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The Politics of Hunger How Illusion and Greed Fan the Food Crisis

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Abstract

The food crisis could have dire effects on the poor. Politicians have it in their power to bring food prices down. But doing so will require ending the bias against big commercial farms and genetically modified crops and doing away with damaging subsidies-the giants of romantic populism, bolstered by both illusion and greed.

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... An exporting country such as Brazil can respond quickly to increases in prices and can self-finance production increases under those conditions." Private Sector Representative, North America Stakeholders, such as the United States Department of Agriculture (and some authors [8,34]), acknowledge that increases in United States ethanol production, and associated structural changes in the national maize market, have impacted the world's supply and demand balance for total coarse grains [14]. Importantly, some authors attributed increased demand for coarse grains for biofuel production in the EU and United States as a prominent differentiating factor between the 2007/08 world food crisis and earlier events [35]. ...
... Some authors [34] call for major reforms around financial subsidies for crops for energy, specifically ethanol in the United States. Additionally, many commentators call for reductions of subsidies for locally-produced crops in regions such as the EU that prevent more efficient crop production from alternative potential exporting nations in regions such as Africa. ...
... For example, malnutrition among pre-schoolers rose during the 2007/08 world food crisis, forcing some children to drop out of school early and rendering the damage long lasting [22]. Additionally, by November 2008, food riots had occurred in some 30 countries as a result of the 2007/08 world food crisis [34]. ...
Article
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Food production shocks can lead to food crises where access to appropriate quantities and quality of food become inadequate, unaffordable, or unreliable on a major scale. While the physical causes of food production shocks are well researched, the dynamics of responses to them are less well understood. This paper reviews those dynamics and includes evidence gathered via interviews of 44 expert practitioners sourced globally from academia, government, industry, think-tanks, and development/relief organizations. The paper confirms that policy interventions are often prioritised for national interests and poorly coordinated at regional and global scales. The paper acknowledges future compounding trends such as climate change and demographic shifts and suggests that while there are signs of incremental progress in better managing the impacts of shock events, coordinated responses at scale will require a paradigm shift involving major policy, market, and technological advancements, and a wide range of public and private sector stakeholders.
... The empirical debate on lowering violent conflicts through climate change mitigation is not decisive. Some theories suggest that eradicating the underlying problems (poverty, unemployment, food insecurity, and water scarcity) that climate change increases permit to lower the violence (Barlow 2013, Brown 2012, Collier 2008, Klare 2002, Sachs 2015. Other theories propose to look at history, geographic position, and politics (Collier 2007, Benjaminsen 2016. ...
... "Violence and conflict often break out in hungry regions" (Sachs 2015 321). Some authors, such as Barlow (2013), Baro and Deubel (2006), Brown (2012), Collier (2007), Collier (2008), Crush (2013), Klare (2002), and ...
... Nevertheless, the same poor ecological conditions make the GAT produce more GA (CRAD & RECA 2012, Kalilou 2021). Barlow (2013), Brown (2012), Collier (2008), Klare (2002), and Sachs (2015) are among the experts who believe that the rise in food prices creates violence. Climate change (along with population growth, food waste, and increased demand for commodities for biofuels), creating unstable food production, raise food price. ...
... Over the past decades, while large-scale land acquisition across Africa has come under sharp scrutiny (Cotula, 2012;Boamah, 2014), consensus among analysts has been absent. On the one hand there is the view that such large-scale land deals may constitute an essential (and beneficial) catalyst for transforming livelihoods (Collier, 2008). As Collier (2008) argues, commercial agriculture, which often requires large tracts of land, can play critical roles in increasing global food supply and ending hunger. ...
... On the one hand there is the view that such large-scale land deals may constitute an essential (and beneficial) catalyst for transforming livelihoods (Collier, 2008). As Collier (2008) argues, commercial agriculture, which often requires large tracts of land, can play critical roles in increasing global food supply and ending hunger. At the other end of the spectrum is the view that such large-scale land acquisition adversely affects livelihoods and involves multiple forms of dispossession (Van Noorloos and Kloosterboer, 2018). ...
Article
The rapid expansion of African cities has created both housing deficits and a pluralization of urban orders, including the growth of slum settlements. With an ever‐increasing middle class, urban sub‐Saharan Africa is now also characterized by large‐scale land acquisition processes linked to the construction of wholly private and increasingly enclaved cities. This article maps the impacts of the Appolonia City of Light project—a privately built enclaved city catering to the housing needs of a rapidly growing middle class in Ghana. Building on field research and exploring various dimensions of the development marketed as ‘The City of Light’, we highlight how the project has dramatically altered social relations and resulted in dispossession rippling through nearby local communities. We therefore argue that, instead of merely focusing on the actual physical spaces of private developments or turning attention to often phantasmagoric and utopic visions of the future, research should be directed at changes in the immediate surroundings of urban developments. We highlight the problematic land acquisition inherent to such enclaved developments and demonstrate how these intrinsically constitute assemblages of livelihoods and exemplify dynamics of appropriation, dispossession and commodification.
... The opposing perspective is that the commercialization of agriculture that fueled economic growth in western economies can have the same impact on emerging economies (Collier and Dercon 2014) and that support of smallholder agriculture reflects a misguided "romantic populism" regarding the virtues of small-scale farming (Collier 2008, p. 71). Policies and public resources designed to support small-scale farming and impede commercialization can diminish local food production, raise food prices, and, thus, have a significant adverse impact on the welfare of the urban poor (Collier 2008). Others argue that the rapid evolution of the supply chain including liberalized international trade, aggressive entry, and expansion of supermarkets in LMICs seriously challenges the viability of small-scale farming (Hazell et al. 2010), requiring that smallholders either transition to commercial-sized operations or be supported in exiting agriculture (Fan et al. 2013). ...
... Collier (2008) also argues that focusing on smallholder income instead of utility is too narrow and ignores evidence that smallholder farmers seek out off-farm opportunities and that rural youth often prefer to migrate to urban areas than to engage in a life of farming.3 The closed-economy assumption is reasonable for many of the countries and commodities relevant to this study, because the self-sufficiency ratio for staple foods is generally high in developing economies. ...
Article
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Promoting smallholder production systems as a growth and poverty‐reduction strategy versus supporting an institutional framework that enables endogenous and voluntary consolidation of smallholder farms into larger operations is a central debate for economic development and food security in low‐ and middle‐income countries. We propose an integrated conceptual framework to compare the two alternative farming systems for producing a domestic staple commodity, focusing on key economic factors that differentiate them, including labor inefficiency of larger farms, credit constraints for smallholders, and differences in farm–retail price spreads. We derive equilibrium expressions for economic welfare for smallholder farmers and urban consumers under the two farming systems, and parameterize the model based on publicly available data and recent empirical literature. An extensive simulation analysis reveals several key results from transforming to a large‐farm equilibrium: (a) rural household welfare almost always declines; (b) total production of the staple almost always increases; (c) the sum of urban and rural household welfare almost always increases, often by substantial amounts; and (d) rural employment does not decrease, even with modest increases in capital intensity on large farms. Policies to promote farm consolidation, while protecting rural households from welfare losses, for example through income transfers, can achieve Pareto improvements for nearly all of the comparative equilibria studied.
... The discussion about the role of farm size to ensure agricultural commercialisation and growth in Africa has received plenty of attention over the years specifically questioning whether Africa should promote largescale farms or smallholder farming to spur agricultural commercialisation and growth (Collier, 2008;Chapoto, Mabiso and Bonsu, 2013). The existing literature presents diverse views. ...
... The existing literature presents diverse views. Some authors argue that priority should be given to large-scale commercial farming and to the promotion of land consolidation if Africa is to spur agricultural commercialisation and growth (Collier, 2008;del Prete et al., 2018). Others support the traditional claim that "small is beautiful" based on the evidence that small farms present higher productivity compared to large farms (Fan and Chan-Kang, 2005) and others present the relationship between farm size and agricultural productivity as a U-shaped trend, where up to certain level there is an inverse relationship followed by a positive relationship (Das and Ganesh-Kumar, 2017;Muyanga and Jayne, 2019). ...
Article
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The introduction of rice into Ethiopia provided a solution to food insecurity. More recently, national policy has emphasised the positive relationship between rice specialisation and commercialisation and, thus, higher incomes. In retrospect, this initiative has been hugely successful as the regions where rice has been introduced have been transformed from heavily relying on food aid to becoming a thriving commercial centre. This transformation owes much to the increase in the production, consumption and commercial value of rice. However, the relationship between specialisation and commercialisation is far from straightforward and is mediated by poverty, as proxied by farm size in this paper. Using a novel cross-sectional dataset of rice farmers from the Fogera Plain in Ethiopia, collected in 2018, in this paper we look at the relationship between rice specialisation and commercialisation and how specialisation and commercialisation decisions and outcomes are mediated by farm size. Specifically, we characterise farmers by the extent of rice specialisation and commercialisation and explore the role of landholding size. We explain a seeming paradox: that farmers with very small amounts of farm land devote high proportions of their land to rice production (that is, they are high specialisers), yet, display low levels of commercialisation. We argue that this negative relationship between specialisation and rice commercialisation is being driven by small holders who are, on average, poorer. They have little choice but to cultivate a larger share of the land to rice due to economies of scale and farming economies with respect to rice. Yet, the majority of that rice production is to satisfy domestic consumption and household food security, with only a small surplus being sold. The high commercialisers have bigger land sizes and farm a relatively small proportion of their land with rice (yet, in absolute terms this can be larger than the amount sown by smaller farms). These bigger farms cultivate rice for commercial, profit purposes. This suggests that there are distinctly different stories and behaviours driving the rice cultivation and commercialisation trajectories of smaller, poorer landowners, and larger, more wealthy ones. This has implications for how to promote equitable access to gains from commercialisation strategies. Policy options for the smallholders include facilitating access to irrigation and the land rental market, provision of credit, and rice intensification support.
... La doctrine récente concernant la souveraineté alimentaire est axée sur les droits des populations locales ou des communautés de décider elles-mêmes quels aliments doivent être produits et comment ils doivent l'être, ce qui peut créer des tensions avec les autorités nationales s'agissant de la question de savoir quel niveau de pouvoir doit avoir le rôle principal, et ce qui peut poser le problème de la conciliation des différents points de vue au sein des communautés dans un mouvement qui ne dispose d'aucune structure organisationnelle formelle (Agarwal, 2014;Patel, 2009). D'autres observateurs ont dit douter qu'il soit possible d'atteindre les augmentations souhaitées de la production alimentaire au moyen d'une agriculture à petite échelle, à forte intensité de main-d'oeuvre et à faible consommation d'intrants, et ils ont également remis en question les bienfaits invoqués de la «voie paysanne» dans un contexte de mondialisation et d'intégration de l'agriculture dans des systèmes plus industriels (Bernstein, 2014;Collier, 2008). Certains ont noté que les tenants de la souveraineté alimentaire devaient participer aux débats sur la réglementation des échanges internationaux au vu de l'importance que revêtent les échanges commerciaux pour la plupart des petits États, que ceux-ci soient des exportateurs agricoles, des importateurs de denrées alimentaires oucomme c'est le cas de nombreux pays les moins avancésles deux à la fois (Burnett et Murphy, 2014). ...
Technical Report
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En octobre 2014, le Comité de la sécurité alimentaire mondiale (CSA) a demandé au Groupe d’experts de haut niveau sur la sécurité alimentaire et la nutrition (HLPE) de produire un rapport sur le développement agricole durable au service de la sécurité alimentaire et de la nutrition, y compris le rôle de l'élevage, pour présentation à sa quarante-troisième session plénière, en octobre 2016. Le thème retenu est en lien étroit avec les objectifs de développement durable (ODD), ainsi qu'avec la mise en oeuvre de la Déclaration de Rome sur la nutrition, adoptée en 2014, et la concrétisation du droit universel à l'alimentation. Le développement agricole1 contribue de manière décisive à l'amélioration de la sécurité alimentaire et de la nutrition. Ses rôles sont multiples, notamment: accroître la quantité et la diversité des disponibilités alimentaires; être le moteur de la transformation économique; et assurer la principale source de revenus d'une grande partie des populations les plus pauvres dans le monde. De nombreuses études empiriques couvrant de multiples pays sur un grand nombre d'années montrent qu'il faut à la fois un développement agricole et une croissance de l'économie dans son ensemble pour améliorer la sécurité alimentaire et la nutrition, et que le premier vient à l’appui de la seconde. Le secteur de l'élevage2 est un puissant moteur de développement de l'agriculture et des systèmes alimentaires. Il détermine des changements économiques, sociaux et environnementaux majeurs dans les systèmes alimentaires du monde entier, et offre un point de départ pour appréhender la question du développement agricole durable dans son ensemble. Comme son titre l'indique, le rapport porte plus particulièrement sur l'élevage, du fait de l'importance et de la complexité du rôle que joue ce secteur et compte tenu de sa contribution au développement agricole durable au service de la sécurité alimentaire et de la nutrition. Le rapport est structuré comme suit: le chapitre 1 définit un cadre conceptuel et une typologie des systèmes d'élevage, qui servent ensuite à organiser le rapport; le chapitre 2 décrit les grandes tendances et les principaux moteurs du développement agricole; le chapitre 3 recense les grands problèmes de durabilité que pose le développement agricole, en particulier dans le secteur de l'élevage; et le chapitre 4 propose des voies à suivre et des actions à mener, à l'échelle mondiale et dans des systèmes agricoles spécifiques. Le rapport se referme sur un ensemble de recommandations concrètes adressées aux États et aux autres parties prenantes.
... The food crisis sparked a flurry of debate that gave biotechnology advocates an opportunity to argue that increased yields were needed. They could then argue that opponents of GMOs were callously keeping food out of the mouths of hungry people, (Collier 2008;see Schurman and Munro 2010, p. 180 for further documentation). Viewed from an ethical perspective, it is important to recognize that helping hungry people in cities might actually harm the rural poor, especially when the help comes in the form of food aid from the fields of better-off farmers in food-exporting countries. ...
Chapter
This concluding chapter from previous editions makes recommendations that follow from the previous eleven chapters analyzing food safety, animal health, environmental and socioeconomic risks associated with agricultural and food biotechnology, as well as discussions of intellectual property rights and religious objections. Scientists and the biotechnology industry have failed to meet reasonable and justifiable expectations for an explanation and defense of their objectives in developing gene technologies for crops, livestock and food processing. Although a rationale for these applications of biotechnology exists, it has not been put forward in a manner that promotes a democratic and respectful dialog. Articulated in 1997, the chapter was a set of ethical recommendations for agricultural insiders. In retrospect, it serves as an indictment that may explain why the technology was resisted and early hopes for agrifood biotechnology remain unrealized. Looking forward, it is a contribution to the literature on public engagement with science.
... The food crisis sparked a flurry of debate that gave biotechnology advocates an opportunity to argue that increased yields were needed. They could then argue that opponents of GMOs were callously keeping food out of the mouths of hungry people, (Collier 2008;see Schurman and Munro 2010, p. 180 for further documentation). Viewed from an ethical perspective, it is important to recognize that helping hungry people in cities might actually harm the rural poor, especially when the help comes in the form of food aid from the fields of better-off farmers in food-exporting countries. ...
Chapter
Hans Jonas’ principle of responsibility establishes a basic framework for evaluating novel technology in ethical terms. Risk assessment provides a further development of Jonas’s framework as it is applied to agrifood biotechnology. A risk-based approach consists in distinguishing four tasks for implementing technological ethics: hazard identification, exposure quantification, management and communication. The risk-based approach is effective when it operates against the background assumption that technologies passing risk-based tests are at least prima facie acceptable on ethical grounds. However, a complex of social institutions must be in place for this assumption to be valid. These institutions, combined with a risk-based assessment of the potential for unwanted consequences, constitute the presumptive case for agricultural and food biotechnology. This implies that innovators are not ethically required to demonstrate the case for their technology, and that the primary task of ethics is to focus on arguments against the technology. The chapter also discusses some logically and ethically problematic adaptations of the presumptive case.
... The food crisis sparked a flurry of debate that gave biotechnology advocates an opportunity to argue that increased yields were needed. They could then argue that opponents of GMOs were callously keeping food out of the mouths of hungry people, (Collier 2008;see Schurman and Munro 2010, p. 180 for further documentation). Viewed from an ethical perspective, it is important to recognize that helping hungry people in cities might actually harm the rural poor, especially when the help comes in the form of food aid from the fields of better-off farmers in food-exporting countries. ...
Chapter
This chapter addresses a series of philosophical questions that arise in a general consideration of food safety risks, with specific attention to products of gene transfer. The first topic is to demonstrate the sense in which modern technology has converted what were once norms of prudence and self-interest into ethical responsibilities. The next topic is a summary review of the way that food safety experts view food safety risk, followed by a discussion of how this way of thinking is applied to products of gene transfer. From this point, the chapter summarizes a different conceptual framework that shows how the history of food science has created alternative rationalities for thinking about the risks we bear in consuming food. This alternative helps to explain why communication of risks from gene transfer have been so difficult to communicate, and explains why labeling is a component of food safety policy. The chapter concludes with a discussion of how labeling could address some of the ethical tensions created by the tension between expert and lay perspectives on the risks of consuming food.
... The food crisis sparked a flurry of debate that gave biotechnology advocates an opportunity to argue that increased yields were needed. They could then argue that opponents of GMOs were callously keeping food out of the mouths of hungry people, (Collier 2008;see Schurman and Munro 2010, p. 180 for further documentation). Viewed from an ethical perspective, it is important to recognize that helping hungry people in cities might actually harm the rural poor, especially when the help comes in the form of food aid from the fields of better-off farmers in food-exporting countries. ...
Chapter
The chapter provides synoptic overviews on key developments in gene technology since publication of the 2nd edition in 2007. Synthetic biology is discussed briefly, and more attention is given to CRISPrCas9, and gene editing. Both techniques can increase the speed at which a new product would move through the R&D process, and both have the potential to increase systemic linkages between gene technologies for food and agriculture, and gene technology for biomedical purposes. Beyond this, lessons learned from the experience with GMOs continue to be relevant. The framework of novel and normal risk will be a useful amendment to the technological ethics framework developed in earlier editions of this book. Three case studies are discussed: alternative proteins, horizontal environmental genetic alteration agents and gene drives for agricultural pest control. Only the last of these involves truly novel risks.
... The food crisis sparked a flurry of debate that gave biotechnology advocates an opportunity to argue that increased yields were needed. They could then argue that opponents of GMOs were callously keeping food out of the mouths of hungry people, (Collier 2008;see Schurman and Munro 2010, p. 180 for further documentation). Viewed from an ethical perspective, it is important to recognize that helping hungry people in cities might actually harm the rural poor, especially when the help comes in the form of food aid from the fields of better-off farmers in food-exporting countries. ...
Chapter
This chapter completes coverage of environmental risks begun in Chap. 6, which emphasized both the philosophical rationale for expected-value risk analysis, along with weaknesses in the way that approach has been applied to agrifood gene technology. This chapter discusses ethical objections to expected value analysis and takes up classical questions in environmental ethics. These include the basis for associating moral value with non-sentient entities such as plants, collectivities such as species or ecosystems and also for nature or the environment itself. The chapter proposes a novel approach to these problems based on the standpoint or attitude of the valuing subject. Classic approaches that stress intrinsic or instrumental valuation presume that valuation proceeds from the perspective of a spectator standing aloof from nature. Although classic approaches have not presumed that this spectator is a human being, the good of any entity derives from the spectator’s gaze. This is consistent with the notion of value as a consumption activity. In contrast, a more engaged, involved or truly environed approach can be elicited by taking the perspective of a producer. This is an especially fortuitous approach for developing an environmental ethics for agriculture and food.
... The food crisis sparked a flurry of debate that gave biotechnology advocates an opportunity to argue that increased yields were needed. They could then argue that opponents of GMOs were callously keeping food out of the mouths of hungry people, (Collier 2008;see Schurman and Munro 2010, p. 180 for further documentation). Viewed from an ethical perspective, it is important to recognize that helping hungry people in cities might actually harm the rural poor, especially when the help comes in the form of food aid from the fields of better-off farmers in food-exporting countries. ...
Chapter
Metaphysical claims assert categories and categorical systems for the broadest and most general characterizations of reality and experience. The chapter discusses the nature of metaphysical claims and the role of religious or theological doctrines in lending support to them. Early debates over gene technology emphasized metaphysical and religious topics and questioned whether established doctrines in mainstream religious traditions were compatible with applications of genetic engineering. The chapter surveys those debates, with emphasis to their significance for agrifood biotechnologies, and situates them within the context of other technologies that have been alleged to pose religious or metaphysical challenges. Those who write in favor of gene technology from a religious perspective have not based their arguments on metaphysical claims. Hence, religiously metaphysical arguments tend to take a critical stance toward gene technology. However, metaphysical arguments appear to have decreased in frequency and significance since earlier editions of this book.
... The above three dimensions of agro-neoliberalism represent the specific conceptual framework used in this chapter to analyse the Brazilian agribusiness experience. Because of new production areas and growing productivity, Brazil has consolidated its position as a global leader, and even as a 'model' of commercial, integrated crop production (Collier, 2008). Unlike other economic sectors (such as industrial production and the retail market), neoliberalised agribusiness is considered an island of prosperity and economic dynamism, and is currently claimed to be the "main business of Brazil" (Furtado, 2002: 203). ...
... There have been a number of studies that has tended to focus on the drivers for the expansion of large-scale investment agriculture in Africa particularly focusing on food and energy crises as a driving force (GRAIN 2008, Cotula et al. 2009, McMichael and Scoones 2010; Arezki et al., 2011;Brüntrup, 2011;Zoomers 2010, De Schutter 2011Anseeuw et al., 2012a). Similarly, growing interest in agricultural land investment in Ethiopia has been linked in addressing the food crisis (Collier 2008); creating employment (Deininger & Byerlee 2010) and earning foreign exchange. ...
Preprint
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Development initiatives like the recent increase in large-scale investment agriculture have made a significant impact on the forest. In the name of development, the land is often given to investors often in long-term leases and at bargain prices. Research on deforestation has been mostly restricted to poverty and population growth as the driving forces for tropical deforestation; however, explanations emphasizing market factors such as increases in large-scale investment agriculture as a cause of deforestation have only been carried out in a small number of areas. The aim of this study is to explore the effects of agricultural land expansion in changing land use and land use cover changes using remote sensing/GIS tools in Sheka zone southwester Ethiopia from 1995 to 2015. The results showed that expansion of investment agriculture has a clear impact on both the local people and the forest ecosystem. The conversion of forestland to investment agriculture has caused varied and extensive environmental degradation to the Sheka forest. The Land Use and Land Cover changes in the Sheka zone are discussed based on underlying socioeconomic factors.
... For them, with the current environment of innovations, poor farmers will remain lagging behind the innovation dynamics, with only better-endowed farmers being able to take advantage of innovations. Collier (2008) puts forward a similar point of view, defending the role to be played by policymakers in supporting less-endowed farmers to innovate and respond to the equity concerns of innovation. Also, Hounkonnou et al. (2012) point to the crucial role of the public sector in providing part of the financial resources that are required for innovation as well as to support professional organisations. ...
Article
Innovating is vital to farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, to adapt to challenges and benefit from opportunities. Stakeholders' decisions to engage in innovation programmes are influenced by their perceptions. This article uses the Q-method application to investigate these perceptions along the swine value chain in Benin. Fifty-five statements were established with local stakeholders and then graded by 25 interviewees on an 11-grade scale. Three main discourses were identified: an optimistic discourse tied to an endogenous vision of innovation, and a pessimistic one to a top-down, exogenous vision. A third discourse highlighted more nuanced redistributive effects of innovation. Innovation platform projects, stimulating local innovation, should rest on and reinforce the first optimistic discourse.
... Further, the general marginalization characteristic of smallholder farmers results from a lack of access to resources, capital, assets, and technical information (Murphy 2010). From a globalisation perspective, smallholders appear inadequate to cope with production challenges due to inadequate investment capacity, economies of scale, and a lack of technical knowledge, which will likely contribute to their decline over time (Collier 2008). ...
Chapter
The development for sustainable smallholder farming is not a transparent and replicable procedure because the agricultural sector focuses primarily on productivity with minimum attention on lean management as a sustainability strategy. Currently, the requirement of achieving a 70% increase in production often ignores the complementary factor of reducing wastage and loss to achieve sustainable food security and nutrition. This paper examines integrating lean management concepts in smallholder farming as a catalyst for sustainable agriculture, food, and nutrition security. Several sources indicate that approximately 500 million smallholder farms worldwide cultivate on under 2 ha farm size without adequate land tenure. These farms are primarily in difficult soil conditions and environmentally risk-prone areas, reducing their resilience to changes in weather conditions. Although smallholders comprise 84% of all farms with approximately 30% of global food production, the participants and their dependents constitute almost 75% of the underprivileged, hungry, and undernourished people worldwide. These conditions are exacerbated by smallholder farms experiencing more post-harvest loss due to inadequate market and access to cold storage facilities. Additionally, smallholders have limited adaptive capacity in coping with changing environments due to inadequate scientific knowledge, low income, small farm size, limited technical assistance, and marketing opportunities. Despite these challenges, smallholders are touted as potentially the backbone to implement the United Nations’ Goal #2 for Sustainable Development in achieving zero-hunger by at least 2030. This research presents Ro-Crops Agrotec, a 1.5-ha agroecology family farm in central Trinidad, as a case study with over 26 years of successfully integrating strategic lean management. The management of Ro-Crops demonstrates that sustainable agriculture and food security are achievable through strategic planning, farm management, and innovative waste removal without the measures becoming an obsession. While lean management is associated initially with auto manufacturing, the concept is equally essential in agriculture due to losses in production, post-harvest, and food processing. At the retailing and consumer stages, the annual global wastage consists of almost one-third of consumer food, estimated at approximately 1.3 billion tons. Lean management reduces waste, maximizes efficiency, and increases economic value due to productivity, quality, and flexibility as the primary performance indicators. The lean concepts help in effectively reducing wastage by developing standardised processes and continuously improving the operations.
... Unlike the well-fed Europeans, goes this argument, impoverished cultivators and hungry consumers in the global South cannot afford to turn up their noses at this vital, safe and productive technology. The narrative implies that European opposition is the chief obstacle to an even more rapid and enthusiastic adoption of transgenic crops by farmers and consumers in poor countries (Paarlberg 2002;Taverne 2007;Collier 2008). ...
... Access to credit and their ability to invest in long-term sustainable practices can also be curtailed by weak tenure rights. Smallholders are seen as inadequate as they lack the capacity to invest and suffer from economies of scale and poor technical know-how (Collier, 2008). ...
... The arguments of those who legitimise current land acquisitions emphasise what is considered to be the relatively unproductive, or even non-existent, use of the land in question, and the need to invest to increase agricultural production so as to feed a rapidly-growing human population and to supply biofuels, textile fibres, wood and other products. This discourse of legitimisation also asserts that 'large' farms (employing wage-earning manpower) are more productive than 'small' (family) farms, and that no significant progress can be expected from the latter (Collier, 2008). Finally, some new landowners claim to be acting in the name of environmental conservation (Fairhead et al., 2012). ...
... Do small-scale farms have development potential or is supporting them ''romantic populism"? Such questions have remained contested among policymakers and analysts for a long time (see, e.g., Harrigan, 2003;Jayne, Govereh, Mwanaumo, Nyoro, & Chapoto, 2002;Collier, 2008;Deininger & Byerlee, 2012;Jayne & Rashid, 2013). ...
Article
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While there is consensus on the need to promote agricultural development in Africa to achieve food security and use agriculture as an engine of growth, there is a lively policy debate on appropriate policies to achieve this goal. In the past two decades, there has been a revival of policies that favor government support to agriculture in Africa, especially in the form of input subsidies. Such policies have remained highly controversial, reflecting a long-standing dichotomy in agricultural development policy between those who consider subsidies as essential to increase agricultural productivity and those who criticize such state-focused policy instruments and favor market-oriented approaches. In the literature, agricultural policy choices have mainly been analyzed using models that capture economic or political interests. Some studies have focused on policy beliefs to explain the dichotomy, but what has not received much attention is the use of language in agricultural policy discourses, in spite of increasing evidence that narratives matter for policy-making. To address this gap, we combine the Advocacy Coalition Framework with Narrative Policy Analysis to examine agricultural policy discourses in Senegal. Applying a cluster analysis to coded transcripts of in-depth interviews with policy stakeholders, we identified two opposing advocacy coalitions and labelled them “agricultural support coalition” and an “agricultural support critique coalition”. An analysis of the argumentative structure of the narratives of each coalition revealed interesting differences: while the agricultural support coalition told a range of straight-forward stories that explain how government support, such as input subsidies, addresses the problem of low agricultural productivity, the opposing coalition formulated their stories mostly in the form of critiques rather than telling equally straight-forward counter-stories. Based on the analysis, we examine possible meta-narratives, which take arguments of both coalitions into account and may have the potential to overcome the long-standing dichotomy in agricultural development.
... Impoverished communities are inherently exposed to diseases and starvation, and they rely on relief organisations such as NGOs for daily survival (Khan et al. 2008). The Zimbabwean political system has been considered to be intolerant towards NGOs and has restricted its operations (Bongo et al. 2013;Collier 2008:68) by exercising political and economic control and power (Agarwal & Singh 2018:100). The little aid available is distributed along political lines (ZHRC 2016). ...
Article
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Background: Supply chain management (SCM) implementation in selected drought-stricken areas in Zimbabwe has been negatively influenced by the marginalisation of indigenous leaders and an intolerant political system. Objectives: This study examines the influence of culture and leadership attitudes, as well as the political, economic and legal framework, on the effectiveness of the humanitarian supply chain (HSC) during droughts in Zimbabwe. The effect of culture, leadership attitudes, and the political, economic and legal framework on HSC effectiveness in Zimbabwe has not been explored by researchers. Method: The study adopted a quantitative exploratory research design utilising the case study approach. The study sample consisted of 130 respondents comprising government and non-governmental organisation (NGO) officials whose primary responsibilities are drought disaster operations. Results: The study results revealed that the culture, leadership attitudes and political state did not positively influence the effectiveness of the HSC in Zimbabwe. In addition, the economic state and legal framework positively influenced the effectiveness of the HSC on drought management. Accordingly, the empirical results found that the existing legal framework positively influenced the effectiveness of the HSC. Furthermore, an association between educational background and work experience had an impact on the reduction of transport and warehouse costs, which are critical components of a humanitarian relief supply chain. Conclusion: This study is expected to significantly contribute to the crafting of effective HSC and intervention strategies. The study also adds to the body of knowledge in HSC and disaster management as there is a shortage of empirical data in this field of study. Keywords: drought; disaster management; supply chain management; humanitarian supply chains; drought relief supply chains.
... A growing policy consensus emphasises the importance of 'green revolution' technology, large-scale investment, access to metropolitan and overseas markets and integration into supermarket and agro-processor value chains. This is linked to perceptions of the desirability of large-scale, capital-intensive, industrial-style models of production, which are held to be dynamic, efficient and rational (Collier 2008;Sender 2015). The increasing popularity of large-scale agriculture among policymakers is, of course, controversial. ...
Book
Development largely depends on how given places participate in global economic processes.The contributions to this book address various features of the integration of sub-Saharan Africa into the world economy via value chains, so as to explain corresponding challenges and opportunities. The book deals with five issues that have not been covered adequately in scientific debates: first, policies are essential to promote value chains and increase their impact on development; second, value chains are diverse, and the variance between them has major economic and political implications; third, regional value chains appear to constitute a viable alternative to global ones (or, at least, are complementary to them), promising better developmental outcomes for the Global South; fourth, political and socio-economic factors are important considerations for a complete assessment of value chains; fifth, cities and city regions are also crucial objects of study in seeking to achieve a comprehensive assessment of value chains.
... The food crisis sparked a flurry of debate that gave biotechnology advocates an opportunity to argue that increased yields were needed. They could then argue that opponents of GMOs were callously keeping food out of the mouths of hungry people, (Collier 2008;see Schurman and Munro 2010, p. 180 for further documentation). Viewed from an ethical perspective, it is important to recognize that helping hungry people in cities might actually harm the rural poor, especially when the help comes in the form of food aid from the fields of better-off farmers in food-exporting countries. ...
Chapter
The chapter provides an analytic framework for applying classic philosophical theories of property and the distribution of property rights in the context of emerging technology. Instrumental theories of property view property as a convention that should be evaluated according to the purposes it serves. Ontological theories of property claim that holding and exchanging items of property is a natural or intrinsic feature of the human condition. The early debate over so-called Terminator seeds is used to link key philosophical questions to real disputes in policy and practice. The Terminator case illustrates distinctions between property in tangible goods (such as seeds) and intellectual property, as well as the relationship between these forms of property and the risk-based approach that is the focus of earlier chapters. The chapter reviews a sample of the literature on contested property claims in products of gene technology, and discusses how authors draw selectively on concepts from different philosophical traditions. The chapter also identifies logical flaws in many arguments, both for and against the application of intellectual property rights to GMOs and other products of gene technology. In the end, I argue that philosophical theories of property can be enlisted both to support and to criticize current practices. The chapter does not provide a conclusive standard for deciding the legitimacy of property claims in genes, sequences and gene products.
... The food crisis sparked a flurry of debate that gave biotechnology advocates an opportunity to argue that increased yields were needed. They could then argue that opponents of GMOs were callously keeping food out of the mouths of hungry people, (Collier 2008;see Schurman and Munro 2010, p. 180 for further documentation). Viewed from an ethical perspective, it is important to recognize that helping hungry people in cities might actually harm the rural poor, especially when the help comes in the form of food aid from the fields of better-off farmers in food-exporting countries. ...
Book
This 3rd edition of Food and Agricultural Biotechnology in Ethical Perspective updates Thompson’s analysis to reflect the next generation of biotechnology, including synthetic biology, gene editing and gene drives. The first two editions of this book, published as Food Biotechnology in Ethical Perspective in 1997 and 2007, were the first comprehensive philosophical studies of genetic engineering applied to food systems. The book is structured with chapter length treatments of risk in four categories: food safety, to animals, to the environment and socio-economic risks. These chapters are preceded by two chapters providing orientation to the uses of gene technology in food and agriculture, and to the goals, methods and background assumptions of technological ethics. There is also a chapter covering all four types of risk as applied to the first US technology, recombinant bovine somatotropin. The last four chapters take up 1) intellectual property debates, 2) religious, metaphysical and “intrinsic” objections to biotechnology, 3) issues in risk and trust and 4) a review of ethical issues in synthetic biology, gene editing and gene drives, the three key technologies that have emerged since the book was last revised.
... The food crisis sparked a flurry of debate that gave biotechnology advocates an opportunity to argue that increased yields were needed. They could then argue that opponents of GMOs were callously keeping food out of the mouths of hungry people, (Collier 2008;see Schurman and Munro 2010, p. 180 for further documentation). Viewed from an ethical perspective, it is important to recognize that helping hungry people in cities might actually harm the rural poor, especially when the help comes in the form of food aid from the fields of better-off farmers in food-exporting countries. ...
Chapter
This chapter examines the ethical significance of gene technology on the health and well-being of livestock, poultry and any other animal species kept for agricultural purposes. Agricultural biotechnologies include drugs and feeds developed for use on livestock, as well as genetic transformations and cloning. Key applications are reviewed and examples are given. Bernard Rollin’s early work on this topic is summarized and used as a basis for further analysis. Philosophical alternatives to Rollin’s approach to understanding the basis of human obligations to other animals are discussed, including the welfarist approach of Peter Singer and the rights approach of Tom Regan. Though not a welfarist in general, Rollin argues that impact on the welfare of the transformed animal is the sole criterion for evaluating the ethics of genetically engineered animals. Additional literature on the ethics of using genetic engineering tools on animals is reviewed, with emphasis on views laying stress on the inherent wrongness of transforming an animal’s nature, irrespective of the impact on pain, suffering or disease. Although many arguments against any and all applications of animal biotechnology are philosophically flawed, they cannot simply be dismissed. Only a more extensive philosophical debate can clarify when a genetic change in an agricultural animal’s nature is inappropriate.
... The potential for LSLAs to foster local rural economic development -in particular through creating employment and raising agricultural productivity (Collier 2008 2), in general, complete compensations of the initial loss of access to land seem to be rare (Aisbett & Barbanente, 2016;Anseeuw et al., 2012;German et al., 2013). This then raises an important question: under which circumstances -and to what extent -are the negative effects of LSLAs on land access counterbalanced by positive effects, such as employment generation, knowledge spillovers to smallholder farmers, and infrastructure development? ...
Book
Full-text available
More than 10 years after the surge in large-scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) in developing countries following the spike in agricultural commodity prices in the late 2000s, the Land Matrix Initiative has taken stock of the “global land rush” and its socio-economic and environmental impacts. Our findings draw on evidence from the Land Matrix database as well as a literature review in order to analyse and better understand the wide-ranging effects of LSLAs.
... Further, the general marginalization characteristic of smallholder farmers results from a lack of access to resources, capital, assets, and technical information (Murphy 2010). From a globalisation perspective, smallholders appear inadequate to cope with production challenges due to inadequate investment capacity, economies of scale, and a lack of technical knowledge, which will likely contribute to their decline over time (Collier 2008). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Achieving Sustainable Development Goal 2 (abating hunger) involves various role players. However, the focus has been at the macro and meso-scales, neglecting the micro-household scale. Even at that household level, there is neglect of the household food security status and role-playing. The study assessed household role-playing in achieving food security through food utilisation, in a cross-sectional survey of 116 households in Raymond Mhlaba Local Municipality, South Africa. The study hypothesised that there are differences in role-playing regarding food utilization. Descriptive statistics were utilised in data analysis. Intra-household members’ differentiated roles were established, and association with food utilisation was determined. The study revealed that females were responsible for food preparation, buying and home garden responsibilities. Furthermore, in terms of the household role, most female members indicated they preferred purchasing fruit and milk products, while males said they preferred to buy tubers and meat. Regarding the food buying roles, females stated they preferred purchasing vegetables while males preferred producing cereal-based foods. Female respondents engaged in home gardening indicated they preferred to purchase vegetables while males responsible for gardens stated they preferred producing cereal foods. The chapter concludes that, based on role-playing, differentiated food utilisation exists within households. In terms of the different roles such as food preparation, purchasing and home gardening, there is need for the conscientisation of household members on the various nutritional sources.
... The outcome of ethanol subsidies, which represent an efficient way to reduce emissions and the consumption of fossil fuels, appears to be quite bleak (Pimentel 2003;Hahn and Cecot 2009). While the evidence is mixed, it is likely that subsidies related to ethanol have increased food prices and, therefore, contributed to a substantial reduction in welfare in developing countries, where food prices are of great importance, by diverting agricultural resources from food production to producing crops for ethanol (Collier 2008). Thus, it is quite possible that the implementation of ethanol subsidies was driven by lobbying and rent-seeking by special interest groups rather than the desire for an efficient reduction in carbon emissions 7 (Anthoff and Hahn 2010;Helm 2010). ...
... The strategy has been used to deal with financial issues, banking issues, immigrant issues and even housing issues and affirmed the role of government in calming down the public when the crisis becomes massive (Stearns, 1988). With a bigger crisis, a firm may need to set up a network of corporate political strategies or even hunt for political influence to change the situation or take some coercive actions from the government (Collier, 2008). The firm, as a public relation practitioner, together with the government who agrees to join the strategy will communicate with media to convey specific messages which are mutually defined to get the attention of target audience of crisis communication campaign (González, 2018;Farnel, 1994). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Covid-19 pandemic highlights the disinformation as a risk for European Union integration. False or deceptive news have always existed, but in recent years they tend to impact on public debate and democratic participation alarmingly for the connection with the professionalization of communication strategies by political-institutional actors for consensus purposes and the characteristics of social media platforms and online and digital media consumption habits. So, The Covid-19 crisis and the linked infodemic are extraordinary cases to test the European Union capability to manage the disinformation disorder, especially towards young people. The paper aims to analyse the impact of the communicative strategies and actions promoted by European institutions regarding disinformation about Covid-19 on trust of young people. The research presents an exploratory and quantitative study based on a web survey administered to 1000 Italian and Spanish students. The results show that trust can be very well the resource on which EU communicative actions may positively impact.
... The strategy has been used to deal with financial issues, banking issues, immigrant issues and even housing issues and affirmed the role of government in calming down the public when the crisis becomes massive (Stearns, 1988). With a bigger crisis, a firm may need to set up a network of corporate political strategies or even hunt for political influence to change the situation or take some coercive actions from the government (Collier, 2008). The firm, as a public relation practitioner, together with the government who agrees to join the strategy will communicate with media to convey specific messages which are mutually defined to get the attention of target audience of crisis communication campaign (González, 2018;Farnel, 1994). ...
... In Africa, Asia, Latin America and other third world countries, a deterioration in technology or ecology, which lower outputs from given input has long been identified as one of the reasons for poor agricultural production performance (Collier, 2008). It is equally important to note that indigenous techniques like crop rotation and other cultural farming practices that have been used to preserve the soil structure and its fecundity do not seem to be adequate or even relevant in the present efforts to boast food production in most developing countries. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Reviving African Culture through the planting if trees especially the spiritual trees that aid the African man in solving his numerous problems and finite nature.
... As already mentioned, the modernist thesis imputes "irreversibility to the process of centralization and concentration of agricultural capitalism" (Petras and Veltmeyer 2001, p. 96), and leads to the conclusion that peasants will eventually become either wage workers or entrepreneurial farmers. Accordingly, Collier (2008) argues that since "large organizations are better suited to cope with investment, marketing chains, and regulations […] the remedy for high food prices is to increase supply […] [by replicating] the Brazilian model of large, technologically sophisticated agro-companies that supply the world market". Likewise, Bernstein (2014Bernstein ( , p. 1056Bernstein ( , 1057 contends that it is utopic to believe that low-input and labor-intensive peasant agriculture can feed current and projected world population; and that small family farming is incompatible with the increase of agriculture productivity since it "denies the advan-tages of economies of scale, development of the productive forces, and the technical division of labor" (Bernstein 2001, p. 26). ...
Book
Full-text available
This thesis examines the process and the implications of large-scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) for local livelihoods, especially the livelihoods of those who make a living from farming. These individuals were historically known as peasants and are now more commonly referred to as smallholders, small-scale farmers or family farmers. What happens to their livelihoods as land under their control is allocated to investors? Promoters of LSLAs stress that when land acquisitions are preceded by community consultations, there may be synergism between investors’ activities and local livelihoods. Accordingly, local farmers are expected to gain from, for example, closer ties to the market and new livelihood alternatives such as formal employment. Differently, critical voices contend that despite sound legislation on the matter, in practice LSLAs constitute drivers of dispossession, being therefore disguised land grabs. This research seeks to fill a knowledge gap on the immediate local livelihood implications of LSLAs. By employing a case study design in Mozambique (one of the countries targeted by recent LSLAs), this thesis adds empirical evidence that is crucial to the above-named theoretical debate involving LSLAs. The analyzed case is pivoted by a Chinese company that in 2012 was granted 20,000 hectares in the lower Limpopo region. Despite legislation that asserts the legality of customary land occupation, in practice, land was seized without adequate consultation and compensation. Consequently, local farmers lost the most fertile areas. Nonetheless, farmers were able to regain or maintain access to farmland that was more peripheral and of worse quality. Concomitantly, the company generated a small number of jobs and created a contract farming scheme that, despite bottlenecks, benefited farmers who were able to handle risk. In general, families who lost land and those who entered the contract farming scheme strive to keep a foothold on farmland – a strategy that is partly explained by the economic rationale of seeking to meet the consumption needs of current and future generations. Additionally, family land is embedded with symbolic value (illustrated, for example, by individuals’ relations with ancestors buried in family land). The existence of symbolic and thus immaterial values that land embodies poses insurmountable challenges to the idea that it is possible to achieve fair compensation for the loss of land and the environment in general. This study shows the renewed pressure (now through the hands of private actors backed by public efforts) placed on family farmers, derived livelihood trends (i.e., the overall precarization of family farming, the widening of economic inequality, and the feminization of poverty), and family farmers’ continuous endurance. Ultimately, this study illustrates local processes and livelihood implications of LSLAs in Mozambique, and likely also in contexts marked by similar democratic deficits and renewed incursions over valuable land that is intensively used.
... In Africa, Asia, Latin America and other third world countries, a deterioration in technology or ecology, which lower outputs from given input has long been identified as one of the reasons for poor agricultural production performance (Collier, 2008). It is equally important to note that indigenous techniques like crop rotation and other cultural farming practices that have been used to preserve the soil structure and its fecundity do not seem to be adequate or even relevant in the present efforts to boast food production in most developing countries. ...
Poster
Full-text available
AFRICAN ECO-SPIRITUALITY
... Proponents of capitalist agriculture, and agro-industry in particular, point to its ability to produce high yields cheaply to feed the world's expanding population (Collier 2008;World Bank 2015). At the aggregate level, such arguments appear reasonable. ...
Article
Covid-19 has highlighted the destructiveness of modern agro-industry upon biosphere and humanity. Its contribution to environmental degradation intertwines with socio-economic inequality and labour exploitation. There are increasing calls for a green new deal (GND) to counter these dangers. This article argues that a GND for agriculture must combat environmental degradation, social inequality and labour exploitation, rather than aim to re-boot capitalist economies. This article identifies a number of areas for discussion and political action - reorientation of state subsidies, workers' rights, agrarian reform, the decommodification of food, agroecology, possibilities for urban agriculture, the application of new technologies, and rewilding.
... Poor management of water on large-scale irrigation schemes, can lead to negative consequences, including wasteful and inefficient water use, early degradation of infrastructure and environmental damage (Deininger, 2011a and2011b;Djire et al., 2012;Sindayigaya, 2012;German et al., 2013). Nonetheless, it is equally recognized that large scale investments (foreign or domestic) in agricultural land can make positive contributions to the economy of many African countries that are still largely dependent on agriculture (Lavers, 2012;Collier, 2008;Cotula et al., 2009). Through the infusion of capital, new technology and knowledge, such investments can increase agricultural production and improve national food security, while contributing to government tax revenues and water supply cost recovery. ...
... En los últimos años la reivindicación de que los cultivos transgénicos son una necesidad para alimentar al mundo y una ayuda para el desarrollo del Sur global es cada vez más omnipresente y pronunciada. Uno de los argumentos más convincentes esgrimidos por los defensores del cultivo de semillas GM puntualiza que el modo de producción de los campesinos y agricultores de pequeña escala es inadecuado para la innovación y la inversión (Collier, 2008), y que el aumento de la demanda mundial de alimentos -impulsado en gran parte por lo que Weis (2007) describe como «carnivorización» de las dietas-sólo puede satisfacerse a través de un modelo de «grandes y tecnológicamente sofisticadas empresas agrícolas» (Collier, 2008: 73). Según se ha resaltado, esta particular visión es maltusiana en carácter, pues el problema se enmarca como una cuestión de suministro; a fin de solucionarlo se ofrece la innovación tecnológica, en particular la biotecnología agrícola para intensificar la producción (Brooks, 2005;Alessandrini, 2010;Nally, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
En este trabajo se cuestiona la reciente reivindicación de la biotecnología agrícola como panacea para combatir la inseguridad alimentaria y la pobreza rural en los países del Sur global. Con base en una investigación empírica del régimen sojero neoliberal en Paraguay, se expone cómo la profunda transformación del modo agrícola de producción en ese país en las últimas dos décadas, impulsada por una «biorevolución» y la reestructuración neoliberal de la agricultura, ha puesto en peligro los medios de subsistencia rurales. En particular, se demuestra cómo la «sojización transgénica» de la agricultura paraguaya ha llevado a un aumento de la concentración de tierras productoras, así como al desplazamiento y debilitamiento de los campesinos y trabajadores rurales, quienes han quedado prescindibles por las exigencias del capital del agronegocio. Al mismo tiempo, la consolidación de ese nuevo modelo agroindustrial ha fomentado una creciente dependencia de productos agroquímicos que dañan la calidad del medio ambiente y la salud humana. Se concluye que una política de desarrollo cimentada en el monocultivo industrial de soja genéticamente modificada (GM) es inadecuada, insostenible e inmoral.
... O projeto de apoio ao agronegócio (agribusiness) se insere, de maneira geral, num perspectiva de crescimento agrícola com base na modernização e no pensamento econômico liberal (COLLIER, 2008;COLLIER e DERCON, 2013). O termo, de origem no pensamento americano (DAVIS e GOLDBERG, 1957)e que posteriormente seria adotado pela academia e círculos políticos brasileirospressupõe a articulação de subsistemas (insumos, produção, processamento e distribuição) operando num ambiente de mercado. ...
Article
A política brasileira de cooperação para o desenvolvimento com países africanos vem se fortalecendo na última década, e Moçambique representa o principal parceiro do Brasil neste âmbito. Tal estratégia se baseia na ideia de que as experiências implementadas no Brasil, em particular àquelas dirigidas ao setor rural, têm o potencial de serem compartilhadas com outros países do Sul. No entanto, é necessário observar que as políticas rurais brasileiras se inserem numa contexto marcado por uma dualidade institucional que tem como estratégia a acomodação de diferentes agendas de desenvolvimento e interesses políticos e econômicos. Dessa forma, tanto esta dualidade institucional influencia a formulação da cooperação técnica com Moçambique, como o compartilhamento de tais experiências enfrenta uma série de desafios no seu processo de recepção e implementação por atores moçambicanos. O artigo visa, portanto, discutir alguns destes desafios da cooperação brasileira para o desenvolvimento no setor rural.
... AGRA, for example, argues that "no region in the world has built a modern economy without first strengthening its agricultural sector" and that the "youth represent an enormous opportunity" for agriculture transformation. 1 In contrast, off-farm-led paradigms see fewer opportunities for rural development through smallholder farming and argue for the need to industrialize and focus on the non-agricultural sector-which may then lead to positive spill-overs for agriculture (Cantore et al. 2017;Lewis 1954, Gardner 2000Matsuyama 1992;Murphy et al. 1989;Söderbom and Teal 2003). Collier (2008) popularized this view arguing that smallholder farming is often romanticized ("peasants, like pandas, are to be preserved") and should be replaced by large-scale commercial farming and industrialization. Similarly, Morris and Fessehaie (2014) argue that "Africa needs to provide job opportunities to millions of young people. ...
Article
Full-text available
While there is a consensus that rural poverty has to be reduced, there are two opposing views on the role that agriculture can play in this regard: a “farm-based” and an “off-farm led” development paradigm where the respective other sector is merely a complementary income source during a transition period. The latter paradigm is supported by studies finding that rural youth in sub-Saharan Africa are not particularly interested in agriculture. However, policy discourse on youth in agriculture often situates their aspirations as either full-time farming or non-farming, thus either supporting or opposing one or the other of the two paradigms, while neglecting the shades of grey between these two extremes. Using a mixed-methods approach—a household survey and a narrative-based tool called SenseMaker—to collect data from both adults and youth in 261 households in rural Kenya, this study suggests that this categorical understanding needs to be revisited to inform rural development strategies based on the actual aspirations of rural youth.
Chapter
Odusola articulates various theoretical perspectives on the agriculture-poverty-inequality interconnections (including classical, Orthodox Marxian, neoclassical, and structuralist approaches), the associated transmission mechanisms, and empirical findings from existing studies—providing an analytical basis for subsequent chapters. He argues that both theory and evidence illuminate factors that propagate the existence of small farm holders and seasonal unemployment, and how to organize production and distribution mechanisms to propel efficient allocation of resources across sectors. Theoretical and empirical expositions show that agricultural productivity, especially from small-scale farmers, is a potent factor in driving a virtuous relationship between agriculture, resource allocation, poverty, and inequality—and the resulting effects cut across agriculture-non-farm rural activities and the rural-urban continuum.
Article
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Threshold concepts describe the core concepts that people must master if they are to effectively think from within a new discipline or paradigm. Here, I discuss threshold concepts relevant to the science and practice of sustainability, unpacking the persistent challenges and critiques that sustainability has faced over the decades. Sustainability is immensely popular, but also endlessly critiqued as being naïve, vague, and easy to co-opt. I argue that these challenges can be traced to sustainability’s status as a robust, alternative world view to the industrial, neoliberal paradigm. The threshold concepts discussed below are troublesome, and new learners face significant challenges when trying to learn them and move into the paradigm. Here, I review five threshold concepts that are widely discussed as important to sustainability: complexity, collaborative institutions, multiple ways of knowing, no panaceas, and adaptability. This list is not intended as comprehensive but exemplary of sustainability as a pluralistic paradigm. Recognizing the special status of these and other threshold concepts within sustainability, and the linkages and dependencies among them, is an important advance for sustainability education and practice. I also offer some suggestions on classroom activities that have proved effective in helping people through the process of learning these concepts.
Presentation
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The presentation deals with the need to encourage regenerative farming for organic food production. It x-rayed the politics of large scale farming, agribusiness and impacts of multinational pharmaceutical companies in developing areas with special focus on Africa.
Article
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In post-apartheid South Africa, citizens have on several instances resorted to the use of social protest or public dissent as a means of improving their access to essential socioeconomic amenities. The protection of citizens from chronic hunger has been a dominant theme among policy actors in South Africa, most of whom have expansive mandates to ensure citizens have adequate access to food. However, the number of people facing hunger remains high, giving rise to questions about the best approach to address chronic hunger, specifically, through social protest. Social protest, as used here, consists of struggles or resistance against government actions or inactions. Ironically, whiles social protest has been used on different fronts (housing, health, education and wrongful eviction), chronic hunger or lack of people's access to adequate food hardly becomes a pivot around which protesters seek to bring about reform. Based on examples from selected countries, the discussion notes that protest is an effective tool for protecting citizens from food poverty. However, before protest could influence food policy, there is the need for mobilisation of all relevant actors to challenge existing (inadequate) food policies. The paper identified various factors that have contributed to and acted as a hindrance against food protest in various jurisdictions and examined how these factors have prevented widespread food protest in South Africa.
Article
In Burkina Faso, New Green Revolution projects have focused on increasing and commercialising agricultural output to ameliorate poor nutrition, but have been blind to foraging as an important source of micronutrients and dietary diversity. We seek to understand: if foraged foods collected and consumed by female farmers are associated with positive measures of food access; and if a rice commercialisation project is impacting foraging practices. Results (based on interviews regarding foraging and food access with 145 female rice farmers) suggest that foraged foods play a large role in daily diets and that rice projects have no effect on foraging.
Chapter
This chapter completes the review of socioeconomic risks from food and agricultural gene technologies begun in Chap. 8. Here, the focus is on challenges to the claim that gene technologies make or will make substantial contributions to the welfare of poor and marginalized people, especially in the less industrialized regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. The institutional organization of science is central to the debate. Public laboratories and experiment stations contributed important critics allege that past innovations but patents, changes in funding patterns and other features of gene technology limit the future prospects of non-for-profit innovations in the food system. As such, an ethical analysis of biotechnology’s ability to help the poor must engage issues in the organization and incentives driving the research. These include the capacity and willingness of commercial enterprises to serve needs of the poor.
Article
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The economic development of rural economies across the global south is often related to access to water and the development of water infrastructure. It has been argued that the construction of new dams would unleash the agricultural potential of African nations that are exposed to seasonal water scarcity, strong interannual rainfall variability, and associated uncertainties in water availability. While water security is often presented as the pathway to poverty alleviation and invoked to justify large dam projects for irrigation, it is still unclear to what extent small holders will benefit from them. Are large dams built to the benefit of subsistence farmers or of large-scale commercial agriculture? Here we use remote sensing imagery in conjunction with advanced machine learning algorithms to map the irrigated areas (or ‘command areas’) that have appeared in the surroundings of 18 major dams built across the African continent between 2000 and 2015. We quantify the expansion of irrigation afforded by those dams, the associated changes in population density, forest cover, and farm size. We find that, while in the case of nine dams in the year 2000 there were no detectable farming patterns, in 2015 a substantial fraction of the command area (ranging between 8.5% and 96.7%) was taken by large-scale farms (i.e., parcels >200 ha). Seven of the remaining 9 dams showed a significant increase in average farm size and number of farms between 2000 and 2015, with large-scale farming accounting for anywhere between 5.2% and 76.7% of the command area. Collectively, these results indicate that many recent dam projects in Africa are associated either with the establishment of large-scale farming or a transition from small-scale to mid-to-large scale agriculture.
Article
In the last half‐century, development economics has gone from being a fringe field of economics to being at the very centre of the discipline, and the field’s foremost proponents have been elevated to the highest levels of the discipline. At the same time, development economists have gone from being economists who study situations wherein multiple market failures lead to persistent poverty to being ‘development‐and‐x’ economists, where x is any of agricultural, demographic, environmental, health, labour, economics etc. Yet few economists, if any, would label themselves development‐and‐industrial organisation (IO) economists. In this keynote, I first speculate as to why that is. I then explain how the time is ripe to celebrate the marriage of development and IO, and why the study of agricultural value chains provides the ideal inception point for that marriage to be consummated.
Article
Although omnipresent in Russian, then Soviet, and finally post-Soviet agrarian history, the village plot has often been described as a residue of the past, destined for impending disappearance. However, it is still alive, especially in the Ukrainian countryside where it sustains five million rural households while ensuring a significant share of national agricultural production. After recalling the place of the plot in Soviet agriculture, within the kolkhoz structure, and its evolution in the aftermath of decollectivisation, this article analyses its contemporary modes of operation, as well as the diversity within household plots. The authors demonstrate, based on extensive fieldwork conducted in five raions (districts), that the economic performance of these micro-farms is far from negligible and that they play a decisive role in regional production.
Article
Random growing demand for high-quality agri-products raises a pseudo pressure on mass-producing Asian tropical regions and lowers Asian smallholders’ profit. Literature indicates that the Buffer stock operations (BSO) policy performs well in maintaining sustainable profit for smallholder farmers and retailers. However, with the changing market and growing demand, the conventional BSO lacks efficiency in policymaking and incorporates market distortion. The outburst of COVID-19, random market intervention, growing e-commerce portals, and increasing price declination in the physical market have significantly reduced the smallholders’ profit. Thus, this paper modifies the conventional model and proposes a B2B contractual supply chain framework to integrate the BSO model. The supply chain framework considers two different channel leadership strategies, Government Leadership and Farmer Leadership. Following the leadership strategies, this study is concerned with the equilibrium state of the supply chain drivers (the farmer, the retailer, and the government). The proposed framework formulates the model through Stackelberg game modelling and solves using sub-game perfect Nash equilibrium. The theoretical results (Lemmas) ensure that the government leadership strategy facilitates an equilibrium state and sets an optimal profit for farmers and retailers and an optimal social welfare function. Although the farmer’s leadership strategy ensures an equilibrium state between the farmer and the retailer, it neither guarantees an equilibrium and optimal state between farmers and government nor an optimal social welfare function. The numerical case illustration considers a wide variety of the market’s price sensitivity coefficients. It guides the policy-maker and the supply chain drivers to understand strategy selection better.
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