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Leveraging Multicommunication in the Classroom: Implications for Participation and Engagement

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Abstract

Computer-mediated classrooms are proliferating and instructors are finding creative ways to reach the digital learners of today. But with all these technology tools, making decisions that are guided by solid pedagogical practices are vital. This study relies on instructional communication, multicommunication practices, and interactivity research and how they play key roles when creating a participatory classroom environment. The tool used to address the problems outlined in this case study is webconferencing-a synchronous Web-based platform that allows the instructor to share slides, create real-time surveys (polls), and provide text chat opportunities for students who are co-located or dispersed. By leveraging the webconferencing tools and the desires of the Net Generation, the classroom in this study became more inclusive, communicative, and interactive.

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... They usually engage in web-based activities on popular social media sites and access other applications during class time (Bjornsen & Archer, 2015;Whiting & Williams, 2013). Some scholars emphasize the positive impact of using digital devices in class, such as increased participation, interaction with the instructor, and active learning (Barak et al., 2006;George et al., 2013;Karataş, 2018;Kong & Song, 2015;Stephens et al., 2012), while others underline its negative impact on students' concentration, attention, comprehension, and recall of the course material (Mendoza et al., 2018;Sana et al., 2013), academic satisfaction (Wurst et al., 2008) and performance (le Roux & Parry, 2017;Ravizza et al., 2014;Sana et al., 2013). A possible explanation for these relations might be the multitasking nature of in-class Internet use (Aagard, 2015). ...
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With the technological advances, the use of digital devices, such as laptops, tablets, or smartphones in the educational setting has become prevalent among young people. Accordingly, there has been an increased concern among scholars on students’ in-class Internet use for personal purposes; namely, ‘cyberloafing’. Considerable research has demonstrated the adverse effects of in-class Internet use on students’ learning environment and academic performance. The present study particularly investigates the relationship between cyberloafing behaviors and positive and negative affect among university students. It examines five different online activities including sharing, shopping, real-time updating, accessing online content, and gaming/gambling separately to gain greater insight into students’ cyberloafing behaviors. The sample consisted of 267 undergraduate students who filled out questionnaires measuring cyberloafing behaviors, positive and negative affect, and demographical information including the use of the Internet and mobile technologies. The initial analyses showed that male students had higher scores in shopping, accessing online content, and gaming/gambling than females. The latent variable analysis revealed that among different activities of cyberloafing, accessing online content and gaming/gambling were positively correlated with positive affect, while sharing was positively associated with negative affect among students. The findings emphasize the importance of evaluating cyberloafing as a part of students’ psychological well-being rather than a variable merely related to academic achievement. The findings of the study also enlighten researchers and educators in developing appropriate policies and interventions to manage misuse of the Internet in class.
... Considerable research has documented the positive and negative effects of in-class Internet use on students' classroom learning and academic performance. In some studies, scholars emphasize the benefits of using digital devices in class such as increasing students' class participation, facilitating faculty-student interaction and active exploratory learning (Barak et al., 2006;George et al., 2013;Karatas¸, 2018;Kong & Song, 2015;Stephens et al., 2012). In other studies, however, scholars lay stress upon its negative impact on students' classroom learning, attention, and academic grades (Aagaard, 2015;Abramova, et al.,2017;Chen & Yan, 2016;Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015;Foster, 2008;Fried, 2008;Kraushaar & Novak, 2010;Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013;Lam & Tong, 2012;Ravizza et al., 2014;Sana et al., 2013;van Der Schuur et al., 2015;Wood et al., 2011). ...
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Cyberloafing, the intentional use of the Internet for personal purposes during class hours, has received the scholars' attention due to the increased access to digital devices in educational settings. Considering the possible negative consequences of misuse of the Internet on health and well-being, the current study aims to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this relationship by examining in detail the role of coping strategies. The sample consisted of 272 undergraduate students. The participants were asked to fill out items measuring cyberloafing behaviors, coping strategies (emotion-focused and problem-focused), and psychological symptoms (depression, anxiety, anger, and somatization). The results revealed that cyberloafing is positively related to psychological symptoms. Furthermore, it is observed that cyberloafing moderates the relationship between emotion-focused coping and psychological symptoms such that at high levels of cyberloafing, emotion-focused coping is associated with higher levels of psychological symptoms. These findings contribute to the existing literature on students’ psychological well-being in terms of highlighting its relation with coping strategies and problematic Internet use.
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This paper reports qualitative findings from a study that investigated Australian university staff and students’ perceptions and use of current and emerging technologies both in their daily lives and in teaching and learning contexts. Forty-six first-year students and 31 teaching and support staff from three Australian universities took part in interviews and focus groups. This paper examines how students and staff reported on their use of new technologies in their daily lives, their stated reasons for using those technologies, and their beliefs about the benefits and limitations of using technologies as teaching and learning tools. The findings question assumptions that have been made about a “digital divide” between “digital native” students and their “digital immigrant” teachers in higher education today, suggesting we need to develop a more sophisticated understanding about the role technologies play in the lives of both students and staff. A better understanding of student and staff perspectives will allow for more informed decisions about the implementation of educational technologies in today’s higher education institutions.
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E-learning is emerging as the new paradigm of modern education. Worldwide, the e-learning market has a growth rate of 35.6%, but failures exist. Little is known about why many users stop their online learning after their initial experience. Previous research done under different task environments has suggested a variety of factors affecting user satisfaction with e-Learning. This study developed an integrated model with six dimensions: learners, instructors, courses, technology, design, and environment. A survey was conducted to investigate the critical factors affecting learners’ satisfaction in e-Learning. The results revealed that learner computer anxiety, instructor attitude toward e-Learning, e-Learning course flexibility, e-Learning course quality, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and diversity in assessments are the critical factors affecting learners’ perceived satisfaction. The results show institutions how to improve learner satisfaction and further strengthen their e-Learning implementation.
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The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of interactivity to a computer-based learning package enhances the learning process. A sample of 33 (22 male and 11 female) undergraduates on a Business and Management degree used a multimedia system to learn about the operation of a bicycle pump. The system consisted of a labelled diagram of the pump, followed by a description of twelve stages in its operation. The sample was randomly divided into two groups who used either an interactive (I) or a non-interactive (NI) version involving both images and text. The I system differed from the NI system by the incorporation of control of pace, self-assessment questions and an interactive simulation. Students then undertook two different types of tests to assess their learning: one designed to evaluate their memory by recalling facts from the lesson, and another designed to assess their understanding through solving novel diagnostic problems. Students using the I system outperformed those using the NI system in the problem-solving test, and needed less time to complete both memory and problem-solving tests. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that interactive systems facilitate deep learning by actively engaging the learner in the learning process. This suggests that educational designers who seek to foster deep learning (as opposed to mere factual recall) should adopt the incorporation of interactivity as a design principle.
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New communication technologies, increased virtual communication, and the intense pressure for managers and employees to be continually available and "online" are giving rise to a new and emerging workplace behavior: multicommunicating (MC), or the managing of multiple conversations at the same time. Whereas researchers in psychology and management have studied the phenomenon of multitasking, few have examined multitasking where one juggles not just multiple tasks but multiple people and often multiple media at the same time. We use the spiral theory of incivility to investigate the relational outcomes of MC from the perspective of the communication partners being juggled. Our research extends this theory by further exploring the starting point of the spiral and—through the application of social exchange theory—suggesting several antecedents to incivility that are important in the context of MC. Employing a survey methodology, both qualitative and quantitative data were collected to test the theory (n = 324) and were analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis and structural equation modeling. The results suggest several factors influencing the partner's perceptions of focal individual incivility during MC, including who initiates the conversation, whether one of the conversations being juggled is useful to the other conversation, the focal individual's performance during the conversation, whether the focal individual is more accessible to the partner, and whether the partner is certain of or only suspects the existence of the other conversation. Further, partners' perceptions of these factors are influenced by their individual orientations toward MC. Finally, the partners' perceptions of the focal individual's incivility influence their interpersonal trust in the focal individual.
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Some scholars worry that Instant Messaging (IM), by virtue of the ease with which users can initiate and participate in online conversations, contributes to an increase in task interruption. Others argue that workers use IM strategically, employing it in ways that reduce interruption. This article examines the relationship between IM and inter- ruption, using data collected via a (U.S.) national telephone survey of full-time workers who regularly use computers (N = 912). Analysis of these data indicates that IM use has no influence on overall levels of work communication. However, people who utilize IM at work report being interrupted less frequently than non-users, and they engage in more frequent computer-mediated communication than non-users, including both work-related and personal communication. These results are consistent with claims that employees use IM in ways that help them to manage interruption, such as quickly obtaining task-relevant information and negotiating conversational availability.
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This paper describes instances of multicommunicating—or engaging in more than one conversation at a time. It uses a critical incident technique to explore successful and unsuccessful incidents of multicommunicating from the perspective of 201 MBA students. Additionally, we asked which media individuals pair together when multicommunicating. We found very frequent pairing of the telephone (which provides partial compartmentalization but no flexibility of tempo) with electroric text (which provides both compartmentalization and flexibility of tempo). We also found that respondents provide a variety of reasons for labeling a particular episode as “unsuccessful.” In many cases the person seemed to describe an episode as unsuccessful when the person or a communicating partner had exceeded his or her ability to juggle multiple conversations as demonstrated by communication errors.
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This work presents a systematic analysis of the psychological phenomena associated with the concept of mental representations - also referred to as cognitive or internal representations. A major restatement of a theory the author of this book first developed in his 1971 book (Imagery and Verbal Processes), this book covers phenomena from the earlier period that remain relevant today but emphasizes cognitive problems and paradigms that have since emerged more fully. It proposes that performance in memory and other cognitive tasks is mediated not only by linguistic processes but also by a distinct nonverbal imagery model of thought as well. It discusses the philosophy of science associated with the dual coding approach, emphasizing the advantages of empiricism in the study of cognitive phenomena and shows that the fundamentals of the theory have stood up well to empirical challenges over the years.
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First published in 1958, this book has become recognized as a classic in its field. It marked a transition between behaviourist learning theory and the modern 'information processing' or 'cognitive' approach to perception and communication skills. It continues to provide a principal starting point for theoretical and experimental work on selective attention. As Professor Posner writes in his Foreword to the reissue: 'it remains of great interest to view the work in its original form and to ponder those creative moments when the mind first grasps a new insight and then struggles to work out its consequences.
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Instructional communication researchers, by focusing attention on "how-to" matters and forays into conventional areas of study (i.e., immediacy, apprehension), neglect a nuanced treatment of student and teacher identity. Such a perspective is relatively disembodied and fails to engage actual classroom interactions. By engaging in autoethnographic analysis of their experiences with instructional technology, the authors reveal a more complex understanding of how instructional identities interact. In particular, the authors advocate an understanding of power that is distributed, embodied, and malleable.
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In the 1980's a major transformation took place in the computing world: attention was finally being paid to making computers easier-to-use. You know the history: in the 1970's folks at Xerox were exploring so-called personal computers and developing graphical, point-and-click interfaces. The goal was to make using computers less cognitively taxing, there- by permitting the user to focus more mental cycles on getting the job done. For some time people had recognized that there would be benefits if users could interact with computers using visual cues and motor movements instead of testu- al/linguistic strings. However, computer cycles were costly; they could hardly be wasted on supporting a non-textual interface. There was barely enough zorch (i.e., computer power, measured in your favorite unit) to simply calculate the payroll.
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Classroom Presenter is a Tablet PC-based interaction system that supports the sharing of digital ink on slides between instructors and students. Initial deployments show that using the technology can achieve a wide range of educational goals and foster a more participatory classroom environment.