Article

Toward sustainable trasportation: Exploring transportation decision making in teleworking households in a mid-sized Canadian city

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Abstract

There is growing awareness that Canadian urban transportation systems are not sustainable. However, we have only a limited understanding of how travel decisions are affected by policy or other circumstantial changes that are purported to address sustainability concerns. This paper reports on an indepth, small-sample experiment designed to explore issues that require nontraditional travel data. The focus is on household-level responses to a vehicle-reduction scenario in the context of teleworking households in a mid-sized Canadian city. The study design allows for comparisons of 'actual' versus 'gamed' activity and travel patterns. Two themes were explored: telework as an enabler of travel changes; and the persistence of and reasons for auto-dependency within teleworking households. Results suggest that teleworking households have a high capacity to adapt to a vehicle-reduction scenario, while making only minor changes to activity patterns. Despite the ability to change, the six participating households displayed continued auto reliance. Barriers that prevent telework from reaching its potential as an auto-reduction strategy emerged during the game. Copyright © 2004 by the Institute of Urban Studies All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.

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... Particular concern has emerged that teleworking households may move away from central areas (Helling & Mokhtarian, 2001;Audirac, 2003;Tayyaran et al. 2003;Lake, 2004) and thus contribute to the economic, social, and environmental problems created by sprawl and low density development patterns that are common in most North American cities (Wiewel et al. 1999;Duany et al. 2000;Burchell et al. 2002;Krieger, 2004). At present, however, the types of longitudinal data needed to address these issues are limited (Helling & Mokhtarian, 2001;Tayyaran et al. 2003), and thus one can only conclude that telework-induced travel changes appear environmentally positive, though modest Andrey et al. 2005). ...
... Another matter that warrants comment is the use of the individual as the unit of analysis. In transportation-related studies of telework, it is widely recognized that other household members are crucial to gaining a complete picture of telework-induced travel changes (Helling & Mokhtarian, 2001;Andrey et al. 2005). There is also growing appreciation that travel effects are even possible at the societal level, such as induced or latent travel demand when congestion is indeed reduced. ...
... Efforts to gain insight into firm decisions may be difficult and costly. Nonetheless, including other household members in transportation research is common and past EF studies have already incorporated research designs that measure consumption at the household or organizational level (Roy & Caird, 2001;Wackernagel et al. 2003;Wood, 2003;Andrey et al. 2005). The light that integrated assessments of telework can shed on behavioral processes and the environmental impacts of changing work arrangements can aid efforts to secure funding for comprehensive studies. ...
Article
This paper demonstrates the importance of a comprehensive framework to assess how telework affects sustainability. Sustainability-policy evaluation rarely considers substitution effects despite broad recognition that overall lifestyles must be analyzed to gauge how policy-induced behavioral changes translate into net environmental impact. Case-study data indicate that telework has far-reaching, complex, and varied effects on lifestyle practices, with potentially important environmental implications. Because adjustments occur across numerous consumption categories, the assessment of telework’s environmental dimensions must move beyond single-issue studies and single-dataset analysis. Ecological-footprint analysis, in combination with qualitative data, can suggest solutions to sustainability problems.
... • Andrey et al.'s (2004) study of teleworking found that cost was a significant factor in mode choice. ...
... Factors that discourage carpooling include some aspects of transportation policy (Taylor, 2006); affluence (Rouwendal and Nijkamp, 2004); scheduling issues; problems with being unable to travel during the work day; problems with being unable to transport items (Andrey et al., 2004); lack of flexibility, inconvenience, and increased time spent commuting (Meyer, 1999;Van Vugt et al., 1996;Tsao and Lin, 1999); prevention of spontaneity and personal freedom (Andrey et al. , 2004); additional time needed to pick up or meet each rider (Levin, 1982); and incompatibility with short distance commuting (Levin, 1982;Cervero and Griesenbeck, 1988). ...
... Factors that discourage carpooling include some aspects of transportation policy (Taylor, 2006); affluence (Rouwendal and Nijkamp, 2004); scheduling issues; problems with being unable to travel during the work day; problems with being unable to transport items (Andrey et al., 2004); lack of flexibility, inconvenience, and increased time spent commuting (Meyer, 1999;Van Vugt et al., 1996;Tsao and Lin, 1999); prevention of spontaneity and personal freedom (Andrey et al. , 2004); additional time needed to pick up or meet each rider (Levin, 1982); and incompatibility with short distance commuting (Levin, 1982;Cervero and Griesenbeck, 1988). ...
... Not only are Canadians traveling and shipping more, but also the means to make those increased trips and kilometres have been fulfilled by on-road transportation modes. Truck freight in Canada has seen a dramatic and steady rise, increasing 9. 38% between 1990and 2004(Natural Resources Canada, 2006a. Likewise, Canadians are traveling more kilometres per year (Natural Resources Canada, 2006b), and of all trips made by adults in Canada on a typical day in 1998, 75% were made by automobile, up from 70% in 1986 (Clark, 2000). ...
... Secondly, both academic and practitioners' surveys commonly use rating or ranking questions to determine attitudes related to acceptability or preference of TDM strategies and the impact those services would have on an individual's mode choice (Thorpe et al., 2000;Pollution Probe, 2001;Fujii & Kitamura, 2003). Finally, a growing body of research is utilizing scenario or gaming structured questions to gauge capacity (Fujii & Kitamura, 2003;Andrey et al., 2004). Despite the potential to provide greater insight into less measurable changes, few practitioner surveys use a rating or ranking system to capture levels of awareness, attitudes and values, and even fewer use these variable in longitudinal evaluations (Jones et al., 2003;Finke & Schreffler, 2004). ...
... Psychosocial and cultural factors involved in transport mode choice have increasingly become the focus of empirical research and modelling work which aims to grapple with the complexity of travel-related attitudes and behaviours. Investigation and modelling of psychological, social and cultural variables (e.g., personality traits, attitudes, perceptions, behavioural intentions, demographic and socio-economic factors) and their relation to transport mode choice and decision-making, travel and activity scheduling (Andrey et al., 2004; Mohammadian and Doherty, 2006; Scheiner and Kasper, 2003; Vredin et al., 2006) yield a complex picture of travel behaviour. Research in this area indicates that the impact of urban form on transportation outcomes cannot be considered in isolation. ...
... Socio-demographic and socioeconomic variables explained 21% of variance in car use in their study with the addition of motivational factors, such as problem awareness related to transport, increasing the explanatory value of their model to 26%. There may be considerable psychosocial and cultural barriers to the uptake of sustainable transport and decreased car use (Wright and Egan, 2000), including the significant association between car ownership and positive physical and psychosocial health outcomes (Ellaway et al., 2003); the role of 'push' and 'pull' factors in car use, even in households where members engage in teleworking (Andrey et al., 2004); the potentially negative health consequences of crowding such as in over-subscribed public transport services (Cox et al., 2006); the relationship between transport choice and particular personality traits and attitudes towards the environment, comfort, convenience and flexibility (Vredin et al., 2006); and perceived transit service quality, such as trip lengths (Van Exel and Rietveld, 2009). In this paper, we argue that urban residential density in isolation is insufficient to explain transport mode choice. ...
Article
Full-text available
Imperatives to improve the sustainability of cities often hinge upon plans to increase urban residential density to facilitate greater reliance on sustainable forms of transport and minimise car use. However there is ongoing debate about whether high residential density land use in isolation results in sustainable transport outcomes. Findings from surveys with residents of inner-urban high density dwellings in Brisbane, Australia, suggest that solo car travel accounts for the greatest modal share of typical work journeys and attitudes toward dwelling and neighbourhood transport-related features, residential sorting factors and socio-demographics, alongside land use such as public transport availability, are significantly associated with work travel mode choice. We discuss the implications of our findings for transport policy and management including encouraging relatively sustainable intermodal forms of transport for work journeys.
... personal computer, printer), which likely has phantom loads Non-energy  Reduced commuting costs  Improved employee recruitment potential (e.g., from further away or those who value flexibility) (Atkyns, Blazek et al. 2002, Lister and Hamish 2011, Hood, Nagy et al. 2017)  Increased employee productivity (e.g., fewer disruptions, flexible hours, work during normal commuting time, work during peak productivity hours rather than normal work schedules) (Bernardino 2017;Grawitch and Barber 2010;Kirk and Belovics 2006)  Improved employee satisfaction means reduced turnover and absenteeism (Nilles 1990, Atkyns, Blazek et al. 2002, Lister and Hamish 2011  Improved employee morale and sense of being trusted (Atkyns, Blazek et al. 2002, Lister andHamish 2011)  Less exposure to illness at work (Gill 2006)  Increased flexibility to avoid poor weather for commuting  Increased personal time because of avoided commute (Atkyns, Blazek et al. 2002)  Reduced stress means lower health care costs (Lister and Hamish 2011)  Improved family life Higgins 1998, Hopkinson andJames 2003)  Improved opportunities for child/elder care (DuBrin and Barnard 1993)  Fewer barriers for employees with disabilities (Hesse 1996)  Decreased formal clothing (Holloway 2007)  Reduced physical activity (e.g., shorter distances to walk)  Increased employee perception of isolation, loneliness and lost camaraderie (Atkyns, Blazek et al. 2002)  Reduced access to resources/equipment (Atkyns, Blazek et al. 2002)  Downloaded office operating costs (e.g. electricity, Internet service, furniture) to the employee  Increased difficulty to manage employees (Pyöriä 2011)  Increased data security risks (Souppaya and Scarfone 2016)  Reduced reliability of network connection (Hambly and Lee 2019)  Worsened social problems associated with urban sprawl (Moos, Andrey et al. 2006, Larson andZhao 2017)  Reduced visibility for employee (Atkyns, Blazek et al. 2002)  Reduced psychological benefits of commutes (e.g., adventure, independence, control, mental therapy, work-life separation) (Mokhtarian 2009)  Improved diet because teleworkers can make their own food at home during work (Allen, Golden et al. 2015)  Decreased transportation infrastructure and parking cost (Nilles 1990)  Reduced number of cars per household because of flexibility afforded (Andrey, Burns et al. 2004) ...
... Sample sizes for surveys and other participant-based studies ranged from six (Andrey, Burns et al. 2004) to tens of thousands (Zhu andMason 2014, Giovanis 2018), with a general negative relationship between sample size and depth. Meanwhile modeling ranged from bottom-up Monte Carlo analyses for individual workers or households to city wide. ...
Article
Teleworking has been widely perceived as a more sustainable mode of working for knowledge workers compared to the status quo of commuting to centralized offices because of its reduced dependency on transportation and centralized office space. However, the situation is far more complex than would appear on the surface, when the scope is expanded to include home office energy use, the Internet, long-term consumer choices, and other so-called rebound effects. Few studies have quantified home, office, transportation, and communications energy or GHG emissions implications of telecommuting simultaneously. To make progress in answering the question of whether telecommuting results in less energy use and greenhouse gas emissions than conventional centralized office working, this paper reviews results and research methods of primarily quantitative studies of any and all four domains that consider operating energy and/or greenhouse gas emissions. The results ultimately show that this problem is complex, and that current datasets and methods are generally inadequate for fully answering the research question. While most studies indicate some benefit, several suggest teleworking increases energy use – even for the domain that is thought to benefit most: transportation.
... Si la fragmentation n'est pas un nouveau concept puisque la réalisation des activités en différents fragments existait avant le développement des TIC, celle-ci a modifié la gestion des activités dans le temps et l'espace en augmentant les possibilités offertes aux individus quant à la réalisation des activités. Selon Lenz et Nobis (2007) (Andreev et al., 2010 ;Mokhtarian et al., 2005 ;Salomon, 1998 (Mitomo et Jitsuzumi, 1999 ;Andrey et al., 2004) ; ii) favoriser l'utilisation des transports collectifs (Mokhtarian et Verdier, 1998 ;Kitou et Horvath, 2006) ; et iii) réduire les déplacements pendulaires Andreev et al., 2010). Le télétravail s'intègrerait d'ailleurs dans les mesures déployées par les entreprises pour encourager les choix de leurs employés en matière de déplacements durables, avec la promotion du transport public, du covoiturage ou des mobilités douces, comme le vélo (Vanoutrive et al., 2010). ...
... Au Royaume-Uni, l'étude de Dodgson et al. (1997) proposait d'intégrer davantage le télétravail dans les pratiques des organisations publiques et privées pour limiter la hausse de la congestion dans les grandes régions métropolitaines. Au Canada, une étude portant sur la ville de Waterloo démontrait également le potentiel du télétravail pour réduire la congestion sans affecter les activités générales des ménages (Andrey et al., 2004). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Ce rapport de recherche utilise les données de l’Enquête sociale générale (ESG) de Statistique Canada menée en 2010 afin d’établir une caractérisation statistique des télétravailleurs québécois et d’estimer certains des impacts potentiels du télétravail sur les comportements relatifs aux déplacements, la santé et les heures travaillées. Nous présentons d’abord le contexte ayant mené à la croissance du télétravail, des estimations de la taille des populations de travailleurs concernés par les différents types de télétravail en fonction des industries et des principales statistiques socioéconomiques et spatiales. Ces résultats sont ensuite mis en perspective avec les expériences hors Québec, notamment en ce qui a trait aux mesures incitatives pour favoriser le télétravail. Dans un deuxième temps, nous procédons à des estimations visant à expliquer l’activité de télétravail. Nous montrons que le nombre de télétravailleurs québécois se situe dans la moyenne nationale, mais, toutes choses étant égales par ailleurs, la probabilité d’observer du télétravail au Québec serait plus grande qu’ailleurs au Canada. Comparativement aux employés travaillant uniquement du lieu habituel de travail, les télétravailleurs sont en moyenne plus riches et éduqués, plus urbains, habitent plus près ou plus loin du lieu de travail et sont moins syndiqués. Dans un troisième temps, nous estimons économétriquement les relations entre le télétravail et : i) les temps totaux de déplacements ; ii) les horaires de déplacements ; iii) les niveaux de santé, de stress déclarés et du sentiment d’être pressé et iv) les heures travaillées. Ces estimations tiennent compte des comportements en fonction des types d’organisation du travail, des caractéristiques socioéconomiques et des emplois du temps. Les modèles estimés considèrent spécifiquement le Québec et montrent qu’il n’y aurait généralement pas de différences significatives entre les répondants du Québec et ceux du reste du Canada. En ce qui concerne les comportements en transport, le télétravail est généralement associé à une réduction des déplacements en périodes de pointe. Par contre, comparativement au travail uniquement du lieu habituel (p. ex. bureau), le télétravail pourrait avoir différents effets sur le temps total de déplacements durant la journée de travail. Les employés travaillant exclusivement de la maison se déplaceraient en moyenne 19 minutes de moins, tandis que ceux partageant le travail entre la maison et le lieu habituel auraient des temps équivalents. Les employés travaillant de plusieurs endroits, incluant des tiers-lieux, auraient des temps de déplacements supérieurs d’environ 17 minutes par jour en moyenne. En termes d’heures travaillées, selon ses différentes formes, le télétravail mènerait à des baisses ou à des hausses pour la journée d’enquête. Comparativement aux employés qui ont travaillé uniquement du lieu de travail habituel, ceux travaillant uniquement de la maison auraient travaillé environ 2 heures 15 minutes de moins. Les répondants ayant combiné le travail à la maison et/ou celui au lieu habituel de travail avec d’autres lieux travailleraient environ 43 minutes de moins. Par contre, les employés ayant travaillé de la maison et du lieu de travail habituel rapportent près de 49 minutes de travail de plus. Finalement, le télétravail est associé à une hausse des sentiments de stress et d’être pressé, mais n’aurait pas de liens avec la santé déclarée.
... urban sprawl), etc. For example, in terms of transportation and mobility, telecommuting notably: i) reduces demand at peak periods (Mitomo & Jitsuzumi, 1999;Andrey et al., 2004); ii) favours the use of public transport (Mokhtarian & Verdier, 1998;Kitou & Horvath, 2006); and iii) reduces commuting Andreev et al., 2010). Telecommuting can thus be integrated in measures businesses deploy to guide their employees' choices toward sustainable travel, by promoting public transport, carpooling or active transport such as cycling (Vanoutrive et al., 2010). ...
... In the United Kingdom, Dodgson et al. (1997) proposed to integrate telecommuting more in the practices of public and private organizations to mitigate the increase in congestion in the major metropolitan areas. In Canada, a study of the city of Waterloo also demonstrated the potential for telecommuting to reduce congestion without affecting general household activities (Andrey et al., 2004). 16 Although the potential effects of substitution of commuting by other travel at peak periods have been demonstrated (Kim, 2016), they are fairly limited (Zhu, 2012 Nonetheless, telecommuting may generate other travel whose duration may be longer than that under non-telecommuting conditions. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Drawing on data from the Statistics Canada General Social Survey 2010 (GSS), this research presents a statistical characterization of telecommuters in Québec, and estimates some of the potential impacts of telecommuting on transportation behaviours, health and hours worked. First, we describe the context that fuelled the growth of telecommuting, and estimate the size of the worker populations concerned by the different types of telecommuting by industry, based on the main socioeconomic and spatial statistics. These results are then compared with experiences outside Québec linked to incentive measures to favour telecommuting. Second, we make estimates to explain telecommuting activity. We show that the number of telecommuters in Québec is situated at about the national average, but, all things being equal, the probability of observing telecommuting in Québec is greater than elsewhere in Canada. Compared with employees working uniquely at the regular workplace, telecommuters are on average more affluent and educated, more urban, live closer to or farther from the workplace and are less unionized. Third, we econometrically estimate the relationships between telecommuting and: i) total travel time); ii) travel schedules; iii) levels of reported health and stress, and the feeling of being pressed for time; and iv) hours worked. These estimates consider behaviours according to types of organization of work, socioeconomic characteristics and time use. The models estimated specifically pertain to Québec and show that there are generally few significant differences between respondents in Québec and in the rest of Canada. Concerning transportation behaviours, telecommuting is generally associated with a reduction in travel during peak periods. In contrast, compared with work uniquely at the regular workplace (e.g. office), telecommuting may have different effects on total travel time during the workday. Employees working only at home travel on average 19 minutes less, whereas those who divide their work between home and the regular workplace travel for the same amount of time as other employees. Employees working at several sites, including third places (e.g. cafes), travel for about 17 minutes longer per day on average. Further, depending on its form, telecommuting is associated with increases or decreases in hours worked on the survey day. Compared with employees who work only at the regular workplace, people who work only at home work about 2 hours and 15 minutes less. Respondents who combine work at home and/or at the regular workplace with other places work about 43 minutes less. In contrast, employees who work at home and at the regular workplace reported nearly 49 more minutes of work. Lastly, telecommuting is associated with increased feelings of stress and being pressed for time, but has no links to reported health.
... Our understanding of the overall implications of telework in terms of consumption is limited. Telework is frequently promoted on environmental grounds because of its potential to suppress or eliminate certain mobility, but many studies have this single issue focus (Andrey, Burns, & Doherty, 2004;Atkyns, Blazek, & Roitz, 2002;Nelson, Safirova, & Walls, 2007) and there is no universally accepted method for assessing the implications for sustainability of individuals teleworking (Devuyst & Van Volsems, 2001). Much of what ...
Chapter
The use of technology is pervasive in contemporary society transforming lives and work environments. The internet and the availability of portable personal communication devices have resulted in immense societal change. Frequently held views of the relationship between individuals and technology are dominated by a production-centric perspective, with limited attention being paid to the social and environmental impacts of consumption. Elevated by improvements in information communication technologies and infrastructure, telework was heralded as an innovative way of working with the added potential of reducing travel demand. But early optimistic expectations failed to materialise, largely due to a poor understanding of social, political, and personal issues involved. This paper presents an examination of telework in Ireland and argues for a more holistic approach to investigation. Before telework can be accepted as a potential benefit to the sustainable consumption of distance the environmental consequences of changes in working practices must be understood. Researching an organisation with a telework culture this paper investigated the environmental impacts of individuals working from home. Teleworkers reported no increase in water and other goods consumption, and no additional travel needs. However, they felt they increased their domestic food and energy consumption, and produced more waste working from home.
... For these studies, personal interviews are usually the preferred survey method. Examples of this approach can be found in Andrey et al. (2004), Faivre D'Arcier et al. (1998 and Roorda and Andre (2007). The problem of cognitive representation and mental simulation however also applies to this type of studies. ...
Article
Full-text available
Stated preference experiments have become commonly used methods of data collection in transportation research and the increasing importance of individual choice processes in travel behaviour research instigates the use of stated adaptation experiments. Two complementary stated adaptation approaches can be distinguished. The first approach follows the traditional stated preference methods and focuses on the statistical analysis of the variables that affect the individual choice processes; the second approach is not based on strict rules of experimental design and is mainly descriptive in nature. Based on a detailed description of two experiments of the first type, the design and implementation of such experiments are discussed. The most important lesson from our experiences with these stated adaptation experiments is the design of the hypothetical situations: the situations should be realistic for the respondents as well as useful for statistical analyses. Although this is not an easy task, the implementation of the experiments by means of an interactive Internet-based survey is found to be very helpful: such surveys are able to dynamically collect and process personalized data that can be used to design realistic and statistically sound hypothetical situations.
... Individuals value the incremental autonomy that comes with working away from immediate managerial oversight (Brey, 1999; Hunton, 2005). Individuals and governments value the reduction of pressure on transportation in all its forms, including a diminished demand for fuel (Andrey, Burns, & Doherty, 2004), and of course, the reclamation of commuting time to more productive uses. Organizations have benefited from telework in many ways, such as reduced need for costly office space (Gibson & Luck, 2006; Kaczmarczyk, 2008), increased productivity arising from the elimination of commuting (Davis, 1995), enhanced flexibility (Hyland, Rowsome, & Rowsome, 2005; Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2007) and improved employee retention (Kaczmarczyk, 2008; Kowalski & Swanson, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Freedom to choose when, where and on what to work might be viewed as mere telework. However, when we mix the adoption of ubiquitous technologies with personalities that take pleasure in problem solving and achievement for its own sake, a strong need for autonomy, the freedom to work wherever and whenever the mood strikes, and add a dash of entrepreneurial spirit, then perhaps we are seeing an emergent class of worker, and even the possibility of new organisational forms. This research draws on adaptive structuration theory to search for evidence of a different way of working, hidden among otherwise familiar patterns. It concludes by considering what implications the employment of such individuals might have for management processes with organisations.
... However, some analysts have argued that the part-time nature of telework and less than expected growth in full-time telework make its impacts on overall transport demand negligible (Mokhtarian, , 1998. Studies do find that telework results in a net reduction in travel for teleworkers themselves Andrey et al., 2004). There are also fears of geographical dispersion that would have the reverse effect on municipal budgets by increasing sprawl and infrastructure needs (Hopkinson et al., 2002). ...
Article
This study analyses the distribution of home workers across the three largest urban regions in Canada and shows how they differ across sex of home worker, household type, income level, occupation and industry. The highest proportion of home workers is in art, culture and recreation occupations followed by management, the field dominated by men. Women home workers make the financial, secretarial and administrative occupations the third-largest group of home workers. The spatial distribution of home workers follows a sectoral form. While the characteristics of inner-city and suburban home workers differ, the differences are the same as for commuters. Rather than creating a completely new locational pattern, home work appears to reinforce existing urban forces of centralisation by professionals and continued decentralisation by the middle classes and those seeking larger estates, such as those in management occupations. The study suggests that the increasing trend towards home work is not dispersing cities, but allows greater locational flexibility within already-existing urban spatial patterns.
... Telework is widely assumed to reduce the environmental impact and resource use of our societies [50,147,167], but Heinonen and Kuosa argued that this benefit is not automatic and, rather, telework needs to be designed to provide environmental benefits [143]. The link between telework and environmental sustainability is non-linear and dependent on context [145]; for example, in some circumstances, car dependence can be maintained in teleworking households [146]. Moreover, during lockdowns in response to COVID-19, which are considered to be an extreme case of teleworking practices, residential water demand increased by 18% in Germany [165] and by 20% in the UK [166]. ...
Article
Full-text available
With increased participation in telework expected to continue, in the aftermath of COVID, it will be important to consider what long-term impact this practice could have on sustainability outcomes. This paper describes a scoping review and identifies connections between telework and sustainability outcomes from previous academic studies. These connections were categorised, and are discussed, based on their contributions to different United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Most research was found to focus on countries classified as having a very high human development index status. The SWOT matrix technique was used to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses identified in the existing literature, and the threats and opportunities for future work. This aims to ensure policy coherence so that strategies to promote one outcome, such as economic productivity improvements, do not undermine another, such as improved health. Practical implications and research opportunities were identified across a range of SDG impact areas, including good health and well-being, gender equality, reduced inequality, climate mitigation, sustainable cities, and resilient communities. Overall, our impression is that increased rates of telework present an important opportunity to improve sustainability outcomes. However, it will be important that integrated and holistic policy is developed that mitigates key risks.
... The factors of lack of flexibility and schedule constraints, inconvenience, problems with being unable to travel during the workday, and more commuting time may discourage carpooling (Van Der Waerden, Lem, and Schaefer 2015;De Almeida Correia, De Abreu E Silva, and Viegas 2013;Correia and Viegas 2011;Erdoğan, Cirillo, and Tremblay 2015). Prevention of spontaneity, privacy, and personal freedom are also significantly related to carpooling (Andrey, Burns, and Doherty 2004;Friginal et al. 2014). ...
Article
This paper aims to identify significant factors influencing the student’s intentions toward carpooling in Oman. A questionnaire was designed consisting of respondent’s socioeconomic demographics, interests in carpooling, and factors that encourage and discourage carpooling. A self-reported approach was used and 312 usable samples were obtained. The results showed that 69% of the students were interested in carpooling as a driver and 77% as a passenger. Factor analyzes resulted in (1) three factors on students’ interests in carpooling i.e. safe and relaxed traveling, friendly and cheaper traveling, and carpooling personal norms; (2) two factors on carpooling encouraging variables i.e. supporting trip attributes, and parking restrictions at the campus, and (3) three factors on carpooling discouraging variables i.e. schedule and commitment constraints, in-vehicle environmental concerns, and personal constraints. The same travel route and schedule, parking restrictions, personal norms, trip distance, vehicle ownership, safe and relaxed traveling, and the cheap and friendly nature of carpooling are positive predictors of student’s interests in carpooling. Personal constraints, irregular schedules, and having control of the in-vehicle environment are found to have a negative influence on intentions. This study proposes some behavioral interventions that need to be considered in the promotion of carpooling.
... Telework is widely assumed to reduce the environmental impact and resource use of our societies [50,147,167], but Heinonen and Kuosa argued that this benefit is not automatic and, rather, telework needs to be designed to provide environmental benefits [143]. The link between telework and environmental sustainability is non-linear and dependent on context [145]; for example, in some circumstances, car dependence can be maintained in teleworking households [146]. Moreover, during lockdowns in response to COVID-19, which are considered to be an extreme case of teleworking practices, residential water demand increased by 18% in Germany [165] and by 20% in the UK [166]. ...
Preprint
With increased participation in telework expected to continue, to support emerging hybrid work models in the aftermath of the Covid-19, it is important to consider the long-term impact this practice could have on sustainability outcomes. This paper describes a systematic review of 113 academic journal articles and identifies associations between telework and sustainability, explored by previous researchers. Those associations were categorized and discussed, based on their contributions to different United Nations Social Development Goals. Most of research was found to focus on countries classified as having a very high human development index status, and regions with a low, medium or high human development index, largely ignored. The SWOT matrix technique was used to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses identified in the current literature as well as threats and opportunities for future work. This can help to ensure policy coherence and that strategies to promote one outcome, such as economic productivity improvements, does not undermine another, such as improved health. Practical implications and potential research opportunities were identified across a range of SDG impact areas, including good health and well-being, gender equality, reduced inequality, climate mitigation, sustainable cities and resilient communities. On the whole, our impression is that increased rates of telework present an important opportunity to improve sustainability outcomes, however, it will be important that integrated and holistic policy is developed that mitigates key risks.
... Our understanding of the overall implications of telework in terms of consumption is limited. Telework is frequently promoted on environmental grounds because of its potential to suppress or eliminate certain mobility, but many studies have this single issue focus (Andrey, Burns, & Doherty, 2004;Atkyns, Blazek, & Roitz, 2002;Nelson, Safirova, & Walls, 2007) and there is no universally accepted method for assessing the implications for sustainability of individuals teleworking (Devuyst & Van Volsems, 2001). Much of what exists on the issue at present is excessively optimistic lacking any real critical investigation or analysis of the practice. ...
Chapter
The use of technology is pervasive in contemporary society transforming lives and work environments. The internet and the availability of portable personal communication devices have resulted in immense societal change. Frequently held views of the relationship between individuals and technology are dominated by a production-centric perspective, with limited attention being paid to the social and environmental impacts of consumption. Elevated by improvements in information communication technologies and infrastructure, telework was heralded as an innovative way of working with the added potential of reducing travel demand. But early optimistic expectations failed to materialise, largely due to a poor understanding of social, political, and personal issues involved. This paper presents an examination of telework in Ireland and argues for a more holistic approach to investigation. Before telework can be accepted as a potential benefit to the sustainable consumption of distance the environmental consequences of changes in working practices must be understood. Researching an organisation with a telework culture this paper investigated the environmental impacts of individuals working from home. Teleworkers reported no increase in water and other goods consumption, and no additional travel needs. However, they felt they increased their domestic food and energy consumption, and produced more waste working from home.
... While deciding to join a carpool, time is considered in totalitywhich includes extra travel time needed to pick up other members, walking time to reach pickup point and waiting time at pickup point (Levin 1982;Meyer 1999). All these aspects cause a lack of flexibility, prevent spontaneity and restrict personal freedom (Andrey, Burns, and Doherty 2004;Meyer 1999;Taso and Lin 1999). Therefore these affect convenience and therefore time is similar to convenience and comfort. ...
Article
This paper analyses how people perceive the idea of carpooling and evaluate preferences while making a decision to join a carpool. Analysing data from a web-based stated preference survey in India reveals that cognitive attitudes play a significant role in evaluating the perceived advantages and disadvantages of carpooling whereas intentions to carpool are associated with perceived negative evaluations. A factor analysis identifies two latent attitudinal factors: a ‘time–convenience’ factor that discourages carpooling and a ‘private–public cost’ factor that encourages carpooling. The study analyses the influential attributes – extra travel time, walking time to reach meeting point, waiting time at pickup point and cost savings – as explanatory variables for the utility of carpooling. Cost savings prove to be the most significant attribute when combined with other attributes, followed by extra travel time. The study provides the implications to policy-makers of designing promotional tools to improve the propensity of carpooling among single occupant vehicle drivers.
... Moreover, travel schedule in carpooling is strict and does not allow personal freedom mobility during work day neither allows to change route or to stop during the trip [12]. In addition, it is hard to connect with an appropriate carpooling schedule with unknown passengers. ...
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Abstract: The current revolution of mobile technology in different aspects of community directs the researchers and scientists to employ this technology to identify practical solutions for daily life problems using mobiles. One of the major challenges in our developing countries is the public transportation system. Public transportation system is an essential requirement for the welfare of modern society and has a critical impact on the people productivities and thus on the entire economic development process. Therefore, different solutions had been investigated to find applicable solutions. “Carpooling” is one of the initiative solutions that based on the usage of a single shared car by a group of people heading to the same location on a daily basis. In addition, carpooling can be considered as an efficient alternative to overcome the limitations of the conventional transportation system with an easier, quicker and more environmentally friendly car journeys. This paper presents an intelligent carpooling mobile app to commute students of the Hashemite University. The proposed solution is founded on using data mining technique, and more specifically the k-Nearest-Neighbour (k-NN) technique.
... This may serve as an impetus for a new working style enabling less energy intensive mobility: even before COVID-19 lockdowns, teleworking and its potential impact on traffic reduction had been discussed widely (e.g. Andrey, Burns et al. 2004, Moos, Andrey et al. 2006, but with little possibility of large-scale field tests and impact control. The COVID-19 pandemic may have served as an unexpected largescale real-life test of home office. ...
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We carried out an international online survey about changes in everyday mobility during the COVID-19 outbreak in 21 languages, collecting more than 11,000 responses from more than 100 countries. In this paper, we present our analysis about commuting travels of the responses between 23 March and 12 May 2020 from the fourteen countries with 100 or more responses, namely Austria, Brazil, Bulgaria, Czechia, Germany, Hungary, Iran, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Thailand, and the UK. Home office is used typically by between 40% and 60% of working respondents. Among people with workplaces with possibility for home office, the percentage is between 60% and 80%. Among people with workplaces where presence is essential, the percentage does not typically go beyond 30%. This result potentially implies an ultimate magnitude of a strong home office measure. Among those who continued to commute but switched commuting transport modes from public transport to others, the COVID-19 infection risk in public transport is the reason that is most often referred to, but many of those who changed to private cars and to bicycles report reduced travel time, too. Measures to encourage the use of active travel modes where possible are strongly recommended, as this would potentially mitigate undesirable modal shift towards private motorized modes triggered by perception of infection risks while travelling with public transport.
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Previous empirical studies have made contributions to the understanding of the impact of telecommuting on individual travel patterns. There has been much less research that has examined the impact of telecommuting on commute travel at the household level. Using data from the 2001 and 2009 US National Household Travel Surveys, this study focuses on one-worker and two-worker households and investigates how telecommuting affects household one-way commute distance and duration. The results show that telecommuting increases the commute distance and duration for both one-worker households and two-worker households. It is also found that, in two-worker households, the telecommuting status of one worker does not increase the commute distance and duration of the other worker. These findings suggest that telecommuting (two-worker) households tend to choose locations involving a longer total one-way commute than non-telecommuting households, and this difference is largely due to the longer commute of their telecommuting members.
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This article examines the relationship between emerging work arrangements and national settlement patterns. While growth is centralized in large cities, social commentators continue to suggest that workplace restructuring—facilitated by technological progress—encourages more dispersed settlement patterns, evoking concern about the environmental sustainability of the trend. Multivariate analysis using Canadian census data shows that with the exception of self-employed professionals, the home workers, and self-employed in nonmanual occupations have a lower tendency to reside in large cities than otherwise similar wage and salary earning commuters. However, household mobility and temporal trends suggest that workplace restructuring is not dispersing workers away from large cities by inducing mobility, but that take-up is higher in more remote areas. It is argued that workplace restructuring permits more dispersed national settlement patterns than if workers needed to move to large cities for proximity to employment growth. The article reflects on the implications of the findings for urban sustainability policies that promote compact urban forms and the policies that emphasize consumption amenities of cities to attract mobile workers.
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Purpose: Teleworking under Covid-19 conditions is, for many organizations, a fundamental requirement to ensure continuity of operation. However, it is not a common way of organizing work in public administration entities. In particular, very few studies have examined the effectiveness of teleworking in local administration. The purpose of this paper is to investigate barriers to the effectiveness of teleworking in local administration in Poland. Design/methodology/approach: Literature analysis in the paper was prepared using VOSviewer software. Empirical research allowing us to achieve our objective was conducted using the CAWI method among 136 communes and cities with poviat rights from the Mazowieckie Voivodeship. Findings: We have established that the main obstacle in remote work was technological barriers and lack of appropriate technology in the surveyed entities. As a result of our research, we identified challenges related to insufficient digitalization of services in local administration as the main barrier for teleworking. Research limitations/implications: The paper uses quantitative research, carried out using the CAWI method, on local government entities in the Mazowieckie Voivodeship, on a research sample of 136 entities. Practical implications: The results of this research provide important guidance for practitioners and managers of public administration. The results indicate the most significant barriers to implementing remote working in public administration. The benefits of remote working for both citizens and public administration employees are also presented. Social implications: An analysis of the main challenges of remote working enables adaptation to the ongoing changes. Considering the difficulties of remote administration can help improve the functioning of the administration and, as a result, help to achieve widespread benefits for citizens. Originality/value: The research presented here explores the introduction of remote working to an unprecedented extent in the wake of the COVID19 virus pandemic.
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The “Stated Adaptation” survey is an interactive technique which allows us to obtain a clearer picture of the attitudes and behaviours of individuals when confronted with hypothetical situations, in particular inexperienced travel conditions. This method makes use of a simulation game whose purpose is to explore on small samples individuals' choice processes when selecting between the different transport alternatives which are available to them. This paper describes how gaming-simulation is designed, with reference to the issues tackled by two surveys which have recently been carried out in France (reactions to urban road pricing and perception of electric vehicles). It describes the benefits of this experimental approach which allows stated behaviours to be checked to a considerable degree. The limits and potential developments of this survey technique are also discussed.
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Forecasting the enduring and wider implications of emerging travel demand management and automobile reduction policies has proved to be a challenging task. Travel behavior researchers point to the need for more in-depth research into the underlying activity-travel scheduling processes as a means to improve the ability to do so. The objective of this research is to explore the household rescheduling and adaptation process to vehicle reduction scenarios. Descriptive results from two, small-sample, in-depth experiments are presented. The first experiment focused on households' response to a fuel prices increase, whereas the second focused on the response of two-vehicle households to long-term removal of one vehicle from the household. Results indicate that households are aware of a broad range of possible adaptation strategies, including not only mode changes but also a wide variety of changes in activities, planning, and longer-term lifestyle changes. When people were asked to actually implement such stated strategies under realistic conditions, a much more elaborate behavioral response was elicited. This included multiple rescheduling decisions involving several activities and household members over the course of a day or even several days. Thus, even relatively straightforward stated response strategies often lead to interconnected primary and secondary effects on observed activities and travel, realized through a sequence of rescheduling decisions over time and space and across household members. These results suggest that an explicit accounting of rescheduling decision sequences in forecasting models would enhance their behavioral validity and accuracy.
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After two decades of impressive growth in services and ridership, Canadian transit has been experiencing difficult times in the 1990s. Only concerted policy action can prevent the further decline of Canadian transit and avoid irreversible damage. Unfortunately, policies in some provinces seem to be moving in precisely the wrong direction, especially in Ontario. Suburban sprawl around Toronto has become rampant, encouraged by lax land-use policies of outlying suburban jurisdictioins anxious to attract jobs and residents away from Toronto. The Province of Ontario is eliminating all transit subsidies, while at the same time prohibiting local governments from dedicating taxes to finance transit. Making matters even worse, the province has been subsidizing several new roadway projects that will surely escalate the flight to the suburbs and convert yet more transit riders to automobile drivers. At least some provinces, such as British Columbia, have recognized the threat to the viability of their transit systems and have redoubled their efforts to improve transit. Likewise, Quebec has allowed its cities to impose auto user taxes whose proceeds are dedicated to transit finance. Without concerted policy action, transit systems will be forced to cut services, raise fares and lose riders year after year until transit is no longer a viable option for urban travel, the situation already existing for most American metropolitan areas. Canadians would be well advised to preserve their more balanced transport system and to avoid the serious social and environmental consequences of extreme auto dependence so obvious in the United States.
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This paper adopts the World Bank’s 1996 definition of sustainable transportation and attempts to identify ways of improving the urban transportation planning process and methodology. After a literature review of related studies conducted in different parts of the world over the past decade or so, the major theoretical and methodological advances in stated preference (SP) surveys are summarized. Then, the paper continues to suggest ways of how SP techniques can be used side-by-side with the traditional four-stage transportation planning model. Lastly, it concludes with some future directions of change if these useful techniques are to play a more important role in planning for sustainable urban transportation.
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As transportation problems deteriorate and resources become limited, transportation professionals have realized that they cannot always rely on supplying more infrastructure to meet travel demands. Instead, they have looked to transportation demand management (TDM) as a means of influencing the demand for transportation. TDM is currently being planned for implementation in the Greater Vancouver region. Under an umbrella of extensive planning strategies, TDM is considered to play a significant role in the region's future state of transportation. Four main components are being planned under the Greater Vancouver Regional TDM Project: trip reduction service, parking management, conversion of fixed automobile costs to variable, and road pricing. Currently, 70% of the provincial transportation energy needs is due to road transportation, of which one-third is due to commuters. Compared to trend forecasts for the year 2021, it is estimated that these TDM measures could produce savings of approximately 56,000 l of automobile fuel in the morning peak hour, 343,000 l on a typical weekday, and 113,000,000 l annually. This paper will discuss the current and future states of transportation in the region, the planning process leading up to the TDM project, and the estimated implications of TDM on transportation energy needs.