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Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-Based Approach

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Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-Based Approach

... Additionally, the mediation model was tested in the study by using the bootstrap method developed by Hayes (2013). In this context, the mediation model was tested with the help of the PROCESS macro (https://www.processmacro.org/download.html) ...
... In this context, the mediation model was tested with the help of the PROCESS macro (https://www.processmacro.org/download.html) developed by Hayes (2013) as the least-squares method was applied. "Mediation Model 4" was used among the models utilized in testing specific models that appeared to have mediating and regulatory effects (Hayes, 2013). ...
... developed by Hayes (2013) as the least-squares method was applied. "Mediation Model 4" was used among the models utilized in testing specific models that appeared to have mediating and regulatory effects (Hayes, 2013). ...
... Cut-off points of 0.30 and above (medium effect) and 0.50 and above (large effect), were set for the practical significance of the correlation coefficients (Pallant 2013). Hayes' PROCESS macro model 4 (Hayes 2018) was used to assess the mediating effect of JS on the relationship between POF and ITL. ...
... In order to assess Hypothesis 3 that is JS will mediate the relationship between POF and ITL, all the pathways of the proposed mediation model (Figure 1) were assessed using mediation analysis (Hayes 2018). While the Minnesota JS questionnaire has both a unidimensional-and multidimensional-factor structure, the authors opted to use the unidimensional factor structure for the mediation analysis as this is the common practice observed in more than 30 years of JS research (Hirschfeld 2000). ...
... In this study, POF was indicated as the independent variable (X); ITL was indicated as the dependant variable (ITL) and JS was indicated as the mediator (JS). In order to run the mediation analysis, the bootstrapping method with biascorrected confidence estimates were used (Hayes 2018). Using 5000 bootstrap resamples, a 95% confidence interval (CI) of the indirect effect was obtained. ...
... Model 1, considered a simple moderation model (Hayes, 2022) from the processR app (Moon, 2019), was used to determine job crafting's moderating effect. To control for measurement errors, factor scores were saved from the bestfitting measurement model (as recommended by Skrondal & Laake, 2001). ...
... These factor scores were then used in the moderation analysis. According to Hayes (2022), moderation analysis consists of two steps. Firstly, the regression coefficient for the interaction effect is calculated to determine how a change in the moderator is related to changes in the effect of the focal predictor. ...
... Inferential tests, such as the Johnson-Neyman (J-N) technique, are preferred. Using this technique, one can determine a range of moderator values where the relationship between the focal predictor and the outcome variables is statistically significant or not (Hayes, 2022). ...
... A partial mediation would occur if the observed relationship between independent variable and dependent variable became weaker after the inclusion of objectively measured PF (mediator variable). The effects represented by the regression coefficients in Equations (1) and (2) were estimated with a computational complement to the SPSS program using PROCESS v4.0: an analysis of model estimation developed by Hayes [49]. The coefficients a1 and b1 described in the equation (Figure 2) were calculated using least squares regression, as follows: ...
... Regarding the GS test, members of the low PA group had a lower result than those of the high PA group (p < 0.001). The effects represented by the regression coefficients in Equations (1) and (2) were estimated with a computational complement to the SPSS program using PROCESS v4.0: an analysis of model estimation developed by Hayes [49]. The coefficients a1 and b1 described in the equation (Figure 2) were calculated using least squares regression, as follows: ...
... Thus, the indirect effect was considered significant when the confidence interval did not include zero [48]. The calculation of the proportion of the mediation effect was obtained as follows: subtraction 1 minus the result of the division between the direct effect and the total effect [49]. Furthermore, the results illustrated in the figures correspond to standardized parameters β. ...
... A similar approach was used in other studies on attribute-based decision-making (Lu et al., 2016). Mediation analysis has been conducted (PROCESS macro, Hayes (2017), Model 4) with description type (abstract descriptions coded as 0 and concretized descriptions [formed from the abstract one by adding relevant details about a product] coded as 1) as an independent variable, perceived description trustworthiness as a mediator and purchase intent as a dependent variable. Concretized (vs abstract) descriptions have a positive effect on the perceived description trustworthiness (b = 0.47, p = 0.001, M abstract = 3.17, SD abstract = 1.08, ...
... Consumer product expertise served as a continuous moderator of the relationship between the mediator (trustworthiness) and the dependent variable (purchase intent). The analysis was conducted via PROCESS macro (Model 14) (Hayes, 2017). ...
... Finally, there occurred an interaction effect of the goaloriented (vs comparative) mindset and product expertise (with source type as a covariate) on the preference for benefit-based (vs attribute-based) descriptions (PROCESS model 1, Hayes (2017), b = 0.06, p = 0.001; for the participants who grouped the descriptions according to the predefined pairs). The low, medium and high levels of product expertise were determined by À1SD, mean and 11SD. ...
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Purpose-This paper aims to investigate the effect of product-related description abstractness/concreteness on perceived trustworthiness and the role of consumer product expertise and shopping-stage mindset in the persuasiveness of abstract vs concrete product descriptions. Design/methodology/approach-Two online experiments were conducted: Study 1 (description abstractness-manipulated between-subject; consumer product expertise, perceived trustworthiness, purchase intent-measured), Study 2 (consumer shopping-stage mindset-manipulated between-subject; description abstractness-manipulated within-subject; consumer product expertise, perceived trustworthiness, abstract/concrete description preference-measured). Findings-The negative effect of the abstractness (abstract descriptions vs the ones supplemented with relevant product details) on description trustworthiness was evidenced in Study 1. Trustworthiness was positively related to purchase intent, especially for high product expertise. Study 2 replicated the effect of product description abstractness on its trustworthiness in terms of two other forms of abstractness (abstract descriptions vs the ones supplemented with irrelevant product details and product benefits vs attributes). The goal-oriented (vs comparative) mindset had a positive effect on the benefit (vs attribute) description preference, especially for high product expertise. Practical implications-For marketers, the results suggest the positive consequences of presenting concrete information on product attributes and the conditions enhancing the effectiveness of presenting product benefits. Originality/value-The paper integrates the existing views on consumer response to abstract vs concrete information (lexical abstractness/ concreteness, means-end chain theory) and links them to consumer product expertise and shopping-stage mindset.
... Furthermore, they were informed by the researchers of the purpose of the study, the anonymity of the questionnaire, and the voluntary nature of participating in this research. This study used Pearson's α correlation analysis for descriptive statistics (see Supplementary Table 1), regression analysis to test the main effect and the moderating effect (Baron and Kenny, 1986), and the Bootstrap method proposed by Preacher and Hayes (2004) and Hayes (2013) to test the moderating effect. All analyses were completed using SPSSAU, an intelligent online statistical analysis platform (The SPSSAU Project, 2020) and SPSS 25.0. ...
... The moderating effect can be viewed in two ways: the first is to look at the significance of the change in F value from Model 2 to Model 3; the second is to look at the significance of the interaction items in Model 3 (Hayes and Matthes, 2009;Hayes, 2013). This study analyzes the moderating effect in a second way. ...
... Then, the study used the Bootstrap method proposed by Preacher and Hayes (2004) and Hayes (2013) for verification. The analysis conclusion confirmed the above results. ...
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This study extended the research on the relationship between youth elite athletes’ satisfaction and coaches’ paternalistic leadership by identifying athletes’ resilience as a moderator. A total of 221 youth elite football (i.e., soccer) players aged 13–19 years old who are students of a Chinese professional football boarding school participated in a questionnaire survey. The study found no correlation between the three dimensions of coaches’ paternalistic leadership (authoritative leadership, benevolent leadership, and moral leadership) and the youth athletes’ satisfaction. The results also showed that the interaction of resilience and moral leadership affects the youth elite athletes’ satisfaction, whereas resilience does not play a moderating role in the relationship between authoritative leadership or benevolent leadership and satisfaction. As the results of the study are different from those of other scholars, they may reveal the uniqueness of youth elite football players in boarding schools. This study further analyzed the possible reasons for this result and prospected (or indicated) the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. Based on the conclusion, the study recommended that youth elite football schools should pay attention to the results of scientific research in leadership styles and apply them to practice in the future.
... Pearson correlation analysis was also utilized to investigate the relationships between psychological maltreatment, attachment styles, and children's internalizing and externalizing problems. After conducting these analyses, mediation analyses were performed to investigate whether attachment styles (i.e., secure, anxious, and avoidant) mediated the relationship between parents' childhood psychological maltreatment and young people's internalizing and externalizing problems using the PROCESS macro version 3.5 (Model 4) for SPSS (Hayes, 2018). We finally checked to examine the significance of indirect effects using the bootstrapping with 5000 resamples to estimate the 95% confidence intervals (Hayes, 2018;Preacher & Hayes, 2008). ...
... After conducting these analyses, mediation analyses were performed to investigate whether attachment styles (i.e., secure, anxious, and avoidant) mediated the relationship between parents' childhood psychological maltreatment and young people's internalizing and externalizing problems using the PROCESS macro version 3.5 (Model 4) for SPSS (Hayes, 2018). We finally checked to examine the significance of indirect effects using the bootstrapping with 5000 resamples to estimate the 95% confidence intervals (Hayes, 2018;Preacher & Hayes, 2008). All study analyses in the study were performed using SPSS version 25. ...
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Adults' experience of psychological maltreatment in childhood has devastating consequences on almost all aspects of their life including their parenting practice and relationship with their children. This study aimed to gain a better understanding of the effects of parents' childhood psychological maltreatment on their children's emotional and behavioral problems. The further aim of this study was to explore the mediating role of parents' attachment styles on the relationship between parents' maltreatment experience and youth mental health problems. A sample of 210 parents, ranging in age from 25 to 60 years (M = 38.86, SD = 6.32), who have children aged between 6 and 15 were included in the study. Mediation analyses were performed to examine the study's proposed model. Study results showed that parents' secure and anxious attachment style mediated the relationship between parents' childhood psychological maltreatment and young people's internalizing and externalizing problems. These findings indicate that parents' attachment styles play an important role in the link between parents' childhood adverse experiences and youth mental health. Practical implications for mental health professionals working with children and families are discussed.
... We adopted the PROCESS macro for SPSS Version 4 developed by Hayes (2022) to carry out a series of mediation analyses. As being shown in Figure 1, grade of unilateral CAS (%CAS) was used as the predictor variable for the direct effect evaluation, and the ipsilateral PVL, DWML and infarcts severity were the three parallel mediators for the indirect effect evaluation. ...
... We discretely examined the associations between CAS in either side (left vs. right) and each specific cognitive domain by utilizing a model template [PROCESS Model 4, Hayes (2022)]. Since the sampling indirect effects of CAS on specific cognitive domains were unlikely to be normally distributed, a large number of samples (n = 5000) of data were taken to derive the empirically generated 95% bootstrap intervals of the sampling distributions of the indirect effects (Hayes, 2022). In addition, years of education and vascular risk factors were used as covariates in the mediation analysis models to examine their effects on each cognitive domain. ...
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Background and objectives Leukoaraiosis and infarcts are common in patients with carotid artery stenosis (CAS), and CAS severity, leukoaraiosis and infarcts all have been implicated in cognitive impairments. CAS severity was not only hypothesized to directly impede specific cognitive domains, but also transmit its effects indirectly to cognitive function through ipsilateral infarcts as well as periventricular leukoaraiosis (PVL) and deep white matter leukoaraiosis (DWML). We aimed to delineate the contributions of leukoaraiosis, infarcts and CAS to different specific cognitive domains. Materials and methods One hundred and sixty one participants with unilateral CAS (>50%) on the left ( n = 85) or right ( n = 76) side and 65 volunteers without significant CAS (<50%) were recruited. The PVL, DWML, and infarct severity were visually rated on MRI. A comprehensive cognitive battery was administered and standardized based on age norms. Correlation and mediation analyses were adopted to examine the direct and indirect influence of CAS, leukoaraiosis, and infarct on specific cognitive domains with adjustment for education, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. Results Carotid artery stenosis severity was associated with ipsilateral leukoaraiosis and infarct. Left CAS had direct effects on most cognitive domains, except for visual memory and constructional ability, and transmitted its indirect effects on all cognitive domains through ipsilateral PVL, and on constructional ability and psychomotor through infarcts. Right CAS only had negative direct effects on visual memory, psychomotor, design fluency and color processing speed, and transmitted its indirect effects on visual memory, word and color processing speed through ipsilateral infarcts. The trends of direct and indirect cognitive effects remained similar after covariate adjustment. Conclusion Left and right CAS would predominantly lead to verbal and non-verbal cognitive impairment respectively, and such effects could be mediated through CAS-related leukoaraiosis and infarct. Given that cognition is subject to heterogeneous pathologies, the exact relationships between markers of large and small vessel diseases and their composite prognostic effects on cognition requires further investigation.
... We tested the mediation model using model 4 of the PROCESS macro and the bootstrapping method (with bootstrap resamples N = 5,000) (Hayes, 2013). This method has been widely used in many mediating and moderating effects tests (Cai et al., 2021;Van Tran et al., 2022). ...
... We tested the moderation model using model 1 of the PROCESS macro and the bootstrapping method (with bootstrap resamples N = 5,000) (Hayes, 2013). Gender did not significantly moderate the effects of either enjoyment (F = 0.066, p = 0.798) or depression (F = 1.272, p = 0.26) on impulse buying. ...
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Social media plays a vital role in consumers’ purchasing decision making. There are still gaps in existing research on the relationship between divided dimensions of social media use and impulse buying, as well as the mediating and moderating effects therein. This study explored the mediation and moderation effects in the relationship between different social media usage patterns, emotional responses, and consumer impulse buying. Data from 479 college students who were social media users in China were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results showed that active and passive social media use were significantly and positively associated with users’ enjoyment, whereas passive social media use significantly increased depression. Both enjoyment and depression were significantly and positively associated with users’ impulse buying. Materialism positively moderated the relationship between enjoyment and impulsive consumption, while self-control significantly reduced the effect of depression on impulse buying. These findings that emotion mediated and personality traits moderated relationships between social media use and impulse buying expand impulsive purchase literature and provide insights for guiding college students’ healthy use of social media and rational consumption.
... The mediation analysis was performed using the PROCESS macro by Hayes [32]. The mediating role of resilience (mediator) was tested in the relationship between the traumatic childbirth perception and pandemic-related stress (predictors; independent variables) and prenatal depression symptoms (dependent variable). ...
... The mediating role of resilience (mediator) was tested in the relationship between the traumatic childbirth perception and pandemic-related stress (predictors; independent variables) and prenatal depression symptoms (dependent variable). The procedure that was used was the bootstrapping method that was proposed by Hayes [32], which involved drawing 5000 bootstrap samples. The mediation procedure provides a more comprehensive view of a complex structure in which an independent variable, that is acting as a predictor, is linked to a dependent variable via a third variable, that is acting as a mediator. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic in Poland brought uncertainty, not only to the general population but also to women preparing for childbirth, which increased the risk of mental health illnesses during this special period of life. Resilience, which refers to positive adaptation or the ability to maintain good mental health, can be a protective factor against the development of psychiatric problems such as depressive symptoms. This study aimed to assess the protective role of resilience in the relationship of such risk factors as traumatic childbirth perception and pandemic-related pregnancy stress with prenatal depressive symptoms. The study was performed at the end of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 80 pregnant women took part. A mediation analysis, an independent t-test, and a Pearson correlation analysis were conducted. The lower resilience group declared the inclusion of slightly more participants (n = 41; 51.2%); 39 women (48.8%) demonstrated a higher risk of prenatal depression. The analysis revealed a significant direct effect between pandemic-related stress and prenatal depression (βc = 0.285, SE = 0.05, t = 2.63, p < 0.05) as well as between pandemic-related stress and resilience (βa = −0.283, SE = 0.07, t = −2.61, p < 0.05) and between resilience and prenatal depression (βb = −0.585, SE = 0.07, t = −6.34, p < 0.001). After the introduction of resilience as a mediator, the strength of the relationship not only decreased, but also ceased to be statistically significant (βc′ = 0.120, SE = 0.04, t = 1.29, p = 0.19), which indicates that it was in a full mediation state (R2 = 0.39, F = 25.31, p < 0.001; Z = 2.43, p < 0.05). The results indicate that in pregnant women, a high level of resilience protects them from the effects of pandemic-related stress on perinatal depression symptoms.
... 04 for mediation and model no. 21 for multiple moderated mediation (Hayes, 2017). Moreover, authors received equal responses in both phases as no participant skipped survey in intervention phase. ...
... According to Hayes (2017), the index of multiple moderated-mediation is significant if the 95% CI interval (β= 0.1, 95% CI [.00, .01]) does not contain zero. ...
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Aim: This study examines Pakistan nurses' emotional labor and stress in healthcare emergencies on their emotional exhaustion and availability of support at organizational and managerial levels to alleviate the effects. Background: As COVID-19 pandemic has been declared a global outbreak and many countries have enacted medical emergencies, this has increased job demands and expected desired emotional expressions from frontline workers. Such high levels of job demand contribute to various stress reactions among employees. Methodology Authors applied a longitudinal design, using an experimental approach, to collect data from 319 nurses serving in 107 government hospitals in Pakistan. The authors surveyed nurses at two-time points with the interval of 3 months by using an online questionnaire tool. At one time, they asked nurses to report on emotional labor, stress, and exhaustion. In the second phase, after providing supports (during interval phase) at different levels, the authors repeated the same scales from same participants in addition to instrumental support and coaching leadership. Data were processed using SPSS-Amos for elementary analysis and Process-macro for robustness and hypotheses testing. Results: Authors find that job stress fully mediates relationship between surface acting and emotional exhaustion in controlled phase and partially mediates in intervention phase. Furthermore, in intervention phase, authors find that instrumental support moderates and alleviate positive effects of emotional labor on job stress, and coaching leadership moderates and lessens positive effects of job stress on emotional exhaustion. Conclusion: This research concludes that healthcare organizations can alleviate emotional exhaustion caused by emotional labor and job stress amid emergencies by providing support at different levels; organizational and managerial. However, the effectiveness of these supports depends on high to low levels. Implications for nursing management: This study demonstrates that to handle and support emotional labor and job stress to avoid emotional exhaustion in healthcare emergencies, organizational supports matter. Support at organizational level can include instrumental support. At managerial level, holding a coaching leadership style can foster external facets of management while uplifting the internal support qualities of confidence and self-awareness that improve the individuals' ability to lead; work with paradox and uncertainty.
... We expected that self-compassion would moderate the association between need frustration and depression as well as the association between depression and NSSI. Model 58 of the PROCESS macro (Hayes, 2013) was used to examine these hypotheses. As shown in Table2, basic psychological need frustration was positively related to depression (Model 1: b = 0.40, t = 17.16, p < 0.001), and this relationship was moderated by self-compassion (Model 1: b = −0.14, t = −9.06, ...
... Model 4 of the PROCESS macro (Hayes, 2013) was used to test the indirect effect of depression in the relationship of basic psychological need frustration and NSSI (see Fig.2). After controlling for age and gender, basic psychological need frustration positively predicted depression (b = 0.60, t = 31.13, ...
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According to self-determination theory (SDT), when needs are chronically obstructed, individuals may use compensatory behaviors to temporarily relieve negative emotions aroused by need frustration. This study tested whether basic psychological need frustration is associated with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) as a compensatory behavior. In a moderated mediation model, we also tested whether depression acted as a mediator in this association, and whether self-compassion moderated the indirect effect of depression. 1691 Chinese adolescents (ages 11–18; 55.3% girls) filled out questionnaires regarding basic psychological need frustration, depression, self-compassion, and NSSI. The results revealed that depression mediated the relationship between basic psychological need frustration and adolescent NSSI. Self-compassion moderated the indirect effect. Specifically, the indirect path was only significant for adolescents with low self-compassion. These findings explain the underlying mechanism of NSSI from a new perspective of SDT, which is of significance for the prevention and treatment of NSSI.
... We used a moderated mediation approach using job insecurity as the mediator and safety leadership as the moderator. As a result, Hayes' process macro was run to examine the moderated mediation effect [81]. ...
... The hypothesized model was tested using the method described by Preacher et al. [86]. Specifically, Hayes' macro [81] PROCESS was used to test the assumptions made earlier in the study. To conduct the moderated mediation analysis, we used PROCESS Model 7, which fits well with the model we assumed. ...
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While there is evidence of job-related antecedents of work engagement, there is little information in the relevant literature on cross-domain effects. The purpose of this empirical study is to examine this under-researched aspect by analyzing data from the conservation of resource theory and the job-demand resource model. A moderated mediation model is proposed wherein COVID-19, the fear reduces service employees’ work engagement through job insecurity, and safety leadership acts as the supportive construct to cope with adverse effects of the pandemic on mentioned outcomes. The research, based on the experiences of 376 Norwegians working in the service sector, found that: the fear of COVID-19 had a major deterrent effect on employee engagement. One of the reasons for this relationship was job insecurity, which acted as a mediator between the COVID-19 fear and engagement, in work. In addition, the moderating role of the safety leadership in the relationship between COVID-19 anxiety and worker engagement was confirmed. In other words, workers who were under the supervision of safety leaders had lower links between these concepts, even if they were indirectly linked through job insecurity. With regard to the stress-related effects of COVID-19 on service personnel’s perceptions, attitude, and actions regarding their jobs and conditions of employment, this study has both theoretical and managerial implications. It also expands upon the existing understanding of how managers can handle such negative consequences. The limitations of the study’s contextual scope and sampling procedure of the study are discussed.
... To test H1a-g related to the direct effects of persuasive appeals, we submitted the different DVs to 2 (persuasive appeal) x 3 (message repetition) repeated measures analysis of covariances (ANCOVAs), while accounting for control variables. As for H2a-g, we used a series of simple moderation models using Hayes's PROCESS v3.5 macro for SPSS (Model 1) with 10,000 bootstrap samples [74]. Finally, to answer the research question, we used Model 92 [74] with persuasive appeal as an independent variable (IV), risk perception as a moderator, T2F, anger, A PSA , and VBI as mediators, and PI as a DV; a 100,000 bootstrap was used for this analysis as well. ...
... As for H2a-g, we used a series of simple moderation models using Hayes's PROCESS v3.5 macro for SPSS (Model 1) with 10,000 bootstrap samples [74]. Finally, to answer the research question, we used Model 92 [74] with persuasive appeal as an independent variable (IV), risk perception as a moderator, T2F, anger, A PSA , and VBI as mediators, and PI as a DV; a 100,000 bootstrap was used for this analysis as well. ...
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The increasing prevalence of online purchase of medications, specifically via social media platforms, poses significant health risks due to high chances of such medications being substandard and falsified (SF). The current study uses a 2 (persuasive appeal: fear vs. humor) x 3 (message repetition) mixed factorial experiment to investigate the effectiveness of persuasive appeals (on intentions to purchase medications online via social media referrals, mediated by psychological reactance (threat to freedom and anger), attitudes toward the public service announcements (PSAs), and viral behavioral intentions. ANOVA results showed the superiority of humor appeals compared to fear appeals in (1) reducing psychological reactance, (2) igniting favorable responses to the PSA, and (3) marginally reducing the intentions to purchase medications vial social media despite lower online engagement intentions (viral behavioral intentions). Pre-existing risk perceptions moderated these differences. A moderated serial mediation model, conducted using PROCESS models, was examined to assess the mechanism by which persuasive appeals and risk perceptions interact in influencing purchase intentions. Findings are discussed theoretically in regard to extending the psychological reactance model within the digital environment and practically in terms of public health, brand protection, and law enforcement recommendations.
... Estimates of the a, b, and c' paths shown in Fig. 1 can be obtained from regression analyses or structural equation modeling. Under certain assumptions, these estimates allow for inference regarding the extent to which the effect of X on Y is mediated, or transmitted, through the intervening variable M [8][9][10]. Interpreted appropriately, mediation analysis enables investigators to test hypotheses about how X contributes to change in Y and thereby to elucidate the mechanisms of change that influence implementation [5,9,10]. ...
... This seemingly simple issue takes on special nuance and heightened importance in implementation research because of the complexity of statistical power analysis for multilevel research designs-which are the norm in implementation research [17,24]-and the constraints on sample size posed by the practical realities of conducting implementation research in healthcare systems. While statistical power analysis methods and tools for single-level mediation are well-developed and widely available [8,[25][26][27][28][29], these approaches are inappropriate Fig. 1 Single-level mediation model. Note: X = independent variable; M = mediator, Y = outcome. ...
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Background Statistical tests of mediation are important for advancing implementation science; however, little research has examined the sample sizes needed to detect mediation in 3-level designs (e.g., organization, provider, patient) that are common in implementation research. Using a generalizable Monte Carlo simulation method, this paper examines the sample sizes required to detect mediation in 3-level designs under a range of conditions plausible for implementation studies. Method Statistical power was estimated for 17,496 3-level mediation designs in which the independent variable (X) resided at the highest cluster level (e.g., organization), the mediator (M) resided at the intermediate nested level (e.g., provider), and the outcome (Y) resided at the lowest nested level (e.g., patient). Designs varied by sample size per level, intraclass correlation coefficients of M and Y, effect sizes of the two paths constituting the indirect (mediation) effect (i.e., X→M and M→Y), and size of the direct effect. Power estimates were generated for all designs using two statistical models—conventional linear multilevel modeling of manifest variables (MVM) and multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM)—for both 1- and 2-sided hypothesis tests. Results For 2-sided tests, statistical power to detect mediation was sufficient (≥0.8) in only 463 designs (2.6%) estimated using MVM and 228 designs (1.3%) estimated using MSEM; the minimum number of highest-level units needed to achieve adequate power was 40; the minimum total sample size was 900 observations. For 1-sided tests, 808 designs (4.6%) estimated using MVM and 369 designs (2.1%) estimated using MSEM had adequate power; the minimum number of highest-level units was 20; the minimum total sample was 600. At least one large effect size for either the X→M or M→Y path was necessary to achieve adequate power across all conditions. Conclusions While our analysis has important limitations, results suggest many of the 3-level mediation designs that can realistically be conducted in implementation research lack statistical power to detect mediation of highest-level independent variables unless effect sizes are large and 40 or more highest-level units are enrolled. We suggest strategies to increase statistical power for multilevel mediation designs and innovations to improve the feasibility of mediation tests in implementation research.
... As these were standardized coefficients, the effect size of the statistically significant coefficients was at a medium effect size level. The breakdown of these interactions is presented in the set of charts (Hayes, 2012: PROCESS 3.14 model 1; Hayes, 2013). We used the PROCESS procedure to assess the simple slopes of veteran versus novice teachers. ...
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Violence and bullying against teachers in school is an acute worldwide problem that negatively affects teachers and students alike. However, although many previous studies have addressed the way students handle school violence, very little is known about violence against teachers and teachers’ utilization of schools’ support systems for contending with this violence. The main aim of the current study was to investigate students’ violence against teachers and teachers’ willingness to seek help, differentiating between novice and veteran teachers and their willingness to seek help from both school management and teacher colleagues. Based on a sample of 166 (86.7% female) teachers (Mean age = 44.49; SD = 9.92), the findings revealed that novice teachers were at greater risk than were veteran teachers, as they suffered more violence than did their veteran counterparts. However, although there was a generally negative association between the extent of the violence and the willingness to seek help, veteran teachers were less willing than novice teachers to seek help as the level of violence increases. Findings point to the negative psychosocial costs of help-seeking for teachers and the need to provide support for both novice and veteran teachers so that they can better handle violent events.
... First, this study used Model 4 in the PROCESS program developed by Hayes (2017) to test the mediating effect of gratitude in the association between Machiavellianism and learning-related subjective well-being. A mediation model with learning-related subjective well-being as the dependent variable, Machiavellianism as the independent variable, and gratitude as the mediating variable was conducted using Bootstrap's method. ...
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Based on the life history theory and broadening construction theory, the study aimed to investigate the influence of Machiavellianism on the learning-related subjective well-being and the underlying mechanism, 582 Chinese senior high school students (16.8 ± 0.9 years old) including 289 girls (48.3%) and 310 boys were recruited to participate in this study, and they anonymously filled out questionnaires regarding Machiavellianism, learning-related subjective well-being, gratitude, and subjective family economic level. The results showed that: (1) a higher level of Machiavellianism was associated with a lower level of learning-related subjective well-being; (2) gratitude partially mediated the relationship between Machiavellianism and learning-related subjective well-being; (3) subjective family economic level moderated the links between Machiavellianism and learning-related subjective well-being, and between gratitude and learning-related subjective well-being. This study explained how and when Machiavellianism affected Chinese senior high school students’ learning-related subjective well-being and provided a deeper understanding of the relationship between Machiavellianism and learning-related subjective well-being.
... To test for H1 and answer RQ, we used PROCESS [43], an SPSS macro that facilitates mediation analysis based on ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions. We ran a multiple mediation analysis using MODEL 4 in PROCESS. ...
Article
With the advent of the ‘age of conspiracism’, the harmfulness of conspiratorial narratives and mindsets on individuals’ mentalities, on social relations, and on democracy, has been widely researched by political scientists and psychologists. One known negative effect of conspiracy theories is the escalation toward political radicalism. This study goes beyond the exploration of mechanisms underpinning the relationship between conspiracy theory and radicalization to focus on possible approaches to mitigating them. This study sheds light on the role of counter-conspiracy approaches in the process of deradicalization, adopting the case study of anti-China sentiment and racial prejudice amid the Covid-19 pandemic, through conducting an experiment (N = 300). The results suggest that, during critical events such as the Covid-19 pandemic, exposure to countermeasures to conspiracist information can reduce individual acceptance of radicalism. We investigated two methods of countering conspiracy theory, and found that: (1) a content-targeted ‘inoculation’ approach to countering conspiracy theory can prevent the intensification of radicalization, but does not produce a significant deradicalization effect; and (2) an audience-focused ‘disenchantment’ method can enable cognitive deradicalization, effectively reducing the perception of competitive victimhood, and of real and symbolic threats. This study is one of the first attempts to address causality between deradicalization and countermeasures to conspiracy theories in the US-China relations.
... We used the average scores of the variables as manifest variables. Indirect effects were evaluated by using the bootstrap method with 5000 replicates [46,49]. Bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) of 95% were computed to examine the significance of indirect effects. ...
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Background: Although the new model of sustainable employability (SE), which builds on the capability approach, has received growing attention, research on how to enhance workers’ SE is scarce. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether (1) inclusive leadership and high-involvement HR practices are positively associated with SE and whether (2) strengths use mediates these associations. To test our research hypotheses, we surveyed Dutch employees (N = 364), selected with random sampling. The results of structural equation modeling showed that inclusive leadership and high-involvement HR practices were positively associated with workers’ SE. Moreover, we discovered that strengths use mediated these relationships. These results contribute to the SE literature by providing initial evidence that inclusive leadership and high-involvement HR practices are directly and indirectly (through strengths use) related to workers’ SE.
... To address our research questions, we ran a series of bivariate correlations and multiple regression analyses. For the multiple regression analyses involving interactions, we used the PROCESS macro, 34 which uses a standard stepwise regression approach for testing interactions by entering two main effects in the first step or model, followed by their interaction in the second. ...
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Background: Our objective was to understand maternal functioning and psychological distress among mothers of young children in the United States during April/May 2020, early in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Materials and Methods: Participants were 862 moms of children aged 0–3 years old who completed an online survey. We examined maternal functioning (maternal competency and self-care subscales from the Barkin Index of Maternal Functioning) and psychological distress (depression, anxiety, and stress subscales of the DASS-21), and then examined interaction effects of COVID-19 impact and socioeconomic status (SES; represented by income and education). Results: Mothers' reports of higher maternal functioning correlated with lower psychological distress and both sets of factors varied substantially by SES and COVID-19 Impact. Higher COVID-19 Impact was associated with lower functioning and greater distress. Higher income and education were associated with better maternal self-care, but not maternal competency. Although we expected high SES to buffer mothers from a higher impact of COVID-19, we found that mothers with high SES reported a lower level of maternal competence and more stress than low-SES mothers. Interactions between COVID-19 impact and SES predicting maternal functioning and psychological distress revealed that when COVID-19 impact was low, high SES was associated with high functioning scores and less distress. Conclusions: This work challenges the assumptions that a stressful event will be uniformly experienced by mothers of young children as well as the stress-buffering role of higher SES. This study highlights the importance of considering SES when characterizing maternal functioning and psychological distress during times of high stress. Further research is needed to examine the processes contributing to these discrepancies.
... The most cited publication with 29 citations is the book published by Hair et al. (2016). The second most cited book was published by Hayes (2018). These two books are statistics books. ...
Article
In recent years, the Covid-19 pandemic has brought with it changes in consumer behaviour. The purpose of this article is to examine the evolution and trends of consumer behaviour research during the Covid-19 pandemic period. The publications written on the subject of “covid” from the WoS database with the words “consumer behaviour” or “consumer behavior” in their titles were scanned in the business and management category, limiting the years 2020, 2021 and 2022. A total of 642 accessed publications were subjected to bibliometric analysis using the CiteSpace 6 program. The findings show that the number of studies in this field has increased. According to country collaboration analysis, there is a strong country collaboration network between the USA, China, India, Australia, South Korea and the UK. The most studied topic clusters are green consumer behaviour, consumer engagement behaviour and effective service quality. The three most used keywords are impact, consumer behaviour, and model. The study is important as it reveals the trend of consumer behaviour publications during the Covid-19 pandemic period. It is expected that the findings of the study will guide the consumer behaviour researches.
... Participants also completed self-report measures related to their emotional states and other COVID-19-vaccine-related perceptions they had at the time of receiving the vaccine (see Table S1 for brief explanations of variables). Moderation analyses were conducted using Model 1 of PROCESS macro 4.0 [15] in SPSS Version 24.0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA). Bootstrapping with 10,000 samples was conducted to determine 95% confidence intervals (CIs) that determined statistical significance. ...
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While social media exposure is known to influence vaccine hesitancy, its impact on postvaccination experience remains relatively unknown. This retrospective cross-sectional study explored whether various psychosocial and individual factors moderate the association between social media exposure to personal recounts of COVID-19 vaccine side effects and the viewer’s subsequent postvaccination side effect experience. Adults residing in Australia, who were fully vaccinated with two COVID-19 vaccine doses (n = 280) completed an online survey. The more severe the personal recounts of post-COVID-19 vaccination side effects participants were exposed to on social media, the more severe their own postvaccination side effects were following both their first (β = 0.261, p < 0.001) and second dose (β = 0.299, p < 0.001). This association was stronger among those with greater vaccine side effect worry, elevated negative emotional states such as anxiety and stress, and a stronger proclivity for using social media over mainstream media for COVID-19 vaccine side effect information. As such, not only does social influence appear to exacerbate or trigger postvaccination side effects, but a range of psychosocial and situational factors moderate this association. Health organisations and government bodies could minimise the negative effects of social media exposure in future health outbreaks by countering treatment misperceptions on social media platforms as they arise.
... with Model 1. The indirect effect at various levels of the moderator was tested with bootstrap confidence intervals at 95% (5000 samples) [87]. ...
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Background: Although post-traumatic growth is believed to be the result of complex interplays between various factors, cognitive variables appear to play a special role in these interactions. Yet, research on this topic is scant. Therefore, the first purpose of this study was to verify whether there is a direct relationship between world assumptions and post-traumatic growth among Polish cancer patients. As the effect of psychological change in post-traumatic growth may be affected by basic beliefs about the world and oneself, the second goal was to assess whether this association is moderated by rumination. Methods: The study included 215 Polish cancer patients. The Post-traumatic Growth and Depreciation Inventory-Expanded version-(intrusive and deliberate rumination), the World Assumption Scale, and the Event-related Rumination Inventory were applied. Results: Positive, albeit weak, correlations were found between the dimensions of world assumptions and post-traumatic growth. Post-traumatic growth correlated negatively with intrusive rumination and positively with deliberate rumination. The outcomes show that the level of post-traumatic growth resulting from world assumptions is significantly different at various levels of intrusive and deliberate rumination. Conclusion: Lower/medium intrusive rumination seems to strengthen the relationship between benevolence of the world/worthiness of the self and post-traumatic growth, and higher deliberate rumination tends to reinforce the relationship between meaningfulness and post-traumatic growth.
... The test of joint significance (Hayes, 2013) showed that the overall mediating effect was significant. A bias-corrected non-parametric percentage bootstrap test was used with 2,000 replicate samples, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. ...
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As the primary value system in Chinese culture for almost 2,000 years, Confucianism has profoundly influenced the mindset of Chinese people. Cultural psychology studies have highlighted that individuals with different cultural backgrounds vary in their preferences for certain personality traits, such as self-construal, and their metacognitive characteristics, such as thinking modes. Compared with Western cultures, Chinese culture shows a preference for the interdependent self and holistic thinking. To investigate the relationship between the relational-interdependent self, holistic thinking, and traditional Chinese values (which are represented by Confucian values), we surveyed 327 Chinese adults using the Confucian Traditional Values Survey, Holistic Thinking Scale, and Relational-Interdependent Self-Construal Scale. The results show that Confucian values positively influence both holistic thinking and the relational-interdependent self, the latter of which partially mediates the positive relationship between Confucian values and holistic thinking. This study deepens the understanding of the psychological features of Chinese culture.
... We first applied principal component analysis (PCA) to address RQ1 in SPSS 27 to extract components of perceived risk characteristics, which would be subsequently considered as the mediator(s) in the risk perception mechanism. Next, in multiple linear regression analysis, we used model 63 of the PROCESS v4.0 (Hayes, 2017) in SPSS 27 to examine H1, H2, and H3 and explore RQ2. Moderated mediating effects were tested via the bootstrap method. ...
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Food safety risk (FSR) is becoming a vital issue for public health, and improving public awareness of FSR through social media is necessary. This study aims to explore specific mechanisms of FSR perception; it first categorizes 19 risk characteristics into two variables, dread and efficacy, and then examines how social media use affects perceived FSR through both variables. Additionally, the study explores the moderating effects of source credibility and science literacy on the mechanisms of FSR perception. Based on a nationwide online survey (N = 2,015) of more than six salient food safety issues in China, the study found that exposure to food safety risk information on social media can help improve perceived FSR based on the proposed “dread–efficacy processing model” (DEPM), where dread stimulates perceived risk, while efficacy suppresses risk perception. Moreover, source credibility intensifies the effect of social media use on efficacy appraisal, whereas science literacy exerts a “double-weakening” influence on dread appraisal. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
... medium and r ≥ .5 large. Mediation models (model 4) and a moderation model (model 1) were calculated by means of the PROCESS macro to analyze whether there were mediation or moderation effects between the variables (Hayes, 2013). In accordance with Cohen (Cohen, 1994), an alpha level of 0.05 was used in this study. ...
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The suspension of face-to-face teaching, due to the COVID-19 social distancing regulations, raised serious concerns about the impacts on children's academic learning. Because the implementation of distance education in Germany was entirely the responsibility of individual schools, and because the home learning environments varied across households, school children had very different learning conditions during the pandemic. This fact raises questions whether the framework of distance learning has impacted children's development of basic number skills. In this paper, descriptive information on children's home learning conditions and teachers' distance teaching approaches during the pandemic, socio-cultural capital, and basic number skills of 484 third and fourth grade students (51,2% girls) in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) are assessed. The data revealed risk factors such as not having a tablet/laptop, lack of access to the internet, or a learning environment with siblings without an adult family member present. A negative association was found between multiple risk factors (at-risk levels) in home learning and basic number skills. This link was partially mediated by socio-cultural capital and moderated by teachers' distance teaching approach. Children whose teachers applied a more personalized teaching approach showed fewer negative relations between at-risk levels and basic number skills. While no evidence was observed for positive effects of videoconferencing, school-based emergency classes, or private tutoring on basic number skills, children whose learning was supported by learning management systems showed better skills than their peers. The findings highlight the differential impact of home-based learning conditions during the pandemic and provide practical implications for realization of distance teaching.
... Araştırma modelini test etmek için değişkenler arasındaki nedensellik ilişkisi ve düzenleyicilik rolünü incelemek için regresyon analizi uygulanmıştır. Düzenleyicilik rolü için PROCESS v3.0 programından faydalanılmıştır (Hayes, 2018). 5000 yeniden örnekleme kullanılarak %95 güven aralığında etkilerin anlamlılık düzeyi incelenmiştir (Preacher & Hayes, 2008;Shrout & Bolger, 2002). ...
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zet E-pazarlama yönelimi dijital çözümlerin pazarlama faaliyetlerine entegre olduğu yeni dönem pazarlama anlayışıdır. Bu bütünleşik pazarlama anlayışı Covid-19 pandemi döneminde pek çok işletme için tercih edilen bir yaklaşım olmuştur. E-pazarlama aktivitelerinin maliyet avantajı ve erişim kolaylığı ile pandemi krizinde ortaya çıkan finansal daralmaya çözüm sunabileceği düşünülmektedir. Bu amaçla çalışmada Ankara ili OSTİM Organize Sanayi Bölgesinde faaliyet gösteren 100 firmanın Covid-19 pandemi süreci ile birlikte e-pazarlama faaliyetlerine yönelimi incelenmiştir. Aynı zamanda e-pazarlama yöneliminin firmaların karlılığı üzerindeki etkisi ve firma cirolarının bu ilişkideki rolü araştırılmıştır. Bu kapsamda firmalardan anket yöntemiyle kesitsel olarak veri toplanarak nicel analizler gerçekleştirilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgulara göre e-pazarlama yönelimi ve kârlılık arasında pozitif ve anlamlı bir ilişki görülürken; cironun bu ilişki üzerinde düzenleyicilik rolü olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. Düşük ciroya sahip firmalarda e-pazarlama yöneliminin etkisi daha yüksek iken; yüksek cirolu firmalar da bu etki daha düşük seviyededir. Çalışma ile ortaya konan dikkat çekici sonuçların hem alan araştırmacıları hem de pazarlama yöneticilerine katkı sunması arzu edilmektedir. Abstract E-marketing orientation is a new era of marketing where digital solutions are integrated into marketing activities. This integrated marketing approach has been the preferred approach for many businesses during the Covid-19 pandemic. It is believed that e-marketing activities can provide a solution to the financial contraction caused by the pandemic crisis with cost advantage and ease of access. For this purpose, the study examined the orientation of 100 companies operating in OSTIM Organized Industrial Zone of Ankara province to e-marketing activities together with the Covid-19 pandemic process. At the same time, the effect of e
... Mediation analyses were performed using the PROCESS macro for SPSS (v.3.5; [61]). Bootstrapping with 5000 samples and heteroscedasticity consistent standard errors were employed to compute the confidence intervals (CI) and inferential statistics. ...
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Plain English summary Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder that affects mostly adolescent and young adult women. Individuals with anorexia nervosa often report problems in their relationships to close persons, e.g., to their parents or peers. Relationships to parents as well as peers undergo major changes during adolescence (with peer relationships gaining major importance), therefore, the present study focused on adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa and assessed the quality of their relationships to parents and peers. As expected, girls with anorexia nervosa reported poorer quality of relationships to their parents and especially to peers compared to healthy girls. Relationship quality was negatively associated with eating disorder symptoms, i.e., the lower relationship quality, the more pronounced were eating disorder symptoms. These results underline that treatment should not only focus on family relationships but also address relationships to peers with therapists encouraging adolescents with anorexia nervosa to establish and maintain friendships. Furthermore, the study revealed that alexithymia (a psychological characteristic involving difficulties in recognising and talking about one’s emotions) plays an important role in explaining the interplay between interpersonal relationships and eating disorder symptoms. However, the direction of effects remains unknown and further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms through which problems in relationships with close persons exert their influence on eating disorder symptoms and vice versa.
... Previous researchers (Hu and Bentler, 1999) noted that χ 2 /df (< 3), GFI (≥ 0.90), TLI (≥ 0.95), CFI (≥ 0.95), RMSEA (< 0.06), and SRMR (< 0.08) reflect a good fit. Fourth, bootstrap methods with robust standard errors were used to test the significance of mediating effects (Hayes, 2017). The bootstrap approach provided 95% deviationcorrected confidence intervals (CIs) for these effects using a resample of 5,000 data. ...
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This study is aimed at investigating the relationship between perceived teacher support and learning engagement and exploring the mediation role played by technology acceptance and learning motivation. It adopted a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach, with sampling 467 students from four middle schools in eastern China. The research findings showed that perceived teacher support is significantly associated with learning engagement. Learning motivation plays a mediating role in the relationship between perceived teacher support and learning engagement. There is the chain mediating effect of technology acceptance and learning motivation on the relationship between perceived teacher support and learning engagement. All of these are of great importance for the teachers in the middle schools, as they help to increase students’ engagement with learning activities considering the background of the deep integration of information technology and education teaching.
... Analyses of indirect effects were conducted for everyday social interaction characteristics that were associated with both perceived social support and changes in psychiatric symptoms in covariateadjusted models. Specifically, the PROCESS macro for SPSS (Version 3.5) was used to test the strength and significance of each hypothesized indirect effect, with adjustment for covariates, using bias-corrected bootstrapping with 10,000 resamples (Hayes, 2018). ...
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Main effect models contend that perceived social support benefits mental health in the presence and the absence of stressful events, whereas stress-buffering models contend that perceived social support benefits mental health especially when individuals are facing stressful events. We tested these models of how perceived social support impacts mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic and evaluated whether characteristics of everyday social interactions statistically mediated this association – namely, (a) received support, the visible and deliberate assistance provided by others, and (b) pleasantness, the extent to which an interaction is positive, flows easily, and leads individuals to feel understood and validated. 591 United States adults completed a three-week ecological momentary assessment protocol sampling characteristics of their everyday social interactions that was used to evaluate between-person average values and within-person daily fluctuations in everyday social interaction characteristics. Global measures of perceived social support and pandemic-related stressors were assessed at baseline. Psychiatric symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed at baseline, at the end of each day of ecological momentary assessment, and at three-week follow-up. Consistent with a main effect model, higher baseline perceived social support predicted decreases in psychiatric symptoms at three-week follow-up (β = -.09, p = .001). Contrary to a stress-buffering model, we did not find an interaction of pandemic-stressors × perceived social support. The main effect of perceived social support on mental health was mediated by the pleasantness of everyday social interactions, but not by received support in everyday social interactions. We found evidence for both main effects and stress-buffering effects of within-person fluctuations in interaction pleasantness on daily changes in mental health. Results suggest the importance of everyday social interaction characteristics, especially their pleasantness, in linking perceived social support and mental health.
... The collected data were analyzed using SPSS-25 and PROCESS macro [52]. Two sets of analyses were conducted. ...
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Background: Many studies indicate that ethnic minority women, including women from the disadvantaged Palestinian-Arab minority in Israel, experience higher rates of psychological distress but are less likely to use mental health services. This study examined psychological distress and its role as a moderator in the relationship between mental health service use and stigma-related, attitudinal, and instrumental barriers. Method: Cross-sectional study of 146 Palestinian-Arab women who completed measures of psychological distress, mental health service use, the Barriers to Care Evaluation scale, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: Participants who did not utilize mental health services reported higher levels of all barrier types compared to participants who reported previous use, but lower levels of psychological distress. Psychological distress was a significant moderator only in the relationship between attitudinal barriers and mental health service use. Conclusions: This study highlights the role of psychological distress in the relationship between barriers to and utilization of mental health services, helping professionals and policymakers increase mental health service use among Palestinian-Arab women in Israel and other vulnerable women elsewhere.
... p < 0.01). Table 2 The mediation effect of affective job insecurity can be checked by using a bootstrapping method Model 4 (Hayes, 2017). In table 2, the values [0.04, 0.18] did not include zero; thus, the presence of mediation takes place, which supports our hypothesis 4. ...
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This paper investigates the mediation effect of affective job insecurity between organizational justice and counterproductive work behavior in the presence of job insecurity climate as a moderator. Time-lagged data were collected from employees of various private sector organizations. Two hundred fifty questionnaires were distributed, and 202 complete sets of employees were received with the response rate of 81%. Research findings reveal that organizational justice diminishes counterproductive work behavior when the employees feel insecurity at work. Affective job insecurity mediates the relationship between organizational justice and counterproductive work behavior; moreover, there is a positive buffering effect of job insecurity climate such that the relationship is mitigated between affective job insecurity and counterproductive work behavior when job insecurity climate is high. Time lag data is used the duration is three weeks between the valuations of organizational justice and counterproductive behavior. This period is lengthy enough to reduce recall bias in the two employee surveys but short adequate to prevent the chances of significant outside events that might occur during that study. Organizational decision-makers should recognize that the feeling of job insecurity triggers employee performance because of psychological stress. The organizations can try to minimize this fear of job insecurity by offering them a permanent nature job. In the short-term, the organizations can promote the job insecurity climate. The moderated mediation effect of job insecurity climate adds significant value and contribution to the literature.
... The researchers have studied relationship between CSR perception on one hand and one of the mentioned outcomes on the other in a limited way and the interrelations amongst these have largely been ignored (Bianchi, Bruno, & Sarabia-Sanchez, 2019). In order to improve the understanding of the causal relationship between CSR perception and purchase intention, we present an integrated multiple mediation model of all these three important customer related outcomes of CSRsatisfaction, price fairness and purchase intention as such a model will allow us to understand importance of each construct simultaneously along with exploring the importance of shared link between the variables under study (Hayes, 2013). ...
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Purpose-Importance of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in marketing domain is increasing immensely. The effect of CSR perception on the purchase intention differs on the basis of mediators and contexts. The objective of this study is to examine the consumer behaviour of young consumers. For this, impact of CSR perception on purchase intention, satisfaction and price fairness of Generation Z is studied. Design/methodology/approach-Preliminary data analysis is run to check normality, skewness and common method bias. PLS-SEM is deployed to examine the relationships amongst the research variables. Sequential mediation through PLS bootstrapping helped in exploring new and exciting research results which are supported with literature. Findings-The CSR perception of Generation Z does not have a direct effect on their purchase intention. Interestingly, satisfaction and price fairness fully mediate the relationship between CSR perception and purchase intentions separately, i.e. CSR perception of Generation Z influences purchase intention only through satisfaction and price fairness. Furthermore, satisfaction and price fairness are also found to sequentially mediate the relationship between CSR perception and purchase intentions. Research limitations/implications-The research will aid not only the fast-food industry but the industries that are looking to focus on what Generation Z consumers expect in emerging markets including India. Understanding consumer expectations out of CSR initiatives will help them to incorporate social considerations into their marketing strategies and increase their profitability. Generation Z is regarded as the most challenging consumer demographic to market due to their proclivity for conducting extensive research and comparison shopping before making a purchase decision. As a result, the companies that want to use CSR as a strategy may find it advantageous to investigate how marketing of their CSR initiatives will lead to competitive edge and influence purchase decisions of this generational cohort. Originality/value-This study adds to the academic literature by developing and evaluating a research model for consumer responses of a very important generation cohort to CSR in an emerging economy setting. CSR activities alone may not be enough to improve purchase intention of Generation Z adults. Sequential mediation for Generation Z adults' relationship between CSR and price fairness flows through satisfaction and finally to purchase intention is interesting because it clearly establishes a link amongst belief, attitude and actions of the target audience under study in a meaningful way within the framework given by cognitive consistency theory.
... It is known that the bootstrapping approach effectively overcomes the limitations of Baron and Kenny's three step methods as well as the over-reliance on the normality assumption of the Sobel test [58]. In the bootstrapping test, the exclusion of zero in confidence interval (CI) is accepted to confirm the mediation effect [59]. Using 300 bootstrap samples and 95% CIs, we found a significant indirect effect of the diversity of the strategic attentions on the product innovation through the mediation of the absorptive capacity. ...
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Product innovation is a key achievement by which a firm can not only build up its competitive advantages but also prolong its survival in the open market environment. By understanding the firm as a social system pursuing both efficiency and effectiveness, this study examines three key factors that independently enable product innovation through a theoretical lens of the open system approach: strategic attention, external information sources, and absorptive capacity. While we suggest that a focused set of strategic attentions functions as an internal means to enhance the likelihood of product innovation, we also propose that diverse external partners provide the firm with the relevant knowledge for product innovation. In addition, we argue that the absorptive capacity is a crucial factor that has a positive direct effect on product innovation and mediates the effects of the two variables on the product innovation, based on the organizational learning theory. We empirically examined our hypotheses with the reliable data collected systematically through the “Korean Innovation Survey 2020: Manufacturing Industry” and found support for all of our hypotheses. Finally, we discuss theoretical contributions and practical implications.
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Bu araştırmanın amacı mesleki özdeşleşme ve bilgi paylaşımı arasındaki ilişkide prososyal motivasyonun aracı ve mütevazı liderliğin düzenleyici rolünü incelemektedir. Bu amaçla, Erzincan Binali Yıldırım Üniversitesi’nde çalışan 356 akademik personelden anket yöntemiyle veri elde edilmiştir. Bu veriler, SPSS 22, AMOS 23 ve SPSS MACRO istatistik programları kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Yapılan analizler sonucunda, mesleki özdeşleşme ve bilgi paylaşımı arasında pozitif ilişkinin bulunduğu, bu ilişkide prososyal motivasyonun kısmi aracılık rolünün bulunduğu tespit edilmiştir. Durumsal aracılık modeli kapsamında ise, mesleki özdeşleşmenin bilgi paylaşımı üzerindeki (prososyal motivasyon aracılığı ile) dolaylı etkisinde mütevazi liderliğin düzenleyici role sahip olduğu saptanmıştır. Literatürde, mesleki özdeşleşme ve bilgi paylaşımı arasındaki ilişkiyi inceleyen araştırmalarda prososyal motivasyonun aracı, mütevazi liderliğin düzenleyici rolünü inceleyen bir araştırmaya rastlanılmamıştır. Bu bakımdan araştırmadan elde edilen sonuçların literatüre önemli kaynak ve katkı sağlayacağı beklenmektedir.
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An aging workforce and the increasing value placed on employees' proactivity are two important features of current workplaces. We address the extent to which this proactivity is affected by age and aging. The study has two objectives. First, it aims to validate the concept of awareness of age-related change (AARC) in the Chinese context. Second, it compares the explanatory power of AARC with that of chronological age and subjective age in predicting three types of proactivity: task proactivity, development proactivity and organization proactivity. We used the ten-item AARC instrument in a survey of teachers ( n = 421, mean age = 41.0) in China, and validated its content by comparing the responses of a subsample of these teachers ( n = 33, mean age = 42.5) to questions asked in a semi-structured interview. This confirmed the validity of the instrument's content, and its applicability beyond North America and Europe, in a Chinese context. We then show that awareness of positive and negative age-related changes (AARC-Gains and AARC-Losses) are, respectively, positively and negatively associated with the three types of proactivity, and that they are better predictors than chronological age and subjective age. The research adds weight to challenges to negative age stereotyping—-that older employees are set in their ways and less proactive—-and to claims about the value of AARC for measuring aging, by showing that this factor can predict outcomes beyond health and the concerns of older adults.
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The current research investigated the influence of the Fear of Losing Out (FoLO) mindset on learning strategy via performance goal orientation and its interaction with social comparison amongst Singaporean college students. In Study 1, a positive relationship between FoLO and performance goal orientations (i.e., avoidance and approach) was found. Study 2 replicated this finding and further revealed a downstream effect of FoLO on surface learning via performance goal orientations. In addition, social comparison moderated the link between performance goal orientation and surface learning in the mediation model. Specifically, in downward social comparison conditions, FoLO facilitated high performance-avoidance goal orientation, which in turn led to higher surface learning. Comparatively, in upward social comparison conditions, FoLO incited high performance-approach goal orientation, which in turn led to lower surface learning. Taken together, the findings yield significant theoretical and practical implications of FoLO on college students’ goal orientations and learning outcomes.
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p style="text-align: justify;">The purpose of this study is to examine the mediator role of cognitive flexibility and difficulties in emotion regulation in the relationship between resilience and distress tolerance amongst college students. The sample of the study involved 1114 students (771 females, 343 males) from various universities in Turkey. The mean age of the sample was 20.65 (Sd=2.77). The Resilience Scale, Distress Tolerance Scale, Cognitive Flexibility Scale, and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) had been used to collect data. In this study, a Serial Multiple Mediation Model was used, as proposed by Hayes. The findings showed that people with a higher level of distress tolerance possess higher degrees of cognitive flexibility and that cognitively more flexible individuals experience less difficulty in emotion regulation, and thus, lower levels of difficulty in emotion regulation were associated with an increase in resilience. Furthermore, the model in its entirety had proven to be statistically significant, accounting for 42% of the total variance.</p
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Cultural understanding entails a recognition of outgroup values. Combining quantitative and qualitative methods, we analysed the perception of Spaniards of the core values of Moroccan immigrants across two online surveys, 139 interviews and an experimental study. In Study 1, participants spontaneously generated the values considered fundamental for Moroccans, rated such values on a continuum of negativity-positivity and reported their attitudes towards Moroccans. In Study 2, participants were asked about the values that Spaniards and Moroccans (do not) share. In Study 3, participants were interviewed about the core values for Moroccans and those shared with Spaniards. Study 4 experimentally manipulated the salience of value-sharing. An inductive analysis revealed that the perceived core values for Moroccans were related to family/community, material issues, religion and integrity. Study 2 showed that religion, gender-universalism and culture/tradition were perceived as different values, whereas integrity, social-interaction and family/community values were perceived as shared. Study 4 confirmed that making salient the common importance of family for Spaniards and Moroccans indirectly increased the perceived morality of Moroccan immigrants via perceived shared values. Implications for the way lay people think about the values of outgroups are discussed.
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Background Theoretical models of self-conscious emotions indicate that shame is elicited through internal, stable, and global causal attributions of the precipitating event. The current study aimed to investigate whether these negative attributions are related to trauma-related shame and PTSD symptom severity. Method A total of 658 participants aged 18 to 89 (M = 33.42; SD = 12.17) with a history of trauma exposure completed a range of self-report measures assessing trauma exposure, negative trauma-related attributions, shame, and PTSD symptoms. Results Higher levels of internal, stable, and global trauma-related attributions were significantly associated with shame and PTSD. Shame mediated the association between trauma-related attributions and PTSD symptom severity, even after controlling for the effects of number of trauma exposures, worst index trauma and depression. Conclusions The present results suggest that negative attributions are a critical cognitive component related to shame and in turn, PTSD symptom severity. Future research should aim to replicate these findings in a clinical sample and extend these findings using prospective designs.
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When we think about the issues currently confronted by those who work in schools, stress and burnout among teachers and other practitioners is recognized as a widespread concern due to the adverse effects on students, schools, and communities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of job stress on the experienced burnout of teachers, and to examine the variability in burnout attributable to a specific psychological resource, namely, an individual's work‐related sense of coherence (Work‐SoC). A descriptive, cross‐sectional analysis was conducted using data collected through an online survey from 231 primary and secondary school teachers in the United States. Results from correlational and regression analyses demonstrate that two forms of work stress—perceived quantity and perceived quality—are important predictors of burnout. Further, Work‐SoC contributes to variability in teacher burnout even after accounting for perceived work and life stress, suggesting its important role in buffering teachers from the experience of burnout. Implications for practitioners for reducing teacher stress and burnout are discussed. 1. Educators across the United States experience job stress and burnout differently. 2. One set of factors that negatively impacts job stress and burnout are personal, individual characteristics which includes age, sex, and tenure status. 3. Another set of factors that negatively impact job stress are centered on the context of the school and community and includes percentage of non‐white students, Title I status, and “failing” school status. Educators across the United States experience job stress and burnout differently. One set of factors that negatively impacts job stress and burnout are personal, individual characteristics which includes age, sex, and tenure status. Another set of factors that negatively impact job stress are centered on the context of the school and community and includes percentage of non‐white students, Title I status, and “failing” school status.
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