Disparities in secondhand smoke exposure - United States, 1988-1994 and 1999-2004

Article · July 2008
    • "Childhood exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with increased lung cancer risk [23,24] , more respiratory symptoms and poorer lung function during adulthood [25]. Approximately 25% of children aged 4 to 11 years and 20% of children aged 12 to 19 years in the United States are exposed to secondhand smoke in the home [26]. It is unknown whether exposure to B[a]P during different life phases (e.g., neonatal, pubertal or adult) impacts adult germline mutagenesis similarly or differently. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Children are vulnerable to environmental mutagens, and the developing germline could also be affected. However, little is known about whether exposure to environmental mutagens in childhood will result in increased germline mutations in subsequent adult life. In the present study, male transgenic lacI mice at different ages (7, 25 and 60 days old) were treated with a known environmental mutagen (benzo[a]pyrene, B[a]P) at different doses (0, 50, 200 or 300 mg/kg body weight). Mutant frequency was then determined in a meiotic cell type (pachytene spermatocyte), a post-meiotic cell type (round spermatid) and epididymal spermatozoa after at least one cycle of spermatogenesis. Our results show that 1) mice treated with B[a]P at 7 or 25 days old, both being pre-adult ages, had significantly increased mutant frequencies in all spermatogenic cell types tested when they were 60 days old; 2) spermatogenic cells from mice treated before puberty were more susceptible to B[a]P-associated mutagenesis compared to adult mice; and 3) unexpectedly, epididymal spermatozoa had the highest mutant frequency among the spermatogenic cell types tested. These data show that pre-adult exposure to B[a]P increases the male germline mutant frequency in young adulthood. The data demonstrate that exposure to environmental genotoxins at different life phases (e.g., pre-adult and adult) can have differential effects on reproductive health.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
    • "Current population survey data showed that the national prevalence of US households with smoke-free home rules was 83.8% in 2006–07 [11]. and youth [12]. Other disparities exist in exposure to SHS with higher prevalence in the home for persons with lower incomes and among non-Hispanic blacks [13]; this may be because they are less likely to have a total home smoking ban [11, 14]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Third-hand smoke (THS) is the residual tobacco smoke contaminant that remains after a cigarette is extinguished. It can react with the indoor air pollutant nitrous acid to produce a carcinogen. Understanding perceptions of THS is critical, as it may inform the development of messages for promoting smoke-free homes. Six focus groups, of smokers and non-smokers, with 39 participants were conducted. Participants were asked whether they knew about THS and its harmful effects and whether it would motivate people to make their homes smoke free. They also answered questions about THS beliefs. Participants were mostly African-American, female and high-school graduate or General Educational Development (GED) recipients. Most of the participants had not heard about it and did not know what THS was. When asked about the dangers of THS, some participants made references to children indicating that they can easily inhale or ingest the residue leading to harmful effects. Almost all of the participants stated that they thought being educated about THS would motivate people to make their homes smoke free. There is a need for more scientific understanding of the potential dangers of THS and subsequent education about its exposure and harm to children and possibly adults.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013
    • "SHS exposure rate at home among patients who never smoked was 47% in our study. This is comparable with the 55% rate reported in a national study [25]. We were surprised by the high rate (44%) of teenagers who never smoked who had friends that smoked, suggesting that these self-reported non-smokers may be at risk for smoking in the future. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Smoking and second-hand smoking [SHS] cause significant cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. In healthy individuals and adults with chronic kidney disease [CKD], cigarette smoking is associated with albuminuria, increased risk for CKD, increased graft loss and progression of renal insufficiency. In children, SHS has been associated with higher blood pressure variability, blood pressure load, elevated C-reactive protein and decreased cognitive function. Using a survey document and urine cotinine, we sought to investigate prevalence of cigarette use and SHS in adolescents with CKD. A cross-sectional study was conducted in which adolescents aged 13 to 18 years with CKD were asked to complete a single anonymous self-administered survey. In addition, a single freshly voided urine sample for cotinine measurement was obtained from eligible subjects. Of 182 subjects, 60 (34%), 25 (14%) and 93 (52%) were transplant recipients, were dialysis dependent and had a glomerulopathy, respectively. Renal status was lacking in four. Twenty-four per cent (24%) had smoked at some point in their lives, and 13% had smoked within the last 30 days of taking the survey. Fifty-two per cent (52%) of all respondents reported living with an adult who smoked, and 54% reported having friends that smoked. Forty-seven per cent (47%) and 44% of those who had never smoked lived with an adult and had friends that smoked, respectively. There was a discrepancy rate of 7% between self-reported non-smokers and urine cotinine, suggesting smoking rates were higher. The highest cotinine/creatinine levels among the non-smokers were observed in those who lived with a smoker and had friends that smoked. Among adolescents with CKD, cigarette smoking and SHS exposure are prevalent and may be important variables to consider when evaluating renal and cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in children with CKD.
    Article · Mar 2011
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