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... Social media, in the sales context, refers to "any social interaction enhancing technology that can be deployed by sales professionals to generate content (e.g., blogs, microblogs, wikis) and develop networks (e.g., social networks, online communities) (Agnihotri, Kothandaraman, Kashyap, & Singh, 2012, p. 334). As such, there has been increased academic interest on the role of social media in supporting business-to-business (B2B) buying decisions (e.g., Gustafson, Pomirleanu, John-Mariadoss, & Johnson 2021), B2B buying perceptions (e.g., Bianchi & Andrews, 2015), use (e.g., Agnihotri, Trainor, Itani, & Rodriguez, 2017), and influence on business performance (e.g., Wang, Pauleen, & Zhang, 2016); notably, Industrial Marketing Management remains at the forefront of social-media driven sales research as scholars continue to make impressive strides in examining the role of social media in B2B sales (Kumar, Sharma, Vatavwala, & Kumar, 2020). ...
... There is a growing consensus among researchers and managers that social media should be an integral part of an organization's repertoire because not only it helps during the selling process (Wang et al., 2016) but also during the buying process (Gustafson, Pomirleanu, Mariadoss, & Johnson, 2021). Notably, from salesforce perspective, it allows salespeople to connect with customers and build social capital that would encourage customers to interact and engage with salespeople (Agnihotri, 2020). ...
Embracing social media can enable sales organizations remain competitive in a socially connected business environment. Despite its critical role, however, B2B salespeople still report infrequent use of social media. Academic research focusing on social media in B2B sales, although growing, has yet to reach consensus regarding pathways from social media use to sales performance at the salesperson and organization levels. Accordingly, the number of empirical studies on social media and B2B sales remains limited. In addition, methodological concerns still remain. In this editorial, we briefly review the B2B sales literature and describe how each of the five articles included in this special issue contributes to this field. Moreover, we suggest future research opportunities with regard to issues and topics that remain largely under-investigated.
... Another relevant aspect of the SM literature focuses on the benefits that firms derive from SMU and how these benefits affect business performances. Wang et al. (2016) have provided evidence that SM has a positive effect on business-to-business (B2B) communication and business performance, in marketing, innovation and collaborations. Moreover, Wang and Kim (2017) have shown that SMU positively affects firm performance and improves both customer relationship management capabilities and marketing adoption strategies. ...
... In addition, a vast amount of information received through SM helps entrepreneurs to recognize various opportunities for introducing new products/services, entering into new markets, having better customer relationships and participating in entrepreneurial events (Olanrewaju et al., 2018). In this regard, some studies have shown that SMU helps firms to recognize new business partners, create new relationships and develop the resources needed to manage them effectively (Gulati, 2007;Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010;Wang et al., 2016). Therefore, we hypothesize the following: ...
The aim of this paper is to investigate how social media use (SMU) affects the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and entrepreneurial opportunities (EOP) of start-ups.
The hypothesis testing and analysis were conducted using the partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM).
The research shows that SMU has a strong positive impact on EOP, while it has no impact on start-ups' EO. Interestingly, the impact of SMU on EOP is stronger than the impact of EO on EOP.
The findings add new knowledge to the emerging research stream that focuses on SMU in the context of entrepreneurship and provides useful insights for both scholars and practitioners. In particular, the evidence suggests implications for stakeholders with regard to their firms' entrepreneurial activities. This research offers several possible avenues for future research.
... Two of the essential firm-level activities and drivers of economic development, according to researchers, are the acquisition of knowledge and the direction of the company on the market (Zhao et al., 2019). In examining, how companies are inspired by social media knowledge to become more informed about market opportunities and become more market-oriented, such as in their relationship with clients and competitors, an understanding of the processes of acquiring social media knowledge, and how it is used in organizations can be provided (Wang et al., 2016). ...
... Kaimkhani (2018) pointed out that acquiring knowledge makes it easier to understand a wide range of information, making it easier to develop innovative products or processes to meet market needs. According to Wang et al. (2016), the development of technology relies on two factors associated with knowledge acquired from external relationships. Knowledge increases the capabilities of the organization. ...
In the context of China’s online technology business, this study explores the linkages between knowledge acquisition via social media, two modes of market orientation (proactive and responsive), social media strategic capability, and brand innovation strategy. Data were collected from 853 Chinese technology firms with the help of questionnaire. To analyze the collected data structure, equation modeling was applied using smart-PLS 3.3 version. Results indicate that knowledge acquisition from social media, market orientation (proactive and responsive), and strategic capability has significant impact on brand innovation in the context of social media. Furthermore, strategic capability on social media moderates the relationship between knowledge, market orientation (proactive and responsive), and brand innovation in the context of social media. This study offers new perspectives on market orientation and brand innovation strategy by extending the literature and testing key assumptions. Moreover, using social media knowledge in social media marketing and innovation management is a sensible approach for making changes and transforming an organization.
... Within the B2B realm, less attention has been paid to the use of social media by SMEs than by large firms (Wang, Pauleen & Zhang, 2016). Recent findings indicate that SMEs adopt social media marketing for reasons similar to larger firms (e.g., compatibility, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and cost reductions; Chatterjee & Kar, 2020;Eid, Abdelmoety, & Agag, 2019). ...
... B2B SMEs suffer from a lack of time and available resources, which can be overcome by using Internet communication tools such as social media (Brink, 2017). Wang et al. (2016) found that three social media capabilities are influential in improving B2B SME communication performance: (1) transmission velocity, (2) parallelism, and (3) rehearsability. Michaelidou et al. (2011) indicated that attracting new customers is key for B2B SMEs' social media adoption. ...
In business-to-business (B2B) settings, social media provide a novel context for investigating customer engagement. While B2B firms are increasingly investing in social media, there is limited understanding about the type of content to be published and how customers may react to their posts. The authors address these research gaps by developing a conceptual framework that relates posts’ brand personality dimensions (sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication, and ruggedness) to customer engagement. Using data from a small-sized Chilean-Swiss consultancy firm accounting for 114 weeks of LinkedIn activity, the authors specify a VAR model with exogenous variables (VARX). Focusing on the cumulative elasticities, the study uncovers the engagement mechanisms of customers. The results show that an increase in impressions (exposure) leads to an increase in likes, clicks, and shares (perceptions), an increase in clicks leads to an increase in new followers (actions), and an increase in new followers leads to an increase in impressions. Furthermore, the results indicate that an increase in posts’ excitement leads to an increase in impressions and likes, an increase in posts’ competence leads to an increase in clicks, and an increase in posts’ ruggedness leads to an increase in new followers.
... However, to improve the performance of SMEs, there is a need to first gain insights into the actual dimensions or indicators of SMEs performance. According toWang, Pauleen, and Zhang (2016), SMEs performance could be broadly categorized into financial indicators and non-financial indicators. Financial indicators relate directly to the financial health of SMEs; they are ...
This study examined E-marketing strategies and performance of small and medium-sized enterprises: A new-normal agenda. It aimed to explore the effects of social media marketing, online advertising, and email marketing on the performance of SMEs in the new-normal era. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey research design. It used a structured questionnaire to obtain primary data from 295 operators of SMEs. The hypotheses developed for the study were statistically tested using multiple linear regression with the aid of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 23). The findings of the study revealed that social media marketing, online advertising, and email marketing had significant positive effects on the performance of SMEs in the new-normal era. Therefore, the study recommended that SMEs adopt social media platforms (such as Facebook, Instagram, and WhatsApp); online advertising tools (such as search engine, display, and website advertising); and email marketing tools (such as welcome email, email newsletters, and dedicated email promotions) to promote their products and services in order to enhance sales and marketing performance. Suggestions for further studies are also made as a guide for intending researchers.
... The use of social media as a marketing channel by a company or individual should provide marketing services, techniques, strategies, and plans that demonstrate social participation and meet the characteristics of the community . In addition to relying on commercially-oriented aspects, social networks marketing content should also be socially oriented or involve active interaction between users  and create deep communication and good relationships between them . This increase in transparency gives consumers more access to information related to the use of the product and increases awareness of the conditions under which industrial corporations produce them. ...
This paper aims to investigate how social network marketing affects consumers' sustainable purchase behavior (CSPB) while considering the role of Eco-friendly attitude. The statistical population of the study included Iranian users of online social networks with at least one online purchasing experience. An online questionnaire was distributed on Instagram, Telegram, and What-sApp platforms as the most popular networks in the country. By use of convenience sampling, commonly used in quantitative studies to overcome bias, 450 out of 475 returned questionnaires were acceptable, showing a response rate of 94.7%. The results indicated that an increase in Eco-friendly attitude positively increases the effect of word of mouth on consumers' sustainable purchase behavior. Meanwhile, Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA) revealed that to reach a 50% level of consumers' sustainable purchase behavior, six essential necessary conditions are required: an eco-friendly con-sumers' attitude at no less than 50%, the trend at no less than 57.1%, word of mouth at no less than 45.5%, interaction at no less than 42.9%, customization at no less than 35.3% and entertainment at no less than 26.7%. Furthermore, the Importance-Performance Matrix Analysis (IPMA) was investigated as a strategic tool. The results of IPMA showed that "buy products that use biodegradable material in packaging", "buy those products that are picked up and recycled", and "buy biodegradable products even if they belong to a less well-known company" show desirable performance and high importance and there is a great opportunity for expansion in this area.
... If consumers continue to use the app, it will benefit the service provider's business and allow it to continue operating. The ambition to utilize a product indefinitely is referred to as continuous consumption intention (Wang, 2016a). Encouragement of ongoing usage intention by consumers is a crucial strategy for market development and maintenance, according to marketing management (Deng et al., 2017). ...
This study proposes to explore the relationship between perceived risk, subjective norm, perceived value, and continuous usage intention via trust as a mediating variable. This research applied a survey which involved 320 IM users (160 from millennials and 160 from Zillennial) in Indonesia. The literature’s existing scales were used to operationalize the constructs proposed in this study. The analyses were conducted using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) to test hypotheses. The results of the study show that there are differences in the results of the influence of perceived risk on continuous usage intention in the Millennial and Zillennial generations. The results of the study found that continuous usage intention received negative direct impact from perceived risk, positive direct effect from subjective norm, perceived value, and trust on Millennial. In addition, continuous usage intention received negative and not significant direct impact from perceived risk, positive direct effect from subjective norm, perceived value, and trust on Zillennial. The results are useful for instant messaging management into formulating strategies to retain their users in Indonesia. These findings provided theoretical and managerial contributions as well as future research directions.
... Most Sri Lankan hotels had greater revenues and a younger customer base, according to the experts. Young people are obsessed with the latest smartphones [10,11]. According to experts, many businesses and hotels in Sri Lanka are hesitant to engage in digital marketing tools since they are costly at first. ...
Digital marketing platforms have recently played a crucial role in hotel marketing and customer interaction strategies. Hotel managers have understood that hotel customers today and future rely increasingly on digital media use. However, the adoption of digital marketing tools appears to be relatively low in listed hotels in Sri Lanka due to unfamiliarity with digital marketing and not being confident in investing in digital marketing tools in achieving the expected financial and non-financial results. A considerable number of research has been carried out throughout the world on digital marketing and business performance; however, a limited study has been conducted in Sri Lanka to evaluate the influence of digital marketing tools on listed hotels' financial performance. This research fulfills the above gap by measuring the impact of digital marketing tools on the financial performance of Sri Lankan-listed hotels. The study population consists of thirty-seven (37) listed hotels in Colombo Stock Exchange, and the entire population was taken as the sample. The dependent variable used to study the financial performance is the Return on Equity. Digital marketing tools such as social media and mobile marketing are independent variables considered in this study. A self-administrated structured questionnaire was circulated to the marketing professionals. After analyzing the responses using correlation analysis and regression analysis, it was revealed that social media and mobile marketing have a significant positive impact on the hotel's financial performance. The findings are useful in reducing ambiguity and confusion about financial and non-financial outcomes based on digital marketing tools. Original Research Article Premasinghe et al.; AJEBA, 21(21): 34-44, 2021; Article no.AJEBA.77762 35
... Rehearsability that is the ability for the sender to verify and test the sent message. The opportunity to re-test and process the message directly during or after the communication -Reprocessability (Wang., 2016). ...
Purpose-The purpose of this study is to examine e-commerce platforms (e-CP) registered organization. The main focus will be made on the tools and approaches those organization utilize in order to increase their performance indicators. Design/methodology/approach-The secondary data will be collected from the online platforms to develop an instrument to conduct a survey amongst e-CP registers organizations' top management. A deductive approach will be utilized with quantitative strategy. Findings-The findings of this study will help e-CP registers organizations to optimize the tools and the approaches to gain competitive advantage over their rivals. Implications-This study will deriving theoretical as well as practical implication. For theoretical implication will be looking at developing theoretical framework. As for the practical implication, the recommendations will be spawned for managerial use. Originality/value-As there is no abundance of the literature the theoretical framework which this research intends to develop will serve as a novelty of this study. The mentioned model will seek the links between tools and approaches companies use on e-CP and their performance indicators.
... Parveen et al. (2015) explained that the main reason for firms to use a high amount of SM is to develop a good relationship with customers, to have effective communications with them. Satisfactory addressing and closure of communication creates an effective influence on customer loyalty (Zhang and Li, 2019), satisfaction (Wang et al., 2016), equity (Kim and Ko, 2012), commitment (Balaji, 2014), relationship and trust (Rose et al., 2021), inspiration (Oh et al., 2017), and intimacy (Hasan et al., 2017). It also influences brand image (Ibrahim et al., 2017), brand equity (Supphellen, 2000), service recovery (Luong et al., 2021), value creation (Kao et al., 2016), firm innovation (Muninger et al., 2019), firm value , and the performance of institutions (Daowd et al., 2020). ...
Increasingly, firms' social media (SM) use is on the rise; therefore, effective communication on SM remains a challenge for firms in the digital era. This study explores firms' different SM engagements with respect to artificial intelligence (AI) and proposes an empirically validated model. A qualitative research design was adopted in which semi-structured interviews were conducted with the chief executive, director, chief entrepreneur, and/or associated top management of firms that use AI. Based on an analysis of these interviews, the study proposes the "microfoundation of social media routine framework" that consists of three processes and four stages. This routine integrates AI manage the engagement of users on firms' SM. This routine provides the opportunity to establish strong relationships with customers. At the end of the study, we discuss the contributions and implications of the routine and conclude with future research directions.
... The viral marketing theory was deployed in the study of  and the findings showed that SM helps SMEs in increase customer clientele, brand awareness, loyalty and reputation, reduce communication and marketing cost, revenue generation, attracting new customers, and competitive advantage. In the study of , the MST was deployed using qualitative approach and the findings showed that the usage of SM is affected by variable with information security and control as emerging important variable. The usage includes marketing, innovation, and collaboration. ...
Social media (SM) has become a necessity and a method to confront challenges and fierce competition. More than half of the population are using SM. However, its implication for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) is not well documented and researched. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to review the literature pertaining to the adoption of SM by SMEs. A systematic literature review was conducted using specific keywords and database. This has resulted in reviewing 28 related articles. The findings was presented using frequency analysis. Number of articles are increasing steadily especially in emerging markets with large number of studies deploying the exploratory nature. The most widely used theory is the technological-organizational-environmental framework (TOE) and the sample size of the reviewed studies is adequate. Increasingly the structural equation modelling are being used. However, the use of intervening variable is minimal. The finding also showed that organizational and environmental context variables are the most important predictors of SM adoption by SMEs while the consequence of this adoption on business performance is mixed. There is a need for more studies to discover the consequence of adopting SM by SMEs using a combination of theories.
... Our findings support to confirm that SM use has a positive impact on the communication effectiveness of CPTs. Previous studies have examined the impacts of SM on communication performance in permanent organizations like small and medium enterprises (Wang et al., 2016), while this research furtherly reveals its effects in temporary organizations such as CPTs. Such enrichment can be explained by the following reasons. ...
A lack of reliable and effective communication tools poses major barriers impeding the performance of construction projects consisting of diverse participants. Although some construction project teams (CPTs) begin to apply social media (SM) as an available approach for project management the entire mechanism of SM adoption in this specific context remains understudied. Therefore, this study aims to adopt a CPT's lens to investigate the critical antecedents and associated effects underlying SM adoption in the construction industry.
Based on the technology–organization–environment (TOE) theory, a conceptual model was proposed and tested by empirical data collected from 159 CPTs in China. Structural equation modeling technique was employed for data analysis.
The results demonstrate that all the five extracted TOE-based antecedents including two technological factors (i.e. compatibility and expected cost), one organizational factor (i.e. top management support) and two environmental factors (i.e. project partner collaboration and project fit) are crucial to the adoption of SM in CPTs. Besides, SM acceptance is found to mediate the relationships between organizational and environmental factors and SM use. Moreover, SM use significantly predicts the communication effectiveness of CPTs.
A questionnaire study based on cross-sectional data from China may only unveil the logic of SM adoption in the context of Chinese construction industry within a shorter time interval. It is recommended that future research could develop longitudinal studies among various construction practitioners in different countries to further specify and generalize the current findings.
This paper provides a comprehensive understanding of SM adoption in the construction industry by exploring the preadoption antecedents and postadoption effects from the perspective of project teams. The empirical findings advance the current web-based project management literature and afford new insights for construction practitioners into better managing SM application to reap its full capabilities in projects.
... Beyond the interaction and brand's visibility, multiple researches have been done in order to know how social media data may enhance the business performance (e.g., Wang et al., 2016;Wu, 2016;Li et al., 2021;Tajvidi and Karami, 2021). For example, Buhalis and Foerste (2015) show how tourism and hospitality firms may use social media data as a part of value co-creation. ...
Social media data play a vital role in consumers' brand awareness and their loyalty. However, little is known about consumers' social media activities in the context of cosmetic brands. This research examines the impact of consumers' social media activities and the use of social media data on their attitude of one cosmetic brand-Maybelline. Analysing the survey data from 248 French consumers using SmartPLS software, we unexpectedly find: 1) consumers' attitude towards online sponsored recommendations strongly influence their attitude towards a cosmetic brand; 2) both consumers' online contributions on social media and their peers' social influence positively influence their attitude towards a cosmetic brand. Results also suggest that on social media, consumers look for trustworthy information on cosmetic brands. Our results also highlight how cosmetic brands may optimise their social media data in order to create trustworthy contents on social media.
... B2B communication through mobile social media is a value-creating marketing strategy because messages are transmitted fast, flexibly and efficiently. Among the two studies in this category, Wang et al. (2016) revealed that mobile social media capabilities (e.g. transmission velocity, parallelism, symbol sets, repeatability and processability) are helpful for B2B communication. ...
The purpose of this study is to provide a systematic review of the current state of research regarding mobile social media use for value creation by firms and customers and an agenda for future research.
The authors conducted a systematic review following three main steps: keyword search, study selection and data extraction. A total of 53 articles were identified using academic databases and manual cross-referencing. By means of a thematic analysis method, the study addresses issues related to theory, methods, context, findings and gaps.
The study reviews and illustrates 14 value aspects of the mobile social media and value creation literature. The findings indicate that mobile social media are effective tools for firms to create and capture value from customers and for customers to co-create value.
The study contributes to the marketing and social media literature by proposing a conceptual framework that integrates the core components of value creation by firms and customers in the mobile social media context and by proposing an agenda for future research.
... Trainor (2012) Resource-Based View Capabilities-Based Perspective ✓ ✓ Social media technologies have the potential to affect performance-enhancing CRM capabilities, such as information processing, customer linking and market sensing, social selling, social service and support, and social innovation. Wang, Pauleen, and Zhang (2016) 5 senior managers of smalland medium-sized enterprises (service and manufacturing industries) ...
The importance of social media usage by B2B salespeople has been well documented in the sales literature. In particular, a B2B salesperson's use of social media to prospect for customers and adapt their sales approach have primarily been shown to explain sales performance. However, an increasing body of literature in the sales domain has called for B2B salespeople to be ambidextrous by engaging in service activities aimed at helping their customers. We argue that by giving B2B salespeople an opportunity to communicate directly with their customers, social media is used by salespeople to proactively service their customers and hence can play a critical role in driving sales performance. Drawing from the Task-Technology Fit theory, we develop and test a conceptual model in which B2B salesperson social media usage affects salesperson performance indirectly through value-oriented prospecting and proactive servicing. Additionally peer social media usage was a key moderator in the relationship between B2B salesperson social media usage on the one hand and value-oriented prospecting and proactive servicing on the other hand. We test the model with data from 171 B2B salespeople and find that salesperson social media usage relates positively with proactive servicing and value-oriented prospecting. While we did not find support for the relationship between social media usage and adaptive selling, we did find support for the impact of all three sales activities salesperson performance. In addition, results show that peer social media usage has positive moderating effects on the B2B salesperson social media usage and value-oriented prospecting/proactive servicing relationships.
... So far, a few studies have analyzed social media adoption among SMEs (Odoom et al. 2017). Therefore, some scholars such as Wang et al. (2016) have highlighted the need to examine the developments of social media marketing activities in SMEs operating in B2B. Moreover, as the pandemic is still ongoing, there is a lack of studies in marketing literature regarding the effects of Covid-19 on SMEs' adoption of social media in the B2B context. ...
The growth of social media usage and its utilization in marketing campaigns has created a new class of community leaders online, called influencers. Influencers appeared on social media as relevant content creators on a certain niche topic such as sports, comedy, make-up etc. The make-up industry has completely adopted the trend of influencers which ended up disrupting the entire industry. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the effects that influencer marketing has had on the make-up industry and how it has become essential for marketers with a focus on that industry. This includes a comparison of influencer marketing to other marketing options such as TV and Online Paid Ads, the cost of advertisement, effectiveness and ability to influence consumer behavior, primary data, data obtained from secondary sources as well as personal contact with influencer agencies.
... This capability helps SMEs to give evolving market opportunities. The evolution of mobile devices and mobile technologies enhances SMEs' performance (Harwiki&Malet, 2020; Wang et al., 2016). The objective of this study is an empirical investigationof the service quality through serial mediation of usage of mobile devices and relative advantage of mobile banking in predicting the adaptive performance of managers or owners in SME's of Pakistan. ...
This study investigates the serial mediation between Service quality and adaptive performance of managers through usage and mobile banking in contextual framework of SMEs' enterprises of Pakistan. This study aims to find out how usage and mobile banking sequentially mediate the relationship between Service quality and adaptive performance of managers at the workplace. This study's target population includes managers or owners of SMEs listed in Chambers of Commerce of Capital cities of Pakistan. As part of the more extensive research, 422 responses were received, which shows a 50% response. To test the hypotheses, structural and measurement models were developed in SEM. The findings show that serial mediation is observed in the case of service quality and adaptive performance as when we measure direct relation in the absence of mediators, it is significant and positive, as well as in the presence of serial mediators (usage and mobile banking) service quality, and adaptive performance is positive and significant. This study's findings will help the academia, banking sector, SMEDA and practitioners understand the importance of service quality, usage of mobile devices and mobile banking on adaptive performance. Future researchers must focus on practical investigation of testing the effect of system quality, information quality and usage of mobile devices, mobile banking to predict managers' adaptive performance by comparing SMEs and large enterprises in Pakistan.
... In the current era of openness and rapid technological changes, the stakeholders must immediately obtain the necessary information. Lei et al. (2019) and Wang et al. (2016) stated that online media is currently the fastest solution to get such information. In addition, the internet has been shown to increase sustainability reporting relevance (Manetti and Bellucci, 2016). ...
The disclosure of carbon emissions information must be presented based on the Circular of Financial Services Authority No.30/SEOJK.04/2016 on the public companies including social and environmental responsibility reports in their Annual or Sustainability Reports. Therefore, the State-Owned Companies (BUMN), as the state-owned business entities listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX), must indeed disclose their carbon emissions for their business operations. Therefore, this research aims to examine the extent of carbon emissions disclosure in the state-owned enterprises listed on the IDX studied from their websites and influence from the rate of return on their assets. The research uses the data from state-owned companies listed on the IDX from 2016 to 2019. It examines the multiple linear regression techniques. The Result looks that websites have a significant negative effect on the extent of carbon emission disclosure. Meanwhile, the return rate on the operating assets has no significant impact on the scope of disclosure of carbon emissions information.
... According to Okazaki and Taylor (2013), SMT explain key beneficial attributes to MNEs' international communication with their customers, and deliver effective advertising, moderated by the influence of social ties within their networks (Shen et al., 2016). Meanwhile, Wang et al. (2016) propose that SMT improve the communication capabilities of firms through the speed of message transfer and the number of simultaneous communications. The integration of social media with traditional media improves MNEs' communication capabilities, and engaged customers influence others in their social networks through the platforms' higher interactivity features (Kumar et al., 2016;Sashi, 2012). ...
The purpose of this study is to analyze how firm cultural intelligence and social media technologies influence the international marketing capabilities of multinational enterprise (MNE) regional offices. The data used in this study were obtained from MNE regional offices located in the Emirate of Dubai, which were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results of the study indicate that firm cultural intelligence and social media technologies have unique and complementary contributions to the development of international marketing capabilities, and these capabilities play an essential role in firm performance by lessening the adverse effects of foreign market turbulence.
Marketing safeguards sustainability through supporting cooperative and collaborative interactions between businesses and stakeholders. Social media (SM) marketing can be described as an innovative and groundbreaking business practice. Adopting SM marketing is one of the vital strategic challenges facing the social enterprise (SE) sector to access the international market, improve networking, gain competitive advantage, and obtain valuable global market intelligence. There has been almost no research into SM usage in social types of enterprises. This research aims to shed light on the issues that influence Bangladeshi SEs in their adoption of SM for business purposes. The aim is to understand why they Accepted in the Interdisciplinary Journal of Economics and Business Law 11 need to adopt this relatively new technological phenomenon. This is achieved by recognising the difficulties and challenges that SEs face and the benefits they experience once they have embraced SM. Using the technology-organisation-environment framework and a social constructionist perspective, 22 in-depth interviews were conducted with individuals from SEs. The emergent data were analysed using thematic analysis. Analysis suggests there is a low level of SM marketing engagement among SEs. Lack of technological knowledge, security, trust, and support, and a deficiency in resources are among the main challenges. One interesting finding was that all participants were aware of the benefits that SM can provide, but the challenges hinder adoption. This study's conceptual model can improve stakeholders' considerations of why some SEs prefer to implement SM technologies, while others have not.
As digital technologies advance, the digital world is integrated with the real one through various digital platforms. Digital transformation in organizations is essentially based on emerging technologies and social and digital platforms. The purpose of this study is to help organizations choose the appropriate platforms to interact with customers and participate in the digital world in accordance with the maturity they gain in using these digital technologies. The present research, by synthesizing empirical studies on the use of various social platforms in organizations, provides a conceptual map of the relationship between the platform type and the maturity stage of organizations. According to the findings of this study, general social networks are suitable platforms for organizations with the first-stage maturity characteristics. Various social networks and creativity works sharing sites were recognized as suitable for the second stage; and public blogs and educational materials sharing for the third stage. Microblogs, discussion forums, and business networking sites are also appropriate for organizations with the characteristics of stages four and five. Using the findings of this research, organizations will be able to identify a social platform appropriate to their stage of readiness and maturity and make the most out of its benefits.
Security and privacy breaches, online fraud, identity theft, and online scams have amplified the public’s privacy concerns in recent years. While privacy concerns have primarily been studied in the B2C setting, businesses often suffer detrimental consequences if information privacy is poorly managed. Hence this paper examines privacy management with a focus on B2B marketing in the digital era. We conducted a systematic literature review of 47 research papers published between 2010 and 2021 on information privacy in B2B marketing. Our findings suggest that privacy issues evolve with changing technologies in the digital era and that approaches to conceptualizing privacy and information privacy management shape B2B trust, branding and servitisation. We contribute to the existing literature by developing a framework encompassing the drivers,
approaches, and outcomes of privacy management in a B2B context. This paper concludes with implications of privacy issues for managers and policymakers and proposes a future research
This paper seeks to consider the role social media may play within the realm of export activity by companies. A review of current literature is made to identify and consider current academic thought on the subject while noting the paucity of extant directly relevant research on a potentially important subject. This paper also considers the background and role social media can play for companies within the broader export and internationalization realm. Recommendations are made for further research in this subject area.
This study aims to identify the consequence of social media usage on firm performance. To this end, it proposes a conceptual map that shows promising linkages between the maturity level realization of an organization in social media usage and its corresponding performance consequences. The conceptual map was developed by combining two theories: performance theory and theory of growth and maturity in social media, and then through systematic mapping. This map can predict what performance consequences will emerge in the organization for each stage of maturity in social media usage. According to this conceptual map, the organization is expected to benefit from accessing and sharing knowledge by realizing the first stage of maturity. The realization of the second stage is expected to establish more relationships with the customers, and the third stage will be followed by product and new processes development. By promoting the organization to the fourth stage, it is expected that communication with the organization's stakeholders emerges via social media. In the fifth stage, social media will help with value creation. Thus, managers and professionals can predict what performance consequences they will benefit from if each stage of maturity is realized.
Social media are increasingly becoming a valuable tool for Business-to-Business (B2B) organizations. However, social media research in B2B lacks a comprehensive overview from a strategic perspective, with most research to date having been focused on the tactical use of social media platforms, that is to say, in describing specific tools to implement a strategy. In the present systematic literature review we address this deficiency. Our findings reveal that prior B2B research predominately investigated social media as short-term tactics with context-specific limitations. Our thematic analysis extends beyond these boundaries and extracts from the literature three relationship-orientated themes in social media, namely their use as a tool for: 1) sales-facilitation, 2) integrated communication, and 3) employee engagement. These three themes are distinct yet interdependent and are each necessary if organizations are to develop a competitive advantage within the social media environment. The descriptive statistics and thematic analysis in the study present a set of five key findings that reflect the research gaps presently in the literature and thus highlight significant future research directions. The study also highlights the utility for organizations to employ social media in a strategic manner rather than simply as a tactical tool.
Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) are struggling to cope with the business uncertainty caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examines how SMEs in developing economies have used mobile apps to improve their business efficiency during the pandemic. We aim to recognize effective measures and actions taken by SMEs that have turned to mobile-app-based business to improve their sustainability during the crisis. The study bridges a literature gap by extending the Theory of Consumption Values and the Theory of Planned Behavior to SMEs that incorporate mobile-app-based business. Data was collected from 343 SMEs from three Industrial Development Corporations (IDCs) in India. Using the covariance-based structural equation modeling method, we investigated the efficiency of a conceptual model of mobile-app-based business for SMEs. The results revealed that consumer choice behavior, perceived behavior control, subjective behavior control and attitude towards the mobile app all influence SMEs’ decision-making and business strategy. As such, SMEs need a powerful mobile-app-based business network to succeed in the entrepreneurial business process. Using instrumental variable analysis, we discovered that increased mobile app usage significantly improves SMEs’ long-term efficiency. The analysis provides several theoretical and managerial ramifications.
Social commerce is one of the most relevant technological innovations in recent years. It has strongly benefited many industries, including tourism. While many studies on social commerce have been conducted from the user perspective, less attention has been paid to the organisational perspective, particularly that of hotel organisations. To help understand the key drivers of hotel social commerce usage and their effects on hotel business performance, this study augments the integrated model of e-business usage and impact with hotel social media characteristics. Using stratified random sampling, data from 146 hotels in Lebanon were collected and analysed with the PLS-SEM approach. The model represents a theoretical advancement by offering an organisational perspective to the social commerce literature. It shows there is a significant impact of environmental, organisational, and innovation drivers and social media characteristics. The findings help hotels assess their existing social commerce utilization and identify aspects in need of more attention and improvement.
Social networks including various social media are one of the main online marketing tools that help to achieve marketing aims of the company. Most of social media overlap and have more than one characteristic, aim or purpose. It should be noted that interaction, user-friendliness, openness, freedom and real time are the main features of all social media. When starting to discuss sales promotion of a company on social media, the concept of social commerce becomes inevitable. Taking into account current trend of expansion of internet marketing because it unites the biggest number of users and has the means to implement different aims of the companies, it is necessary explore the impact of social media on sales growth in specific sectors. The paper analyses the impact of social media for sales promotion in entertainment sector. During the quantitative research, 385 respondents were surveyed. The questionnaire of the quantitative research has been prepared based on the marketing communication model for social media used by entertainment companies. The questionnaire included closed type of questions, most of them are provided in Likert scale. The empirical study found that elements (promotion of sales increase; brand strengthening), maintaining connections with present and potential company’s clients that are used by the entertainment companies on social media help to promote sales with users’ engagement. Regular communication of entertainment companies on social media has a positive impact on sales, because users tend to follow such type of accounts actively. The study emphasised the main elements to be applied by the entertainment companies using social media. Therefore, the regular communication and use of influencers are highly recommended for sales promotion of companies. It is also important to stress that companies are advised to communicate regularly, as regularity in communication is one of the most important drivers of sales promotion.
In this study, we analyze the digital marketing tools activated by SMEs operating in B2B during the Covid-19 outbreak in the first half of 2020. Before the health emergency, SMEs used social and digital media in a limited way as compared to traditional tools, such as printed material and client visits. In order to understand how the pandemic changed the digital marketing strategies adopted in B2B, we conducted a study on nine Italian SMEs. We collected semi-structured interviews with key informants belonging to companies operating in different sectors. Findings suggest new relational approaches and opportunities based on digital marketing and they discuss the main objectives of the main digital tools adopted during the initial phase of the Covid-19 pandemic.
Social media platforms are increasingly used by SMEs who have fewer resources and need to rely on social media marketing to engage with their customers. This article investigates the extent to which social media platforms specifically Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter contribute to increased customer engagement. While past studies have concentrated on the adoption of social media in predominantly western contexts, this research is focused on SMEs in a relatively under-researched African market context, South Africa. The research design was a quantitative cross-sectional study relying on primary data collection, where hypotheses were tested using statistical analyses in terms of correlational and regression analyses. Results support the hypotheses where the use of Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter platforms show a significant and positive relationship with increased customer engagement. The findings have management implications where owner-managers should make use of social media by maintaining and growing an extensive network of ties to both collect information and identify resources, as well as to build a reputation and engage with their customers.
Der vorliegende Beitrag zielt darauf ab, Klein- und Mittelunternehmen (KMU) auf das vielfach unterschätzte Thema, Digitalisierung im B2B Vertrieb, zu sensibilisieren. Einerseits wird analysiert mit welchen Herausforderungen der B2B-Vertrieb durch die Digitalisierung zu kämpfen hat und andererseits werden Möglichkeiten aufgezeigt, die zur Umsetzung von Digitalisierungsstrategien beitragen. Eine umfassende Literaturrecherche zum aktuellen Stand von Vertriebsstrukturen bietet Einblicke in neueste Erkenntnisse aus den Bereichen, Wissenschaft, Wirtschaft und Bildung. Obwohl die Fachliteratur zu diesem Thema noch in den Kinderschuhen steckt, zeigen die Ergebnisse, dass sich der B2B-Vertrieb in KMU in Folge der Digitalisierung stark verändert und sich neu ausrichten muss. Vertriebsorganisationen werden agiler, Vertriebsprozesse verändern sich inkrementell, das Rollenbild der Vertriebsfachkraft ist durch fachliche und soziale Kompetenzänderungen geprägt und neue Vertriebssysteme bilden die technische Basis zwischen Unternehmen und der digitalen Kundschaft. Diese Arbeit stützt die These, dass der Vertrieb ohne Digitalisierung nicht mehr wettbewerbsfähig ist.
This research aims to study the effects and impact of entrepreneurial orientation dimensions on e-marketing capability toward social media applications (SMAs), and the dimensions affecting the firm performance in the international airlines. 350 research questionnaires have been collected based on respondents of the international airline"s passengers. The Statistical (SPSS) version 22 was used analyze the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and descriptive analysis was directed statistics. The results illustrate that inequality in entrepreneurial orientation dimensions (EOD) impact on e-marketing capability. At the time that airlines tend to integrate their social media application to obtain a global view, encourage coordinated efforts throughout the different passenger's touch points. The results show that a significant effect of e-marketing capability, and YouTube for e-business services on the firm performance. This study concluded that contributes about how airlines passengers use social media applications from different airlines" entrepreneurial orientation. Finally, the results show that entrepreneurial orientation dimensions (Innovativeness, Competitive aggressiveness, and Proactiveness) has a significant, positive effect on e-marketing capability, But the effects of autonomy on e-marketing capability are not significant Moreover, all of the four dimensions of group effectiveness have significant, positive effects on airlines performance. E-marketing capability and YouTube usage passengers also have significant, positive effects on airlines performance.
While the importance of electronic Word-of-Mouth (eWOM) for Business-to-Business (B2B) firms is increasing, the use of B2B firm-generated content for driving positive eWOM is less understood. Given the emergence of image-oriented social media platforms, this study investigates how color features increase positive eWOM in the B2B versus B2C context by analyzing 13,356 images on Instagram. The results reveal key differences in color features in the contexts of B2B and B2C. Specifically, cool colors are more appealing in B2B content, while warm colors work better in B2C content. Further, darkness, saturation, and colorfulness moderate the cool effect in B2B content, such that darker, less saturated, and more varied colors increase the effect of cool color. In the B2C context, only colorfulness increases the effect of warm color. The findings of this research contribute to the literature examining the different drivers of eWOM between B2B and B2C social media and offer managerial implications for B2B and B2C firms on ways to encourage positive eWOM.
zet Küresel salgınların yönetiminde yapay zekâ yardımı ile sosyal medya paylaşımlarını analiz ederek milyonlarca bireyin salgın ile ilgili konularda düşüncelerini, endişelendikleri konuları, ihtiyaçlarını, beklentilerini, yöneticilerden taleplerini anlamak mümkündür. Ayrıca virüsün yayıldığı noktaları, yayılma hızını ve gelecekteki vaka sayılarını tahmin etmek, virüsün neden olduğu semptomları tespit edebilmek gibi konularda da yapay zekâdan istifade edilebilmektedir. Bu tür yapay zekâ destekli analizler sonucu elde edilen faydalı bilgiler, küresel salgını yönetmekle görevli olanların bilgiye dayalı karar vererek salgını çok daha etkin ve verimli şekilde yönetebilmelerini sağlamaktadır. Bu makalede, öncelikle salgın yönetimi amacıyla bahsedilen yapa zekâ destekli analizlerin hangi konularda ve nasıl yapılacağı, literatürdeki en güncel çalışmalar derlenerek aktarılmıştır. Ardından, benzer çalışmalar yapabilmek için sosyal medya veri kaynaklarından (ör. Twitter, Facebook, Google), salgın hakkında verilerin nasıl toplanabileceği, bu verilerin yapay zekâ yöntemleri (ör. Metin Madenciliği, Konu Modelleme, Duygu Analizi, Öngörüsel Analitik) ile nasıl analiz edilebileceği, ilgili yazılımlar (ör. R, Python, RapidMiner) kullanılarak anlatılmıştır. Ayrıca, analiz sonuçlarının salgın yönetiminde nasıl kullanılabileceği tartışılmıştır. Sonuç olarak bu makalede, okuyucuya salgın dönemlerinde, risk belirleme, değerlendirme ve yönetim için önemli bir büyük veri kaynağı olan sosyal medyadan faydalanarak, yapay zekâ yazılımları ve yöntemlerinin nasıl kullanılabileceği hususunda özet bilgi verilmiştir. 1. Giriş Küresel salgın (pandemi) veya bölgesel salgın (epidemi) hastalıklarla mücadele etmek, hastalığın yayılmasını önlemek, hastaların tedavisini sağlamak gibi amaçlarla, planlamaların yapılması, eylemlerin gerçekleştirilmesi, çalışanların koordine edilmesi ve kaynakların en verimli şekilde kullanılmasını salgın yönetimi olarak tanımlayabiliriz. Bu çalışmaların yapılmasında doğru bilgiler elde etmek, salgınla mücadeledeki başarıyı attıracaktır. Bu çalışmada, salgın yönetiminde ihtiyaç duyulan bilgileri elde etmek için yapay zekânın nasıl kullanılabileceği, sosyal medya verilerinin neden önemli olduğu, bu uygulamalar kapsamında neler yapıldığı ve son olarak bu uygulamaların nasıl yapıldığı konularında bilgiler aktarılmıştır. Internet, mobil uygulamalar ve sosyal medya gibi teknolojik gelişmeler, büyük miktarda verinin ortaya çıkması ve bu verilerden yararlanarak, verilere dayalı yönetim modellerinin geliştirilmesine yol açmıştır. Organizasyonlar, "İş Analitiği" (Bag, 2016) adı verilen yöntemlerle büyük verileri analiz ederek faydalı bilgiler elde etmeye çalışmaktadır. İş analizi yöntemlerinin
Financial constraints, as well as a lack of managerial skills, equipment and technology, regulatory concerns, access to international markets, and unfair competition, are all reasons that impede the development of SMEs. SMEs require advertising strategies to ensure their long-term viability and growth in an ever-changing and competitive business environment. In this study, more attention will be paid to the question and relevance of advertising as a form of promotion to improve profitability. 50 small and medium scale enterprises were selected from Uyo. The survey was carried out in major urban center which is Uyo. This area was chosen because the tempo of economic activities being carried out by SMEs to meet the demands of the consumers is very high. The data used for this study were majorly primary and these were obtained from the field through the use of questionnaire. From the data gotten, Cronbach alpha was then used to test for the validity, consistency as well as the reliability of the data-set. All the constructs or items had Cronbach's Alpha above the minimum acceptable reliability coefficient between 0.5 to 0.9 and therefore exhibits good internal consistency. Following the results, it is observed that the effect of advertising on profitability of the selected SMEs in Uyo metropolis is positive and significant. From the findings of this study, we conclude that advertising can significantly improve profitability of SMEs in AkwaIbom State.
Considering the organizations' increasing use of social media, many studies are being conducted in this area. Researchers are faced with a variety of research strategies depending on the nature of the research problem and data. If the right research strategy is not employed, the researcher will lose focus, and the time and effort spent will not necessarily serve the research objectives. When choosing a research strategy, the organization's characteristics should be taken into consideration; otherwise, it may lead to confounding interpretations of the findings. In this regard, the present study aims to introduce an appropriate research strategy for each maturity stage of the organization under study. To this end, using systematic mapping methodology, about 256 articles published within 2011-2021 were investigated, and the relationship between the types of research strategy used and the different stages of an organization's maturity in using social media was reported. Specifically, by synthesizing the social sciences research methodology framework and the social media stage of the growth model, a mapping was developed between the research strategies and maturity stages. Based on this mapping, it is expected that the appropriate strategy for research at the first maturity stage is exploratory, and for the second and third stages are observational and descriptive, respectively. When the organization moves to the fourth and fifth levels, archival and causal strategies are recommended for research. Using the results of this research, researchers will be able to identify the right research strategy for the maturity stage of the organization under study and develop the appropriate research design accordingly.
The rapid diffusion of the Covid-19 worldwide has accelerated the need for companies to address the sustainability issue at different levels, as nowadays the attention of stakeholders with respect to this theme has grown considerably. As a result, companies had to set up CSR communication strategies to build and strengthen their legitimacy and reputation. Among the communication channels to convey messages of firms’ CSR initiatives, social media are becoming increasingly important and, particularly, Twitter is the social media platform where more CSR-related content is generated. By adopting the theoretical lens of constitutive communication of organization, the aim of this paper is to investigate with a textual approach how the CSR communication in the energy sector has evolved in the post Covid-19 scenario. Specifically, our attention will be focus on: (1) the exploratory analysis based on the hashtags; (2) the identification of CSR communication topics and (3) the proposal of topics network in order to discover subgroups of topics. Findings of this research show that the CSR communication on Twitter has undergone changes compared to the pre Covid-19 era. Particularly, we identified 11 CSR related-topics which, as the proposed topic network demonstrates, are interconnected. On the one hand, our results corroborate previous research regarding some CSR-related issues; on the other hand, we identified some topics such as safety, people and work which have exploded in Twitter conversations in the post Covid-19 scenario. Finally, this study provides managerial implications for professionals dealing with CSR communication, digital communication and social media marketing activities.
This study examines the effects of salespeople's social media and customer relationship management (CRM) technology use on value co-creation through knowledge and the downstream impact on sales performance. Based on task-technology fit and self-determination theories, the findings reveal that social media, CRM technology, and their interaction support salespeople in their value co-creation efforts through the mediating role of knowledge enriched by these tools. The results indicate a significant moderating effect of salesperson job autonomy and sales quota ease in enhancing the relationship between knowledge and value co-creation. The study concludes by discussing important implications that stem from our analyses.
Despite the widely acknowledged benefits of digital marketing, many B2B SMEs have been slow to adopt these practices. These firms' characteristics and ways of working mean that digital marketing as practiced in B2C or in larger firms may be unsuitable. This paper aims to increase understanding about digital marketing in B2B SMEs, by examining the barriers they face and the digital practices that work for them. A qualitative research methodology is used to focus on these previously unexplored practices in small B2B firms operating with the oil and gas industry. The study identifies the internal and external factors linked to this B2B SME context that both influence and act as barriers to digital marketing practice. The distinctive pattern of marketing practices arising from this combination of factors and the limited role of digital marketing within it, are revealed. These insights extend the debate about digital marketing's use by showing empirically that a “one size fits all” ways of thinking about digital marketing is not appropriate for B2B SMEs. The implications for researchers and practicing managers are considered.
The purpose of this study is to develop a model for business to business salesperson performance (SP) with a service ecosystems perspective.
To achieve the research aims, classical grounded theory was used. The data was gathered through in-depth interviews with 20 sales managers and main sales actors.
After coding and analyzing the data, salesperson institutional performance is introduced as a core category including three main dimensions of regulative, normative and cognitive-cultural performance. Multi-level factors determining SP are identified and performance results are introduced in a multi-level long term way. The sales actors, macro variables, actors’ orientations and sales method are introduced as circumstances, while salesperson stressors are presented as covariants deterring the fulfillment of salesperson’s activities.
This study focuses on the contributions of the salesperson in the alignment of institutional arrangements or the results of their being institutionalized, as well as determining the factors and variables affecting it.
Social media and its impact on business-to-business marketing have received significant attention from practitioners and researchers. Social media has also impacted the selling process, and our research examines the extant literature to derive a deeper understanding of the area and identify directions for future research. This study reviews 115 articles on social media in business-to-business markets to understand sales and social media research within the social media domain. Using a multimethod approach, this paper classifies social media research in business-to-business marketing into four subject clusters: adoption of social media; use of social media in business-to-business marketing; social media and the selling process; and social media and marketing strategy. This study then reviews 29 articles in sales and social media research and finds that the research can be classified into usage, performance, and framework. Due to the limited research on business-to-business sales and social media, we also report on a survey that examined directions for future research. We hope that this article serves as an impetus for future research in this area.
Purpose of this study is to provide a framework which helps to understand how a business-to-business company can use the social media to ‘strategize’ by making other business actors share meanings about the position this company wants to occupy. We use LDA topic modelling on a large sample of tweets (N = 1,059,731) by 16 business-to-business companies. We first analyse the official tweets sent by the official account of a company and compare them to the non-official tweets shared by other Twitter users and mentioning that company. We analyse gaps between the vocabulary and subjects identified in the corpus of official and non-official tweets and discuss the strategizing action of a company through social media. Findings shows the importance for business-to-business companies to consider the halo effect generated by social media as part of their omnichannel strategy and carefully monitor the amplification, confirmation or mitigation effect generated by actor networks shared meanings so to continuously align their intended strategic position.
Das vorliegende Buch brachte erste Einblicke in das spannende Berufsfeld von WirtschaftsingenieurInnen und zeigte gleichzeitig die Kompetenzvielfalt auf, welche für die Ausübung des Berufs notwendig ist. In diesem abschließenden Kapitel bieten die HerausgeberInnen dieses Buches den „JungautorInnen“ die Möglichkeit sich zu präsentieren und fokussieren zusammenfassend die Ausbildung von künftigen WirtschaftsingenieurInnen und die Möglichkeit zur Vernetzung innerhalb der Community.
In B2B markets, vendor companies increasingly rely upon influential individuals in the digital environment to communicate information about their offerings to client organizations. Given the growing B2B digital engagement, cues that help to differentiate highly impactful digital influencers are crucial for vendor companies. Drawing from Stereotype Content Model, we analyze competence and warmth as relevant cues of digital influencers. Employing experimental studies, we examine how competence and warmth influence B2B purchasing managers' evaluation and selection of vendors' solutions. We find that the digital influencers' competence enhances purchasing managers' intention to buy the advocated vendor's offering. When compared with warmth, competence minimizes capability and relational concerns associated with the purchase decision. Further, we show that such effect of competence is prominent when manager-influencer identification is low. Our research advances knowledge on the characteristics of digital influencers that shape B2B purchasing managers' evaluation and selection of vendors. We identify concern-based psychological mechanisms underlying the effect of influencers' characteristics, and related boundary conditions. Our findings provide implications for digital influencers seeking to expand reach in B2B markets, and for vendor companies and marketing agencies in the selection of digital influencers.
Social media has become an important channel for marketing and management of enterprises, but the effects of social media capability on firm performance has not been verified systematically, particularly the effects of CEOs’ social media capability. Based on the Dynamic Capability Theory, this study validates the causal relationship between social media capability and firm performance, then examine the significant effects of firm social media capability on firm performance and consumer engagement and the moderating effects of CEOs’ social media capability. The findings prove the following: firm social media capability leads to a positive effect on firm performance and consumer engagement; CEOs’ social media capability moderates the relationship between firm social media capability and firm performance significantly. Implications for academic research and practice were also discussed based on the research findings.
As the usage of smart phones increases, the characteristic of social interaction is changing. The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of smart phones on the performance of communication and task-performance in temporary virtual teams using Media Synchronicity Theory (MST). 'Accessibility' is added to the model since it is a unique feature of smart phones. Task complexity moderates the positive relationship between media capabilities and performance. The familiarity of the media also influences the communication performance. This project is set to empirically test MST in a university setting. Consequently, this study provides opportunities for future research about smart phone's usability in virtual team projects and global organizations.
With the rapid change of technology, the use of Social Networking Sites (SNS) has been extended beyond individuals to professionals and organizations. These latter groups use SNS to engage with their target audiences. Yet, research about the impact of SNS on small and medium enterprises (SMEs) compared to large enterprises is limited. The purpose of this chapter is to examine the differences between SMEs and large enterprises regarding their use of SNS. Based on data from both Saudi Arabia and Australia, it will investigate the usage, objectives, management, benefit, and barriers of using SNS for firms of varying sizes.
The growing importance of the Internet to B2B customer purchasing decisions has motivated B2B sellers to create digital content that leads potential buyers to interact with their company. This trend has engendered a new paradigm referred to as ‘content marketing.’ This study investigates the organizational processes for developing valuable and timely content to meet customer needs and for integrating content marketing with B2B selling processes. The results of this single case study demonstrate the use of marketing automation to generate high-quality sales leads through behavioral targeting and content personalization. The study advances understanding of the organizational processes that support content marketing and shows how content marketing can be combined with B2B selling processes via marketing automation in ways that achieve business benefits.
This paper expands, refines, and explicates media synchronicity theory, originally proposed in a conference proceeding in 1999 (Dennis and Valacich 1999). Media synchronicity theory (MST) focuses on the ability of media to support synchronicity, a shared pattern of coordinated behavior among individuals as they work together. We expand on the original propositions of MST to argue that communication is composed of two primary processes: conveyance and convergence. The familiarity of individuals with the tasks they are performing and with their coworkers will also affect the relative amounts of these two processes. Media synchronicity theory proposes that for conveyance processes, use of media supporting lower synchronicity should result in better communication performance. For convergence processes, use of media supporting higher synchronicity should result in better communication performance. We identify five capabilities of media (symbol sets, parallelism, transmission velocity, rehearsability, and reprocessability) that Influence the development of synchronicity and thus the successful performance of conveyance and convergence communication processes. The successful completion of most tasks involving more than one individual requires both conveyance and convergence processes, thus communication performance will be improved when individuals use a variety of media to perform a task, rather than just one medium.
Despite the recent increase in the adoption and use of social media tools to support firm operations, very little empirical research focusing on small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) has been conducted to-date. The aim of this study is to fill this knowledge gap by investigating SME adoption of social media tools. In particular, we assess the impact of organizational, manager and environmental characteristics on SME utilization of the Facebook Events Page. To test our proposed research model, we administered a survey to 453 SME managers. Results of a hierarchical logistic regression indicate that firm innovativeness, firm size, manager's age and industry sector all have a significant impact on social media adoption. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Purpose ‐ The purpose of this study is to propose two additions to the existing IS success model to influence usefulness and satisfaction, and ultimately customer loyalty. This study posits that process quality and collaboration quality will significantly influence perceptions on satisfaction, since both considerations are expected to improve interactions between the organization and its customers. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The developed research model was tested in the context of B2B e-commerce users, employing structural equation modelling-partial least square to analyze and test the research hypotheses. Findings ‐ Results show that adding process and collaboration quality to the model affects the way system, information, and service quality influences usefulness and satisfaction, suggesting a shift in perspectives and priorities when it comes to B2B e-commerce transactions. Furthermore, results show that process and collaboration quality have significant effects on usefulness and satisfaction, reinforcing the objective of using B2B e-commerce systems across supply chain members. Practical implications ‐ This highlights the importance of improving business processes and enhancing collaboration activities, implying that managers should focus their efforts into enhancing customer service on top of system functionalities and features via B2B to better work with their supply chain partners. However, this study is limited in the context of a Taiwanese supply chain, suggesting that further research consider its applicability in different contexts, culturally and geographically, especially given the fact that B2B e-commerce enables cross-border business operations. Originality/value ‐ This study also extends the IS success model, especially in the context of B2B e-commerce, by emphasizing behavioural considerations on top of the functional issues present in any information systems.
The use of social media ranges from personal to business purposes. This preliminary study aimed to firstly identify the reasons small business entrepreneurs use social media in their businesses; and secondly, to determine the level of trust in the social media among small business entrepreneurs. Data of the study were gathered using questionnaires. A descriptive analysis showed that social media are useful and important in image building, strengthening relationship, and networking among business entrepreneurs and customers, but the ‘trust’ on media was average. Recommendations are put forward to make social media more visible and significant among the business entrepreneurs.
Social media applications—including collaborative projects, micro-blogs/blogs, content communities, social networking sites, and virtual worlds—have become part of the standard communication repertoire for many companies. Today, with the creation of increasingly powerful mobile devices, numerous social media applications have gone mobile and new entrants are constantly appearing. The purpose of this article is to take account of this evolution, and provide an introduction to the general topic of mobile marketing and mobile social media. Herein, we define what mobile social media is, what it is not, and how it differs from other types of mobile marketing applications. Further, we discuss how firms can make use of mobile social media for marketing research, communication, sales promotions/discounts, and relationship development/loyalty programs. We present four pieces of advice for mobile social media usage, which we refer to as the ‘Four I's’ of mobile social media. Finally, we conclude by providing some thoughts on the future evolution of this new and exciting type of application.
Social media has deeply penetrated workplace, which has affected multiple aspects of employees' lives. This paper aims to investigate the influence of social media on employees' work performance and the underlying mechanism for how they create value at work. Based on media synchronicity and social capital theories, we propose that social media can promote work performance by stimulating trust among employees and offering a communication channel where explicit and implicit knowledge can be effectively transferred. The research model is tested using data collected from 105 Chinese software professionals. The results reveal that social media can enhance trust among employees. The direct effect on knowledge transfer was not significant but the impact was mediated by trust. Trust enhances knowledge exchange in the workplace with a stronger influence on the transfer of implicit knowledge rather than explicit knowledge. Implicit knowledge transfer was significantly related to work performance, while explicit knowledge transfer did not significantly influence work performance. The theoretical and practical contributions of this study are discussed.
This paper expands, refines, and explicates media synchronicity theory, originally proposed in a conference proceeding in 1999 (Dennis and Valacich 1999). Media synchronicity theory (MST) focuses on the ability of media to support synchronicity, a shared pattern of coordinated behavior among individuals as they work together. We expand on the original propositions of MST to argue that communication is composed of two primary processes: conveyance and convergence. The familiarity of individuals with the tasks they are performing and with their coworkers will also affect the relative amounts of these two processes. Media synchronicity theory proposes that for conveyance processes, use of media supporting lower synchronicity should result in better communication performance. For convergence processes, use of media supporting higher synchronicity should result in better communication performance. We identify five capabilities of media (symbol sets, parallelism, transmission velocity, rehearsability, and reprocessability) that influence the development of synchronicity and thus the successful performance of conveyance and convergence communication processes. The successful completion of most tasks involving more than one individual requires both conveyance and convergence processes, thus communication performance will be improved when individuals use a variety of media to perform a task, rather than just one medium.
This study contributes to the current dearth of knowledge on the potential of social media as a marketing tool in industrial settings, by focusing on factors that determine social media adoption by B2B organizations. A conceptual model, which draws on the technology acceptance model and resource-based theory, is developed and tested using quantitative data from B2B organizations in the UK. Findings suggest that perceived usefulness of social media within B2B organizational contexts is determined by image, perceived ease of use and perceived barriers. Additionally, the results show that adoption of social media is significantly affected by organizational innovativeness and perceived usefulness. The moderating role of organizational innovativeness is also tested but no support is found. The findings of the study are further validated via nine qualitative interviews with B2B senior managers, yielding additional interesting and in-depth insights into the drivers of social media adoption by B2B organizations.
The study examines the relationships between knowledge acquisition from social media, two forms of market orientation (proactive and reactive), social media strategic capability, and brand innovation strategy in the context of China's online technology industry. Analysis of 357 online technology ventures, created during the past 6 years, suggests that brand innovation is affected by both knowledge acquisition from social media and market orientation. Social media strategic capability positively affects brand innovation and acts as a moderator between knowledge acquisition, market orientation, and brand innovation. It further enhances both types of market orientations in achieving brand innovation, suggesting that on social media, customer's needs, both expressed and latent (or unexpressed), can be identified more comprehensively than that of the traditional setting. Hence, the context of social media provides a different set of rules for competition and strategic behavior, in which online technology ventures should note. Implications are useful to improve the current understanding of social media brand innovation strategy, here in China's dynamic social media scene.
Business-to-business (B2B) marketers hesitate to embrace social media as a marketing tool, unlike their business-to-consumer (B2C) counterparts, and they struggle to implement successful social media strategies due to their limited understanding of the phenomenon. Drawing on communication and word-of-mouth theories, the authors investigate how marketers use Twitter differently across contexts and predict key factors likely to influence the message strategies used in each. A longitudinal content analysis and logistic regression support the assessment of a sample of more than 7000 tweets by Fortune 500 companies. Marketers in B2B and B2C settings exhibit significant differences in their branding and selling strategies; their use of message appeals; and the use of cues, links, and hashtags to support information searches. Whereas B2B marketers tend to use more emotional than functional appeals in their tweets, neither B2C nor B2B marketers have adopted “hard sell” message strategies.
Studies related to the use of social media in the workplace are still somewhat scarce despite their increasing popularity in social media research. This paper aims to investigate how employee perceptions of a workplace related to coworker support, supervisor support, and job-related demands can determine the degree of attachment some employees feel to social media use at work. The study also explores some consequences of social media use at work by analyzing its associations with job satisfaction, job performance, and cognitive absorption. The data was collected through the snowball sampling technique of 170 employees in Thailand and analyzed using partial least squares regression. For the factors predicted to influence social media use at work, the analysis found that coworker support and job demands are positively associated with social media use intensity, while supervisor support is negatively associated with it. The analysis also found a positive association between job satisfaction and job performance and social media use at work. An indirect relationship between social media use and cognitive absorption was also found through the mediating effect of job satisfaction. Overall, the evidence suggests that social media use at work may not necessarily lead to negative job-related outcomes.
Media have always been an important factor affecting communication. However, what kind of media can best improve communication performance is still to be answered. Based on Media Synchronicity Theory and Structural Holes Theory, a communication performance model, simultaneously considering people, media and task factors, is proposed. Besides traditional media, this study also take a new kind of media into account, social communication technologies(SCT). We argue it to be a completely different communication technology than others and have unique and multiple effects on communication process.
Nowadays social media are increasingly used in tourism destination marketing. In this paper, we first analyze the distinctive features of social media, i.e., Sociability, Mobility, and Purposiveness. Based on Media synchronicity theory (MST), we then redefine the marketing as a series of communication processes, and elaborate the features of social media on supporting their synchronicity with tourism destination marketing. The main objectives of this study is to explore the effects of social median on tourism destination marketing, and the study entails important theoretical and practical contributions to enhance our understanding of why social media are used in tourism destination marketing, as well as when and how they should be used.
While much is known about selecting different types of control that can be exercised in information systems development projects, the control dynamics associated with ISD offshoring projects represent an important gap in our understanding. In this paper, we develop a substantive grounded theory of control balancing that addresses this theoretical gap. Based on a longitudinal case study of an ISD offshoring project in the financial services industry, we introduce a three-dimensional control configuration category that emerged from our data, suggesting that control type is only one dimension on which control configuration decisions need to be made. The other two dimensions that we identified are control degree (tight versus relaxed) and control style (unilateral versus bilateral). Furthermore, we illustrate that control execution during the life cycle of an ISD offshoring project is highly intertwined with the development of client–vendor shared understanding and that each influences the other. Based on these findings, we develop an integrative process model that explains how offshoring project managers make adjustments to the control configuration periodically to allow the ISD offshoring project and relationship to progress, yielding the iterative use of different three-dimensional control configurations that we conceptualize in the paper. Our process model of control balancing may trigger new ways of looking at control phenomena in temporary interfirm organizations such as client–vendor ISD offshoring projects. Implications for research on organizational control and ISD offshoring are discussed. In addition, guidelines for ISD offshoring practitioners are presented.
Even today, it is a fairly common argument in business-to-business companies, especially in traditional industrial companies, that social media is only useful in the business-to-consumer sector. The perceived challenges, opportunities and social media use cases in business-to-business sector have received little attention in the literature. Therefore, this paper focuses on bridging this gap with a survey of social media use cases, opportunities and challenges in industrial business-to-business companies. The study also examines the essential differences between business-to-consumer and business-to-business in these respects. The paper starts by defining social media and Web 2.0, and then characterizes social media in business, and social media in business-to-business. Finally, we present and analyze the results of our empirical survey of 125 business-to-business companies in the Finnish technology industry sector. This paper suggests that there is a significant gap between the perceived potential of social media and social media use with customers and partners in business-to-business companies, and identifies potentially effective ways to reduce the gap.
Although there is significant interest in branding in a B2C context substantially less research has been conducted in B2B marketing. The research in B2B marketing is somewhat fragmented and a research agenda to develop coherent models and provide guidance to practitioners is required. Despite the disjointed nature of the research in this area, B2B branding has been found to convey a number of benefits e.g. conferring uniqueness. This special issue consists of eleven papers covering a range of topics including brand alliances, brand personality, brand equity and brand relationships, brand identity, corporate branding and social media.
Previous research has established the benefits of branding for business-to-business (B2B) organizations. Various tools can be used to support B2B brands, including the internet and other interactive technologies. Yet research on how organizations use Social Networking Sites (SNS) to achieve brand objectives remains limited. This study addresses the gap by focusing on B2B SMEs and their social networking practices, particularly, usage, perceived barriers, and the measurement of effectiveness of SNS as a marketing tool. Findings from a mail survey show that over a quarter of B2B SMEs in the UK are currently using SNS to achieve brand objectives, the most popular of which is to attract new customers. On the other hand, the most significant barrier is the lack of perceived relevance for particular sectors. Notably, the overwhelming majority of users do not adopt any metrics to assess SNS effectiveness. Almost half of the sample of SMEs that currently use SNS have indicated their intention to increase their marketing spending on this channel, highlighting the growing importance of SNS in a B2B context.
Business-to-business (B2B) marketing is a complex field requiring companies to put in place organizational units that are able to handle multifaceted interaction processes at the customer interface. Moreover, B2B marketing is characterized by high levels of technological, institutional etc. change. As a consequence, and in order to adapt to new market conditions, companies create new organizational units to take over tasks such as key account management, category management or social media management. These new units are developed within the pre-existing organization. Typically, these new units also display a high degree of cross-functionality since their activities are interdependent with the activities of other units. Hence, the question of alignment is of major importance. In this conceptual paper, we provide a framework for both scholarly research and managerial application. It is based on the concept of frame alignment and offers a lens allowing analyzing internal aligning processes for new B2B marketing units.
Recent developments in technology, such as building information models (BIMs), immersive displays, and mobile computing tools, have enabled changes in the means and locations of communication throughout the building architecture, engineering, construction, and operation (AECO) industry. This paper presents the findings from an exploratory study regarding the planning of physical media for effective communication in conjunction with the developments in BIM use. While literature shows that there has been noticeable impact of physical media on communication, there has been little evidence of consistent and thorough planning and evaluation of media for investment or project level planning. The exploratory study identifies media synchronicity theory as a starting point for identifying the media needs by task for more effective planning of communication, as well as potential considerations unique to the AECO industry. The paper concludes with studies which have begun for planning more specific applications for BIM and media within AECO.
With the growing popularity of information and communication technologies (ICT), researchers from information systems (IS) field are increasingly interested in the factors influencing user satisfaction in computer-mediated environment. Drawing on media synchronicity theory (MST), this study explores how various media characteristics influence user satisfaction through social presence. The results from a lab experiment supported our hypothesis and found that transmission velocity, symbol sets and rehearsability were positively related to social presence, whereas reprocessability had a negative effect on social presence. Social presence in turn positively influenced both process satisfaction and outcome satisfaction. Overall, this study contributes to IS literature by providing a deeper understanding on the effect of objective media characteristics on user satisfaction.
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