Article

Evaluation of antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of roots Adhatoda vasica Linn

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of roots of Adhatoda vasica Linn. (Acanthaceae). The anti-inflammatory potential of ethanolic extract has been determined by using carrageenan-induced paw edema assay, formalin-induced paw edema assay in albino rats. The analgesic activity was tested by using acetic acid-induced writhing response, hot plate method and tail flick method in albino rats. The administration of extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, by oral administration, significantly (P < 0.05-0.01) inhibited both carrageenan- and formalin-induced inflammation. Also, the acute treatment of extract produced a significant (P < 0.05-0.01) antinociceptive effect in the acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced pain licking and hot-plate-induced pain. The experimental data demonstrated that ethanolic extract of roots of Adhatoda vasica Linn. possess remarkable anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Several research articles were available on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the ingredients used for the formulation of Pankajakasthuri orthoherb cream/thermagel. [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] The herbal ingredients used for preparation are characterized by abundance in bioactive phytochemicals, like polyphenols, carotenoids, flavonoids, lignans, stillbenoids, phytosterols and essential oil substances possessing significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. 19,20 The specialty of orthoherb cream/thermagel is that it could provide the same result as applying a traditional Ayurvedic kizhi (bolus/poultice), which is generally prescribed treatment of problems related to the muscles, bones and joints. ...
... Pankajakasthuri orthoherb cream/ thermagel is a polyherbal formulation in cream/gel form formulated using medicinal plants that were reported to have a good effect in treating pain and inflammation as per the previous studies. [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] The finding of our study clearly revealed that the topical application of Pankajakasthuri orthoherb cream/thermagel markedly suppressed the hind paw edema induced by carrageenan and inhibited the formalininduced nociception upon single application. ...
... The use of carrageenan-induced paw edama assay, formalin-induced paw edama assayin albino rats detected the effect of ethanilic extract as antiinflammatory acitivity. The stoppage of carrageenan and formalininduced paw edema depends upon the manner of dose of ethanolic extract of the plant [18]. [19]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Medicinal plants are considered as the most ancient type of medication used for the treatment against diseases and acts as orthodox medicines. These plants derived substances are not considered to beA review over medicinal plants and their anti-inflammatory activity. A Review EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEARCH-Vol. VIII, Issue 5 / August 2020 2927 authentic and safe in crude form due to improbability in the effects and the presence of its active constituents. The aptitude of the effectiveness of plants is correlated with many factors that includes the occurrence of active ingredient, which depend on the area of cultivation time and the season of collection of plant. The vast knowledge is available that is reviewed again and again and the results and views of these revision proved that the use of medicinal plant are the safe, cost effective as well as the natural process in management of many pathological conditions and diseases. Many of the active ingredients present in medicinal plants have been ranked as the trade mark of preparing lifesaving drugs that are being developed synthetically. This review focusses the plants that are useful for anti-inflammatory activity. It found many plants beneficial as anti-inflammatory activity.
... The ethanolic extract of Adhatoda vasica produced dose dependent inhibition of carrageenan and formalin-induced paw edema. 48 The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the root of S. cordifolia, when tested in rats, using the carrageenan-induced edema model, both produced anti-inflammatory effects. Nevertheless, the effect of the ethyl acetate, at a dose of 600mg/kg, was equivalent to that of indomethacin. ...
... As active ingredients, extracts of herbs with specific medicinal properties can be included in this dosage form. Adhatoda vasica [10,11], Azadirachta indica [12][13][14], Aegle marmelos [15,16], Ricinus communis [17,18], Sida retusa [19,20] and Tragia involucrata [21,22] plants have been studied for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. However, their application in the raw form on the skin surface is difficult. ...
Article
Full-text available
Pankajakasthuri orthoherb cream/thermagel is a polyherbal topical medication formulated for managing inflammation and pain. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the skin irritation potential of Pankajakasthuri orthoherb cream/thermagel on a single and repeated application in New Zealand white rabbits. The rabbits were dermally exposed with Pankajakasthuri orthoherb cream/thermagel and the appearance of each application site at 1 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 7th day and 14th day was recorded. The dermal reactions (erythema and edema) were evaluated according to the skin reactions scoring system. Pankajakasthuri orthoherb
... The aerial parts and flowers are active lead principles of the plant which possess a number of pharmacological properties and are used as antitussive and anti-asthmatic. 12,13 The aqueous extract from the leaves is used to treat rheumatic pain and urinary tract infections. The chief principle being quinazoline alkaloid, vasicine, and vasicinone, vasicinolone, and vasicol which are conjugated with an acid named adhatoda acid. ...
Article
Introduction: Inflammation is the primary response caused due to harmful stimuli which are followed by the increased draining of plasma and immune cells from the body into the site of the injured tissue. A signaling cascade of growth factors and cytokines propagates and eventually matures in the inflammatory site involving the blood vessels and immune markers within the injured tissue in order to promote the renewal of the degenerated tissue. During a chronic disorder like diabetic foot ulcer, there is an obstinate inflammation which may act as a prime factor for limb amputation and upon persistent prevalence may even lead to death. Methods: This study focuses on the mode of action of ALK-F (alkaloid fraction) isolated from Adhatoda vasica in attenuating the nitric oxide production which was estimated by Griess assay, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression was analyzed by ELISA and expression of COX-2 and iNOS by RT-PCR and western blotting in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Total intracellular ROS was analyzed by DCFH-DA probing and the presence of quinazoline alkaloid (vasicine) in the ALK-F was evidenced by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: The ALK-F of A. vasica exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on LPS elicited nitrite production (13.2 ± 1.06 µM), iNOS, and COX-2 (2.6 and 3.3 fold) in a dose-dependent manner. There was a significant decrease in the generation of these pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α (1102 ± 1.02 pg/mL) and IL-6 (18 ± 0.87 ng/mL) and total intracellular ROS in the highest tested concentrations (1 µg and 10 µg) of ALK-F of A. vasica. HPLC analysis by the gradient elution method revealed the presence of 12% of quinazoline alkaloid vasicine in the crude alkaloid fraction. Conclusion: Thus this study communally suggests that attenuation of nitric oxide and the dysregulation of genes responsible for inflammation which deliberates A. vasica to conflict against inflammation and provide remedial benefits in diabetic wound care.
... World Health Organization encourages the inclusion of herbal medicines of proven safety and efficacy in the healthcare programs of developing countries because of the great potential they hold in combating various diseases 6 . Many Indian ethno botanic traditions propose a rich repertory of medicinal plants used by the population for the treatment, management and/or control of different types of pain 7 . However, there were not enough scientific investigations on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities conferred to these plants. ...
Article
Full-text available
Inflammation is a reaction of a living vascularised tissue to an injury. Conventional or synthetic drugs used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases are inadequate, it sometimes have serious side effects. So, number of herbal medicines is recommended for the treatment of inflammation that has no side effects. Hence our study focused to investigate the physicochemical, qualitative phytochemical analysis of bioactive compounds and In-vitro and In-vivo anti-inflammatory activity of Plumeria indica Linn (P. Indica) flowers extract which has boundless medicinal properties. The physicochemical evaluations carried out in terms of loss on drying, ash value, extractive values and acid insoluble ash value ect. Qualitative analysis of various phytochemical constituents was determined by the well-known test protocol available in the literature. The aqueous and ethanolic extract of P. Indica flowers was screened for in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan induced paw edema in rat model and in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity by human red blood cell membrane stabilization method. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids ect. Ethanolic extract showed best in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was screened for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity at the dose level of 250 and 500mg/kg. Indomethacin at the dose level of 10 mg/kg was used as reference standard drug. Both the extracts showed a dose dependent anti-inflammatory potential which provide scientific basis for the traditional claims of P. Indica flowers as an anti-inflammatory drug. Keywords: Plumeria indica Linn, Anti-inflammatory activity, Carrageenan, Human red blood cells membrane
... It is a simple, rapid, and reliable model and especially suitable to evaluate peripheral type of analgesic action of any drug [18] . The administration of Oroxylumindicum extract showed a significant analgesic activity indicating that it has some analgesic effect on both the central and peripheral nervous systems as indicated by reduced pain by hot plate method and suppression of acetic acid induced writhing .Several plants extracts including Adhatodavasica, Acacia hydaspica, Bossellia serrate, Glaucium grandiflorum, and Landolphiaowariensis have shown analgesic activity in vivo method [19][20][21][22][23] .The tail immersion test has been used as a standard procedure to study the analgesic activity of pharmacological agents [24][25] ,which was originally devised by [26] . The increase in the tail withdrawal latency is good measure of analgesia induced by any chemical agent. ...
... [5,6] In general, A. indica contains secondary metabolites such as-steroids, triterpinoids, reducing sugars, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and tannins while J. adhatoda constitute-alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, terpenes, sugars, and glycosides. [7,8] The experimental method for determining anti-inflammatory effect of extracts was studied by inflammatory response produced in rat by injecting carrageenan in the hind paw. Carrageenan is a phlogistic agent which upon administration produces edema. ...
Research
Full-text available
The present study was carried out to evaluate and compare antiinflammatory potential in different extract from leaves of plants along with analysis of phytochemicals responsible for anti-inflammatory activity. Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of various phytoconstituents such as- Phenol, flavonoids, glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins and steroids. Total Phenolic Content (TPC) was estimated using gallic acid as standard. Total phenolic content was 207.39 ± 8.77 mg GAE/g and 58.08 ± 4.41 mg GAE/g for methanol and chloroform extract of A. indica respectively while 110.00 ± 6.87 mg GAE/g and 75.80 ± 5.55 mg GAE/g for methanol and chloroform extract of J. adhatoda respectively. A well established method: carrageenan induced rat paw edema was adopted for the study of anti-inflammatory activity where adult Wistar albino rats (110-160)gm of either sex were selected for study. Adult rats were divided into 10 groups, carrageenan was injected in hind paw and treated with extract at the standard dose of 200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg. The paw volume was measured at different time intervals i.e. 0,2,4 and 12 hours. Percentage inhibition of inflammation was proportional with the total phenolic content. The result indicates that methanol extract of A. indica has highest anti-inflammatory activity than both extract of J. adhatoda while its chloroform extract has least activity among all extracts
... Although, Nepal is a small country, it is rich in biodiversity due to its geographical features and has many plants with medicinal and aromatic values. Many of them are used in traditional medicine and some are still not explored scientifically for their medicinal values, if explored also there is lack of idea on which one to use specifically in particular diseased condition[shows presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, terpenes, sugars, and glycosides[6,7]. Preliminary screening of phytochemicals is a valuable step, in the detection of the bioactive principle present in medicinal plants and subsequently may lead to drug discovery and development[8]. ...
Thesis
Objective: The present study was carried out for screening of phytochemicals and to compare antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of methanol and chloroform extract of A. indica and J. adhatoda Materials and methods: Antioxidant activity of methanol and chloroform extract of the plant were evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging method using Ascorbic acid as standard at the dose of (100, 50, 25, 12.5) μg/ml. Adult wistar albino rats (110 – 160) gm of either sex were selected for study of anti-inflammatory activity. A well established method carrageenan induced rat paw edema was adopted for the study. Adult rats were divided into 10 groups, carrageenan was injected in hind paw and treated with extract and standard at the dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. The paw volume was measured at different time interval 0,2, 4 and 12 hour. Various tests on phytochemicals were done as per the methods prescribed and total phenolic content was determined using gallic acid as standard. Results: Methanol extract of A. indica showed highest percentage inhibition of DPPH free radical among all the extracts i.e.56.42% which was greater than both extracts of J. adhatoda; however chloroform extract of A. indica showed least antioxidant activity than any of the extract of J. adhatoda. Anti-inflammatory activity was in the same pattern as antioxidant activity with highest percentage inhibition of inflammation for methanol extract of A. indica at the dose of 400 mg/kg among all the extracts. Total phenolic content was 207.39 ± 8.77, 58.08 ± 4.41, 75.80 ± 5.55 and 110.00 ± 6.87 mg GAE/g for methanol and chloroform extract of A. indica and J. adhatoda respectively. Conclusion: The present study shows methanol extract of A. indica has highest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity which was more than both extract of J. adhatoda. However, Chloroform extract shows less antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity than any of the extracts of J. adhatoda. Phytochemical constituents were compared which were similar in both extracts such as -phenol, flavanoid, alkaloid, glycoside, tannin etc. Keywords: Phytochemical screening, A. indica, J. adhatoda, Antioxidant activity, Anti-inflammatory activity
... [5,6] In general, A. indica contains secondary metabolites such as-steroids, triterpinoids, reducing sugars, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and tannins while J. adhatoda constitute-alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, terpenes, sugars, and glycosides. [7,8] The experimental method for determining anti-inflammatory effect of extracts was studied by inflammatory response produced in rat by injecting carrageenan in the hind paw. Carrageenan is a phlogistic agent which upon administration produces edema. ...
Article
The present study was carried out to evaluate and compare antiinflammatory potential in different extract from leaves of plants along with analysis of phytochemicals responsible for anti-inflammatory activity. Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of various phytoconstituents such as- Phenol, flavonoids, glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins and steroids. Total Phenolic Content (TPC) was estimated using gallic acid as standard. Total phenolic content was 207.39 ± 8.77 mg GAE/g and 58.08 ± 4.41 mg GAE/g for methanol and chloroform extract of A. indica respectively while 110.00 ± 6.87 mg GAE/g and 75.80 ± 5.55 mg GAE/g for methanol and chloroform extract of J. adhatoda respectively. A well established method: carrageenan induced rat paw edema was adopted for the study of anti-inflammatory activity where adult Wistar albino rats (110-160)gm of either sex were selected for study. Adult rats were divided into 10 groups, carrageenan was injected in hind paw and treated with extract at the standard dose of 200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg. The paw volume was measured at different time intervals i.e. 0,2,4 and 12 hours. Percentage inhibition of inflammation was proportional with the total phenolic content. The result indicates that methanol extract of A. indica has highest anti-inflammatory activity than both extract of J. adhatoda while its chloroform extract has least activity among all extracts. KEYWORDS: Phytochemical screening, anti-inflammatory activity, total phenolic content, Azadirachta indica, Justicia adhatoda.
... Leaf extracts have been used to treat malaria, dysentery, and diarrhea (Chakraborty & Brantner, 2001). Mulla et al. (2010) showed that extracts have potent anti-inflammatory activity, and A. vasica was traditionally used by midwives at the time of delivery because of its uterotonic activity. The plant is suggested for first-aid medicine in primary health care in most developing countries where it grows and has been used to treat adults and children over long periods of time (weeks to months) without restriction (Chakraborty & Brantner, 2001). ...
Article
Extracts from Justicia adhatoda L. (Acanthaceae) strongly reduced the fitness of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti Linn. The methanolic extracts inhibited several enzymes responsible for protecting insects from oxidative and other damage, including glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, Cytochrome P450 and α- and - esterases. They increased repellency (maximum repellency at 100 ppm) in host-seeking adult females using the “arm-in cage assay”. Histopathological examination showed the extracts led to serious midgut cell damage. J. adhatoda extracts led to reduced fecundity and oviposition of gravid females compared to controls. The extracts led to substantially reduced Ae. aegypti survival. We infer that the extracts have potential to reduce pathogen transmission by suppressing population growth of Ae. aegypti, and possibly other mosquito species.
... The formalin-induced paw edema assay (Table 4 and Figure 5) characterizes the biphasic nociceptive response; these are neurogenic and inflammatory phases [19,20]. The methanolic extract of P. orientalis showed substantial effects by inhibiting inflammation in both phases. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This study aims to evaluate the scientific basis of traditional application of Persicaria orientalis for reducing pain and inflammation. Methods: An in vitro method was performed to investigate the presence of the anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic crude extract of P. orientalis. In addition, an in vivo study was conducted in which the hot-plate and tail immersion methods were applied to explore the acute effect of P. orientalis on analgesia. The potency to inhibit chronic inflammation in mice was justified by the carrageenan-induced paw edema and formalin-induced edema methods. For all in vivo testing in animal models (albino mice and rats), plant extract was given via the oral route at doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. Results: The methanolic extract of P. orientalis produced a significant (p < 0.001) inhibition of analgesia with a prolongation of pain response time by 61.80% at 500 mg/kg. The extract also exhibited a potential anti-inflammatory (56.99%) effect, which was also statistically significant (p < 0.001). The present study suggests that the methanolic extract of P. orientalis has potential anti-inflammatory as well as analgesic activity and this extract is effective in the treatment of both acute and chronic pain. Conclusions: Our current study revealed pharmacological properties of the methanolic extract of P. orientalis and also gave a solid scientific platform against its traditional use. The protecting ability of P. orientalis against inflammatory stimuli may be due to phenolic or flavonoid compounds which we have found through phytochemical analysis.
... Plants like Woodfordia fruticosa, Adhatoda vasica, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Viburnum cotinifolium, Vitex negundo, Peganum harmala and Broussonetia papyrifera have been investigated scientifically for presence of alkaloids with reference to their ethno pharmacological profile in pain management [10,[11][12][13][14][15][16]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Tissue damage is associated with pain, which is an alarming sign. Aspirin and morphine have been widely used in recent decades for management of pain. Medicinal herbs have been in use for treatment of different diseases for centuries. Many of these herbs possess analgesic activity with relatively less incidences of adverse effects. The strong positive correlation of alkaloids in medicinal plants for analgesic activity persuades an intention to determine possible analgesic activity of total alkaloids extracted from the selected medicinal plants using animal models to answer its possible mechanisms. Methods Crude alkaloids from selected medicinal plants (Woodfordia fruticosa, Adhatoda vasica, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Vitex negundo, Peganum harmala and Broussonetia papyrifera) were extracted as per reported literature. The test crude alkaloids were screened foracute toxicity study. Writhings induced by acetic acid, tail immersion method and formalin-induced nociception assay procedures were used for possible analgesic effects of the crude alkaloids. Results Crude alkaloids were safe up to dose of 1250 mg/kg body weight in mice. The alkaloids significantly reduced the abdominal constrictions, and increased the time for paw licking response in both phases with a significant raise in latency time in nociception models (P ≤ 0.05). Moreover, the antinociceptive response was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with naloxone suggesting involvement of the opioid receptors for possible antinociceptive action. Conclusions Crude alkaloids of Woodfordia fruticosa and Peganum harmala showed prominent analgesic potentials through inhibition of peripheral as well as central nervous system mechanisms. Further work is required for isolation of the pharmacologically active constituents.
... The administration of Oroxylum indicum extract showed a significant analgesic activity indicating that it has some analgesic effect on both the central and peripheral nervous systems as indicated by reduced pain by hot plate method and suppression of acetic acid induced writhing. Several plant extracts including Adhatoda vasica, Acacia hydaspica, Boswellia serrate, Glaucium grandiflorum, and Landolphia owariensis have shown analgesic activity in vivo [40][41][42][43][44]. The tail immersion test has been used as a standard procedure to study the analgesic activity of pharmacological agents [45,46], which was originally devised by [47]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Inflammation is all a pervasive phenomenon, which is elicited by the body in response to obnoxious stimuli as a protective measure. However, sustained inflammation leads to several diseases including cancer. Therefore it is necessary to neutralize inflammation. Sonapatha ( Oroxylum indicum ), a medicinal plant, is traditionally used as a medicine in Ayurveda and other folk systems of medicine. It is commonly used to treat inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and asthma. Despite this fact its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects are not evaluated scientifically. Therefore, the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Sonapatha ( Oroxylum indicum ) were studied in Swiss albino mice by different methods. The hot plate, acetic acid, and tail immersion tests were used to evaluate the analgesic activity whereas xylene-induced ear edema and formalin induced paw edema tests were used to study the anti-inflammatory activity of Sonapatha. The administration of mice with 250 and 300 mg/kg b.wt. of O. indicum reduced pain and inflammation indicating that Sonapatha possesses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The maximum analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities were observed in mice receiving 300 mg/kg b.wt. of O. indicum ethanol extract . Our study indicates that O. indicum possesses both anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and it may be useful as an anti-inflammatory agent in the inflammation related disorders.
... [32] Antiinflammatory and analgesic effects have also been reported for the plant. [33] Thus the plant has reported scientific validation both to relieve coughs as well as to alleviate pain. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Folk medicine forms the primary tier of health-care practices in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to document the medicinal uses of plants by a folk medicinal practitioner (Kaviraj) of Pabna district, Bangladesh. Methods: Interviews of the Kaviraj were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Results: The Kaviraj used 29 plants distributed into 22 families in his formulations. The formulations were used to treat diverse diseases like respiratory tract disorders, leucorrhea, depression, conjunctivitis, gastrointestinal disorders, skin disorders, pain, fever, burns, infertility, and cuts and wounds. Conclusion: The study suggests that the medicinal plants used by the Kaviraj of Pabna district needs to be scientifically studied towards discovery of useful drugs.
... The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Adhatoda vasica and Andrographis affinis on the control of M. incognita in laboratory and screen house. Andrographis affinis is a highly reputed plant used in Ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of various ailments of respiratory systems like bronchitis, asthma and it is also used in the treatment of malaria, dysentery and diarrhea (Jain et al., 1984) and aso has antiinflammatory, analgesic, diarrhea, dysentery, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, Sedative, antispasmodic, anthelmintic properties (Mulla et al., 2010), antimicrobial activity (Sheeba et al., 2012), antidiabetic activity (Bhatt et al., 2011). The leaves are found to activate the digestive enzyme trypsin and significant antifungal activity against ringworm (Khare, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Laboratory and screen house experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of two botanicals extracted from Adhatoda vasica and Andrographis affinis in the control of root knot nematode (M. incognita) on tomato. Approximately 100 juveniles were dispensed into petridishes containing both the crude and diluted extracts of the botanicals except the control which contained only distilled water. In the screen house 5, 10 and 15gm of powdered plant material was applied on top of soil in form of mulch to each pot except the control which received no treatment. Triazophos a chemical nematicide was used as a check and applied at the rate of 1 ml/cm3 of soil. The results in both experiments indicated that Adhatoda vasica crude extract gave the best and recorded highest juvenile mortality of 100 % after 72hrs and recorded the highest growth parameters and least nematodes population. It is recommended that Adhatoda vasica extracts and powder be tried in the field before recommending to tomato farmers for the control of M. incognita.
... Adhatoda vasica Linn. Also has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, diarrhoea, dysentery, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, Sedative, antispasmodic, anthelmintic properties [6] , Antimicrobial activity [7] , Antidiabetic activity [8] , Wound healing effect [9] . Infertility [10] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Adhatoda vasica commonly known as vasaka or also known as Roosh near to rural place Papaura, District Rewa (M.P.) India. In the pharmacognostic study of vasaka (leafs) was carried out the some major pharmacognostic study includes macroscopy, microscopy, phytochemical screening, highest values were found with the extraction of water and ethanol, phytochemical screening were confirmed by the presence of Tannins,
... Screening was performed to include only mice with baseline latency within a range of 4-7 s. Changes in tail flick latency were determined in comparison to data obtained from the control group [15]. ...
... Screening was performed to include only mice with baseline latency within a range of 4-7 s. Changes in tail flick latency were determined in comparison to data obtained from the control group [15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Melatonin, encapsulated and non-encapsulated, in a topical gel, was comparatively investigated for its in vitro permeation and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties. An average size of the melatonin-encapsulated niosomes of 197 nm with a zeta potential of -78.8 mV and an entrapment efficiency of 92.7% was incorporated into a gel base. In vitro skin permeation of the same gel base incorporated with non-encapsulated melatonin or melatonin niosomes at 5% was comparatively evaluated through porcine skin using Franz diffusion cells and analyzed by spectroflurometry at λex 278 and lem 348 nm. From the same gel base, the permeation rate of non-encapsulated melatonin was about 2.5 times greater than that of melatonin-encapsulated niosomes. In comparison to piroxicam gel and hydrocortisone cream used as the positive controls, topical applications of melatonin and melatonin niosome gels tested in croton oil-induced ear edema in mice suggested that its anti-inflammatory activities were prolonged by the niosomal encapsulation. Similarly, analgesic effect of melatonin was prolonged by niosomal encapsulation using tail flick test in mice. Therefore, its immediate permeation through the skin was retarded by niosomal encapsulation which could also prolong its rapid decline in exerting anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in vivo.
... Adhatoda vasica is useful in treating bronchitis, tuberculosis and other lung and bronchiole disorders [2,3] Adhatoda vasica Linn. also has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, diarrhoea, dysentery, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, Sedative, antispasmodic, anthelmintic properties [4] , Antimicrobial activity [5] , Antidiabetic activity [6] , Wound healing effect [7] . Infertility [8] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Adhatoda vasica Nees (Family Acanthaceae), commonly known as Vasaka or Arusha is found commonly in India. In present investigation, pharmacognostical studies of leaves of Adhatoda vasica was carried out to lay down the standards which could be useful in future experimental studies.
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has been a healthcare disaster because of the unique and distinct characteristics of the pathogen, the easy and rapid transmission of the virus from humans to humans, the challenges in diagnosis and confirmation of the disease and the inability to invent and distribute safe and effective drugs or vaccines worldwide that would work against all the variants of coronavirus. Bangladesh, despite being a third-world country with limited health resources, has not been one of the worst-hit countries in the world but has still suffered with the loss of nearly eleven thousand people. Traditional and herbal remedies have become popular in this sub-continent since long ago and used for the treatment and management of different diseases including infectious disease. In this review, we have summarized the reports of immunostimulating, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and respiratory distress syndrome improving activities of prospective indigenous plants of Bangladesh that may be recommended for use as complementary and alternative medicine or may be potential sources for the discovery and development of anti-COVID-19 medicaments. Thus, the review will be beneficial for the researchers, complementary and alternative medicines or herbal medicine manufacturers, formulators to find out and manage the potential herbal/nutraceutical/medicinal agents for the preparation of complementary and alternative medicines, as well as to the scientist for further research for the discovery and development of therapeutics/new drugs for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 as well as other viral infections.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Adhatoda vasica (Nees.) of family Acanthaceae has been used in the Southeast tropical zone as it is efficacious against headache, colds, cough, whooping cough, fever, asthma, dyspnea, phthisis, jaundice, chronic bronchitis and diarrhea and exhibits commendable pharmacological activities. Objective The aim of the review is to provide a systematic overview of pharmacological activities with toxicity and clinical assessment, phytochemistry of A. vasica along with its characterization, geographical observation, phenology, traditional uses as well as an organized representation of the findings. Method The overall information of A. vasica were collected from various resources including books, review papers, research papers and reports which were obtained by an online search of worldwide-accepted scientific databases. ChemDraw software was used to draw the compounds’s structure. Results Phytochemical review on A. vasica has led to the collection of 233 compounds of different types such as alkaloids, flavonoids, essential oils, terpenoids, fatty acids, phenols etc. It is a promising source of phytopharmaceutical potential agent that exhibits diverse pharmacological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, hepatoprotective, anti-ulcer, abortifacient, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, thrombolytic, hypoglycemic, anti-tubercular, antioxidant and antitussive activities. Conclusions The sufficient number of studies on ethno-pharmacology, traditional uses and pharmacological activities of A. vasica are conducted. Furthermore, it is necessary to study the activity of chemical constituents for new drug design and discovery from natural products.
Article
Full-text available
A considerable preponderance of population throughout the globe has consistently manipulated medicinal plants as pioneer informant of health protection to oppose contagious and non-contagious diseases. The bulk of these pharmaceutical plants have scientific affirmation to be contemplated in prevailing application. Inflammation is the crucial problem interconnected with copious infection. Every living creature can sense sick, feverish and weak as our body struggle to over through the infection and recuperates itself. Inflammation is absolutely important to conserve us healthy. However, sometimes the inflammatory response of our body can be a bit overenthusiastic, not arrest when it is expected to; which can cause numerous complications and even condition of disease. To completely comprehend and be able to competently treat these disorders, we require a more desirable and satisfactory comprehension of how and why these long lasting chronic infection happens. Now in present time, inflammation is rehabilitated by NSAIDS. These drugs unfortunately accomplish appalling possibilities of blood clots leading to strokes and cardiac arrest. Therefore, the essential universal products are currently under applications in order to develop the dynamic anti-inflammatory drugs. For the rehabilitation of various disease linked with inflammation, the essential crude products from important medicinal plants performs a decisive factor. To get rid of the side effects of present day drugs, there is a necessity for the development of advance drugs with minor or no secondary responses. The current review designed towards gathering of particular information on auspicious curative plants especially experimented in inflammatory model manipulating accurate scientific experimental system.
Chapter
The pharmacological potential of the plant relies upon the presence of phytochemical components and their quantities. Variety of the components has their own spectrum of activities which based upon the nature of the compound and the affinity of towards the receptors. Plant Adhatoda vasica as being the ancient plant in use for the traditional remedies has been the choice of traditional healers. Those claims which were made in the past were on the ‘Hit and Trial’ basis which were supposed to be having a scientific base. This chapter includes all those approaches which were adopted to bolster the traditional claim of therapeutic practice and is based upon the scientific explorations.
Article
Data on the biological activity of kappa-opioid receptor agonists - derivatives of three groups of compounds: 1,2-cyclohexylamine, 1,2,3,4-piperidine, 1,2,4-piperazine are presented. On the examples of 1,2-cyclohexylamine and 1,2,4-piperazine derivatives, it has been shown that a decrease in the length of the carbon chain in the phenylalkyl substituent at the nitrogen atom is accompanied by a decrease in the analgesic activity and toxicity of compounds. The replacement of chlorine atoms in the 3 and 4 positions of the phenyl ring with fluorine atoms, which are more electronegative, leads to an increase in the analgesic effect and a decrease in the toxicity of the compounds.
Article
The study was designed to evaluate the analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of binahong (Anredera cordifolia) leaf using plantar test method. A significant (p<0, 05) analgesic effect was observed with 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. The maximum analgesic response was produced with extract doses of 400 mg/kg. This results suggest that the ethanolic extract of Anredera cordifolia has exhibited significant analgesic effect, which were comparable with standard drugs.
Article
To study the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Impatiens balsamina leaves in suitable animal models, the leaves of Impatiens balsamina were extracted with distilled water using Soxhlet apparatus. The extract thus obtained was screened for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity using tail flick method and carrageenan induced paw oedema method in albino rats respectively. The aqueous extract of the plant produced significant increase in the reaction time at 30, 60 and 120 minutes as compared to respective controls in albino rats (p<0.05-0.001). The aqueous extract of the plant produced significant reduction in the mean increase in paw volume; 0.316±0.04 (p<0.01), 0.266±0.03 (p<0.01) and 0.166 ± 0.04 (p<0.01) at the doses of 500,1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight respectively as compared to the control (0.483± 0.03).However the extract was found to be less effective than the standard drug. The study demonstrates significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Impatiens balsamina leaves.
Article
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to reveal the potential pleotropic anti-inflammatory activity of two hmg-co Reductase inhibitors, Rosuvastatin and atorvastatin in comparison with standard drug diclofenac. Methods: The method used for screening anti-inflammatry activity was In vitro human red blood cell membrane stabilization method. Results: The results of our study revealed that atorvastatin and rosuvastatin showed effective in vitro(500mcg/ml) anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard drug diclofenac. Conclusion: The rosuvastatin was more potent anti-inflamatory drug when compared with atorvastatin. © 2015, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. All rights reserved.
Article
Objective: The present study was aimed at to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanolic leaf extracts of the endangered medicinal tree species, Hildegardia populifolia on laboratory animal. Methods: The anti-inflammatory potential of the extract has been determined by using carrageenan, formalin and histamine induced paw edema assays in Wistar rats. Indomethacin was used as a reference drug. The analgesic activity was tested by using acetic acid induced writhing response and hot plate method in swiss albino mice. Aspirin and pentazocine were used as reference drugs respectively for these models. Results: The oral administration of leaf extract at doses, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.05-0.01) inhibited the carrageenan, formalin and histamine induced inflammation. The acute treatment of the extract produced a significant (P < 0.05-0.01) antinociceptive effect in the animals of acetic acid induced pain and the animals tested in a hot plate method. Acute toxicity test showed that the plant may be safe for pharmacological uses. Conclusions: It is very clear that H. populifolia has both anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and so may be used as pharmaceuticals.
Article
Maharasnadhi Quathar (MRQ) is a polyherbal preparation recommended by Ayurvedic medical practitioners for treatment of arthritic conditions. An investigation has been carried out with rats and human rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, to determine the anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of MRQ. Results obtained demonstrate that MRQ can significantly and dose-dependently inhibit carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema (the inhibition at 3h was greater than at 1h after induction of oedema). MRQ could also increase the reaction time of rats in the hot-plate test (by 57% after the first hour of treatment), although it had no effect on the reaction time in the tail-flick test, indicating that MRQ possesses analgesic activity that is probably mediated via a supra-spinal effect.MRQ also exerted a dose-dependent (a) protective effect on heat-induced erythrocyte lysis, and (b) inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase activity. In RA patients, after 3 months of MRQ treatment, there was a marked improvement in the pain and inflammation experienced by the patients as well as in the mobility of the affected joints. From the overall results obtained, it may be concluded that MRQ possesses significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Alteration in synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, membrane stabilization and anti-oxidant activity are some of the possible mechanisms through which MRQ mediates its anti-arthritic effects.