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Abstract

World Soil Day was established in 2002 by the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) to celebrate the importance of soil and its vital contributions to human health and safety. On December 20, 2013, the 68th UN General Assembly recognized December 5th, 2014 as World Soil Day and 2015 as the International Year of Soils. This official recognition of these events will emphasize the importance of soils beyond the soil science community. It took two years for the leadership of Thailand and the FAO Global Soil Partnership (GSP) to get these dates approved by the UN, but their hard work prevailed and soil has garnered the attention it has so long deserved. World Soil Day is annually held on December 5 to highlight soil's importance on Earth. We need soil for basic survival - food and energy. It is linked with the United Nations' (UN) Year of Soil. World Soil Day serves as a reminder to all of us that we owe our existence to the soil. As we face mounting global production, climate and sustainability challenges. Soil is fundamental to human life on Earth. Most plants require a soil substrate to provide water and nutrients, and whether we farm the plants directly or consume animals that feed on the plants, this means that we don't eat without soil. Having said that, it is not hard to see that a) it is possible to have a sea-based diet and b) it is possible to grow our food hydroponically. In those cases, it is possible to reduce the importance of soil. However, we still have the other reasons that soil is fundamental: it is required for trees. I don't think I need to go into the importance of trees for shade, animal habitat, building materials.
Van Sangyan
Published by Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, MP, India
Soil pollution: Causes, effects and control
(On world soil day
Dr. Rajesh Kumar Mishra,
Tropical Forest Research Institute
P.O. RFRC, Mandla Road, Jabalpur (M.P.)
December 5t
h, 2014 as World Soil Day
Thailand and the FAO
Global Soil
need soil for basic survival -
Nations' (UN) Year of Soil.
climate and sustainability cha
llenges
Vol. 3, No. 1, Issue:
Januaryr
Published by Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, MP, India
Soil pollution: Causes, effects and control
(On world soil day
, December 5, 2015)
Dr. Rajesh Kumar Mishra,
Dr. Naseer Mohammad and
Dr. N. Roychoudhury
Tropical Forest Research Institute
P.O. RFRC, Mandla Road, Jabalpur (M.P.)
– 482 021. India
World Soil Day was established in 2002
by the International Union of Soil Sciences
(IUSS) to celebrate the importance of soil
and its vital contributions to human health
and safety. On December 20, 2013, the
68th UN General Assembly recognized
h, 2014 as World Soil Day
and 2015 as the International Year of
Soils. This official recognition of these
events will emphasize the importance of
soils beyond the soil science community.
It took two years for the leadership of
Global Soil
Partnership (GSP) to get these dates
approved by the UN, but their hard work
prevailed and soil has garnered the
attention it has so long deserved. World
Soil Day is annually held on December 5
to highlight soil's importance on Earth. We
food and
energy. It is linked with the United
World Soil Day serves as a reminder to all
of us that we owe our existence to the soil.
As we face mounting global production,
llenges
.
Soil is fundamental to human life on Earth.
Most plants require a soil substrate to
provide water and nutrients, and whether
we farm the plants directly or consume
animals that feed on the plants, this means
that we don't eat without soil. Having
that, it is not hard to see that a) it is
possible to have a sea-
based diet and b) it
is possible to grow our food
hydroponically. In those cases, it is
possible to reduce the importance of soil.
However, we still have the other reasons
that soil is f
undamental: it is required for
trees. I don't think I need to go into the
importance of trees for shade, animal
habitat, building materials.
Soil is a vital part of the natural
environment. It is just as important as
plants, animals, rocks, landforms, loch
and rivers. It influences the distribution of
plant species and provides a habitat for a
wide range of organisms. It controls the
flow of water and chemical substances
between the atmosphere and the earth, and
acts as both a source and store for gases
(l
ike oxygen and carbon dioxide) in the
atmosphere. Soils not only reflect natural
processes but also record human activities
both at present and in the past. They are
therefore part of our cultural heritage. The
modification of soils for agriculture and
the
burial of archaeological remains are
good examples of this.
Soil, together with the plant and animal
life it supports, the rock on which it
develops its position in the landscape and
the climate it experiences, form an
amazingly intricate natural system
powerful and complex than any machine
that man has created. Soil may look still
Januaryr
, 2016
1
Dr. N. Roychoudhury
provide water and nutrients, and whether
we farm the plants directly or consume
animals that feed on the plants, this means
that we don't eat without soil. Having
said
that, it is not hard to see that a) it is
based diet and b) it
is possible to grow our food
hydroponically. In those cases, it is
possible to reduce the importance of soil.
However, we still have the other reasons
undamental: it is required for
trees. I don't think I need to go into the
importance of trees for shade, animal
Soil is a vital part of the natural
environment. It is just as important as
plants, animals, rocks, landforms, loch
s
and rivers. It influences the distribution of
plant species and provides a habitat for a
wide range of organisms. It controls the
flow of water and chemical substances
between the atmosphere and the earth, and
acts as both a source and store for gases
ike oxygen and carbon dioxide) in the
atmosphere. Soils not only reflect natural
processes but also record human activities
both at present and in the past. They are
therefore part of our cultural heritage. The
modification of soils for agriculture and
burial of archaeological remains are
Soil, together with the plant and animal
life it supports, the rock on which it
develops its position in the landscape and
the climate it experiences, form an
amazingly intricate natural system
more
powerful and complex than any machine
that man has created. Soil may look still
Van Sangyan Vol. 3, No. 1, Issue: Januaryr, 2016
Published by Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, MP, India 2
and lifeless, but this impression couldn’t
be further from the truth. It is constantly
changing and developing through time.
Soil is always responding to changes in
environmental factors, along with the
influences of man and land use. Some
changes in the soil will be of short
duration and reversible, others will be a
permanent feature of soil
Soil pollution is the reduction in the
productivity of soil due to the presence of
soil pollutants. Soil pollutants have an
adverse effect on the physical chemical
and biological properties of the soil and
reduce its productivity. Pesticides,
fertilizers, organic manure, chemicals,
radioactive wastes, discarded food,
clothes, leather goods, plastics, paper,
bottles, tins-cans and carcasses- all
contribute towards causing soil pollution.
Chemicals like iron lead mercury, copper,
zinc, cadmium, aluminium, cyanides, acids
and alkalies etc. are present in industrial
wastes and reach the soil either directly
with water or indirectly through air. (e.g.
through acid rain).
The improper and continuous use of
herbicides, pesticides and fungicides to
protect the crops from pests, fungi etc.
alter the basic composition of the soils and
make the soil toxic for plant growth.
Organic insecticides like DDT, aldrin,
benzene hex chloride etc. are used against
soil borne pests.
They accumulate in the soil as they
degrade very slowly by soil and water
bacteria. Consequently, they have a very
deleterious effect on the plant growth
stunting their growth and reducing the
yield and size of fruit. Their degradation
products may be absorbed by the plants
from where they reach the animals and
man through the food chains.
Radioactive wastes from mining and
nuclear processes may reach the soil via
water or as ‘fall-out’. From the soil they
reach the plants and then into the grazing
animals (livestock) from where ultimately
reach man through milk and meat etc.
resulting in retarded and abnormal growth
of man. Human and animal excreta used as
organic manure to promote crop yield, pol-
lute the soil by contaminating the soil and
vegetable crops with the pathogens that
may be present in the excreta.
Nitrification, which is the process of
forming soluble nitrates from the elemen-
tal atmospheric nitrogen or from originally
harmless organic materials actually
contribute towards water pollution when
the nitrates leach out of the soil and
accumulate to toxic levels in the water
supply.
Therefore, intensification of agricultural
production by practices of irrigation
(causes salination), excessive fertilisers,
pesticides, insecticides etc. have created
the problems of soil pollution. Soil
pollution can be checked by restricting the
use of above mentioned soil pollutants,
resorting to organic farming, adopting
better agriculture practices etc.
Soil pollution comprises the pollution of
soils with materials, mostly chemicals that
are out of place or are present at
concentrations higher than normal which
may have adverse effects on humans or
other organisms. It is difficult to define
soil pollution exactly because different
opinions exist on how to characterize a
pollutant; while some consider the use of
pesticides acceptable if their effect does
not exceed the intended result, others do
not consider any use of pesticides or even
chemical fertilizers acceptable. However,
soil pollution is also caused by means
other than the direct addition of xenobiotic
Van Sangyan Vol. 3, No. 1, Issue: Januaryr, 2016
Published by Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, MP, India 3
(man-made) chemicals such as agricultural
runoff waters, industrial waste materials,
acidic precipitates, and radioactive fallout.
Both organic (those that contain carbon)
and inorganic (those that don't)
contaminants are important in soil. The
most prominent chemical groups of
organic contaminants are fuel
hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic
hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls,
chlorinated aromatic compounds,
detergents, and pesticides. Inorganic
species include nitrates, phosphates, and
heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium
and lead; inorganic acids;
and radionuclides
(radioactive substances).
Among the sources of these contaminants
are agricultural runoffs, acidic precipitates,
industrial waste materials, and radioactive
fallout.
Soil pollution can lead to water pollution if
toxic chemicals leach into groundwater, or
if contaminated runoff reaches streams,
lakes, or oceans. Soil also naturally
contributes to air pollution by releasing
volatile compounds into the
atmosphere. Nitrogen escapes
through ammonia volatilization
and denitrification. The decomposition of
organic materials in soil can release sulfur
dioxide and other sulfur compounds,
causing acid rain. Heavy metals and other
potentially toxic elements are the most
serious soil pollutants in sewage. Sewage
sludge contains heavy metals and, if
applied repeatedly or in large amounts, the
treated soil may accumulate heavy metals
and consequently become unable to even
support plant life.
In addition, chemicals that are not water
soluble contaminate plants that grow on
polluted soils, and they also tend to
accumulate increasingly toward the top of
the food chain. The banning of the
pesticide DDT in the United States
resulted from its tendency to become more
and more concentrated as it moved from
soil to worms or fish, and then to birds and
their eggs. This occurred as creatures
higher on the food chain ingested animals
that were already contaminated with the
pesticide from eating plants and other
lower animals. Lake Michigan, as an
example, has 2 parts per trillion (ppt) of
DDT in the water, 14 parts per billion
(ppb) in the bottom mud, 410 ppb in
amphipods (tiny water fleas and similar
creatures), 3 to 6 parts per million (ppm) in
fish such as coho salmon and lake trout,
and as much as 99 ppm in herring gulls at
the top of the food chain.
The ever-increasing pollution of the
environment has been one of the greatest
concerns for science and the general public
in the last fifty years. The rapid
industrialization of agriculture, expansion
of the chemical industry, and the need to
generate cheap forms of energy has caused
the continuous release of man-
made organic chemicals into natural
ecosystems. Consequently, the
atmosphere, bodies of water, and many
soil environments have become polluted
by a large variety of toxic compounds.
Many of these compounds at high
concentrations or following prolonged
exposure have the potential to produce
adverse effects in humans and other
organisms: These include the danger of
acute toxicity, mutagenesis (genetic
changes), carcinogenesis, and
teratogenesis (birth defects) for humans
and other organisms. Some of these man-
made toxic compounds are also resistant to
physical, chemical, or biological
degradation and thus represent an
environmental burden of considerable
magnitude.
Van Sangyan Vol. 3, No. 1, Issue: Januaryr, 2016
Published by Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, MP, India 4
Numerous attempts are being made to
decontaminate polluted soils, including an
array of both
in situ
(on-site, in the soil)
and off-site (removal of contaminated soil
for treatment) techniques. None of these is
ideal for remediating contaminated soils,
and often, more than one of the techniques
may be necessary to optimize the cleanup
effort.
The most common decontamination
method for polluted soils is to remove the
soil and deposit it in landfills or to
incinerate it. These methods, however,
often exchange one problem for another:
landfilling merely confines the polluted
soil while doing little to decontaminate it,
and incineration removes toxic organic
chemicals from the soil, but subsequently
releases them into the air, in the process
causing air pollution.
For the removal and recovery of heavy
metals various soil washing techniques
have been developed including physical
methods, such as attrition scrubbing and
wet-screening, and chemical methods
consisting of treatments with organic and
inorganic acids, bases, salts and chelating
agents. For example, chemicals used to
extract radionuclides and toxic metals
include hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric
and citric acids, sodium carbonate and
sodium hydroxide and the chelating agents
EDTA and DTPA. The problem with these
methods, however, is again that they
generate secondary waste products that
may require additional hazardous waste
treatments.
In contrast to the previously described
methods,
in situ
methods are used directly
at the contamination site. In this case, soil
does not need to be excavated, and
therefore the chance of causing further
environmental harm is minimized.
In
situ
biodegradation involves the
enhancement of naturally occurring
microorganisms by artificially stimulating
their numbers and activity. The
microorganisms then assist in degrading
the soil contaminants. A number of
environmental, chemical, and management
factors affect the biodegradation of soil
pollutants, including moisture content, pH,
temperature, the microbial community that
is present, and the availability of nutrients.
Biodegradation is facilitated by aerobic
soil conditions and soil pH in the neutral
range (between pH 5.5 to 8.0), with an
optimum reading occurring at
approximately pH 7, and a temperature in
the range of 20 to 30°C. These physical
parameters can be influenced, thereby
promoting the microorganisms' ability to
degrade chemical contaminants. Of all the
decontamination methods bioremediation
appears to be the least damaging and most
environmentally acceptable technique.
The upper layer of the unsaturated zone of
earth is the soil. Soil is the natural body
made of mineral and organic
constituents. It is produced by solid
material recycling and complex processes
of solid crust modifications. Soil offers
shelter, habitat for numerous organisms
and is the living medium for plants. Soil is
the basis for agriculture. All vegetation for
human food and animal feed depend upon
soil.
Enormous quantities of waste from man-
made products are being released into the
soil causing soil pollution. Polluted water
also causes soil pollution. Soil pollution is
caused due to unhygienic habits,
agricultural practices and inappropriate
methods of disposal of solid and liquid
wastes. Soil pollution is a also caused as a
result of atmospheric pollution.
In industrialized countries, soil pollution is
a result of use of chemicals in agriculture,
Van Sangyan Vol. 3, No. 1, Issue: Januaryr, 2016
Published by Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, MP, India 5
dumping of waste materials, mining,
smelting of metals and also dumping of
domestic refuse and solids, untreated
sewage and industrial wastes.
Types of Soil Pollution
Soil pollution may be any chemicals or
contaminants that harm living organisms.
Pollutants decrease soil quality and also
disturb the soil's natural composition and
also lead to erosion of soil. Types of soil
pollution can be distinguished by the
source of the contaminant and its effects of
the ecosystem. Types of soil pollution may
be agricultural pollution, Industrial wastes
and urban activities.
Agricultural Pollution
Agricultural processes contribute to
soil pollution.
Fertilizers increase crop yield and also
cause pollution that impacts soil
quality.
Pesticides also harm plants and
animals by contaminating the soil.
These chemicals get deep inside the
soil and poison the ground water
system.
Runoff of these chemicals by rain and
irrigation also contaminate the local
water system and is deposited at other
locations.
Industrial Waste
About 90% of oil pollution is caused
by industrial waste products.
Improper disposal of waste
contaminates the soil with harmful
chemicals.
These pollutants affect plant and
animal species and local water supplies
and drinking water.
Toxic fumes from the regulated
landfills contain chemicals that can fall
back to the earth in the form of acid
rain and can damage the soil profile.
Urban Activities
Human activities can lead to soil
pollution directly and indirectly.
Improper drainage and increase run-off
contaminates the nearby land areas or
streams.
Improper disposal of trash breaks
down into the soil and it deposits in a
number of chemical and pollutants into
the soil. These may again seep into
groundwater or wash away in local
water system.
Excess waste deposition increases the
presence of bacteria in the soil.
Decomposition by bacteria generates
methane gas contributing to global
warming and poor air quality. It also
creates foul odors and can impact
quality of life.
Causes of Soil Pollution
Soil Pollution is a result of many activities
by mankind which contaminate the soil.
Soil pollution is often associated with
indiscriminate use of farming chemicals,
such as pesticides, fertilizers, etc.
Pesticides applied to plants can also leak
into the ground, leaving long-lasting
effects. Read about the dangers of
pesticides. In turn, some of the harmful
chemicals found in the fertilizers (e.g.
cadmium) may accumulate above their
toxic levels, ironically leading to the
poisoning of crops. Heavy metals can enter
the soil through the use of polluted water
in watering crops, or through the use of
mineral fertilizers. Faulty landfills,
bursting of underground bins and seepage
from faulty sewage systems could cause
the leakage of toxins into the surrounding
soil. Acid rains caused by industrial fumes
mixing in rain falls on the land, and could
dissolve away some of the important
nutrients found in soil, as such change the
Van Sangyan Vol. 3, No. 1, Issue: Januaryr, 2016
Published by Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, MP, India 6
structure of the soil. Industrial wastes are
one of the biggest soil-pollution factors.
Iron, steel, power and chemical
manufacturing plants which irresponsibly
use the Earth as a dumping ground often
leave behind lasting effects for years to
come. Fuel leakages from automobiles,
which get washed by rain, can seep into
the nearby soil, polluting it. Deforestation
is a major cause for soil erosion, where
soil particles are dislodged and carried
away by water or wind. As a result, the
soil loses it structure as well as important
nutrients found in the soil. Some the
causes of soil pollution can be as follows:
Industrial effluents like harmful
gases and chemicals.
Use of chemicals in agriculture
like pesticides, fertilizers and
insecticides.
Improper or ineffective soil
management system.
Unfavorable irrigation practices.
Improper management and
maintenance of septic system.
Sanitary waste leakage.
Toxic fumes from industries get mixed
with rains causing acid rains.
Leakages of fuel from automobiles are
washed off due to rains and are
deposited in the nearby soil.
Unhealthy waste management
techniques release sewage into
dumping grounds and nearby water
bodies.
Use of pesticides in agriculture
retains chemicals in the environment
for a long time. These chemicals also
effect beneficial organisms like
earthworm in the soil and lead to poor
soil quality.
Absence of proper garbage disposal
system leads to scattered garbage in
the soil. These contaminants can block
passage of water into the soil and
affects its water holding capacity.
Unscientific disposal of nuclear waste
contaminate soil and can cause
mutations.
Night soil contamination due to
improper sanitary system in villages
can cause harmful diseases.
Effects of
s
oil pollution
The main reason for soil contamination is
due to the presence of anthropogenic
activities. These waste products are made
of chemicals that are not originally found
in nature and hence lead to soil pollution.
Soil pollution is typically caused by
industrial activity, chemicals used in
agriculture and improper disposal of
waste. Soil contamination leads to health
risks due to direct and indirect contact with
contaminated soil. Soil pollution causes
huge disturbances in the ecological
balance and the health of the organisms is
under risk. The effects of pollution on soil
are quite disturbing and can result in huge
disturbances in the ecological balance and
health of living beings on earth. Normally
crops cannot grow and flourish in a
polluted soil. However if some crops
manage to grow, then these crops might
have absorbed the toxic chemicals in the
soil and might cause serious health
problems in people consuming them.
Sometimes the soil pollution is in the form
of increased salinity of the soil. In such a
case, the soil becomes unhealthy for
vegetation, and often becomes useless and
barren. When soil pollution modifies the
soil structure, deaths of many beneficial
soil organisms (e.g. earthworms) in the
soil could take place. Other than further
reducing the ability of the soil to support
life, this occurrence could also have an
effect on the larger predators (e.g. birds)
Van Sangyan Vol. 3, No. 1, Issue: Januaryr, 2016
Published by Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, MP, India 7
and force them to move to other places, in
the search of food. People living near
polluted land tend to have higher
incidences of migraines, nausea, fatigue,
skin disorders and even miscarriages.
Depending on the pollutants present in the
soil, some of the longer-term effects of soil
pollution include cancer, leukemia,
reproductive disorders, kidney and liver
damage, and central nervous system
failure. These health problems could be a
result of direct poisoning by the polluted
land (e.g. children playing on land filled
with toxic waste) or indirect poisoning
(e.g. eating crops grown on polluted land,
drinking water polluted by the leaching of
chemicals from the polluted land to the
water supply, etc).
Long term effects of soil pollution
The long term effects of soil pollution are
many and can be difficult to deal with,
depending on the nature of the
contamination.
How Soil Gets Polluted
Soil is a sort of ecosystem unto itself, and
it is relatively sensitive to foreign matter
being applied to it. That's good for us in
the case of wanting to add soil
amendments, fertilizer and compost to
make the soil healthier, but not so good
when it comes to soil pollution.
There are many different ways that soil
can become polluted, such as:
Seepage from a landfill
Discharge of industrial waste into the
soil
Percolation of contaminated water into
the soil
Rupture of underground storage tanks
Excess application of pesticides,
herbicides or fertilizer
Solid waste seepage
The most common chemicals involved
in causing soil pollution are:
Petroleum hydrocarbons
Heavy metals
Pesticides
Solvents
Soil pollution happens when these
chemicals adhere to the soil, either from
being directly spilled onto the soil or
through contact with soil that has already
been contaminated.
As the world becomes more industrialized,
the long term effects of soil pollution are
becoming more of a problem all over the
world. It is thought that a full 150 million
miles of China's farmland is contaminated.
Even when soil is not being used for food,
the matter of its contamination can be a
health concern. This is especially so when
that soil is found in parks, neighborhoods
or other places where people spend time.
Health effects will be different depending
on what kind of pollutant is in the soil. It
can range from developmental problems,
such as in children exposed to lead, to
cancer from chromium and some
chemicals found in fertilizer, whether
those chemicals are still used or have been
banned but are still found in the soil.
Some soil contaminants increase the risk
of leukemia, while others can lead to
kidney damage, liver problems and
changes in the central nervous system.
Those are just the long term effects of soil
pollution. In the short term, exposure to
chemicals in the soil can lead to
headaches, nausea, fatigue and skin rashes
at the site of exposure.
When it comes to the environment itself,
the toll of contaminated soil is even direr.
Soil that has been contaminated should no
longer be used to grow food, because the
Van Sangyan
Published by Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, MP, India
harm people who eat it.
the land will
usually produce lower yields
have been tainted before.
In a
ddition, the pollutants will change the
their food supply
. Thus it's possible for
site where
humans won't be exposed to the
add the problem of
air pollution
the tainted area.
None of these are an ideal solution.
to farm organically is a g
ood way to
common garden chemicals.
Vol. 3, No. 1, Issue:
Januaryr
Published by Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, MP, India
chemicals can leech into the food and
If contaminated soil is used to grow food,
usually produce lower yields
than it would if it were not contaminated.
This, in turn, can cause even more harm
because a lack of plants on the soil will
cause more erosion, spreading the
contaminants onto land that might not
ddition, the pollutants will change the
makeup of the soil and the types of
microorganisms that will live in it. If
certain organisms die off in the area, the
larger predator animals will also have to
move away or die because they've lost
. Thus it's possible for
soil pollution to change whole ecosystems.
There are some ways to get soil back to its
pristine condition or to remove the spoiled
soil so the land can be used for agriculture
again. Tainted soil can be transported to a
humans won't be exposed to the
chemicals, or the soil can be aerated to
remove some of the chemicals (which can
air pollution
if the
chemicals can be released into the air).
Other options include what's known as
bioremediation, where microorganisms are
used to consume the pollution
-causing
compounds as well as electromechanical
systems for extracting chemicals, an
d
containment of chemicals by paving over
None of these are an ideal solution.
Preventing contamination in the first place
is the best way to go. It won't eliminate all
potential pollution problems, but choosing
ood way to
protect the soil (and yourself) from
chemicals found in pesticides and other
Effects on soil micro-o
rganism
The effects of pesticides on soil micro
organisms can cause a ripple effect that
can last for years. Micro-
organisms are
essential to healthy soil
. Without them,
your plants will not reach their true
potential.
Micro-
organisms are organisms that are
too
small to be seen with the human eye.
They live on the top-
most layer of soil.
There are many micro-
organisms which
live in the soil including:
Bacteria
Fungi
Algae
Protozoa
Micro-organisms
are responsible for the
decomposition and recycling of organic
materials in the soil. They aid in the plant's
absorption of essential nutrients. An
example of this is the nitrogen fixing
bacteria,
Bradyrhizobium
, which lives in a
nodule on
the soybean plant. It provides
nitrogen to the plant and boosts growth.
Biopesticides are micro-
organisms that can
help a plant defend it against pests. These
micro-
organisms include antimicrobial
metabolites, antibiotics and extracellular
enzymes. The pot
ential of these
biopesticides has not been fully examined
by scientists. It is hopeful that science will
be able to re-
produce the effects of the
biopesticides, which will help to
Januaryr
, 2016
8
rganism
The effects of pesticides on soil micro
-
organisms can cause a ripple effect that
organisms are
. Without them,
your plants will not reach their true
organisms are organisms that are
small to be seen with the human eye.
most layer of soil.
organisms which
are responsible for the
decomposition and recycling of organic
materials in the soil. They aid in the plant's
absorption of essential nutrients. An
example of this is the nitrogen fixing
, which lives in a
the soybean plant. It provides
nitrogen to the plant and boosts growth.
organisms that can
help a plant defend it against pests. These
organisms include antimicrobial
metabolites, antibiotics and extracellular
ential of these
biopesticides has not been fully examined
by scientists. It is hopeful that science will
produce the effects of the
biopesticides, which will help to
Van Sangyan Vol. 3, No. 1, Issue: Januaryr, 2016
Published by Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, MP, India 9
eventually eliminate the need for harmful
chemical pesticides.
Pesticides are designed to kill bugs that are
harmful to plants. Pesticides kill specific
pests on plants such as slugs, beetles and
flying insects. The chemicals used in most
pesticides can kill more than just garden
pests; they can kill the helpful organisms
that live in the soil. Some of these
chemicals can remain in the soil for years,
effectively keeping necessary micro-
organisms from working the soil.
Common chemical pesticides that are used
in gardens and by large-scale crop
producers include the following:
Basic Copper Sulfate
Silica Gel
Sodium Fluoride
Carbon Disulfide
Hydrogen Cyanide
Methylchloroform
Fenthion
Boric Acid
There are literally hundreds of pesticides
that have been manufactured and applied
to soil in the past. We are beginning to
understand the ramifications of using these
toxic chemicals on the soil. In places
where the chemicals are used extensively,
plants will no longer grow at all, or will
fail to thrive.
Unfortunately, many pesticides can kill
more than just their intended targets,
namely the necessary micro-organisms in
the soil. When chemicals are used for a
period of time on plants in an area, they
will eventually leach into the soil. Once in
the soil they can kill the micro-organisms
living in the soil that break down organic
material and aid in plant growth. It can
take years before micro-organisms can
once again live in soil that has had toxic
chemicals applied to it.
Alternatives to Harmful Chemical
Pesticides
For the average gardener, the use of
organic pesticides can keep a healthy
balance in the soil. Many organic
pesticides are made of minerals or other
plant materials that will keep pests at bay
and break down quickly in the soil.
Examples of some common organic
pesticides include the following:
Cayenne pepper spray--Can be sprayed
on the leaves of plants to deter harmful
insects.
Soap spray--Also sprayed on plants to
get rid of aphids.
Tobacco powder--A spray can be made
from the finely ground tobacco leaves
and water. It is used to kill sucking
insects on plants such as aphids, thrips
and spider mites.
Pyrethrin--Made from the
chrysanthemum plant. This organic
pesticide is used to knock out flying
insects and ground pests such as grubs.
Neem--Derived from the neem tree.
Used to control Gypsy moths, leaf
miners, mealy bugs, whiteflies and
caterpillars.
Sabadilla--Derived from the sabadilla
lily. Used to control caterpillars, leaf
hoppers, stink bugs and squash bugs.
Soil pollution causes huge disturbances in
the ecological balance and health of living
organisms at an alarming rate. Some the
effects of soil pollution are:
Disturbance in the balance of flora and
fauna inhabiting in the soil.
Contaminated soil decreases soil
fertility and hence there is decrease in
the soil yield.
Reduced soil fertility hence decrease in
soil yield.
Loss of natural nutrients in soil.
Van Sangyan Vol. 3, No. 1, Issue: Januaryr, 2016
Published by Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, MP, India 10
Reduced nitrogen fixation.
Loss of soil and nutrients.
Increased soil erosion.
Imbalance in the flora and fauna of the
soil.
Increase in soil salinity, makes it unfit
for cultivation.
Creation of toxic dust.
Foul odor due to industrial chemicals
and gases.
Alteration in soil structure can lead to
death of organisms in it.
Reduction in soil fertility.
Loss of the natural nutrients of the
soil.
Imbalance is the flora and fauna of the
soil.
Salinity increases in the soil making it
unfit for cultivation.
Crops grown on polluted soil cause
health problems on consumption,
Soil pollution creates toxic dust.
Foul odor due to chemicals and gases
can lead to problems like headaches,
nausea, etc.
Pollutants in soil cause alteration in
soil structure, causing death of many
soil organisms. This can affect the food
chain.
Effects on humans
Soil pollution has major consequences
on human health. Consumption of
crops and plants grown on polluted soil
cause health hazards. This could
explain small and terminal illness.
Long term exposure to polluted soil
affects the genetic make-up of the
body and may congenital illnesses and
chronic health diseases.
Chronic exposure to heavy metals,
petroleum, solvents and agricultural
chemicals can be carcinogenic.
Exposure to benzene for a long term is
associated with higher incidence of
leukemia. Mercury causes higher
incidences of kidney damage.
Cyclodienes are linked to liver
toxicity.
Organophosphates can lead to chain of
responses leading to neuromuscular
blockage.
Chlorinated solvents induce damages
to liver, kidney, depression of the
central nervous system.
On plant growth
The balance of ecological system is
affected due to contamination of the
soil.
Plants are mostly unable to adapt to the
change in the chemistry of the soil in
short time period.
The microorganisms found in the soil
decline and create additional problems
of soil erosion.
Fertility of the soil decreases due to
soil pollution, making it unsuitable for
agriculture and local vegetation to
survive.
Soil pollution is hazardous to health.
Polluted lands cannot support most
forms of life.
On soil fertility
The chemicals present in the soil due
to pollution are toxic and can decrease
the fertility of the soil, thereby
decreasing the soil yield.
Agriculture on contaminated soil
produces fruits and vegetable that lack
quality nutrients.
Consumption of these may be
poisonous and cause serious health
problems to people consuming them.
Toxic dust
Emissions of toxic gases and foul odor
from the landfills pollute the
Van Sangyan
Published by Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, MP, India
environment and
causes serious health
effects on some people.
The foul odor causes inconvenience to
people.
On soil structure
Soil pollution can lead to death of
many soil organisms like the
earthworms which can lead to
alteration in the soil structure.
This can force
other predators to move
to other places in search of food.
Control of soil ollution
curb the pollution rate.
Attempts to clean
up the environmen
t require plenty of time
and resources.
Some the steps to reduce
soil pollution are:
Ban on use of plastic bags below 20
microns thickness.
Recycling of plastic wastes.
Ban on deforestation.
Encouraging plantation programmes.
Encouraging social and agro forestry
programmes.
Undertaking awareness programmes.
Reducing the
use of chemical fertilizer
and pesticides.
Recycling paper, plastics and other
materials.
Ban on use of plastic bags, which are a
major cause of pollution.
Reusing materials.
Avoiding deforestation and promoting
forestation.
Suitable and safe disposal of
including nuclear wastes.
Chemical fertilizers and pesticides
should be replaced by organic
fertilizers and pesticides.
Encouraging social and agro forestry
programs.
Undertaking many pollution awareness
programs.
Vol. 3, No. 1, Issue:
Januaryr
Published by Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, MP, India
causes serious health
The foul odor causes inconvenience to
Soil pollution can lead to death of
many soil organisms like the
earthworms which can lead to
alteration in the soil structure.
other predators to move
to other places in search of food.
A number of ways have been suggested to
Attempts to clean
t require plenty of time
Some the steps to reduce
Ban on use of plastic bags below 20
Encouraging plantation programmes.
Encouraging social and agro forestry
Undertaking awareness programmes.
use of chemical fertilizer
Recycling paper, plastics and other
Ban on use of plastic bags, which are a
Avoiding deforestation and promoting
Suitable and safe disposal of
wastes
Chemical fertilizers and pesticides
should be replaced by organic
Encouraging social and agro forestry
Undertaking many pollution awareness
Prevention of soil pollution
Toxic chemical compounds, salts,
radioactive agents, toxins and other waste
contribute to soil pollution. These have
adverse effect on plant and animal health.
Soil contains both organic as well as
inorganic material. The organic material is
A tilled field with
rich
(Photo Credit Digital Vision./
Photodisc/
formed due to decaying of plant and
animal matter. This often makes up the
upper most layer of soil. The organic soil
such as rocks, has taken over thousands of
years to be forme
d. The top layer is made
up of organic soil, while the layers below
are inorganic soil. Pollution has gradually
reached the inorganic layers as well. There
are different types of soil pollution,
namely agricultural soil pollution,
industrial waste causing
soil pollution,
urbanization causing soil pollution. These
different types of pollution cause the
fertility of the soil to reduce and mineral
content in the soil to be destroyed.
Therefore, measures have to be taken for
preventing soil pollution.
To increase agricultural yield, most
farmers took to using chemical fertilizers.
No doubt that the yield did indeed
increase, but at the cost of the soil losing
its fertility. To restore the fertility of the
soil to what it was, will take a very long
time,
however, one has to start at some
point of time. Drastic measures are
required for the same. Farmers should be
Januaryr
, 2016
11
Toxic chemical compounds, salts,
radioactive agents, toxins and other waste
contribute to soil pollution. These have
adverse effect on plant and animal health.
Soil contains both organic as well as
inorganic material. The organic material is
rich
soil.
Photodisc/
Getty Images)
formed due to decaying of plant and
animal matter. This often makes up the
upper most layer of soil. The organic soil
such as rocks, has taken over thousands of
d. The top layer is made
up of organic soil, while the layers below
are inorganic soil. Pollution has gradually
reached the inorganic layers as well. There
are different types of soil pollution,
namely agricultural soil pollution,
soil pollution,
urbanization causing soil pollution. These
different types of pollution cause the
fertility of the soil to reduce and mineral
content in the soil to be destroyed.
Therefore, measures have to be taken for
To increase agricultural yield, most
farmers took to using chemical fertilizers.
No doubt that the yield did indeed
increase, but at the cost of the soil losing
its fertility. To restore the fertility of the
soil to what it was, will take a very long
however, one has to start at some
point of time. Drastic measures are
required for the same. Farmers should be
Van Sangyan Vol. 3, No. 1, Issue: Januaryr, 2016
Published by Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, MP, India 12
encouraged to start using bio fertilizers.
The microorganisms in these fertilizers
will help in increasing the fertility of the
soil.
To avoid soil pollution, it is important, that
along with fertilizers, farmers should shift
to bio pesticides and fungicides, also
known as herbicides. These products will
take a little longer to react, but they do not
have adverse effect on the soil. It is best to
use manure both as a fertilizer as well as
pesticide, as it has far less side effects as
opposed to its chemical counterpart.
If one has to look at the soil pollution
facts, it will be seen that toxic waste has a
big role to play in soil pollution. Hence,
industrial toxic waste should be treated to
reduce its toxicity before it is disposed off.
At the same time, responsible methods
should be used for disposing off the waste.
The best, however, is to avoid the use of
harmful chemicals unless they are of
extreme importance.
Although a lot of propaganda has been
carried out about recycling waste, not
many measures have been taken about the
same. If each family has to take it upon
themselves to recycle waste, the land
pollution caused due to landfills will be
reduced considerably. The land so saved
can be used constructively for a number of
better tasks.
After plastic was invented, people thought
it was convenient to opt for plastic
containers, bags, etc., which could be
disposed off after use. However, plastic is
one of the main causes of soil pollution, as
it takes a very long time to disintegrate.
Therefore, people should consider shifting
to reusable containers like glass, cotton
bags, etc. Although paper does disintegrate
faster, a lot of trees are cut for producing
paper bags. Therefore, it is best to opt for
cloth bags. Similarly, instead of using
tissue papers in the kitchen, etc., one
should opt using cloth napkins,
handkerchief, etc. This will go a long way
in reducing landfills.
There is no doubt that the organic products
are costly as opposed to the chemically
grown products. But choosing the organic
products will encourage more organic
production. This will help in preventing
soil pollution.
To prevent soil pollution, deforestation
measures have to be undertaken at rapid
pace. Soil erosion is caused, when there
are no trees to prevent the top layer of the
soil from being transported by different
agents of nature like water and air. At the
same time, measures should be taken to
avoid over cropping and over grazing, as it
leads to flood and soil erosion and further
deterioration of the soil layer.
Various chemicals such as pesticides,
insecticides and fungicides play important
roles in plant growth; however the overuse
of these chemicals is considered to be one
of the prime factors leading to soil
pollution. Reducing or even avoiding the
use of such chemicals is one of the most
elementary and important preventive
measures. Manures and bio-fertilization
can be used as alternatives to chemicals.
Manures are often recommended by
environmentalists and agriculturists
because, as compared to pesticides,
manures have minimal adverse effect on
the environment. Bio-fertilization is a
process in which certain microorganisms
such as rhizobium are used to increase the
soil fertility in place of chemicals.
Another common measure used to
minimize soil pollution is controlling the
growth of weeds. Weeds are unwanted
plants that grow alongside the main plant
and often result in the accumulation of
various minerals into the soil layer. One of
Van Sangyan
Published by Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, MP, India
cultivation.
recycling of waste
materials. De
pollution.
In addition,
reducin
g the volume of refuse
soil pollution.
Strong regulatory programs to
minimize soil cont
amination need to be
introduced.
Reuse and recycle
unwanted items. Or
even better, reduce consumption
and reduce your trash
. The less rubbish
we create the less chance the waste
will end up in our soil.
There is a need to educate the public
about the harms done when they litter.
For gardens,
make use of org
fertilizers and organic pesticides,
because they are usually made of
natural substances, are bio-
degradable
and do little harm to the natural
balance in the soil.
Vol. 3, No. 1, Issue:
Januaryr
Published by Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, MP, India
the common methods to control weed
growth is covering the soil with layers of
newspapers or plastic sheets just before
Other common methods of preventing soil
pollution include reforestation and
materials. De
-
forestation or the cutting down of trees
often leads to erosion of the soil, which
leads to soil pollution due to the loss of
fertility of the soil. Thus, reforestation is
an effective method of preventing soil
g the volume of refuse
or waste in landfills by recycling materials
such as plastics, papers and various other
materials is another effective and common
method of preventing the phenomenon of
Strong regulatory programs to
amination need to be
unwanted items. Or
even better, reduce consumption
. The less rubbish
we create the less chance the waste
There is a need to educate the public
about the harms done when they litter.
make use of org
anic
fertilizers and organic pesticides,
because they are usually made of
degradable
and do little harm to the natural
Insist on buying
natural and organic
food
, because chemical pesticides and
fertilizers are not used in their growing
process. Not only are organic foods
healthier for the environment,
also healthier for you and your family.
Read about the benefits of organic
food.
Cut down usage of paper. Or use
recycled paper. In this way, fewer trees
need to be cut down and there would
be reduced deforestation. Read about
the
benefits of recycling to the
environment.
For decades people have believed that
harmful chemical pesticides were the only
true way to rid gardens and crop fields
from pests. Soil pollution
has occurred
from the use of pesticides and it takes
years and sometimes decades for some of
these chemicals to break down. Luckily
there
are many organic chemicals that are
just as effective. The effects of pesticides
on soil micro-
organisms are less invasive
when organic pesticides are used. People
need to break the habit of using harmful
pesticides and switch to using organic ones
that br
eak down quickly in the sunlight
and in the soil. The faster a chemical
breaks down, the sooner the soil can return
to a healthy state. Most organic pesticides
are also safe to use around people and pets.
They can easily be washed from fruits and
vegetable
s making them healthier for you
and your family to eat.
References
Adriano, D.C.; Bollag, J.
Frankenberger, W.T.; and Sims, R.C., eds.
(1999).
Bioremediation of Contaminated
Soils.
Agronomy monograph 37. American
Society of Agronomy.
Miller, R.W., and
Gardiner, D.T.
(1998).
Soils in Our Environment,
Januaryr
, 2016
13
natural and organic
, because chemical pesticides and
fertilizers are not used in their growing
process. Not only are organic foods
healthier for the environment,
they are
also healthier for you and your family.
Read about the benefits of organic
Cut down usage of paper. Or use
recycled paper. In this way, fewer trees
need to be cut down and there would
be reduced deforestation. Read about
benefits of recycling to the
For decades people have believed that
harmful chemical pesticides were the only
true way to rid gardens and crop fields
has occurred
from the use of pesticides and it takes
years and sometimes decades for some of
these chemicals to break down. Luckily
are many organic chemicals that are
just as effective. The effects of pesticides
organisms are less invasive
when organic pesticides are used. People
need to break the habit of using harmful
pesticides and switch to using organic ones
eak down quickly in the sunlight
and in the soil. The faster a chemical
breaks down, the sooner the soil can return
to a healthy state. Most organic pesticides
are also safe to use around people and pets.
They can easily be washed from fruits and
s making them healthier for you
Adriano, D.C.; Bollag, J.
-M.;
Frankenberger, W.T.; and Sims, R.C., eds.
Bioremediation of Contaminated
Agronomy monograph 37. American
Gardiner, D.T.
Soils in Our Environment,
8th
Van Sangyan Vol. 3, No. 1, Issue: Januaryr, 2016
Published by Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, MP, India 14
edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice
Hall.
Pierzynski, G.M.; Sims, J.T.; and Vance,
G.F. (2000). Soils and Environmental
Quality, 2nd edition. Boca Raton, FL:
CRC Press.
http://biology.tutorvista.com/environmenta
l-pollution/soil-pollution.html
http://www.pollutionissues.com/Re-
Sy/Soil-Pollution.html#ixzz3tiYxZ8cb
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/how-to-
prevent-soil-pollution.html
http://www.livestrong.com/article/171421-
ways-to-prevent-soil-
pollution/#sthash.mF239tOv.dpuf
http://www.ehow.com/way_5406439_soil-
pollution-prevention.html
http://www.timeanddate.com/holidays/un/
world-soil-day
... Tanah juga mengontrol air dan zat kimia antara atmosfer dan bumi serta bertindak sebagai sumber penyimpan gas seperti oksigen dan karbon dioksida di atmosfer. Tanah tidak hanya mencerminkan proses alam, tetapi juga merekam aktivitas manusia baik saat ini maupun masa lalu (Mishra et al. 2016). ...
... Masalah kesehatan tersebut dapat diakibatkan oleh tanah yang tercemar seperti masyarakat yang bermain di tanah yang telah tercemar atau secara tidak langsung dengan mengkonsumsi tanaman yang ditanam di tanah yang tercemar. Selain itu juga, dampak jangka panjangnya mempengaruhi susunan genetik tubuh dan mungkin penyakit bawaan hingga kronis, organofosfat juga menyebabkan penyumbatan neuromuskuler (Mishra et al. 2016). Lebih dari 200 penyakit mulai dari diare hingga kanker terkait dengan asupan makanan yang terkontaminasi (WHO 2017b) dan 24 persen dari populasi dunia menderita infeksi oleh cacing yang ditularkan melalui tanah, menyebabkan ketidakseimbangan gizi dan anemia kronis (WHO 2017a). ...
... Kemudian pentingnya edukasi masyarakat tentang bahaya membuang sampah atau limbah tanpa dilakukan pengolahan terlebih dahulu, melakukan budidaya tanaman secara organik dan mengurangi penggunaan kertas. Mengurangi penggunaan kertas akan sedikit pohon yang harus ditebang dan deforestasi menjadi berkurang (Mishra et al. 2016). ...
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Soil pollution is a common environmental problem. It refers to the presence of exceeding concentration of chemicals or substances than the normal limit that harm living things and environment. Sources of soil pollution are mining activities, household waste, agricultural activities, and many more. Preventive or remediation activities are important to avoid the negative impacts on environment, especially on human health. Various scientific-based remediation methods can be applied such as increasing microbial activity (bioremediation) and the use of vegetation to remove contaminants (phytoremediation). These are more preferred methods for controlling soil pollutant because easier and economically applicable. Another preventive method is pesticides application. Activated charcoal can also be used to solve soil pollution caused by pesticide residues. Activated charcoal has high ability to absorb pesticide residue. Hopefully, this paper could provide information about soil pollution and its impact on human health as well as the preventive methods.
... Забруднення металами призводить до погіршення екологічного стану педосфери, спричинює зміни видового складу ґрунтової біоти і наземних фітоценозів. Техногенне забруднення ґрунту призводить до його деградації, зменшення родючості і біологічної активності, пригнічення процесів нітрифікації, зниження рівня гумусу та вологи [11]. За умов вирощування рослин на забруднених ґрунтах метали можуть накопичуватися в аграрній продукції, що становить загрозу здоров'ю людей [12][13][14]. ...
... On the other hand, the continued use of these chemicals has led to the emergence of previously nonexistent pest communities in some regions. This is mainly because pesticides destroy the carnivorous insects that keep the herbivorous insect population in check (Mishra et al., 2015). ...
... On the other hand, the continued use of these chemicals has led to the emergence of previously nonexistent pest communities in some regions. This is mainly because pesticides destroy the carnivorous insects that keep the herbivorous insect population in check (Mishra et al., 2015). ...
... This pollution usually occurs due to leakage of liquid waste or chemicals in industrial or commercial facilities. The main source of this soil pollution is the leakage of industrial chemical waste [6]. Usually in factories where chemical waste is disposed of in bunkers that are underground, it is very prone to leaks. ...
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The current increase in pollution is of great concern because it will have an impact on various aspects of life. The increase in pollution results in global warming in the form of earth's temperature. This study aims to examine the effect of soil pollution on increasing temperatures in Indonesia.The design of this study is descriptive quantitative. This study uses 2018 Village Potential (Podes) data sourced from the Central Statistics Agency (BPS). This study uses multiple linear regression by looking at soil pollution factors, temperature, and involving other factors as supporting factors. Temperatures in Indonesia range from 24.5oC-28.3oC. Due to soil pollution, the temperature increased by 0.05oC and specifically on the island of Java, the temperature increased by 0.157oC. The existence of land burning activities also increases the temperature by 0.07oC and in Java by 0.144oC. Soil pollution has a positive effect on increasing temperatures in the territory of Indonesia by 0.055oC. Java Island as the center of government and economy has a big role in generating pollution. Pollution on the island of Java resulted in an increase in temperature of 0.157 oC. The addition of a control variable in the form of community behavior in burning fields, will affect the nutrients in the soil and also exposure to smoke will interfere with the health of living things, apparently contributing to an increase in temperature of 0.01oC.
... These may again seep into groundwater or wash away in local water system and excess waste deposition increases the presence of bacteria in the soil which leads to the generation of methane gas from decomposition activities by bacteria contributing to global warming and poor air quality. It also creates foul odors and can impact quality of life [3]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Environmental pollution has been on the rise in the past few decades owing to increased human activities on energy reservoirs, unsafe agricultural practices and rapid industrialization. Soil pollution is one of the major worry among all because soil contamination can harm the humans by consumption of food grown in polluted soil or it can cause infertility to soil and lower the productivity, Among the pollutants that are of environmental and public health concerns due to their toxicities are: heavy metals, nuclear wastes, pesticides, greenhouse gases, and hydrocarbons. So this chapter will include; Sources of soil pollution and remediation of polluted sites using biological means has proven effective and reliable due to its eco-friendly features. Bio-remediation can either be carried out ex situ or in situ, depending on several factors, which include site characteristics, type and concentration of pollutants. It also seen as a solution for emerging contaminant problems.
Chapter
Pollution is one of the biggest challenges of current times. For control of environmental pollutants, degradation of these contaminants is need of times. Degradation of pollutants can be achieved by various physical and chemical or by physicochemical approaches. Since these methods are in efficient, hence development of biological methods began. Bioremediation is the approach of using bacteria, fungi, plants, algae, etc. to degrade wide range of environmental pollutants. Nano-bioremediation is one of such method which has received lot of attention in past few years. Nano-sized particles have large surface area relative to their volumes and thus have enhanced chemical and biological reactivity. Nano-bioremediation aims at reducing the contaminant concentrations to low risk-based levels and alleviating environmental impacts simultaneously. It brings the benefits to both nanotechnology and bioremediation together to achieve remediation which is more efficient, less time taking and eco-friendly.
Chapter
Bionanotechnology (BNT) is a vital tool of translational research. Nano-biointerface has created nanomaterials, which are similar to endogenous biomolecules. It is widely explored as therapeutics and diagnostics and showed great potential in theranostic applications. Moreover, it is a rescue tool for the environment against global deterioration and disturbed ecosystems. The physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs) affect various aspects of life on the earth. Therefore nanopollution and nanotoxicity caused by these engineered NPs have greatly influenced the environment and resulted in a risk on the ecological and environmental balance. The chapter gives a detailed overview of nanopollution and its hazardous effect on air quality, land, and aquatic toxicity. Furthermore, it also discusses the effect of nanopollution on each organ of the human body. The majorly overlooked aspect of nanopollution and ecotoxicity is the core of this chapter; however, it also explains the savior aspects of BNT. Health hazards of specific BNT tools such as magnetic NPs, surface plasmon resonance, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, biophotonic devices, gold NPs, graphene, and dendrimer are also discussed in detail. Finally, we can conclude that risk assessment, regulatory aspects, and ethical challenges need extra attention.
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Buku Pengetahuan Lingkungan dapat disusun dan dirampungkan dengan baik oleh kolaborasi beberapa penulis sebagai perwujudan pengembangan ilmu. Buku Pengetahuan Lingkungan ini merupakan interaksi antara lingkungan alam, sosial, dan budaya yang mempengaruhi kelangsungan perikehidupan dan kesejahteraan manusia serta makhluk hidup lain. Dengan lingkungan yang baik, manusia, hewan dan tumbuh-tumbuhan bisa memperoleh daya atau tenaga. Manusia memperoleh kebutuhan pokok atau primer, kebutuhan sekunder atau bahkan memenuhi lebih dari kebutuhannya sendiri berupa hasrat atau keinginan. Tanpa adanya lingkungan yang baik dan sehat manusia tidak bisa memenuhi kebutuhannya dengan baik, karena sumber utama berasal dari alam dan untuk tubuh seperti makanan, minuman, apabila tidak dihasilkan dari lingkungan yang baik dan sehat maka kebutuhan manusia akan terganggu. Buku ini diharapkan dapat mengisi ruang-ruang kosong informasi yang dibutuhkan oleh para penggiat kesehatan, ketenagakerjaan, lingkungan dll dalam upaya menciptakan Lingkungan dengan kualitas baik yang sehat, aman dan sejahtera. Buku ini membahas bagian-bagian menarik dan penting seperti: Bab 1 Konsep Dasar Lingkungan Hidup Bab 2 Masalah Lingkungan Hidu Bab 3 Ekologi Sebagai Dasar Pengetahuan Lingkungan Bab 4 Asas-Asas Lingkungan Bab 5 Isu-Isu Lingkungan Hidup Bab 6 Kependudukan dan Permasalahannya Bab 7 Sumber Daya Hutan, Laut, dan Mineral Bab 8 Pencemaran Lingkungan Bab 9 Kesehatan dan Lingkungan Hidup Bab 10 Etika Lingkungan Bab 11 Pembangunan Berkelanjutan Penulis menyadari bahwa penulisan buku ini masih jauh dari sempurna, oleh karena itu saran, umpan balik, dan kritik yang membangun sangat kami harapkan untuk penyempurnaan buku ini di edisi berikutnya. Besar harapan para penulis, semoga buku ini dapat memberi manfaat dan memperkaya khasanah ilmu pengetahuan khususnya pada kajian keilmuan Pengetahuan Lingkungan. penulis mengucapkan terima kasih dan penghargaan setinggi-tingginya bagi seluruh pihak yang telah membantu penyelesaian buku ini, baik dalam penyusunan maupun penerbitan
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The contents of this book include the following: introduction to environmental quality; soil nitrogen and environmental quality; soil phosphorus and environmental quality; soil sulfur and environmental quality; trace elements; organic chemicals in the environment; biogeochemical cycles and soil management; remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater; global climate change and acid rain; and risk assessment.
  • G M Pierzynski
  • J T Sims
  • G F Vance
Pierzynski, G.M.; Sims, J.T.; and Vance, G.F. (2000). Soils and Environmental Quality, 2nd edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. http://biology.tutorvista.com/environmenta l-pollution/soil-pollution.html
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Sy/Soil-Pollution.html#ixzz3tiYxZ8cb http://www.buzzle.com/articles/how-toprevent-soil-pollution.html http://www.livestrong.com/article/171421- ways-to-prevent-soilpollution/#sthash.mF239tOv.dpuf http://www.ehow.com/way_5406439_soil- pollution-prevention.html http://www.timeanddate.com/holidays/un/ world-soil-day
Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils. Agronomy monograph 37
  • W T Frankenberger
  • R C Sims
Frankenberger, W.T.; and Sims, R.C., eds. (1999). Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils. Agronomy monograph 37. American Society of Agronomy.
Soils in Our Environment
  • R W Miller
  • D T Gardiner
Miller, R.W., and Gardiner, D.T. (1998). Soils in Our Environment, edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.