Article

The Effect of Spirulina Supplementation on Blood Haemoglobin Levels of Anaemic Adult Girls

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  • FrieslandCampina Innovation
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Abstract

The present study was designed to investigate the effect of supplementation of spray dried Spirulina powder on blood haemoglobin levels in young anaemic girls of ages ranging from 18-22 years. They were screened for their anthropometric measurements, clinical signs and symptoms related to anaemia and blood haemoglobin levels. Blood haemoglobin levels less than 12 g/dl were used to find the prevalence of anaemia. Diets of 20 anaemic girls were supplemented with 5 g of spray dried Spirulina powder daily for a period of 30 days and the blood haemoglobin levels were estimated at the end of the study period. Supplementation was carried out in two forms - in the form of syrup and in the form of parathas. The prevalence of anaemia in the girls was 28.2%. The diets of these girls revealed deficit intakes of calories and iron, while the intakes of phytates and oxalates were found to be high. A mean increase of 1.17 g/dl i.e., 10.33% in the blood haemoglobin levels was seen in all the anaemic subjects after supplementing Spirulina tor 30 days. A mean increase in the blood haemoglobin levels by 1.32 g/dl i.e., 11.65% was seen in those girls supplemented with Spirulina in the form of syrup, while a mean increase of 0.88 g/dl i.e., 7.72% was seen in those supplemented with Spirulina as parathas. This increase could be due to the absence of inhibitors of fron absorption - oxalates and phytates in the syrup, which were otherwise present in the parathas. It was concluded that supplementation of Spirulina had beneficial effect on the haemoglobin levels and could be effectively used to combat iron deficiency anaemia.

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... Previous SP supplementation studies have also reported improvements in hemoglobin (Hb) levels (Gurney and Spendiff 2020;Kelkar et al. 2008;Milasius et al. 2009;Selmi et al. 2011;Uliyar et al. 2000). However, thus far, how these increases in Hb might influence exercise performance has received little attention and remains unanswered. ...
... While the exact physiological mechanism of action may be difficult to establish due to the multicomponent properties of SP, a key mechanistic avenue to consider when interpreting these cardiovascular responses is that Hb significantly increased, consistent with previous literature suggesting the iron component in SP has good bodily assimilation (Gurney and Spendiff 2020;Kelkar et al. 2008;Milasius et al. 2009;Selmi et al. 2011). In clinical SP supplementation studies, Selmi et al. (2011) reported significant increases in Hb in elderly citizens following a 3 g/day 12-week protocol and Uliyar et al. (2000) reported up to an 11% increase in Hb in young women following 5 g/day for 30 days. Kelkar et al. (2008) previously demonstrated that after just a 4 g/day 2-week SP supplementation period, Hb levels in healthy elite marathon runners prior to a race significantly increased. ...
Article
Spirulina supplementation has been reported to improve time to exhaustion and maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O 2max ). However, there is limited information on its influence over the multiple intensities experienced by cyclists during training and competition. Fifteen trained males (age 40 ± 8 years, V̇O 2max 51.14 ± 6.43 mL/min/kg) ingested 6 g/day of spirulina or placebo for 21 days in a double-blinded randomised crossover design, with a 14-day washout period between trials. Participants completed a 1-hour submaximal endurance test at 55% external power output max and a 16.1-km time trial (day 1), followed by a lactate threshold test and repeated sprint performance tests (RSPTs) (day 2). Heart rate (bpm), respiratory exchange ratio, oxygen consumption (mL/min/kg), lactate and glucose (mmol/L), time (seconds), power output (W), and hemoglobin (g/L) were compared across conditions. Following spirulina supplementation, lactate and heart rate were significantly lower (P < 0.05) during submaximal endurance tests (2.05 ± 0.80 mmol/L vs 2.39 ± 0.89 mmol/L and 139 ± 11 bpm vs 144 ± 12 bpm), hemoglobin was significantly higher (152.6 ± 9.0 g/L) than placebo (143.2 ± 8.5 g/L), and peak and average power were significantly higher during RSPTs (968 ± 177 W vs 929 ± 149 W and 770 ± 117 W vs 738 ± 86 W). No differences existed between conditions for all oxygen consumption values, 16.1-km time trial measures, and lactate threshold tests (P > 0.05). Spirulina supplementation reduces homeostatic disturbances during submaximal exercise and augments power output during RSPTs. Novelty: Spirulina supplementation lowers heart rate and blood lactate during ∼1-hour submaximal cycling. Spirulina supplementation elicits significant augmentations in hemoglobin and power outputs during RSPTs.
... Results from the present study are consistent with previous literature whereby the supplementation of SP elicited significant increases in Hb (Milasius et al. 2009;Selmi et al. 2011;Uliyar et al. 2000). Given the consistency of results with positive changes in Hb after the supplementation of SP, it can also be assumed that compliance during the study was good. ...
... Given the consistency of results with positive changes in Hb after the supplementation of SP, it can also be assumed that compliance during the study was good. Previously low daily doses and long intervention periods of 2.25 g for 14 days (Milasius et al. 2009), 3 g for 12 weeks (Selmi et al. 2011) and 5 g for 30 days (Uliyar et al. 2000) were considered effective for increasing Hb following the supplementation of SP. The shorter intervention period of seven days with a higher daily dose of 6 g/day employed in this study also generated a significant increase in Hb (Table 1), further demonstrating the efficacy in the assimilation of iron from SP (Milasius et al. 2009). ...
Article
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Purpose: Spirulina has previously been reported to improve high-intensity exercise performance and hemoglobin. However, spirulina's effect on arm cycling exercise has yet to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of spirulina supplementation on hemoglobin and on oxygen uptake, RER and HR during seated arm cycling exercise. Methods: In a double-blinded randomized crossover design, eleven males untrained in arm cycling ingested 6 g/day of spirulina or placebo for seven days. Seated on the Arm Crank Ergometer, each participant performed a baseline V̇O2max test, and then after supplementation, 2 × 30-min submaximal exercise bouts corresponding to 55% of their V̇O2max, followed by an incremental test to fatigue. A seven-day wash-out period was required between conditions. Oxygen uptake, RER and HR were measured continuously during exercise and hemoglobin measured prior to exercise after both conditions. Results: Spirulina significantly (p < 0.05) increased Hb in comparison to Placebo (144.1 g/l ± 10.5 Vs 154.5 g/l ± 6.9). After spirulina supplementation, during the 30-min exercise bouts, oxygen uptake and HR were significantly lower (2170 ml/min ± 173 Vs 2311 ml/min ± 189 and 154 bpm ± 14 Vs 149 bpm ± 17), RER was not significantly different. In comparison to placebo, Spirulina significantly increased oxygen uptake at time of fatigue (34.10 ml/min/kg ± 6.03 Vs 37.37 ml/min/kg ± 5.98). Time taken to fatigue was not different. Conclusion: Spirulina supplementation significantly reduces oxygen uptake and HR during arm cycling submaximal exercise, allowing for an increased oxygen uptake during an incremental test to fatigue.
... For example effectiveness of Spirulina on human growth, particularly on weight gain, and concluded that daily intake of Spirulina for 12 weeks significantly improved weight and BMI among HIV-infected patients who received Spirulina. Spirulina's effectiveness among HIV-infected was also tested and found that its daily intake for six months improved the weight and arm girth of the patients [18]. In addition to the effects on physical growth, beneficial effects on serum iron levels and blood haemoglobin levels were suggested in both animal testing and clinical studies [19][20][21]. ...
... These nutrients could be of great value in overcoming malnutrition among vulnerable children. The result demonstrates the benefits of Spirulina in the treatment of child malnutrition, which was in line with the work carried out in Ouagadougou and Central African Republic, respectively and reported positive impact on the nutritional rehabilitation of malnourished and HIV-infected children [18,20,27,31]. The study also reported remarkable improvement in height (2.9 cm) which was consistent with previous trials [16,32]. ...
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Background: Spirulina is a cyanobacterium blue-green alga rich in a wide range of nutrients include; protein, lipids, high level of various B vitamins, and minerals including calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium and zinc.Aims: The objective of this study is to assess the impact of nutritional rehabilitation using Spirulina platensis versus vitamins and minerals supplementation on the nutritional status, hematological prole, and anemia status of malnourished children less than 5 years of age.Method: The study utilized the experimental design in which 87 malnourished children aged less than 5 years attending an AEI rehabilitation program were enrolled. Children were stratied and simply randomized into two groups.Groups: Vitamin and Mineral group (A) 30 children treated daily with selected vitamins and minerals; and Spirulina group (B) 30 children of the same age range who were given 3 grams of Spirulina. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples were collected at baseline and after 3 months of the trial.Results: Baseline anthropometric indices of all the children were; Weight for Age Z (WAZ) score was – 2.42, Height for Age Z (HAZ) score was – 2.13, and Weight for Height Z (WHZ) score was – 2.09, which indicated that the children had poor anthropometric characteristics. After 12 weeks of intervention, Spirulina supplementation showed more signicant improving effect on weight (p<0.011) and height (p<0.016) when compared with Vitamin and Mineral group. Moreover, Spirulina supplementation was more effective treatment for increasing the ferritin (5.97 ng/ml-38.71 ng/ml) and iron levels (66.09 µg/dL to 95.52 µg/dL) in subjects with moderate malnutrition before intervention. The results of conducting one-way repeated measure ANOVA indicated that Spirulina supplementation has signicant improvement in Haemoglobin (p<0.001), Mean Corpuscle Volume (p<0.001) and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (p<0.023) before and after the intervention between the two groups.Conclusions: The results of the study reected that Spirulina was a valuable and more effective in treating malnutrition and anemia and could be used in a wide range of settings since it is cheap compared to other conventional pharmaceutical preparations and formula
... For example effectiveness of Spirulina on human growth, particularly on weight gain, and concluded that daily intake of Spirulina for 12 weeks significantly improved weight and BMI among HIV-infected patients who received Spirulina. Spirulina's effectiveness among HIV-infected was also tested and found that its daily intake for six months improved the weight and arm girth of the patients [18]. In addition to the effects on physical growth, beneficial effects on serum iron levels and blood haemoglobin levels were suggested in both animal testing and clinical studies [19][20][21]. ...
... These nutrients could be of great value in overcoming malnutrition among vulnerable children. The result demonstrates the benefits of Spirulina in the treatment of child malnutrition, which was in line with the work carried out in Ouagadougou and Central African Republic, respectively and reported positive impact on the nutritional rehabilitation of malnourished and HIV-infected children [18,20,27,31]. The study also reported remarkable improvement in height (2.9 cm) which was consistent with previous trials [16,32]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Spirulina is a cyanobacterium blue-green alga rich in a wide range of nutrients include; protein, lipids, high level of various B vitamins, and minerals including calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium and zinc.
... The study shows a clear benefit of SP on the reduction of anemic compared to placebo and can be recommended. This result is supported by animal studies [28-31, 42, 43] and clinical studies [32,33,43,44]. ...
Article
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Background Spirulina (SP) is widely used as a nutritional supplement to enhance child nutrition in low-income countries. We assessed Spirulina’s efficacy of the current dose supplied by institutions in Cambodia on improving growth and anemia in a cross-over randomized controlled trial in preschool underprivileged children from similar settings. Methods Preschool children cared by a not-for-profit institution were randomly and blindly allocated (2 to 1) to spirulina or placebo: 100 g in total, given in 2 g per day. After 5 weeks of wash-out, participants were crossed-over to the other group. Anthropometric gain and selected hematological data (blood cell count, ferritin, and C-reactive protein) were assessed at each phase. Results A total of 179 children completed the trial, 149 (83.2%) completed all the anthropometrics, and 99 (55.3%) all hematological measures. Mean BMI was 14.18 (95%CI: 14.00–14.37) and 31(20.8%) children had thinness. Mean blood hemoglobin was 11.9 g/dL (95%CI: 11.8–12.1). The weight gain of the SP group showed a modest higher trend compared to placebo (0.63 kg; 95%CI: 0.54–0.72 and 0.46 kg; 95%CI: 0.33–0.58, respectively; p = 0.07). Height increased similarly in both groups. The number of anemic children decreased by 6 (6.06%) and 11 (11.11%) on Placebo or SP, respectively ( p = 0.004). Tolerance was good. Conclusion SP may be recommended to improve childhood anemia. The analysis of the usual daily dose (2 g) provided by organizations in Cambodia shows a tendency to improve weight gain in the group supplemented with SP very close to significance, but no trend in height. Increased doses and longer supplementation should be evaluated further. Trial registration The study was retrospectively registered at ISRCTN under number 11696165 on 12/12/2018.
... The results showed a linear and/or quadratic increase in most of the haematological parameters as the dietary SP treatment increased, and the best values were obtained in the 9% SP group. The beneficial effect of spirulina intake on the blood rejuvenation was confirmed in humans and successfully applied to ameliorate the nutritional anaemia in children and elderly people [54,55]. In poultry species, the SP supplementation at 0.5-1.0% ...
Article
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Spirulina platensisis (SP) is a blue-green microalgae with a high value for animal and poultry nutrition. The study employed 250 40-week-old, HY-Line W-36 commercial laying hens. The layers received one of five experimental diet substitutes in five groups for 10 consecutive weeks (five replicates of 10 hens each group); a soybean-corn basal diet formulation without SP (Control group) or the soybean partially substituted with 3% SP, 6% SP, 9% SP, and 12% SP (for the remaining four groups). The results showed that dietary SP treatment significantly (p < 0.05) improved the productive performance, egg quality, blood metabolites, and hematological parameters of laying hens. In addition, there were linear and quadratic effects for increasing the levels of SP inclusion into the layer diets; however, the highest values of most parameters were observed when using 9% SP (90 g/kg of the layer diets). Furthermore, the results showed that 4.7% of the soybean meal ingredient in the layer diet could be replaced by 1% of SP. In conclusion, the partial replacement of soybean meal by SP into layer diets could be used as a promising nutritional approach to optimize the performance of laying hens.
... Moreover, it has been identified that Spirulina helps in augmenting erythrocyte production as well as function in the body and thereby reducing the risk of anemia. It is highly effective in increasing the average hemoglobin concentration from 10.1 g/dl to 13.6 g/dl after its intervention and has a positive impact on the overall pregnancy outcomes by improving the nutritional status during pregnancy (61,62,63). ...
Article
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Spirulina is a blue-green algae which is cultivated not only for its maximum protein content but also due to the presence of other essential nutrients such as carbohydrates and vitamins (A, C and E). It is also a storehouse of minerals including iron, calcium, chromium, copper, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and zinc. Simultaneously, γ- linolenic acid (an essential fatty acid), as well as pigments such as chlorophyll A and phycobiliproteins (C-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and β-carotene), is also a major component of its rich nutritional profile. Spirulina is known to have various promising effects on the prevention of cancer, oxidative stress, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and anemia. Moreover, it also plays a positive role in treating muscular cramps. The safety recommended dosage of Spirulina is approximately 3-10 g/d for adults and it's biological value (BV) is 75 with a net protein utilization (NPU) of 62. Spirulina does not have pericardium due to which it does not hinder the absorption of iron by chelation with phytates or oxalates. On the contrasting note, it may have some adverse effects due to the toxins (microcystins, β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA)) produced by Spirulina which might contribute to acute poisoning, cancer, liver damage as well as gastrointestinal disturbances. Its long-term consumption may also lead to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. The current review focuses on the various aspects of spirulina including its cultivation, nutritional composition, extraction techniques, health benefits, adverse effects, industrial scope and market value which could be beneficial for its utilization in the development of value-added products and supplementary foods due to its high content of protein and bioavailability of nutrients.
... The constant supplementation of Spirulina to the old people with anemia increases the concentration of mean capsular hemoglobin (MCH) in blood. Moreover, 12 weeks supplementation of Spirulina shows significant increase in the mean concentration of haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) in the children with anemia and it increases the level of iron in blood, thus the Spirulina can be used as medicine for anemia (Mani, Sadliwala, Iyer, & Parikh, 2000). ...
Article
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Spirulina is a single-cell protein rich in all essential nutrients and vitamins and can be used to produce functional food. Spirulina is a single-cell protein rich in all essential nutrients and vitamins and can be used to produce functional food. In fact, one of the most important problems in the food industry is the use of synthetic food additives that increase the risk of cancer. Therefore, efforts are being made around the world today to isolate new and safe antioxidants from natural sources. Among these, the natural products of cyanobacteria are an important source of new drug compounds. Natural bioactive products not only have medicinal value themselves but are also used as building models to create synthetic analogs. The chemical composition of Spirulina includes protein (70-55%), carbohydrates (25-25%), essential fatty acids (18%), vitamins, minerals, and pigments such as carotene, chlorophyll A and phycocyanin. Obviously, the introduction of valuable properties of cyanobacteria Spirulina can be a suitable substitute for many antimicrobial compounds and synthetic antioxidants that not only pose no risk to the consumer but can also improve consumer health. In this review, we have discussed the important nutrient, bioactive properties, and immunological applications of Spirulina. The current research suggests that spirulina supplementations have been accepted by global accreditation as a safe nutritional and dietary supplement.
... The Epo is known as an indicator for the proliferation and differentiation of erythrocytes. Along with this result, some research have also demonstrated that S. platensis has a positive impact on different types of anemia due to its rich components such as essential amino acids, folic acids, vitamin B12, and high iron which have an important role in erythropoiesis [48,76,77]. There are also some animal studies regarding anemia that have shown the beneficial effects of S. platensis on hemoglobin and serum iron levels [47,86,88]. ...
... So, potential changes in participants' lifestyle habits -that may have contributed to the observed weight loss -cannot be excluded. Th e benefi cial eff ect of Spirulina supplementation on the haemoglobin levels in our study is due to its hematopoietic nutrients (such as protein, iron, folic acid, vitamin B12) and is known from previous studies [61][62][63][64]. Th e benefi cial role of Spirulina and a confi rmation of its safety profi le were revealed with the improvement to health-related quality of life scale, the lack of adverse reactions and discomfort, and absence of complaints throughout the study. ...
Article
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Background A pilot study was conducted to determine the effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) on Cretan patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Spirulina is a filamentous cyanobacterium taken as a dietary supplement. Methods Fifteen adult Cretan outpatients (13 men), median age 48 (range: 29-62) years, with NAFLD were orally supplemented with 6 g of Spirulina (Greek production) per day for six months. Anthropometric characteristics (height, weight, waist circumference), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, complete blood count, biochemical assessments, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, health-related quality of life and abdominal sonographic findings were recorded and measured, before and after Spirulina supplementation. Results At the end of the 6-month intervention period, the mean levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly decreased: 38.5%, 37.5%, 26.7%, 24.8%, 9.6%, 9.1%, and 13.5% respectively, whereas the mean levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and hemoglobin were significantly increased: 4.2% and 4.1% respectively. Spirulina supplementation resulted also in a significant reduction in weight and HOMA-IR index (8.1% and 19.6% respectively) and a significant improvement in health-related quality of life scale. No changes in sonographic findings were observed. Conclusion Spirulina supplementation at a high dosage of 6 g daily in NAFLD patients has strong and multiple beneficial metabolic effects and improves their health-related quality of life.
... Spirulina (arthrospira platensis) has received much attention as functional food regarding its association with cholesterol-regulatory properties, modulation of the host immune system, and antioxidant capacity (Hirata et al., 2000; Qureshi et al., 1995). There is increasing scientific and clinical evidences for its role in controlling chronic diseases such as diabetes (Iyer et al., 2001), arthritis (Mishra et al., 1998), anemia (Iyer et al., 2000) and cancer (Mathew et al., 1995). ...
Article
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Spirulina is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that contains essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidative components. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of spirulina intervention in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. The subjects were 37 type 2 diabetic patients who visited a diabetic clinic in Seoul and randomly assigned into spirulina (8 g/day) or control group. During the intervention period of 12 weeks, subjects were asked to keep usual diet and prohibited to take any functional foods or dietary supplements. Spirulina supplementation for 12 weeks did not affect anthropometric parameters, however, lowered plasma triglycerides level significantly (p<0.05). Spirulina supplementation also resulted in a significant reduction in plasma malondialdehyde level (p<0.05) and an increase in plasma adiponectin level (p<0.1). The lipid lowering effect of spirulina supplementation was different according to serum lipid levels of the subjects before entering the intervention. The subjects with higher initial triglyceride level showed higher reduction in plasma triglyceride and blood pressure. The subjects with higher initial total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol level showed higher reduction in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, IL-6, and blood pressure. It seems that spirulina supplementation is more effective in subjects with dyslipidemia. This study provides the evidence for beneficial effects of spirulina supplementation on blood lipid profiles, inflammatory variables, and antioxidant capacity in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. The results suggest that spirulina is a promising agent as a functional food for diabetes management.
... In addition to the nutritional value of spirulina, many reports have claimed its bioactive functions arising from the contents of this organism. Prevention of fatty liver (Rodriguez-Hernandez et al. 2001 ), cardiovascular disease (Paredes-Carbajal et al. 2001), cancers (Mathew et al. 1995), reducing serum lipid level in serum (Mani et al. 2000), elevating blood hemoglobin level (Uliyar et al. 2000), antibody production (Hayashi et al. 1998) and macrophage phagocytic function (Batshan et al. 2001 ), inhibiting HIV virus replication (Hayashi et al. 1996), and anti-oxidation (Farooq et al. 2004) were, respectively, published. Spirulina could beneWt health by reducing exercise-induced muscle damages in rats (Huang et al. 2000). ...
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The effects of spirulina supplementation on preventing skeletal muscle damage on untrained human beings were examined. Sixteen students volunteered to take Spirulina platensis in addition to their normal diet for 3-weeks. Blood samples were taken after finishing the Bruce incremental treadmill exercise before and after treatment. The results showed that plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly decreased after supplementation with spirulina (P < 0.05). The activity of blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly raised after supplementation with spirulina or soy protein (P < 0.05). Both of the blood glutathione peroxidaes (GPx ) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were significantly different between spirulina and soy protein supplementation by an ANCOVA analysis (P < 0.05). In addition, the lactate (LA) concentration was higher and the time to exhaustion (TE) was significantly extended in the spirulina trail (P < 0.05). These results suggest that ingestion of S. platensis showed preventive effect of the skeletal muscle damage and that probably led to postponement of the time of exhaustion during the all-out exercise.
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Nutritional clinical trials have reported algae such as spirulina and chlorella to have the capability to improve cardiovascular risk factors, anemia, immune function, and arterial stiffness. With positive results being reported in clinical trials, researchers are investigating the potential for algae as an ergogenic aid for athletes. Initial studies found spirulina and chlorella supplementation to increase peak oxygen uptake and time to exhaustion, with the mechanistic focus on the antioxidant capabilities of both algae. However, a number of oxidative stress biomarkers reported in these studies are now considered to lack robustness and have consequently provided equivocal results. Considering the nutrient complexity and density of these commonly found edible algae, there is a need for research to widen the scope of investigation. Most recently algae supplementation has demonstrated ergogenic potential during submaximal and repeated sprint cycling, yet a confirmed primary mechanism behind these improvements is still unclear. In this paper we discuss current algae supplementation studies and purported effects on performance, critically examine the antioxidant and ergogenic differing perspectives, and outline future directions.
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Background The effect of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), on haemoglobin and serum ferritine was tested in young women aged between 18 and 21 years and presenting an iron-deficiency anemia. Methods According to the allocation group, each participant daily consumed one placebo snack bar or one snack bar supplemented with 3 g of spirulina. At baseline, day 45, 60, and 90 after the first bar was consumed a complete blood count, serum ferritin, pregnancy test, and physical examination were performed. Results Anemia prevalence was found to be 33.7% among the age range tested in Mumbai. In total, 181 women were screened, 61 of them were randomized and allocated into the two groups and finally 47 young women completed the study. Conclusions Spirulina or placebo snack bars were well tolerated. However, we did not observe significant changes in serum ferritin and hemoglobin in both groups at the end of the study.
Article
The present study was designed to examine, whether rabbits fed a diet containing High Fat (HF) could develop obesity and be predisposed to developing metabolic syndrome (Mets). The results have shown an increased adipose accumulation with a significant weight gain and an increase in abdominal circumference, periscapolar fat and liver weight in rabbits fed HF diets compared to rabbits fed a Low Fat (LFC) diet, associated with higher levels of plasma glucose, insulin and lower levels of High-Density-Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in the rabbits fed the HF diets than the rabbits fed the LFC diet. An Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) has been performed to evaluate glucose metabolism; the plasma glucose levels in the rabbits fed the HF diets were constantly higher (statistically significant at 0, 60, 90, 120 and 240 min) than in the rabbits fed the LFC diet. The association between the HF diets and oxidative stress, indicated by the presence of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in plasma, has also been investigated; the rabbits fed the HF diets had higher ROS values than the rabbits fed the LFC diet. In addition, the protective effect of Spirulina platensis (SP), antioxidant of vegetable origin, has also been investigated. The SP supplementation (10 g kg-1 of the diet) did not have any effect on the morphological data or some parameters in plasma, while SP was able to reduce the ROS value in rabbits fed the high fat diet probably due to beneficial effect of the γ-hnolemc acid content in the SP.
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Spirulina, with its high concentration of functional nutrients, is emerging as an important therapeutic food. This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic role of Spirulina. Twenty-five subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to receive Spirulina (study group) or to form the control group. At baseline, the control and study groups were matched for various variables. The efficacy of Spirulina supplementation (2 g/day for 2 months) was determined using the preintervention and postintervention blood glucose levels, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) levels, and lipid profiles of the diabetic subjects. Two-month supplementation with Spirulina resulted in an appreciable lowering of fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose levels. A significant reduction in the HbA(1c) level was also observed, indicating improved long-term glucose regulation. With regard to lipids, triglyceride levels were significantly lowered. Total cholesterol (TC) and its fraction, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), exhibited a fall coupled with a marginal increase in the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). As a result, a significant reduction in the atherogenic indices, TC:HDL-C and LDL-C: HDL-C, was observed. The level of apolipoprotein B registered a significant fall together with a significant increment in the level of apolipoprotein A1. Therefore, a significant and favorable increase in the ratio of A1:B was also noted. These findings suggest the beneficial effect of Spirulina supplementation in controlling blood glucose levels and in improving the lipid profile of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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Studies were carried out on the in vitro availability of iron from a standard cereal meal with and without the addition of bovine milk (BM), groundnut milk (GM) and soybean milk (SM). Further, availability of iron from these milks per se was also investigated. Estimation of the total iron content from BM, GM, and SM revealed that it was highest in case of SM followed by GM and BM. This trend was reversed for percent available iron which was highest for BM followed by GM and SM. The in vitro availability of iron from the cereal meal was low (3.7%). Addition of BM and GM enhanced the availability of iron from the standard meal whereas SM had no particular enhancing quality. The practical implications of the findings for iron nutrition in humans are discussed.