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Studies on physico-chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca Linn.) kernel oil


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Some principle characteristics like fruit, stone and kernel weight and kernel and oil recovery as crude oil and physico-chemical characteristics of apricot (Prunus armeniaca Linn.) kernel oils were determined in the stones collected from different locations of Himachal Pradesh. Mean fruit weight of apricot fruits ranged between 8.0-15.1 g with the stone recovery of 12.7-22.2% having stone weight 1.78-1.92 g. Further, the kernel recovery was found ranging between 30.7-33.7% whereas kernels gave oil yield of 45.6-46.3% crude oil. The study further revealed that the colour of apricot kernel oil was yellow whereas acid value; peroxide value; iodine value and saponification value were reported as 2.27-2.78 mg KOH/g; 5.12-5.27 meq/kg; 100.2-100.4 g I2/100 g and 189.8-191.3 mg KOH/g oil, respectively. The fatty acid profile of these oils showed that the oleic (62.07-70.6%); linoleic (20.5-27.76%); linolenic (0.4-1.42%); palmitic (5.0-7.79%) acids are present in major quantity, while palmitoleic acid (0.48-0.70%) in small quantities. Vitamin E contents were present in oil to the extent of 72-107 mg/100 g. Apricot oil was characterized by its high contents of oleic and linoleic acid. The apricot oils because of the fatty acid composition indicates that they may be suitable as edible oils and vitamin E rich contents make these oils suitable for use in preparation of cosmetic and moisturizing creams for dry skins, massaging oils and for industrial use.
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Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources
Vol. 3(3), September 2012, pp. 366-370
Studies on physico-chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of wild
apricot (Prunus armeniaca Linn.) kernel oil
Anil Gupta1*, P C Sharma1, B M K S Tilakratne2 and Anil K Verma1
1Department of Food Science and Technology, Dr. Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan – 173 230,
Himachal Pradesh, India
2Institute of Postharvest Technology, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka
Received 01 January 2010; Accepted 28 May 2012
Some principle characteristics like fruit, stone and kernel weight and kernel and oil recovery as crude oil and physico-
chemical characteristics of apricot (Prunus armeniaca Linn.) kernel oils were determined in the stones collected from
different locations of Himachal Pradesh. Mean fruit weight of apricot fruits ranged between 8.0-15.1 g with the stone
recovery of 12.7-22.2% having stone weight 1.78-1.92 g. Further, the kernel recovery was found ranging between 30.7-
33.7% whereas kernels gave oil yield of 45.6-46.3% crude oil. The study further revealed that the colour of apricot kernel oil
was yellow whereas acid value; peroxide value; iodine value and saponification value were reported as 2.27-2.78 mg
KOH/g; 5.12-5.27 meq/kg; 100.2-100.4 g I2/100 g and 189.8-191.3 mg KOH/g oil, respectively. The fatty acid profile of
these oils showed that the oleic (62.07-70.6%); linoleic (20.5-27.76%); linolenic (0.4-1.42%); palmitic (5.0-7.79%) acids are
present in major quantity, while palmitoleic acid (0.48-0.70%) in small quantities. Vitamin E contents were present in oil to
the extent of 72-107 mg/100 g. Apricot oil was characterized by its high contents of oleic and linoleic acid. The apricot oils
because of the fatty acid composition indicates that they may be suitable as edible oils and vitamin E rich contents make
these oils suitable for use in preparation of cosmetic and moisturizing creams for dry skins, massaging oils and for
industrial use.
Keywords: Apricot, Prunus armeniaca, Kernels, Crude oil, Fatty acid composition, Vitamin E.
IPC code; Int. cl. (2011.01)—A61K 36/00, C11B 1/04
Apricot (Prunus armeniaca Linn.), commonly
known as chulli, chulu, sarha or zardalu is grown in
temperate regions of the world including USA, Spain,
France, Italy, Turkey, Morocco, Iran, Africa and
Australia. In India, apricots are found growing in
Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and Uttarkashi
in Uttarakhand. In Himachal Pradesh, it is grown in
the districts of Shimla, Mandi, Kullu, Chamba,
Sirmour, Kinnaur and Lahaul-Spiti1. Owing to their
short harvest season and highly perishable nature,
apricots are mostly used for preparation of different
value-added products, in processing, in drying and in
preparation of fermented liquor (Ghanti). The
stones/pits left after processing is thrown as a waste,
which otherwise is a good source of edible oil and
considered to be a good source of polyunsaturated
fatty acids like linoleic and linolenic acid and oleic
acid as monounsaturate with a good nutritional and
pharmaceutical importance. Broadly, it contains 13.7%
saturated and 86.0% unsaturated fatty acids2. The oil
has been used in preparation of many cosmetic
products, moisturizing creams for dry skins, baby oil,
massaging oil, face scrub, lip balm, etc3. It is
estimated that Indian varieties are reported to contain
44% oil4. Femenia et al reported that the apricot
kernels contain more oil (53 g/100 g) that of bitter
kernels (43g/100 g)5. Owing to the presence of
unsaturated fatty acids in good proportion, its quality
attributes matches with almond oil. After oil
extraction from apricot kernels, around 60% of
remaining residue called as press cake, contains about
50% of protein thus the press cake can also be utilized
as protein source after its treatment for removal of
bittering component hydrocyanic acid (HCN).
The level of major fatty acids found in apricot
kernel oil range between 3.2-10.7 palmitic, 51.0-83.3
*Correspondent author:
oleic and 9.6-45.9% linoleic acid5. The oil obtained
from Indian bitter apricot kernels had the fatty acid
composition as 1.1 myristic, 3.5 palmitic, 2.0 stearic,
73.4 oleic and 20.0% linoleic acid, the lipid profile in
apricot oil also reported as 3.8 myristic, 4.37 palmitic,
0.12 palmitoleic, 0.46 stearic, 66.29 oleic, 28-64
linoleic and 0.12% linolenic acid6,7. A diet rich in
palmitoleic and linolenic acid is known to
significantly decrease the level of total cholesterol and
triacylglycerol concentration in the blood plasma. The
essential fatty acids (EFA) are those which are
required for growth, maintenance and proper
functioning of many physiological processes and are
not biosynthesized in the human body. Linoleic,
linolenic and arachidonic acids are generally
considered to be essential fatty acids for human
beings8. Tocopherols are important dietary
constituents as they are essential in maintaining the
stability and integrity of the cell membrane, which is
associated with high concentrations of unsaturated
fatty acids present in these membranes. The
tocopherol content in apricot oil ranged from
268.5-436.0 µg/g, while, in almond oil, the vitamin E
is present in fairly large concentration i.e. 4 mg/g of
oil9,10. However, detailed literature on fatty acid
composition with proximate composition of apricot
press cake is scarce. Therefore, present investigations
were carried out to study the physico-chemical
characteristics of apricot fruits, stones, kernels and
kernel oil. The fatty acid composition with proximate
composition of apricot press cake were undertaken for
apricots seeds collected from different areas of
Himachal Pradesh.
Materials and Methods
Apricot stones/pits collected from different
locations in Himachal Pradesh were utilized for these
studies. The kernels were separated from the mass of
stones/pits by using specific gravity separation
method after breaking the stones with mechanical
decorticator. On semi-pilot scale, the oil was extracted
by passing the apricot kernels through table oil
expeller and after filtration through a filter press; the
oil was analyzed for different physico-chemical
Chemical and statistical analysis
Standard analytical procedures were followed for
estimation of iodine value, saponification value, acid
value and peroxide value in the extracted oils11. The
fatty acid composition of the apricot kernel oil was
determined by using standard method and converting
them in respective fatty acid methyl esters and by
using gas liquid chromatography (GLC)11,12. Vitamin E
contents were determined by using HPLC13. The data
on physico-chemical characteristics were statistically
analyzed by using CRD-Factorial design14. Triplicate
determinations were made for each attribute.
Results and Discussion
Physico-chemical characteristics of apricot fruits, stones and
Broadly, mean fruit and stone weight ranged
between 8.0-15.1 g and 1.78-1.92 g, respectively with
stone recovery of 12.7-22.2% in apricot fruits.
Further, the kernel recovery was 30.7-33.7% (on
stone basis) and 3.9-7.5% (on fruit basis) having a
kernel weight of 0.58-0.60 g (Table 1). Further oil
recovery ranged between 45.6-46.3% as crude oil
(extracted through Soxhlet apparatus). The moisture
contents in kernels ranged between 4.0-4.1% with
2.2-2.4% ash contents, whereas in oils the moisture
contents ranged between 0.25-0.26%. The bitter
apricot kernels are reported known to contain bittering
component HCN (hydrocyanic acid). In confirmation
to these results, the kernel recovery in apricot stones
was reported as 35-45% and 22-38% in sweet and
bitter apricots. Further, the apricot oil yield of 35-45%
was reported6,15.
Quality characteristics of apricot kernel oil
The visual appearance of extracted oil was
observed to be yellow in colour (Table 2). The
specific gravity of apricot kernel oil was found to
range between 0.914-0.915 with the refractive index
and butyro- refractometer reading (40°C) of
1.4720-1.4729 and 69.6-70.3, respectively. The kernel
oil from apricots exhibited low acid value (2.27-2.78
mg KOH/g); peroxide value (5.12-5.27 meq/kg);
iodine value (100.2-100.4 g I2/100 g and
saponification value of 189.8-191.3 mg KOH/g oil.
The quality characteristics of apricot oil extracted
from kernels collected from different locations are at
par and all the values were found well within the
standards specified by PFA for almond oil16. Further,
the vitamin E contents in oils ranged between
72-93.7 mg/100 g and total carotenoids ranged
between 262-267 µg/100 g. Earlier, the vitamin E
content in apricot oil was reported in the range of
268.5 to 436.0 µg/g oil9.
Fatty acid composition of apricot kernel oil
The fatty acids present in apricot kernel oils from
Mandi, Kinnaur and Shimla areas are significantly at
par, whereas the lower linoleic acid contents and high
monounsaturated fatty acid contents present in oils
from Mandi and Kinnaur areas helps in longer shelf-
life as compared to kernel oil from Shimla (Table 3).
Further, it was found that apricot oil possessed an
appreciable proportion of unsaturated fatty acids
which comprised of 62.5-71.2% monounsaturates and
21.2-29.2% polyunsaturates. While the saturates were
only 6.5-8.7%, thus the ratio between unsaturates and
saturates (U/S) were recorded as 10.51-14.24. Among
the unsaturated fatty acids, oleic and linoleic were the
predominant acids in apricot kernel oil. The oils rich
in polyunsaturated fatty acids have been shown to
Table 1—Physico-chemical characteristics of apricot fruits, stones, kernels and kernel oil from different locations in
Himachal Pradesh
Shimla Kinnaur
Mean CD0.05
Weight of fruit (g) 8.0 15.1 12.8 12.0 0.24
Pulp weight (g) 6.2 13.2 10.9 10.1 0.24
Pulp, % 77.8 87.3 85.6 84.3 -
Stone weight, g 1.78 1.92 1.85 1.88 0.03
Stone recovery, % 22.2 12.7 14.4 16.4 0.23
Pulp/stone ratio 3.5 6.9 5.5 5.1 -
Kernel weight, g 0.60 0.59 0.58 0.59 0.01
Kernel recovery, %
(on stone basis)
33.7 30.7 31.4 31.9 0.32
Kernel recovery, %
(on fruit basis)
7.5 3.9 4.5 5.3 0.08
Stone/kernel ratio 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.1 -
Kernel moisture, % 4.1 4.0 4.1 4.1 -
Crude oil, % 45.6 46.3 46.3 46.1 0.57
Moisture in oil, % 0.25 0.26 0.26 0.26 -
HCN in kernels* + + + - -
Crude ash,% 2.4 2.2 2.4 2.3 -
Karsog, Mandi (930-935 m amsl.); Jubbal, Shimla (1850-2000 m amsl); Kalpa, Kinnaur, (2190-2250 m amsl); *Qualitative test shows
presence of HCN in kernels; HCN= Hydrocyanic acid
Table 2Qualitative characteristics of kernel oil from stones of apricots grown in different locations of Himachal Pradesh
Parameters Mandi Shimla Kinnaur Mean CD0.05
PFA Standards
Tintometer Colour Units
Yellow 6.9 6.7 6.4 6.7 -
Red 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.2 -
Blue 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -
Specific gravity, g/cc 0.915 0.914 0.914 0.914 -
Refractive index, 40°C 1.4729 1.4729 1.4720 1.4726 -
Butyrorefractometer reading, 40°C 70.3 70.3 69.6 70.1 0.84 54-57
Acid value, mg KOH/ g oil 2.27 2.78 2.69 2.58 1.02 Not more than 6
Peroxide value, meq/ kg oil 5.26 5.27 5.12 5.22 0.01 Not more than* 125
Iodine value, g I2/100 g oil 100.4 100.2 100.2 100.3 2.23 90-109
Saponification value, mg KOH/ g oil 190.8 189.8 191.3 190.6 0.99 186-195
Visual appearance Yellow Yellow Yellow - - Clear, free from rancidity
Vitamin E, mg/100 g 72 93.7 90.7 - -
Polar material, % PM 5.6 5.8 5.7 5.7 -
Total carotenoid , µg/100 g 262 265 267 264
Karsog, Mandi (930-935 m amsl.); Jubbal, Shimla (1850-2000 m amsl); Kalpa, Kinnaur, (2190-2250 m amsl). *Jacobs, 195818
reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases17 and
linoleic and linolenic acids are essential fatty acids
and are important for maintenance of skin, hair
growth, regulation of cholesterol metabolism and
maintenance of cell membrane integrity8. Thus,
apricot oil possesses special dietary importance and
can be used for both edible and pharmaceutical
Moisture content of kernels ranged between 4.0-4.1
and 4.9-7.5% in apricot press cake (Table 4). The
crude protein contents were found to be 24.4% in
kernels and 34.3-44.5% in press cake. The crude
lipids were recorded as 45.6-46.3% in apricot kernels
and in range of 5.4-9.7% press cake and crude fibres
of 5.4 in kernels and 7.0-10.8% in press cake, whereas
calorific value (K cals/100 g) was found in the range
of 324-357 in press cake. Further, the bittering toxic
compound HCN was found to be 148-173 mg/100 g
in kernels and 90.5-92.0 mg/100 g in press cake.
Thus, the preliminary study showed that the stones
left after preparation of different value-added
products from pulp contained an oil of good
nutritional and pharmaceutical properties. The fatty
acid profile showed that there is predominance of
unsaturated fatty acids comprising of major proportion
of oleic and linoleic acids besides vitamin E and
The apricot kernel oil can be considered as good
edible oil and can also be utilize for other industrial
purposes. Extraction of such oils may also open an
avenue for their utilization in various preparations
such as pharmaceutical, cosmetics, facial creams and
lip balms besides its use in the food industry. The
proximate composition of bitter apricot kernels and
press cake showed that the press cake can also be
successfully utilized for preparation of protein isolate.
1 Anonymous, Area and production of fruits in Himachal
Pradesh, Department of Horticulture, Himachal Pradesh,
Shimla, 2003.
2 Ciulei I, Ghihaia A and Betiu N, Chemical study of the seeds
of Prunus armeniaca var. communis, Farmacia 1973, 21,
3 Anonymous, Apricot seed oil-Prunus armeniaca: Properties
of oil, 2005(b)
4 Beyer R and Melton LD, Composition of New Zealand
apricot kernels, New Zealand J Crop Hort Sci, 1990, 18,
5 Femenia A, Rossello C, Mulet A and Canellas J, Chemical
composition of bitter and sweet apricot kernels, J Agric Food
Chem, 1995, 43, 356-361.
6 Dang RL, Narayanan R and Rao PS, Kumaon apricot kernel
oil: its composition and utilization, Indian Oilseeds J, 1964,
8, 110-115.
7 Abd El-Aal MH, Khalil MKM and Rahma EH, Apricot
kernel oil: characterization, chemical composition and
utilization in some baked products, Food Chem, 1986, 19,
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1992, 7, 179.
9 Dutta PC, Savage GP and Mcneil DL, Fatty acids and
tocopherol contents and oxidative stability of walnut oils,
J Amer Oil Chem Soc, 1999, 76, 1059-1063.
10 Lambersten GH, Myclestad A and Braekklan OR,
Tocopherols in nuts, J Sci Food Agric, 1962, 13, 617-620.
Table 3—Fatty acid composition of apricot kernel oil
Per cent composition (% w/w) Fatty acid
Mandi Shimla Kinnaur
Palmitic acid C16:0 5.0 7.8 5.1
Palmitoleic acid C16:1 0.6 0.5 0.7
Stearic acid C18:0 1.5 0.9 2.0
Oleic acid C18:1 70.6 62.1 69.7
Linoleic acid C18:2 21.0 27.8 20.5
Linolenic acid C18:3 0.4 1.4 0.7
Σ SFA 6.5 8.7 7.1
Σ MUFA 71.2 62.6 70.4
Σ PUFA 21.4 29.2 21.2
Σ UFA 92.6 91.8 91.6
U : S ratio 14.24:1 10.51:1 12.90:1
Σ SFA-Saturated fatty acid; Σ MUFA-Mono unsaturated fatty
acid; Σ PUFA-Polyunsaturated fatty acid; Σ UFA-Unsaturated
fatty acid; Karsog, Mandi (930-935 m amsl.); Jubbal, Shimla
(1850-2000 m amsl); Kalpa, Kinnaur, (2190-2250 m amsl)
Table 4—Proximate composition of bitter apricot kernels and
press cake
Press cake Parameter Bitter
Mandi Shimla Kinnaur
Moisture, % 4.0-4.1 4.9 7.2 7.5
Crude protein, % 24.4 44.5 34.3 40.9
Crude lipids, % 45.6-46.3 5.4 9.7 7.0
Total ash, % 2.2-2.4 4.9 5.1 4.9
Crude fibre, % 5.4 10.2 10.8 7.0
Total CHO, % 8.2 30.1 27.5 32.7
Hydrocyanic acid,
mg/100 g
148-173 90.5 92.0 90.5
Calorific value -
Karsog, Mandi (930-935 m amsl.); Jubbal, Shimla (1850-2000 m
amsl); Kalpa, Kinnaur, (2190-2250 m amsl);
CHO= Carbohydrates. *Range of values as given in Table-1
11 AOAC, Official methods of analysis. Association of Official
Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, 16th edn, 1995, 15.
12 Metcalfe LD, Schmitz AA and Pelker JR, Rapid preparation
of fatty acid esters from lipids for gas chromatographic
analysis, Anal Chem, 1966, 33, 363-364.
13 McMurray CH, Blanchflower WJ and Rice DA, Influence
of extraction techniques on determination of alfa-tocoferol
in animal feed stuffs, J Assoc Offic Anal Chem, 1988, 63,
14 Cochran WG, Cox CM, Experimental designs. John Willey
and Sons, Inc. New York (1967).
15 Anonymous, Pure organic apricot oil: pharmaceuticals,
cosmetics and perfume manufacturers and confectioners,
2005 (a),
16 Anonymous, The Prevention of Food Adulteration Act-1954
and PFA rules-1955 (Act Nr. 37) (amended up to 31/3/96),
All India Food Processors Association, New Delhi, India,
1996, 266-267.
17 Agar II, Sarminato C, Ciarces R, Kaska N, Kafkas S and Ali
BE, Compositional changes of fatty acids during the
development of embryo in Pistana vera, Acta Hort, 1995,
419, 405-410.
18 Jacobs MB, Chemical analysis of Foods and Food Products,
D Van Nastrand C, Inc, Priceton, New York, 1958, 970.
... A significant amount of stones is lost during the apricot processing process. The stones usually account between 8 and 12% of the fruit weight, while the kernels account for one-third of the stone weight (Gupta et al. 2012;Korekar et al. 2011). The apricot kernel is a good by-product since it is high in antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, and high-quality fat and protein. ...
... Apricot kernels and oil are shown to have good antioxidant and antimicrobial properties (Mesarović et al. 2018). The oil from the kernel may also be used in cosmetics and pharmaceutical mixtures as a source of lipophilic compounds including tocopherols, phytosterols, and fatty acids (Gupta et al. 2012). ...
... The variation in the content of fat and fatty acids among the studied genotypes is strictly related to genetic resources, ripening stage, and environmental conditions. Similar findings were reported by Fratianni et al. (2018), Gupta et al. (2012), and Kaya et al. (2008). ...
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Apricot kernels are valuable by-products of apricot processing industry known to have industrial applications. The present study reports the amino-acid, fatty acids and phytochemical profile of seed kernel of six genotypes of apricot. The oleic acid was the dominant fatty acid constituting more than 60% of fatty acids and varied from 60.96 to 73.17 g /100g fat. Linoleic acid was the major fatty acid and ranged from 24.63 to 36.77 g/100g fat. Aspartic acid and tyrosine were the major amino acids in kernels; contributing to more than 40% of the total. The essential amino acid, lysine and methionine were highest in Genotypes ‘Roxana’ and ‘CITH-A-3’. Amygdalin, a toxic glycoside compound, was detected only in the kernels of 'Roxana' and 'Gold Cot' and absent in Shakarpara, CITH-A-2’ CITH-A-3’and CITH-A-1’. Total phenolic contents in kernels ranged be-tween 39.71 to 130.87 mg GAE/100g dwb and antioxidant activity ranged between 10.21 to 23.49 µmol TE/g dwb. The chemical composition of the apricot kernels makes it an interesting source of health promoting substances for development of functional foods.
... The amount of dry matter was found to be 96.86% in the BÇ sample and 96.47% in the SÇ sample. Similarly, the amount of dry matter in apricot kernels was found to be 95.90% by Gupta et al. [10], and Özcan et al. [11] determined it as 97.33%. The highest amounts of ash (2.46%) and fat (42.22%) were found in the SÇ sample. ...
... As a result of the literature review, it was determined that the amount of carbohydrates in the apricot kernels ranged from 8.20-31.56% [6,10,12,13]. ...
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Çiğit is produced from bitter and sweet apricot kernels after the end of the apricot harvest season, especially by female producers throughout the province of Erzincan. Sweet apricot kernels can be used directly in human nutrition. However, bitter apricot kernels are made suitable for consumption by removing/reducing the bitterness substance (amygdalin) through a series of processes (such as boiling, peeling, soaking and drying). Çiğit obtained from sweet apricot kernels is referred to as “brown çiğit” or “sweet çiğit”. Çiğit obtained from bitter apricot kernels is known as "white çiğit", "sweetened çiğit" or "bleached çiğit". Ciğit is widely consumed as a snack throughout the province of Erzincan. In addition, optionally added to increase the taste and nutritional value in the production of some traditional products (bastık/fruit leather, apricot jam, gasefe/apricot dessert, etc.). In this study, it was aimed to determine some physical and chemical properties of çiğit samples produced from bitter and sweet apricot kernels and to compare them in terms of composition. According to the results, in Bleached Çiğit (BÇ) and Sweet Çiğit (SÇ) samples were determined as pH 5.62-6.61, dry matter 96.86-96.47%, ash 1.0-2.46%, protein 27.84- 26.45%, fat 38.97-42.22%, carbohydrate 29.05-25.33%, L* value 90.44-32.35, a* value 2.23-16.17 and b* value 13.20-22.12. Consequently, it was determined that the çiğit samples were good sources in terms of protein, fat, carbohydrate and ash (especially SÇ sample) and had high nutritional value. Thus, it has been concluded that the traditional method of removing bitterness is applicable and bitter apricot kernels are made suitable for human consumption by this method.
... polyunsaturated and 57.67% monounsaturated fatty acids (Zhang et al., 2022); Prunus armeniaca contains 62.5-71.2% monounsaturated fatty acids (Gupta et al., 2012); Juglans regia contains 85% unsaturated fatty acids (Tsamouris et al., 2002); Cannabis sativa contains more than 75% polyunsaturated and unsaturated fatty acids (Teleszko et al., 2022). Among the 13 plants recorded in this study, oil content was reported highest in Juglans regia, followed by B. campestris, S. indicum, P. armeniaca, P. mira, and the least in D. metel by other studies (Table 2). ...
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... The low acidity obtained for peach kernel oil is an indication that the triacylglycerols present have not been hydrolyzed. These results agreed with that obtained by previous studies [20,53,54]. Whereas the (FFA) content of seed kernel oils in the present investigation were much lower than those (7.80, ...
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Background The use of food processing wastes and by-products, as well as the under-utilization of agricultural products, have recently received increased attention. Mango, apricot and peach are the three most significant fruits grown and processed in Egypt. Results This work aimed to evaluate the amino acid composition, physio-chemical properties and fatty acids content of mango, apricot, and peach seed kernels after removal antinutritional components. According to the results, mango kernel flour contained all the essential amino acids with levels higher than those of the FAO/WHO reference protein. In addition, total essential amino acids were 28.88, 26.78 and 36.46 g/100 g protein for apricot, peach and mango kernel flours, respectively. The highest essential amino acids value was leucine, while the highest non-essential amino acids value was glutamic in all kernel protein. All kernel oils showed adequate values for acid and peroxide value. The main unsaturated fatty acids in all kernel oils were oleic and linoleic acids. Oleic acid contents ranged between 41.76% and 59.87%. On the other hand, linoleic acid contents varied between 5.25% and 26.61%. Conclusions Mango, apricot, and peach kernels are by-products that present a novel potential source of excellent protein and oil that might be used for food and other industrial applications after reduction of antinutritional matter. As a result, detoxified kernel flour might be used to enhance high-value food products with economical, high-quality sources of protein and oil. Graphical Abstract
... Apricot fruit having weight 8.0-15.1 g gives 12.7%-22.2% stone recovery after removal of pulps, whereas kernel contributes 30.7%-33.7% of stone/pit after decortication (Gupta et al., 2012). ...
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Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) kernels, the innermost part of the economical stone fruit, are utilized for edible purposes, extraction of oil, and many pharmaceutical products. Biological materials are complex in structure and get affected by their moisture content. This study investigates the effect of different moisture content from 5.66% to 26.47% wet basis apricot kernels on its various engineering characteristics and develops their correlations. The engineering characteristics such as linear dimension length (13.26–14.47 mm), breadth (8.69–9.97 mm), thickness (5.36–6.50 mm), arithmetic mean diameter (9.11–10.32 mm), geometric mean diameter (8.48–9.77 mm), surface area (227.91–302.68 mm²), projected area (91.99–114.95 mm²), 1000 kernel mass (0.317–0.403 kg), true density (881.23–973.55 kg m⁻³), and porosity (33.74%–43.68%) increased linearly with moisture content. On the other hand, bulk density (548.23–583.89 kg m⁻³) and elongation ratio (2.25–2.51) showed a decreasing trend with an increase in moisture content. The frictional properties such as angle of repose (22.81–28.92°) and coefficient of static friction value for glass, stainless steel, galvanized iron, and wood were found to increase with increased moisture content and ranged from 0.179–0.283, 0.272–0.347, 0.416–0.512, and 0.488–0.595, respectively. The highest static coefficient of friction was observed for wood surfaces. A significant difference in color values L*, a*, b*, hue angle (H), chroma (C), and ∆E values were observed at different moisture content. Terminal velocities and hardness of AK increased linearly with moisture content and the values were found between 4.26 and 5.91 m s⁻¹ and 21.59 to 35.25 N mm⁻¹, respectively. Practical applications Apricot kernels have nutritional and pharmaceutical value due to the abundance of bioactive components in them but are still underutilized due to a lack of handling knowledge and processing mechanization. Apricot kernels are delicate and sensitive for mechanical damage during every stage of their processing. This study investigates engineering characteristics in view to understand their relationship with moisture content, as many instruments and equipment are yet to be designed. Knowledge of its engineering characteristics at different moisture content would help handlers for quality evaluation, and manufacturers in optimally designing processing machinery and quality analytical instruments.
... The major constituent of apricot seeds (up to 4.9%) is the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin (Figure 1), followed by other cyanogenic compounds such as prunasin and mandelonitrile. Other constituents include various fatty acids, mostly oleic, palmitic and linoleic acid, phytosterols, essential amino acids, the enzyme emulsin, as well as vitamins and minerals [8,11,38,39]. Amygdalin, sometimes referred to as vitamin B17, although it is not classified as a vitamin, has a molecular formula of C 20 H 27 NO 11 . It contains benzaldehyde, hydrocyanic acid, and two β (1->6) linked D-glucose units (gentiobiose) [40][41][42]. ...
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Prunus armeniaca L. (Rosaceae)-syn. Amygdalus armeniaca (L.) Dumort., Armeniaca armeniaca (L.) Huth, Armeniaca vulgaris Lam is commonly known as the apricot tree. The plant is thought to originate from the northern, north-western, and north-eastern provinces of China, although some data show that it may also come from Korea or Japan. The apricot fruit is used medicinally to treat a variety of ailments, including use as an antipyretic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, emetic, and ophthalmic remedy. The Chinese and Korean pharmacopeias describe the apricot seed as an herbal medicinal product. Various parts of the apricot plant are used worldwide for their anticancer properties, either as a primary remedy in traditional medicine or as a complementary or alternative medicine. The purpose of this review was to provide comprehensive and up-to-date information on ethnobotanical data, bioactive phytochemicals, anticancer potential, pharmacological applications, and toxicology of the genus Prunus armeniaca, thus providing new perspectives on future research directions. Included data were obtained from online databases such as PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, Science direct, and Wiley Online Library. Multiple anticancer mechanisms have been identified in in vitro and in vivo studies, the most important mechanisms being apoptosis, antiproliferation, and cytotoxicity. The anticancer properties are probably mediated by the contained bioactive compounds, which can activate various anticancer mechanisms and signaling pathways such as tumor suppressor proteins that reduce the proliferation of tumor cells. Other pharmacological properties resulting from the analysis of experimental studies include neuroprotective, cardioprotective, antioxidant, immunostimulatory, antihyperlipidemic, antibacterial, and antifungal effects. In addition, data were provided on the toxicity of amygdalin, a compound found in apricot kernel seeds, which limits the long-term use of complementary/alternative products derived from P. armeniaca. This updated review showed that bioactive compounds derived from P. armeniaca are promising compounds for future research due to their important pharmacological properties, especially anticancer. A detailed analysis of the chemical structure of these compounds and their cytotoxicity should be carried out in future research. In addition, translational pharmacological studies are required for the correct determination of pharmacologically active doses in humans.
... Accounting rate of return=Average Net Income/ Investment over the life of the Project with 30.7-33.7% kernel recovery from 45.6-46.3% crude oil present in kernels (Gupta et al. 2012). Kate et al. (2014) reported fruit containing 22-38% kernels with commercially important oil up to 53.4%. ...
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Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is one of the major horticultural produce and an important source of income as well as livelihood in Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh and Northeastern part of India. However, it is also full of nutritional and functional health benefits. Despite all the advantages associated with the fruit, shorter shelf life is major hindrance in attaining its potential economic benefit to the farmers. Apricot drying is most common in these regions traditionally done by the farmers. Solar dryer developed by ICAR-Central Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI) at its regional station, Leh is helping in extending shelf life of apricot and its availability throughout the year. This study was carried out during 2017-19 aimed to estimate the techno-economic benefit on adoption of the dryer by individual farmer or processor. It is found that adopter need to make investment of `1.10 lakh in fixed capital and requires `1.22 lakh annually to process one metric tonnes of the fruit. The annual cost of production was determined as `133,000 with depreciation of `11,000 for project of 1 metric tonne fresh fruit. Estimates indicate that adopter could generate net income of `78,000 annually. Profitability analysis yielded net profit ratio, pay-back period, benefit-cost ratio and break-even point of 37%, 1.23 years, 1.52, and 123.50 kg, respectively.
... Several researchers (Femenia et el, [6], Ozkal et al, [7], Kaya et al, [4], and Gupta et al, [8]) have shown that apricot kernel oil consists of both unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. Femenia et al, [6], reported that unsaturated fatty acids (Oleic and linoleic acid) were approximately 92 %. ...
Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) kernels, one of the economical stone fruit kernels, are utilized worldwide for edible, cosmetic, and medicinal purposes. Oil from the apricot kernel is valued by the richness of unsaturated fatty acids, the high proportion of oleic acids, phenols, and tocopherol content. Oil yield with quality from apricot kernel varies with region, variety, and adopted method of oil extraction. This review discusses apricot kernel characterization, different conventional and novel methods of oil extraction, their merits and demerits as reported in the literature. Novel technologies such as microwave-assisted oil extraction, ultrasound-assisted oil extraction, enzyme-assisted oil extraction, and supercritical fluid oil extraction have emerged as the most promising extraction methods that allow efficient oil recovery in very environment-friendly ways. Knowledge of the extraction technique aids in giving higher oil recovery with minimal nutritional losses while retaining the original organoleptic properties.Graphical abstract
On picturization and trend analysis of declining biodiversity status of KathmanduValley because of the intensifying globalization and natural resource utilization, itcan be concluded that the present need of the valley is biodiversity conservation andimportantly their documentation. In such context, biodiversity conservation andtheir documentation has become essential. In regards to documentation ofbiodiversity, 110 medicinal plants collected by the researchers themselves from theRamkot region of Sitapaila located in Kathmandu valley has been recorded andenlisted in this paper. Some of the major medicinal importance along with qualityattributes of the plant species have been presented in this paper.
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The proximate analysis of ‘Moorpark’ apricot kernels (Prunus armeniaca) has been determined. Moisture (4.7%), protein (20.6%), dietary fibre (2.5%), total ash (2.9%), and lipid (52.0%) values wereobtained. A potentially valuable oil was extracted and chemically analysed. The fatty acid composition, measured by gas chromatography of the methyl esters, was dominated by oleic acid (69.0%) and linoleic acid (26.0%). Cyanide was not detected in the apricot oil.
The chemical composition of bitter and sweet varieties of apricot (Prunus armeniaca) kernel was investigated. Oil, protein, soluble sugars, fiber (NDF and ADF), and ash contents in kernels were determined. Sweet apricot kernels were found to contain more oil (53 g/100 g) and less soluble sugars (7 g/100 g) than bitter kernels (43 and 14 g/100 g, respectively). No significant differences in the protein content were found in either variety. Oleic acid and linoleic acid are approximately 92 g/100 g of total fatty acids. Pectic polysaccharides, cellulose, and hemicelluloses (in decreasing amounts) were inferred to be their main component polysaccharides. Essential amino acids constitute 32-34 g/100 g of the total amino acids determined. Amygdalin content was very high (5.5 g/100 g) in bitter cultivars and was not detected in the sweet variety.
The routine application of gas chromatography to the determination of the composition of fatty acid samples made it essential to prepare methyl esters rapidly and simply. Boron trifluoride-methanol converts fatty acids to their methyl esters in about 2 minutes. The esters are comparable to those obtained by other procedures.
Apricot kernel oil was extracted, characterized and evaluated for use in preparing biscuits and cake. The hexane-extracted oil fraction has a light yellow colour and is free from toxic material (hydrocyanic acid). The major fatty acids were oleic, linoleic and palmitic. Chloroform-methanol extracts consisted mainly of neutral lipids in which triglycerides were predominant components. The triglycerides consisted of six types of glycerides. Glycolipids and phospholipids were the minor fractions of the total lipids and their major constituents were acylsterylglycosides (62·3%) and phosphatidyl choline (72·2%), respectively.Evaluation of the crude apricol kernel oil added to different types of biscuits and cake revealed that it has excellent properties and is comparable with corn oil at the same level. It did not affect the flavour, colour and texture of these products.