (no-inoculation and inoculation with Azotobacter) was carried out on a Typic Haplustalfs of Udaipur (Rajasthan), India, using maize and wheat crops in cropping sequence. Application of N at 100% of the recommended dose through organic manure alone or in integration with inorganic fertilizer on equal N basis as compared to when applied solely through chemical fertilizer enhanced the growth, yield attributes and yields of both the crops along with uptake of nutrient and protein content. Inoculation with Azotobacter also improved these parameters under study. Improvements in available nutrient status of the soil under these treatments suggest the rational way to sustain the crop production.
Article
A field experiment was conducted during rainy and pre-rabi winter seasons of 2001-02 to 2002-03 under upland dry terraces on fixed site at ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya to find out suitable integrated nutrient management techniques for maize (Zee mays L.)-mustard (Brassica campestris L. var toria Duth.& Full.) cropping system. At the inception of the experiment, the soil was sandy loam in texture, acidic reaction having low status of available N and P and medium in available K. The growth, yield attributes and economics of maize were best in substitution of 50% of the recommended dose of NPK through farmyard manure while yield was slightly more with 25% substitution but was comparable with 50% substitution through farmyard manure. In mustard these parameters had best reflection in treatment involving 100% of NPK substitution through farmyard manure in maize and getting 100% NPK in mustard which was at par with 50% N through farmyard manure and 50% NPK through fertilizer to maize and 100% NPK to mustard crop. The maize equivalent yield, net return and benefit : cost ratio for whole system established superiority of the 50% substitution of NPK through farmyard manure in maize + 100% NPK in mustard, followed by 25% of NPK substitution through farmyard manure + 75% NPK through fertilizer and getting 100% NPK in mustard over all other treatments.
Article
A long-term experiment initiated in 1983 was selected during 1997-99 to study cumulative impact of organic sources (FYM, rice straw and green karanj leaves) substituting inorganic fertilizers in recommended fertilizer dose (RFD) once each by 25% and 50% during rainy season (kharif, in maize (Zea mays L.)-wheat (Triticum aestivum L. emend. Fiori & Paol.) cropping system. All the organic sources were instrumental in improving pH and aggregation of soils. Only rice straw in its higher substitution (50%) could induce significant improvement in bulk density and water-holding capacity of soils but a constant trend of improvement was there under application of all the sources. All the 3 sources both in their higher and lower substitutions enriched the soils in organic carbon contents. Farmyard manure (FYM) and green karanj leaves in their higher substitution improved NPK levels of soils. Rice straw at this level (50% substitution) could bring about significant improvement only in available K content of soils. At lower level of substitution (25%) green manuring with karanj leaves induced higher available P and K in soils, but FYM at the level could bring about significant improvement only in available P level. Application of rice straw at this level of substitution (25%) could not alter status of any of the NPK significantly. Substitution of inorganic fertilizers by FYM either at higher (50%) or lower (25%) level was helpful in increasing grain yield and uptake of NPK.
Article
An experiment was conducted during rainy seasons of 2000 and 2001 to evaluate maize (Zea mays L.) composite varieties at varying fertility under mid-hill rainfed conditions. Two new composites, viz 'L118' and 'SLM2', and 2 checks, 'Early Composite' and 'KH517' were tested at 4 fertility levels, viz recommended fertilizer(RF) @ 120:60:40 kg/ha, 50% RF + 10 tonnes FYM/ha, RF + 10 tonnes FYM/ha and 150% RF. The composite variety 'L118' at 150% recommended fertilizer gave a higher yield of 7.83 tonnes/ha which was at par with hybrid 'KH 517' (8.14 tonnes/ha). Reducing the fertility level to 50% recommended fertilizer + 10 tonnes/ha decreased the yield by 24.3% compared with recommended fertilizer. There was depletion of N, P2O5 and K 2O content of soil compared to initial status at all varieties and fertility levels. The net returns (Rs 20 692/ha) and benefit: cost ratio (4.46) was highest with 'L118'. Application of 150% recommended fertilizer gave maximum net returns (Rs 19 655/ha), whereas recommended fertilizer gave maximum benefit: cost ratio (4.49).
Article
Information on soil—plant nutrient balance in India and elsewhere is scarce and mostly generalized. Earlier nutrient balance studies and their criticism are discussed. An on-farm nutrient balance study 1995/1996 and 1996/1997, was designed to understand nutrient balances resulting from farmers’ practices in semi-arid tropical regions of India. This study involved sorghum-based and groundnut-based cropping systems in low rainfall areas. Farmers were selected by systematic survey and analyses of factors affecting farmers’ decision-making on nutrient inputs. Intensive plot-specific nutrient input and output measurements were made on 53 farmers’ fields for sorghum-based systems and 45 farmers’ fields for the groundnut-based systems. Topsoil mineral nitrogen (N) contents observed in 2 years at the beginning of the crop season at both locations were surprisingly high, and exchangeable potassium (K) contents also indicated sufficient supply in most fields. However, available phosphorus (P) in the majority of fields at both locations was just sufficient, and around threshold levels for most of the crops. The nutrient balance in sorghum-based systems indicates a moderate to high negative balance of K leading to soil mining for K supply with these systems. Nitrogen and P balances were generally positive. Although the groundnut-based system accumulates 53% of its N requirements through biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), negative balances of N and K were observed mainly due to low-input applications. Application of K together with N is suggested. Better-nodulating groundnut cultivars and efficient Rhizobium strains need to be introduced. The negative balance of K was estimated for sorghum-based systems. High positive balances were observed in the systems whenever a commercial crop was sown. The study also indicated farmers’ preference to apply excess quantities of farmyard manure (FYM) to commercially important crops even in dryland farming systems.