Article

Executive travel stress: Perils of the road warrior

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Abstract

An important but rarely studied organizational activity is executive travel, a process that may be even more significant in this era of globalization, mergers, nation-state economic development and growth, and free-market strategic alliance building. Executive travel and the stress it may create is also a process that can cause emotional upset, physical illness, decreased performance, and problems in achieving company objectives. While travelers-be they businesspeople, politicians, or diplomats-can testify to the problems that being on the road may bring, a systematic discussion of this issue is necessary. None of the current models of occupational stress address this concern, and organizations have generally not effectively prepared their employees to withstand this stress. This article reviews the concept of travel stress among business executives, including the sources and the potential impact of stress before, during, and after travel. We offer both organizational and individual interventions for preventing and coping with the kinds of problems that often result from traveling on business domestically and internationally.

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... As indicated by a survey, about 70% of flexpatriates in the US are married. Since most of these flexpatriates are between 25 and 45 years old, we can suppose that many have children at home (DeFrank et al., 2000;Wirtz et al., 2011). Prior research (e.g., Liese et al., 1997) have implied that international travelling is more taxing on those executives who are married and have young children. ...
... About 75% of the married flexpatriates feel it is hard to be away from home for more extended periods, compared with about 50% of those unmarried (Hellman, 1996). The stress brought about by a partner's absence is not a new phenomenon, yet it is one that can be hard for everyone involved (DeFrank et al., 2000;Despotovic et al., 2015). ...
... Individuals in less steady relationships might be at more risk due to the additional burden of travel. Stress might be reduced when the travel separates couples with issues; however, this is magnified when an arrival implies that issues must be faced again (DeFrank et al., 2000). Nevertheless, the growing significance of travel for flexpatriates ought to encourage more research on the impact of travel on families (O'Donohue et al., 2015). ...
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Flexpatriates are sent by their companies to different countries around the globe to execute short-term and important assignments and then immediately return home after completing their project. However, in international human resource management (IHRM) research, attention has mainly been focused on traditional expatriates. Even though alternative arrangements for global mobility, such as flexpatriation, have recently become increasingly popular among multinational corporations (MNCs), this trend seems to have been neglected in previous studies. The present study endeavors to examine the issues and challenges encountered by Western flexpatriates during short-term assignments in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The results suggest that, with minimal interventions by the human resource (HR) departments, these flexpatriate executives have been proactive while working in the UAE in self-managing their personal and family issues, work-life balance, career issues, and cultural challenges. Finally, the present study provides some suggestions for HR managers in effectively managing flexpatriates and also provides an agenda for future research in this emerging field. Abstract Flexpatriates are sent by their companies to different countries around the globe to execute short-term and important assignments and then immediately return home after completing their project. However, in international human resource management (IHRM) research, attention has mainly been focused on traditional expatriates. Even though alternative arrangements for global mobility, such as flexpatriation, have recently become increasingly popular among multinational corporations (MNCs), this trend seems to have been neglected in previous studies. The present study endeavors to examine the issues and challenges encountered by Western flexpatriates during short-term assignments in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The results suggest that, with minimal interventions by the human resource (HR) departments, these flexpatriate executives have been proactive while working in the UAE in self-managing their personal and family issues, work-life balance, career issues, and cultural challenges. Finally, the present study provides some suggestions for HR managers in effectively managing flexpatriates and also provides an agenda for future research in this emerging field.
... "'Management-by-flying about' is one way of describing how international travel has become an essential component of business life" (Welch, Welch, & Worm, 2007: 175). International commuters -also called flexpatriates, frequent flyers, globetrotters or road warriors (Welch & Worm, 2006: 284;DeFrank, Konopaske, & Ivancevich, 2000: 58) -regularly travel abroad, but neither they nor their family and/or spouse relocate. The centre of their live stays in the home country (Mayerhofer, Hartmann, Michelitsch-Riedl, & Kollinger, 2004b;Harris et al., 2005;Peiperl & Jonsen, 2007). ...
... For organizations, it is adequate for a broad range of tasks, in particular during the establishment or closing of an operation abroad. Its main advantages include direct face-to-face contact with customers abroad without having to use traditional expatriates (DeFrank et al., 2000) and "providing a great deal of flexibility to the organization in the tasks to be done, with minimum preparation and minimal staffing change" (Mayerhofer et al., 2004b(Mayerhofer et al., : 1385. ...
... On the positive side for the individual, Welch und Worm mention a "variety of tasks, people and destination" (2006: 292) and point towards experiences such as the ‚thrill of the deal', mastering various challenges, 'the buzz' as an expression of enthusiasm and flying high in a glamorous life style. Developmental opportunities include a broadening of horizons, developing personal resources and enlarging social networks (DeFrank et al., 2000;Westman, Etzion, & Gattenio, 2008;Welch et al., 2007). Finally, despite the additional strain, many individuals emphasize the function of being in a separate space, thus evading conflicts between work and family (Westman et al., 2008;Mayerhofer, Hartmann, & Herbert, 2004a). ...
... Nevertheless, the travels can imply costs to the travellers, either at the physical level and/or psychological (e.g., occupational stress) (DeFrank, Konopaske, & Ivancevich, 2000;Ivancevich, Konopaske, & DeFrank, 2003), given that there is still a gap in terms of studies that address the impact of the mobility requirements in the IBT well-being (Ivancevich, et al. 2003;Shaffer, Kraimer, Chen, & Bolino, 2012). Furthermore, some studies about international mobility suggest the analysis of the positive and negative impact of it on traveller's health (e.g., DeFrank et al., 2000;Mayerhofer, Hartmann, & Herbert, 2004;Westman, Etzion, & Chen, 2009). ...
... Nevertheless, the travels can imply costs to the travellers, either at the physical level and/or psychological (e.g., occupational stress) (DeFrank, Konopaske, & Ivancevich, 2000;Ivancevich, Konopaske, & DeFrank, 2003), given that there is still a gap in terms of studies that address the impact of the mobility requirements in the IBT well-being (Ivancevich, et al. 2003;Shaffer, Kraimer, Chen, & Bolino, 2012). Furthermore, some studies about international mobility suggest the analysis of the positive and negative impact of it on traveller's health (e.g., DeFrank et al., 2000;Mayerhofer, Hartmann, & Herbert, 2004;Westman, Etzion, & Chen, 2009). Per Ivancevich et al. (2003), "understanding the short and long-term effects of business travel can be very beneficial to managers and organizations as they attempt to maximize the positive outcomes of the travel" (p.139). ...
... Through the traveller's exposure to new places, cultures and business practices and products the travel becomes very educational (DeFrank et al., 2000;Ivancevich et al., 2003). The learning opportunities produce positive emotions in the traveller (Westman & Etzion, 2002), which will have impact at the personal and professional level. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract International business travelers constitute an emerging type of international mobility, and there is a gap in terms of studies that address well-being. Based on the Holistic Model of Stress, we intend to explore the occupational stress associated with business travel through a qualitative case study using document analysis and semi-structured interviews. We verified a predominance of distress sources in the trip stage and the adoption of coping strategies focused on the problem. Personal and professional factors are assumed to be the main moderators of the stress experienced. We conclude that travel brings mostly negative personal consequences that are accentuated during the traveler’s career, and confirm that the trips are a source of stress with impact on the personal and professional life of the traveler. The paper includes a discussion on the theoretical and practical implications of the findings for both the company and the travelers. Keywords: International Business Travelers; Occupational Stress; Holistic Model of Stress
... Aging may simply wear out the systems in the brain that respond to stress. Hilton Hotels Corporation and the National Sleep Foundations (1997) report cited in DeFrank et al. (2000), indicated that younger business travelers are nearly twice as likely to not feel during a business trip as the older business traveler. ...
... There will be a difference in foreign tourists' perceptions of overseas travel stress with regard to personality. DeFrank et al. (2000) stated that longer trips require greater endurance and may create stress for the traveler. Related research on commuting stress indicated by Cassidy (1992) cited in DeFrank et al. (2000) that the longer the time on the journey the more negative is the experience. ...
... DeFrank et al. (2000) stated that longer trips require greater endurance and may create stress for the traveler. Related research on commuting stress indicated by Cassidy (1992) cited in DeFrank et al. (2000) that the longer the time on the journey the more negative is the experience. According to Money and Crotts (2003), a risk adverse traveler would like to get back to home base and not stay as many nights away. ...
Chapter
Traveling has long been considered one of the best ways to release the stress caused by work and life. But in fact, uncertainties and negative experiences can break down the benefits and may make travelers feel stressed. A considerable amount of literature in tourism focuses on topic areas like destination building, market operation, and consumer satisfaction, but ignores one important aspect which negates many of the positive benefits of tourism—stress. Thus, the main purpose of this study is to examine foreign tourists’ perceptions of travel related stress on their visits to Bangkok, Thailand, and test how demographic and traveler characteristics act on them by such data statistical treatments as independent sample t-test and one way ANOVA. Descriptive research and questionnaires are used as the research method and the research instrument in this study, which involved 384 tourists. Results reveal that there are significant differences in foreign tourists’ perceptions of stress, which can be classified in terms of nationality, personality, type of tour, purpose of tour, group size, and familiarity with fellow travelers.
... Larsen, Brun, and Øgaard (2009) further revealed the between-stage differences that the level of tourist worries (e.g., about terrorism, accidents, and diseases), as one of the vacation stress types, is lower among people who are currently travelling and those still planning a trip. However, the potential stress-level correlations between vacation stages are still underexplored (Bricker, 2005, DeFrank, et al., 2000, Zehrer, et al., 2012. This study thus fills this gap by exploring how the stress at two air travel stages (departure-flight and return-flight stages) can be shaped by the joint effects of other vacation stages, given the COR mechanisms. ...
... The proposed influential factors include personal factors of sociodemographics, health and mental/physical skill, time/financial resource, responsibilities, opportunities, and personality, as well as trip factors of economic costs, social/cultural features, environmental features, travel services, and media information. In another study on business travel, DeFrank, et al. (2000) found some influential factors to business travel stress (regardless of travel stages), such as the demographic factors of age and gender, personality (e.g., travel hardiness, cross-cultural adaptability, open-mindedness, and locus of control), job features (e.g., decision-making power and difficulty of job assignment), as well as home and family issues (e.g., marital/family status and degree of family support). While these factors are identified primarily toward the atdestination stage, could these factors also be influential to the air travel stress given the stagespecific stressors? ...
... How would such spillover of work stress to vacation trip influence air travel stress specifically? Tourists who are employed and/or with high job strain would need to leave their jobs in good order before travel, which can become a pre-travel stressor that consumes significant cognitive and affective resources (DeFrank, Konopaske, & Ivancevich 2000); then due to the spillover of job strain over the course of vacation, tourists with employment and particularly those experiencing high-level job strain are more likely thinking about or conducting work duties over the trip, hence likely with less resource restorage from vacation travel. The significantly more resource consumption before travel plus the less sufficient resource restorage during the trip are thus contributing to a higher air travel stress at the departure-flight stage due to the resource-conservative motivation. ...
... With regard to international business travel, flexpatriate and short-term assignments, these forms of IAs often imply family separation (Mayerhofer et al., 2004a, b;Starr and Currie, 2009) rather than family relocation, which in any case poses a real challenge for organisations and for workers. Frequent travel gives rise to various issues related to the quality of time spent with family, the management of childcare and babysitting, the planning of unforeseen emergencies and so forth (DeFrank et al., 2000). Family is not the only stressor for business travellers: the extent and intensity of travel, the quality of accommodation and communication, frequently having to attend social events and other job-related factors such as worrying about work building up at home and achieving the required performance level are also noticeable sources of stress (DeFrank et al., 2000). ...
... Frequent travel gives rise to various issues related to the quality of time spent with family, the management of childcare and babysitting, the planning of unforeseen emergencies and so forth (DeFrank et al., 2000). Family is not the only stressor for business travellers: the extent and intensity of travel, the quality of accommodation and communication, frequently having to attend social events and other job-related factors such as worrying about work building up at home and achieving the required performance level are also noticeable sources of stress (DeFrank et al., 2000). Expatriates in a new work environment also have to deal with various work role stressors (role ambiguity, role conflict and role novelty) and situational stressors (lack of language fluency, national cultural novelty, lack of promotion and lack of free choice) (Kraimer and Wayne, 2004;Shaffer et al., 2012). ...
... These resources could also support the management of cultural demands; indeed, expatriates often experience so-called culture shock (Oberg, 1960), which concerns various aspects of integration into the new environment, not just the actual work. Similarly, people who make frequent business trips can feel disoriented when having to interpret different cultural codes; in addition, they have little time to manage the cultural adjustment (DeFrank et al., 2000). ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to explore the interplay between international experiences and male and female top managers' career paths, taking into consideration gender differences. Furthermore, the research investigates the specific job and personal demands and resources related to the different types of international work experiences. Design/methodology/approach This study provides an in-depth subjective reconstruction of the international professional experience of 37 male and female top managers employed in Italy, using semi-structured interviews. Findings Participants highlighted the benefits of their international assignments (IAs) in terms of the development of managerial, soft and cross-cultural skills. Family issues and cultural differences were frequently cited as challenges by the top managers interviewed. Culture shock and perceived difficulty in managing multicultural teams were reported by both women and men. Men reported experiencing long periods of separation from their family more often than women and cited the support of their partner as a valuable resource. In addition to the support of a partner, women also indicated that certain job resources and welfare policies played a crucial role. Moreover, women appear to be more interested in work-family management issues, thus suggesting that the traditional division of roles between men and women continues to persist in Italy. Originality/value This study provides an insight into the extrinsic factors linked to career success, as well as the challenges and the resources associated with different forms of global work other than traditional expatriation. It takes into consideration a specific country, Italy, where a traditional family paradigm persists, providing an insight into better understanding the link between IA experiences and gender roles in global mobility. Managerial implications are also discussed.
... Physical and social environmental factors can be one of the mechanisms that explain travel stress. At work, making work arrangements, preparing for business travel prior to travel [17] , and performing follow-up after travel, such as paperwork, are considered sources of stress [42] . At home, to lessen spouses' burden while being physically absent for days, travelers have to make extra efforts to make arrangements for their home responsibilities, such as looking for a babysitter [17] . ...
... At work, making work arrangements, preparing for business travel prior to travel [17] , and performing follow-up after travel, such as paperwork, are considered sources of stress [42] . At home, to lessen spouses' burden while being physically absent for days, travelers have to make extra efforts to make arrangements for their home responsibilities, such as looking for a babysitter [17] . During business travel, constant changes in environment and alterations in everyday routine to which business travelers need to adjust can lead to poor adjustment and stress [24] . ...
... Therefore, organizations should review and implement policies that can decrease the feeling of burnout on business travelers. These policies should lighten the heavy workload of business travelers [6] , allow vacation time after concluding business assignments [42] maintain web-based contact for travelers during business trips [47] , and provide concierge programs, such as childcare, pet care, and home repair [17] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Businesses and corporations today break geographical boundaries and carry out business globally (Carlson & Perrewe, 1999). Business travel can be physically demanding and psychologically stressful, compromising the well-being of business travelers and the benefits of organizations. The present study examined how biopsychosocial factors, which are health concern, burnout, and social support, explained business travel stress among business travelers in Malaysia. We recruited 100 working adults (n = 63 men, n = 37 women) who traveled for business purposes from airports in Malaysia. Participants completed a series of questionnaires using the paper-and-pencil method. The mediation analyses showed that only burnout mediated the relationship between business travel and perceived stress. Specifically, the less intensely an individual traveled, s/he experienced a higher level of perceived stress; and this could be explained by the high level of burnout experienced. These findings have shed some light on how to deal with business travel stress at organizational and personal levels. Our findings suggested that organization-level interventions and policies should place an emphasis on employees who have to travel and in particular those who travel less intensively. Also, to provide support for business traveling employees, corporations should set up interventions and policies that aim to decrease burnout associated with business traveling.
... As indicated by a survey, about 70% of flexpatriates in the USA are married. Since most of these flexpatriates are between 25 and 45 years old, we can suppose that many have children at home (DeFrank et al., 2000;Wirtz et al., 2011). Prior research (e.g., Liese et al., 1997) have implied that international travelling is more taxing on those executives who are married and have young children. ...
... About 75% of the married flexpatriates feel it is hard to be away from home for more extended periods, compared with about 50% of those unmarried (Hellman, 1996). The stress brought about by a partner's absence is not a new phenomenon, yet it is one that can be hard for everyone involved (DeFrank et al., 2000;Despotovic et al., 2015). ...
... Individuals in less steady relationships might be at more risk due to the additional burden of travel. Stress might be reduced when the travel separates couples with issues; however, this is magnified when an arrival implies that issues must be faced again (DeFrank et al., 2000). Nevertheless, the growing significance of travel for flexpatriates ought to encourage more research on the impact of travel on families (O'Donohue et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Flexpatriates are sent by their companies to different countries around the globe to execute short-term and important assignments and then immediately return home after completing their project. However, in international human resource management (IHRM) research, attention has mainly been focused on traditional expatriates. Even though alternative arrangements for global mobility, such as flexpatriation, have recently become increasingly popular among multinational corporations (MNCs), this trend seems to have been neglected in previous studies. The present study endeavours to examine the issues and challenges encountered by Western flexpatriates during short-term assignments in the UAE. The results suggest that, with minimal interventions by the human resource (HR) departments, these flexpatriate executives have been proactive while working in the UAE in self-managing their personal and family issues, work-life balance, career issues, and cultural challenges. Finally, the present study provides some suggestions for HR managers in effectively managing flexpatriates and also provides an agenda for future research in this emerging field.
... International business travel and well-being: towards a JD-R perspective The term "international business travel" often evokes images of luxury and glamour and research suggests development opportunity, broadening of horizons and social networks, plus benefits to being in a separate environment to the norm (DeFrank et al., 2000;Welch and Worm, 2006;Westman et al., 2008). However, frequently, the very nature of working internationally presents a challenging context involving travel to different geographical regions with various cultures to navigate, impact to social life from short notice for travel, pressures stemming from family responsibilities (especially for females), plus additional strain experienced due to pre-, during or post-trip workload, planning or logistics (Collings et al., 2007;DeFrank et al., 2000;Mayrhofer et al., 2012;Welch et al., 2007;Westman et al., 2008). ...
... International business travel and well-being: towards a JD-R perspective The term "international business travel" often evokes images of luxury and glamour and research suggests development opportunity, broadening of horizons and social networks, plus benefits to being in a separate environment to the norm (DeFrank et al., 2000;Welch and Worm, 2006;Westman et al., 2008). However, frequently, the very nature of working internationally presents a challenging context involving travel to different geographical regions with various cultures to navigate, impact to social life from short notice for travel, pressures stemming from family responsibilities (especially for females), plus additional strain experienced due to pre-, during or post-trip workload, planning or logistics (Collings et al., 2007;DeFrank et al., 2000;Mayrhofer et al., 2012;Welch et al., 2007;Westman et al., 2008). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore well-being experiences of international business travellers (IBTs) and contribute to our understanding of personal and job characteristics as antecedents of ill- or well-being. Design/methodology/approach The authors’ insights are based on semi-structured in-depth interviews with 32 IBTs assigned to various destinations ranging from single-country travel to global operation. Participants in this study represent a range of traveller personas (regarding demographics, type of work, travel patterns). Thematic analysis is used to reveal new insights. Findings The authors’ analysis revealed trip-load (i.e. workload, control, organisational support) and intensity of travel (i.e. frequency, duration and quality) as job characteristics that sit on an energy stimulation continuum, driving work-related outcomes such as stress and burnout or health and well-being. Energy draining and boosting processes are moderated by cognitive flexibility and behavioural characteristics. Practical implications Findings represent a framework for managing IBT well-being via adjustments in job and travel characteristics, plus guidance for training and development to help IBTs self-manage. Originality/value The insights within this paper contribute to the conversation around how to enhance well-being for IBTs and frequent flyers. The study intends to offer direction as to which specific job, psychological and behavioural characteristics to focus on, introducing a novel framework for understanding and avoiding serious consequences associated with international mobility such as increased stress, burnout and ill-health.
... Vacation experiences may not always foster happiness and may even cause "holiday syndrome" (Cattell, 1955;Steyn;Saayman, &Nienaber, 2004). DeFrank et al. (2000) defined leisure or vacation stress as individuals' responses to problems faced during travel. Zehrer and Crotts (2012) found that vacation travelers face stress, including pre-trip stressors, stressors related to actual travel to the destination and stressors related to the stay at the destination. ...
... There is some evidence regarding travel stress in the business travel context, where business travelers face different stress. Examples include planning the trip and delegating work, which might negatively impact business travelers' well-being by causing chronic diseases and decreasing job performance (Burkholder, Joines, Cunningham-Hill, & Xu, 2010;Cohen & G€ ossling, 2015;DeFrank et al., 2000). Because travel is part of work, business travelers experience stress due to long working hours, higher workload and stress when returning from the trip (Striker, Dimberg, &Liese, 2000;Westman, &Etzion, 2002;Etzion, &Gattenio, 2008). ...
Article
Leisure travel can mediate daily stress, but also provoke stress. Tourists experience multiple stress during their vacations. The aim of this study was to identify what types of stress tourists encounter during their travel experiences and what strategies they use to cope with stress. Using semi-structured interviews and participant observation, the study findings reveal that tourists encounter four major types of stress (i.e., service-provider-related stress, traveler-related stress, travel-partner-related stress, and environment-related stress) during their vacations and use many strategies (i.e., problem-focused and emotion-focused coping) to cope with stress. These findings not only contribute to tourism research by documenting specific types of stress in the travel context and exploring new insights into ways of coping with stress, but also provide suggestions for how tourism and hospitality professionals should modify programs/experiences in response to tourists’ stress and the need to cope with stress during travel experiences.
... The demanding side of traveling, leading to a health-impairment process and undesirable outcomes, has been extensively researched in literature on IBTs. International business travel has been associated with numerous stressors, such as increased workload, time pressure, safety risks, and travel-related hassles, including jet lag and travel delays (DeFrank et al., 2000;Espino et al., 2002;Mäkelä and Kinnunen, 2016;Welch and Worm, 2006). Since stressors hinder expatriates' adjustment (Bhaskar-Shrinivas et al., 2005;Lazarova et al., 2010), the demands associated with traveling would make it harder for expatriates with traveling responsibilities to adjust. ...
... Managers should also evaluate the level of support they provide to the expatriate. Allowing for a day off work or for the ability to work from home upon return are some examples of support that expatriates may find especially helpful (DeFrank et al., 2000;Puchmüller and Fischlmayr, 2017). In addition, it is important for managers to be aware that the interplay between job resources and the cultural novelty of the host country is sufficiently complex to warrant a more individualized approach to expatriate assignments. ...
Article
In this study, we demonstrate the importance of assessing international business travel in the context of expatriation. Based on the Job Demands-Resources theory, we suggest that engaging in international business travel is beneficial for expatriates when certain conditions are in place and detrimental when they are not. We propose that expatriates who have adequate job resources will reap the benefits of international business travel and achieve better adjustment to living and working in the host country and have greater career satisfaction. Survey results based on a sample of 161 expatriates provide support that engaging in international business travel is positively and indirectly related to expatriates' career satisfaction through expatriate adjustment when job resources are abundant, and it has a negative indirect association when resources are low. We further find that job resources play a role in the relationship between international business travel and career satisfaction primarily when the host-country culture is similar to that of the home country.
... These assignees are also known as frequent fliers. Also, international business travelers are posted up to a few weeks but not exceeding 3 months (DeFrank et al, 2000). In some cases, it lasts for one or two months and are called as extended business travellers (Herod, 2008). ...
... However, assignments for more than one week, travel allowance, meal allowances and a free company car during their stay were normally allowed. Absence of such support causes to increase stress and lead to poor adjustment and performance of the assignees (Beaverstock et al., 2010;DeFrank et al., 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of flexpatriates and international business travellers (FIBT) and related issues of FIBTs. Finally, the outcome of the paper is enriched by presenting a policy oriented conceptual model for managerial concern to resolve such issues of FIBSs. A literature-based data compilation was done to develop this model. The model mainly outlines the necessity of giving strategic policy orientation on managing FIBTs by considering several supportive channels: organizational support and social support for both assignees and families.
... International-business-travel-related job demands are linked to traveling itself, such as problems with travel logistics, unexpected travel delays, and air travel such as the physical discomfort involved (Bergbom et al., 2011b;Ivancevich et al., 2003). Furthermore, there are demands related to travel destinations, that is, change of time zone, cultural and climate differences between home and host countries, and risks related to health and safety (Bergbom et al., 2011b;DeFrank et al., 2000;Gustafson, 2014;Ivancevich et al., 2003;Patel, 2011;Rezaei et al., 2018). Moreover, work requirements can be very demanding on a business trip because research shows that mobile employees work long hours (Hyrkk€ anen and Vartiainen, 2005; Hyrkk€ anen et al., 2011) and suffer from excessive time pressure, and workload (Gustafson, 2014). ...
... A high-quality LMX will incorporate a more comprehensive approach to leadership than social support alone and has the potential to buffer the negative effects of the duration of trips on exhaustion among IBTs. An example of such negative effects would be when IBTs who are away from headquarters for significant periods have reduced access to information and are thus less involved in key decision-making (Ivancevich et al., 2003;DeFrank et al., 2000). However, people in a high-quality LMX are usually provided with more information (Sias, 2005), instrumental help and emotional support (Hsu et al., 2010) by their immediate supervisor, which might buffer the negative effects of the long duration of trips, especially on general job exhaustion. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of the present study is to examine the general and travel-specific job exhaustion of international business travelers (IBTs). The study employs a JD-R model to explain general and travel-specific job exhaustion (IBTExh) through international business travel as demand and leadership (LMX) as a resource buffering the demands of international business travel. Design/methodology/approach The study was conducted among Finnish service company employees who had taken at least one international business trip during the previous year. The data ( N = 569), collected in 2015, were analyzed with path models. Findings The results suggest that a higher number of international business travel days is related to a higher level of job exhaustion, especially the exhaustion related to international business travel. Moreover, a high-quality LMX was found to be linked to lower levels of both types of exhaustion. Interestingly, for those IBTs' with a low-quality LMX, even a high number of long-haul international business travel days was not connected with IBTExh Originality/value The contribution of our study is threefold. First, this study contributes to JD-R theory and the ill-health process by focusing on a job-specific well-being indicator, IBTExh, in addition to general exhaustion. Second, specific job demands related to international business travel, particularly the duration of business travel spent in short-haul and long-haul destinations, contributes to the literature on global mobility. This study sheds light on the potential effects on IBTs of different types of business travel. Third, our study contributes to the leadership literature and the importance of acknowledging the context in which LMX occurs.
... It is also very common that expatriate jobs require international travel in their business arena. International travel means the traveler is absent from home and travel thus typically has a negative impact on the work-family balance of travelers (DeFrank et al. 2000;Jensen 2013). While away, travelers cannot participate in the everyday lives of their families and share family responsibilities as a parent or partner usually would (Mayerhofer et al. 2004;Mäkelä et al. 2012;Welch and Worm 2006). ...
... Support from a partner has also been linked to expatriates' performance and the successful completion of international assignments (Lauring and Selmer 2010). It has also been reported that support from the family reduces stress among IBTs (DeFrank, Konopaske, and Ivancevich 2000), and that the support of a family increases IBTs' satisfaction with their work-related international travel . ...
Chapter
Owing to the increasing number of studies on expatriates, their partners and families, we are starting to understand the main challenges related to work and personal life interaction involved with international mobility. Moreover, the first edited book on the work-life interface (WLI) in the context of international careers has recently been published (Mäkelä and Suutari 2015). In this chapter, we aim to draw together what is known about the interaction between working life and personal life (including family) in regard to the spheres of different types of internationally mobile professionals. We start from the discussion on negative interactions between these two life spheres. Next, we will complement the picture by discussing the often-forgotten side of these experiences—the positive experiences of international professionals and their families. Given the large amount of transference between the work and non-work spheres of families during international assignments, it is also important to understand the ways in which organisations can help expatriates and their families. We will thus also discuss how firms can manage the WLI issues of their internationally mobile staff.
... For example, many business travellers to the USA report more scrutiny at border control in the context of President Trump's well-publicised stance on bringing jobs back to the USA. Duty of care concerns are of particular importance in this context given the significant rise in health-related issues such as jetlag, stress, anxiety and travelling to high-risk locations (DeFrank, Konopaske & Ivancevich, 2000). IBTs are also more likely than expatriates to experience role conflict as the domestic tasks and expectations of the business often follow them while they are on assignment, whereas the expatriate can largely focus on the local context while on assignment (Welch & Worm, 2006). ...
... There is not much research on the positive effects of international business travel to individuals, but what is available shows that international business travel, for some employees at least, is a source of personal and occupational development, variety, and novelty, and for others a career in itself (DeFrank et al., 2000;Mäkelä et al., 2015). Research by Westman and colleagues suggests that crossover processes can play a pivotal role in deriving positive benefits from business travel. ...
... Dabei zeigte sich in bisherigen Untersuchungen insbesondere die zeitliche Arbeitsbelastung in Form von Zeitdruck als bester Prädiktor. Hinzu kommen Reisedauer und Reisefrequenz (DeFrank et al. 2000;Ivancevich et al. 2003;Kraus und Rieder 2019). Deshalb werden in der vorliegenden Studie zusätzlich ausgewählte Belastungen einbezogen. ...
Article
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In dem Beitrag geht es um die Frage, welche Merkmale berufsbedingt mobiler Arbeit einen Zusammenhang mit Arbeitsfreude – als Indikator von intrinsischer Motivation – haben. In einer Studie wurden 407 mobil Beschäftigte schriftlich und 59 mittels Intensivinterviews befragt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass sowohl allgemeine arbeitsbezogene Ressourcen (Handlungsspielraum, Vielseitigkeit der Arbeitsinhalte, Führungsqualität) als auch mobilitätsbezogene Ressourcen (technisch-organisatorische Unterstützung unterwegs) die Arbeitsfreude stärken. In der Diskussion werden Empfehlungen für die Unternehmenspraxis abgeleitet.
... Country level. Global entrepreneurs (Markman et al., 2016), traveling executives (DeFrank, Konopaske, & Ivancevich, 2000), virtual team members (Malhotra, Majchrzak, & Rosen, 2007), and employees on international assignments (Shaffer, Kraimer, Chen, & Bolino, 2012) must all adjust their time management practices to take into account different time zones, business hours, and how other time structures vary around the world. But an even more complex terrain to navigate is that of time norms in foreign cultures (Graham, 1981;Hofstede, 2001;Levine & Norenzayan, 1999). ...
... International business travelers experience negative effects on work-life balance, especially regarding family separation, travel stress, and health issues (DeFrank et al. 2000;Welch/Worm 2006). Evidently, some job characteristics such as time-pressure, time-flexibility, and job security significantly influence interactions within the family (Hughes/Galinsky 1994). ...
... Hierzu gehören u. a. Schlafstörungen, Magen-Darm-Probleme oder auch psychische Störungen (Rundle et al. 2018). Zudem gehen solche Reisen häufig mit einem höheren Alkoholkonsum, ungesunder Ernährung und fehlendem Ausgleichssport einher (DeFrank et al. 2000). Gleichzeitig ist zwischen den Einsätzen zu wenig Zeit für Erholung eingeplant. ...
Article
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Mobilität und Flexibilität sind Kernthemen der aktuellen Arbeitswelt. Die Arbeit unter diesen Megatrends attraktiv für die Beschäftigten zu gestalten, gehört zu den aktuellen Herausforderungen vieler Unternehmen. Daher befasst sich der vorliegende Beitrag mit der Frage, welche Formen mobiler Arbeit insbesondere mit Belastungen für die Beschäftigten verbunden sind. In einer Studie wurden unterschiedliche Formen mobiler Arbeit in einem Unternehmen im Bereich Facility-Management untersucht (N= 2721). Die Mitarbeitenden wurden schriftlich zu Arbeitsbedingungen, interessierter Selbstgefährdung sowie Konflikten zwischen Erwerbsarbeit und Privatleben befragt. Die Ergebnisse der multivariaten Varianzanalyse zeigen, dass mobile Arbeit in Form von täglich mehrfach wechselnden Einsatzorten mit signifikant höheren Belastungen, geringeren Ressourcen, höherer interessierter Selbstgefährdung und ausgeprägteren Konflikten zwischen Erwerbsarbeit und Privatleben einhergeht. Für die betriebliche Praxis ist zu empfehlen, dass im Rahmen der Gefährdungsbeurteilung psychischer Belastungen ein besonderes Augenmerk auf berufsbedingt mobil Beschäftigte mit täglich mehrfach wechselnden Einsatzorten gelegt wird. Kombinationen mit anderen Formen von berufsbedingter Mobilität sowie besonders belastende Arbeitszeiten (z.B. Nachtarbeit) sollten vermieden werden.
... In the course of a career, "defined as the sequence of work-related experiences and attitudes that the individual has over the span of his or her work life" (Bonache, 2005, p. 112), there are subjective or objective factors with negative effects on employee careers. These include disappointment (Allen and Alvarez, 1998) and frustration (Stahl and Cerdin, 2004;DeFrank et al., 2000;Harvey, 1989) and can lead to general discontentment and job dissatisfaction (Adler and Kwon, 2002;Bonache, 2005). In turn, these factors have been found to influence the desire of high potentials to leave employers. ...
Article
Purpose Drawing on human capital (HC) and social capital (SC) as well as the Jack-of-all-trades theory, this paper aims to clarify the relationship between international assignments (IAs) of employees and their entrepreneurial intentions. The study proposes that such IAs provide specific environmental features which may enable employees to build up diverse skills and network relations conducive to entrepreneuship. Design/methodology/approach The authors collected data using an online survey, targeting professionals and managers in Germany and Switzerland. They used 223 complete responses. Before data collection, they ensured the suitability of their questionnaire by employing well-tested scales and consulted independent experts in survey design and methodology. They tested their hypotheses by applying multiple mediation modeling. Findings As hypothesized, the authors find empirical evidence that diverse skills and network relationships as well as poor career prospects, positively mediate the relationship between IAs and entrepreneurial intentions of employees. Research limitations/implications We applied simple random and the snowball sampling method. Our approach involved the use of headhunters, international employers and relocation companies as multipliers. Practical implications Our results have practical implications for employees and employers. Employees on international assignments can proactively pursue opportunities in order to utilize the acquired experiences and resources for taking up entrepreneurial activities. Employers can try to retain these employees to facilitate (international) corporate entrepreneurship. Originality/value To the best of our knowledge, this is the first empirical study to highlight the entrepreneurial ambitions of international assignees. It thus provides initial insights into this topic.
... A possible explanation is these business travelers were younger and had less autonomy regarding job assignments. Thus, they may feel stressed during the business trips, thereby affecting their sleep quality (Chen, 2017;DeFrank et al., 2000). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore business travelers’ sleep experience in hotels by measuring sleep quality and determining the extent to which hotel attributes, demographic characteristics, and hotel quality level influence their sleep quality while staying in hotels. Design/methodology/approach This study utilized a self-reported survey to obtain data from business travelers who have stayed in a hotel at least two nights for a business trip in the past 30 days. A total of 304 business travelers were surveyed in this study. Findings The results indicated that there was a difference in the factors that influenced business travelers’ overall satisfaction with sleep in mid-scale (2.5-3.5 stars) vs upscale hotels (4+stars). The findings showed that business travelers generally had lower sleep quality at hotels and they were more likely affected by noise both outside and inside the guestroom, as well as material elements inside the room. Originality/value This study represents a pioneering attempt at exploring business travelers’ sleep quality and satisfaction with sleep in hotels. Furthermore, this study contributes to the limited research addressing sleep quality as a fundamental function of hotel services. Also, this is the first study to measure business travelers’ sleep quality in hotels by using the sleep quality scale.
... From a methodological point of view, this study contributes by raising awareness about the importance of assessing baseline scores 2 weeks prior to vacations, rather than immediately before. Baseline scores assessed directly before vacations can be biased, due to workers' anticipation of their vacation [51,52] or pre-vacation work stress [53][54][55]. Considering workers' change in health indicators from pre-to post-vacation, one meta-analysis also detected an increase in positive and a decline in negative mood, exhaustion, and other negative outcomes, with a mean effect size, Cohen's d = 0.43 [47]. In de Bloom et al.'s (2016) observational study, the difference in recovery between workers staying at home and those traveling was investigated and no significant difference was found between the two groups. ...
Article
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Background: While work-related rumination increases the risk of acute stressors developing into chronic load reactions and adverse health, mental detachment has been suggested as a way to interrupt this chain. Despite the importance of mentally detaching from work during leisure time, workers seem to struggle to disengage and, instead, experience the constant mental representation of work-related stressors, regardless of their absence. Those who struggle with work-related rumination could benefit from an easy-access intervention that fosters mental detachment by promoting recreational activities. Especially during vacations, workers appear to naturally engage in sufficient recovery activities; however, this beneficial behaviour is not sustained. The smartphone app-based intervention "Holidaily" promotes recovery behaviour and, thus, mental detachment from work with the intension of extending the beneficial effects of workers' vacations into their daily working life. Methods: This randomised-controlled trial (RCT) evaluates the efficacy of "Holidaily". The Holidaily app is a German stand-alone program for mobile devices with either Android/iOS operating systems. The sample includes workers, who are awaiting to go on vacation and are randomly assigned to either the intervention (IG) or a waitlist-control group (CG). The IG receives two weeks pre-vacation access to Holidaily, while the CG receives access two weeks post-vacation. On a daily basis participants in the IG are provided with three options promoting recreational activities and beneficial recovery experiences. Online questionnaires are distributed to all participants at several timepoints. The primary outcome measure assesses participants' work-related rumination (Irritation Scale). A significant difference two weeks post-vacation is expected, favouring the IG. Secondary outcomes include symptoms of depression, insomnia severity, emotional exhaustion, thinking about work, recovery experiences, vacation specifics, work and personal characteristics. To help explain the intervention's effect, explorative analyses will investigate the mediation properties of the frequency of engaging in recreational activities and the moderation properties of Holidaily users' experiences. Discussion: If successful, workers will maintain their recovery behaviour beyond their vacation into daily working life. Findings could, therefore, provide evidence for low-intensity interventions that could be very valuable from a public-health perspective. App-based interventions have greater reach; hence, more workers might access preventative tools to protect themselves from developing adverse health effects linked to work-related rumination. Further studies will still be needed to investigate whether the vacation phenomenon of "lots of fun quickly gone" can be defied and long-term benefits attained. Trial registration: German Clinical Trials Registration DRKS00013650 . Registered retrospectively 15.01.2018.
... Yet, business visits are both under-used and under-researched as a strategic resource within organizations (Welch et al. 2007) and in innovation policy discussions. Typically, they are viewed as consumption expenditures that can be harmlessly disposed during an economic downturn (DeFrank et al. 2000, Tahvanainen et al. 2005 rather than an activity akin to investing in knowledge production. Indeed, the limited understanding of the effects of business visits on productivity underpins a general lack of understanding about whether existing incentives are optimal. ...
Article
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We investigate whether labor mobility can be a distinct source of growth by studying the productivity impact of business visits (BVs), vis-à-vis that of other well-known drivers of productivity enhancement. Our analysis uses an unbalanced panel—covering on average 16 sectors per year in ten countries during the period 1998–2011—which combines unique and novel data on BVs sourced from the US National Business Travel Association with Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) data on R&D and capital formation. We find that mobility through BVs is an effective mechanism to improve productivity, being about half that obtained by investing in R&D. This relevant finding invites viewing short-term mobility as a strategic mechanism and prospective policy tool to overcome productivity slowdowns and foster economic growth.
... This results in their less actual/anticipated resource restorage (e.g., cognitive/affective/dispositional) over the trip. Travelers with jobs and particularly those with high job strain also feel the need to leave their jobs in good order before travelling, which can consume significant cognitive and affective resources (e.g., feeling guilty or anxious) (DeFrank et al., 2000). The before-trip resource depletion plus insufficient during-trip resource restorage can lead to greater departure-flight stress due to the resource-conservative motivation (principle of resource loss dominance). ...
Article
Effective air-travel stress management is increasingly crucial in determining tourist satisfaction and travel choices, particularly in a time of intensive fear about virus, terrorism, and plane crashes. However, research about air-travel stress, particularly what and how various influential forces shape passenger stress levels, is still in its infancy. The current research proposes the adoption of Conservation of Resources (COR) theory as a holistic schema to identify through resource dynamics the potential influential forces for air-travel stress across leisure travel stages. The findings, based on surveying passengers at the gate of multi-country international and domestic airports, demonstrates the capability of COR schema to predict and explain the influences on air-travel stress from an array of personal and situational/trip-specific factors. The theoretical advances from COR-based crossstage stress analyses, and the guidance for customized airline/airport stress-soothing service strategies are discussed.
... Psychologically, prior studies have suggested the stressful aspects of business travel theoretically by identifying a number of travel-related stressors during different travel phases (DeFrank et al., 2000;Ivancevich et al., 2003). To be specific, these stressors include pre-trip arrangements, flight delays and other unexpected incidents during the trip, irregular working hours, intensive work demands, safety concerns at the destination, and feelings of detachment from family or friends (Gustafson, 2014;Ivancevich et al., 2003). ...
Article
Business travel as a form of work-related mobility has been an integrated part of working life in the global economy, generating great impact on individuals. Although prior studies address some relevant health consequences, there is a lack of research considering multiple dimensions of health or providing a deeper contextual analysis. Drawing on the multi-dimensional health concept and the framework of mobilities and health, the present study further demonstrates the complexity and dynamic of this issue. Through in-depth interviews with frequent business travellers, it was found that frequent business trips as a part of work and life bring about a range of physical, psychological and social health impacts, which shows different characteristics and interact with each other. Perceptions of these health consequences vary among respondents with different travel patterns and personal situations. Moreover, the findings indicate that there may exist a paradoxical fact: as business travellers with longer experiences of traveling work tend to become more aware of the potential health cost of highly mobile lifestyles, however, the health impairment has generated and accumulated at the later life stages and can hardly be reversed even they stop traveling. Therefore, it is significant and meaningful to raise the public concern on this issue by stressing the dark side of business travel instead of only glamorizing it. This study contributes to previous literature on mobility and health by demonstrating the characteristics of business travel as a mobile working context and how it affects travellers’ health in multi-dimensions. It also provides managerial implications for individuals and organizations.
... Prior literature on business travel and its health consequences includes theoretical papers proposing business travel stress models (DeFrank, Konopaske, & Ivancevich, 2000;Ivancevich et al., 2003) as well as empirical studies providing evidence on business travelers' health problems based on a number of medical indicators (Burkholder, Joines, Cunningham-Hill, & Xu, 2010;Espino, Sundstrom, Frick, Jacobs, & Peters, 2002;Rogers & Reilly, 2000;Rogers & Reilly, 2002). However, these models and empirical evidence have mainly focused on the negative sides of business travel and their managerial implications (e.g., ways of moderating travelrelated stress), and do not show an overall picture of business travel, which may also have positive implications for travelers, nor have they comprehensively analyzed the relationship between frequent travel and well-being as a dynamic process. ...
Article
Mobility as a primary feature of our society nowadays requires a new perspective on our changing lifestyles and its impact on human wellness. The study extends the scope of the Job Demand-Resource Model which offers a way of thinking about how job characteristics influence employees' health and well-being, to examine business travelers' well-being with hedonic experiences in their travels especially considered. Through 34 qualitative interviews, it was found that business travel can function as demand and resource, affecting well-being in negative and positive ways. The dynamic patterns of these impacts were further discussed, indicating that not only does professional utility count, but also the emotional factor. The study enriches the Job Demands-Resources model and adds to prior literature on business travel.
... Individuals experience stress when the perceived threat exceeds perceived available resources for coping with it while Zehrer and Crotts (2012, p. 42) proposed that stress is an indicator of some kind of uncomfortable situation and there is a certain stimulus that provokes it and a certain reaction or response. DeFrank et al. (2000) define the travel stress as "the perceptual, emotional, behavioural, and physical responses made by an individual to the various problems faced during one or more of the phases of travel". This way the stress is best understood in terms of the individual's cognitive interpretation of potentially stressful situations. ...
Article
While many people see taking a vacation as a way to rejuvenate, escape and relieve monotonous life to get away from the stress they may experience in other aspects of their lives, but travelling can also be stressful for a lot of people. A total of 15 international tourists hailing diverse origins participated in qualitative semi-structured interviews. It was found that people, in general, do encounter the most travel stress before and on a vacation or trip. Acknowledging that things might go wrong is the first step in making sure they don't. Managerial implications are recommended for travel organizations, airline companies, airport customer dealing staff to assist to make the occasion less anxiety-provoking for the traveller.
... From occupational health with its emphasis on the wellbeing and productivity of the workforce, to community health issues that address the health of consumers and surrounding populations, business can only thrive if their stakeholders enjoy good health and well-being. Yet business scholars have mainly paid attention to the health of internal stakeholders such as employees (Christian et al., 2009;Danna & Griffin, 1999;Ganster & Rosen, 2013;Macik-Frey et al., 2007;Stone, 1994) and executives (DeFrank et al., 2000;Neck & Cooper, 2000) and the management of healthcare organizations (Blair & Boal, 1991;Brown et al., 2015;Fottler, 1987;Mayo et al., 2021), through public health policy and regulations (Jacobson, 1994;Nill et al., 2019;Oliver, 2005). While notable, these topics directly affect business, while overlooking the impact of business on the health of external stakeholders such as local communities and, to a lesser extent, consumers . ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has made the world aware that improving public health is one of the grand challenges to be tackled urgently in order to guarantee the long-term sustainability of the planet and the well-being of millions of people around the world. In this respect, business and public health are intrinsically connected. From occupational health with its emphasis on the wellbeing and productivity of the workforce, to community health issues that address the health of consumers and surrounding populations, business can only thrive if their stakeholders enjoy good health and well-being. With this Call for Papers, we invite papers to be considered for a Business & Society Special Issue on “Health is Everyone’s Business: Embodying Business-Health Research.”
... Seelische und körperliche Belastungen können (in Anlehnung an das Basismodell der touristischen Reise von Leiper 1979, S. 397) (Schneider et al. 2014, S. 159;Ivancevich et al. 2003;Espino et al. 2002;DeFrank et al. 2000;Striker et al. 2000 ...
Article
Zusammenfassung Räumlich mobilen Menschen werden in der Regel hoher sozialer Status, Leistungsbereitschaft, Erfolg und Flexibilität zugeschrieben. Die „dunkle Seite“ der räumlichen Mobilität wird hierbei von einer gesellschaftlichen Mobilitätsverherrlichung überstrahlt. Der vorliegende Beitrag fokussiert sich auf das Segment der Geschäftsreisen. Anhand von Daten der „RA Business“ wird aus Nachfragesicht das Zusammenspiel zwischen Geschäftsreisen und deren negativen Auswirkungen beleuchtet. Im Fokus stehen dabei die von den Geschäftsreisenden wahrgenommenen und aus ihren Reisen resultierenden negativen persönlichen Folgen. Die Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass die persönlichen Vorteile von Geschäftsreisen deutlicher wahrgenommen werden, als die entsprechenden Nachteile. Andererseits zeigt sich, dass nahezu alle Geschäftsreisenden bereits Erfahrung mit Belastungen haben, die sich für sie in Verbindung mit der Geschäftsreisetätigkeit ergeben. Dabei können anhand der Anzahl der betroffenen Geschäftsreisenden drei Kategorien von Belastungsarten abgeleitet werden, bei denen bei einigen Belastungsarten ein Zusammenhang mit der Geschäftsreisehäufigkeit nachgewiesen werden kann. Die Mehrheit der Vielreisenden geht jedoch offenbar gerne auf Geschäftsreise. Belastungen werden dabei in Kauf genommen.
... As we reach the end of the first decade of the Twenty-First Century, business travel remains an important mode of production in firms with, amongst other things, travel being used to: attend firm meetings or training sessions; visit clients to close deals, pitch for business or provide product support; attend trade fairs/conferences; and visit sub-contractors and suppliers to monitor quality control or negotiate new business. For many workers, business travel is now a normal everyday reality of the working day or night, involving what can be best described as persistent or mundane travel, which can have many downsides like separation from the family, travel stress, health concerns (including jet lag) (DeFrank et al, 2000). But, for some, especially relatively younger corporate professionals, business travel remains a 'perk' or welcomed, persistent lifestyle choice which enhances personal career paths and brings much job satisfaction and variety to the working week (Welch and Worm, 2005). ...
... However, others such as Cohen, Hanna, and Gössling (2018) take a more critical stance on the prevalence of travel in business (Gössling, Hanna, Higham, Cohen, & Hopkins, 2019). For many employees, travel is a burden imposed from above, with significant proven health risks and many personal downsides (DeFrank, Konopaske, & Ivancevich, 2000;Westman & Etzion, 2002). Employees who feel this way face challenges in their lack of enthusiasm for travel, particularly as they climb the corporate ladder. ...
Article
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Background: This article presents findings from research conducted before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on companies located in the Zurich airport region of Switzerland, regarding the needs for global business travel and its impacts. Methods: The study involved a mixed methods approach. Five hypotheses were tested using inferential statistics on data obtained from pre-tested closed questions in a web-based survey. Deeper context was explored through an interview-based case-study conducted at a Swiss pharma company. Results: Supporting alternative hypothesis 3 (Ha(3)), a significant positive relationship was found between travel frequency and business growth, F(1, 100) = 11.31, p = 0.0011. Supporting Ha(4), corporate culture had a significant positive relationship with business travel frequency (F(1, 100) = 15.50, p = 0.0002) and average trip length (F(1, 100) = 6.39, p = 0.01). And thirdly supporting Ha(5), corporate social responsibility had a significant relationship with global business travel (91%). Ho(2) and Ho(3) were accepted. The case study found that smart corporate travel policies and regulations should be instantiated to enhance our environment, which would also benefit employee wellbeing. Travel can be reduced significantly despite being demonstrated that physical co-presence is important for building trust. The case study suggests tools to support the monitoring and management of global business travel by organizations. Conclusions: COVID-19 has impacted travel for business significantly, and future research will be necessary to assess its impact. The article explores the ongoing research in this area, and several relevant implications are proposed for future leaders. The case study found willingness to pay both corporate and individual green taxes, and a deficiency in corporate communication around the environment. Business travel is needed to build trust; however, it can be reduced.
... For example, considering the application of fingerprint technology in allowing access to guest rooms, men reported the convenience of such technology, while women were more concerned with issues of data security (Kim and Bernhard, 2014). DeFrank et al. (2000) claim that hotels that offer fitness equipment need to consider preferences based on gender to enhance their brand's reputation for wellness. Likewise, there exist gender differences in the emotional response to the tasting of different wines. ...
Purpose This study bridges the gap between sensory marketing and the use of the internet of things (IoT) in upscale hotels. This paper aims to investigate how stimulating guests’ senses through IoT devices influenced their emotions, affective experiences, eudaimonism (well-being), and ultimately, guest behavior. The authors examined the potential moderating effects of gender. Design/methodology/approach Research conducted comprised an exploratory study, which consisted of interviews with hotel managers (Study 1) and an online confirmatory survey ( n = 357) among hotel guests (Study 2). Findings The results showed that while the senses of smell, hearing and sight had an impact on guests’ emotions, the senses of touch, hearing and sight impacted guests’ affective experiences. The senses of smell and taste influenced guests’ eudaimonism. The sense of smell had a greater effect on eudaimonism and behavioral intentions among women compared to men. Research limitations/implications This study concentrated on upscale hotels located in Europe. Further research may explore the generalizability of the findings (e.g. in other cultures, comparison between high-end and low-end hotels). Practical implications Managers of upscale hotels should apply congruent sensory stimuli from all five senses. Stimuli may be customized (“SoCoIoT” marketing). IoT in hotels may be useful in the aftermath of the COVID pandemic, as voice commands help guests avoid touching surfaces. Originality/value IoT can be applied in creating customized multi-sensory hotel experiences. For example, hotels may offer unique and diverse ambiances in their rooms and suites to improve guest experiences.
Article
International organizations face an increasing need for employees, such as international business travelers (IBTs), with a global mindset to successfully conduct business abroad. But we lack knowledge about levers that are conducive to IBTs’ developing a global mindset. We collected quantitative data from 624 mainly German IBTs to measure their global mindset along with theory-driven individual and job-related antecedents. Structural equation modelling revealed that individuals’ personality traits (openness to experience, agreeableness), motivation (work-related travel readiness) and job-related factors (complexity of global roles, contact quality with foreign nationals) were positively related to the IBTs’ level of global mindset. Our study contributes, first, to research on global mindset, by identifying antecedents to its development and, second, to research on international business travel, by showing how specific features of travel experiences can be managed in order to enhance IBTs’ learning experiences.
Chapter
Vor dem Hintergrund der globalen Vernetzung des 21. Jahrhunderts, die sich u. a. in einer stetigen Zunahme an M&A-Transaktionen, der Bildung von Joint Ventures sowie einem Anstieg an länderübergreifenden Projekten niederschlägt, steigt auch die Anzahl an internationalen Geschäftsreisenden rapide an. Aufgrund ihrer vielfachen Einsatzmöglichkeiten sowie ihrer strategischen Rolle trägt diese MitarbeiterInnengruppe maßgeblich zum Unternehmenserfolg bei und bedarf daher besonderer Aufmerksamkeit (BGRS 2015). Jüngsten Studien zufolge klagt die Mehrheit der VielfliegerInnen über erhöhten Stress, mangelnde Work-Life-Balance sowie Beeinträchtigungen der Gesundheit aufgrund der Reisestrapazen. Frauen sind dabei wegen der noch immer zumeist traditionell geschlechtsspezifischen Rollenverteilung bzw. ihrer familiären Verpflichtungen naturgemäß noch stärker betroffen als ihre männlichen Kollegen (Kollinger und Fischlmayr 2013). Unabhängig vom Geschlecht sind die Folgen der Reisebelastungen vielfältig und können von sinkender Leistungsfähigkeit, niedriger Leistungsbereitschaft, über eine geringere Arbeitszufriedenheit, hin zu familiären Problemen, Burn-out und letztlich zu einer höheren Fluktuation führen (Harzing und Ruysseveldt 2004). Somit besteht für das internationale Personalmanagement Handlungsbedarf und die Notwendigkeit, VielfliegerInnen zu unterstützen, sei es etwa durch autonome und flexible Arbeitsbedingungen, Gesundheitsförderungsprogramme und/oder ein professionelles und individuell zugeschnittenes Reisemanagement.
Conference Paper
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La mondialisation de l'économie a eu des répercussions sur la concurrence entre les entreprises qui s'est beaucoup intensifiée. Ainsi, l'internationalisation est devenue une option stratégique de plus en plus difficile à contourner. Or, l'installation des entreprises à l'étranger nécessite l'expatriation de cadres. Compte tenu des enjeux et des coûts requis par l'expatriation classique, de nouvelles formes d'expatriation ont vu le jour. Cette étude s'intéresse à l'épuisement émotionnel des expatriés. Dimension centrale de l'épuisement professionnelle, l'épuisement émotionnelle revêt un intérêt considérable compte tenu des répercussions qu'il peut avoir sur la santé physique et psychologique des expatriés. Une recherche exploratoire et notamment des entretiens en profondeur réalisés auprès de dix-huit expatriés tunisiens, nous ont permis d'identifier un certain nombre de facteurs générateurs d'épuisement émotionnel.
Article
Background: This article presents findings from research conducted before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on companies located in the Zurich airport region of Switzerland, regarding the needs for global business travel and its impacts. Methods: The study involved a mixed methods approach. Five hypotheses were tested using inferential statistics on data obtained from pre-tested closed questions in a web-based survey. Deeper context was explored through an interview-based case-study conducted at a Swiss pharma company. Results: Supporting alternative hypothesis 3 (Ha(3)), a significant positive relationship was found between travel frequency and business growth, F(1, 100) = 11.31, p = 0.0011. Supporting Ha(4), corporate culture had a significant positive relationship with business travel frequency (F(1, 100) = 15.50, p = 0.0002) and average trip length (F(1, 100) = 6.39, p = 0.01). And thirdly supporting Ha(5), corporate social responsibility had a significant relationship with global business travel (91%). Ho(2) and Ho(3) were accepted. The case study found that smart corporate travel policies and regulations should be instantiated to enhance our environment, which would also benefit employee wellbeing. Travel can be reduced significantly despite being demonstrated that physical co-presence is important for building trust. The case study suggests tools to support the monitoring and management of global business travel by organizations. Conclusions: COVID-19 has impacted travel for business significantly, and future research will be necessary to assess its impact. The article explores the ongoing research in this area, and several relevant implications are proposed for future leaders. The case study found willingness to pay both corporate and individual green taxes, and a deficiency in corporate communication around the environment. Business travel is needed to build trust; however, it can be reduced.
Article
Résumé Mobilisant une enquête par questionnaire, cette recherche quantitative compare le dévouement professionnel et l’épuisement émotionnel des cadres pendulaires nationaux (CPN = 349) et internationaux (CPI = 242). À partir du modèle exigence/ressources (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007), elle examine les déterminants de ces deux variables. Concernant le dévouement professionnel et l’épuisement émotionnel, aucune différence significative n’a été mise en évidence. Pour les CPI, le soutien hiérarchique s’avère peu important ; le soutien des collègues semble indispensable. La responsabilité hiérarchique produit des effets positifs sur l’engagement professionnel mais nuit à leur bien-être émotionnel. L’étude souligne leur niveau d’engagement professionnel élevé et leur faible épuisement émotionnel. Les résultats suggèrent d’approfondir l’examen de ces dynamiques afin de mettre en place des politiques spécifiques.
Article
The global mobility literature almost exclusively focuses on the traveller, neglecting the experiences of the family. This is particularly the situation with families who stay behind. Using the Job Resources-Demand Model, this study seeks to address this issue. We concentrate on the partners and children of professional sailors, in order to develop insight into how the stay behind family adjusts to the demands created by international travel. The findings enhance knowledge of the demands borne by those who stay behind, and the resources they utilise to manage their ever-evolving situation. The recurring departures and repetitive repatriations of the traveller create the greatest stress. In the absence of organisational support, the partners relied on extended family and empathetic friends. Contemporary digital communication technologies serve to buffer the demands and facilitate the re-integration of the traveller into the family home. The enduring absence of formal organisational support for globally mobile employees and their families has been attributed to a lack of understanding of the ramifications of this mobility, and in this study, respondents provide suggestions of support from the organisations that would assist in work–home balance.
Article
Previous studies have carefully examined travellers’ preferences. However, they have largely neglected the contributions of travellers’ skills and their perceived travel benefits and stresses. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate the impacts that intrapersonal, nonverbal interpersonal, and verbal interpersonal skills have on travellers’ perceived travel benefits and stresses, and the effects of these phenomena on travellers’ preferences for travel and tourism activities. Using data gathered from a structured survey of young respondents in Vietnam (n = 496), this study found that intrapersonal and nonverbal interpersonal skills had significant effects on perceived travel benefits and stresses. Verbal interpersonal skills only had a significant effect on perceived travel benefits. In addition, the study revealed that perceived travel benefits and verbal interpersonal skills were significant antecedents of the respondents’ preferences. These findings expand the existing literature by investigating the correlations among travellers’ skills, their perceived travel benefits and stresses, and their preferences. Practical implications for tour operators and travellers, especially under the COVID-19 circumstances, are then discussed based on these findings.
Book
In Transmedia Work Karin Fast and André Jansson explore several key questions that frame the study of the social and cultural implications of a digital, connected workforce. How might we understand 'privilege' and 'precariousness' in today's digitalized work market? What does it mean to be a privileged worker under the so-called connectivity imperative? What are the social and cultural forces that normalize the appropriation of new media in, and beyond, the workplace? These key questions come together in the notion of transmedia work - a term through which a social critique of work under digital modernity can be formulated. Transmedia work refers to the rise of a new social condition that saturates many different types of work, with various outcomes. In some social groups, and in certain professions, transmedia work is wholeheartedly embraced, while it is questioned and resisted elsewhere. There are also variations in terms of control; who can maintain a sense of mastery over transmedia work and who cannot? Through interviews with cultural workers, expatriates, and mobile business workers, and ancillary empirical data such as corporate technology and coworking discourse, Transmedia Work is an important addition to the study of mediatization and digital culture.
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Background: This article presents findings from research conducted before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on companies located in the Zurich airport region of Switzerland, regarding the needs for global business travel and its impacts. Methods: The study involved a mixed methods approach. Five hypotheses were tested using inferential statistics on data obtained from pre-tested closed questions in a web-based survey. Deeper context was explored through an interview-based case-study conducted at a Swiss pharma company. Results: Supporting alternative hypothesis 3 (Ha(3)), a significant positive relationship was found between travel frequency and business growth, F(1, 100) = 11.31, p = 0.0011. Supporting Ha(4), corporate culture had a significant positive relationship with business travel frequency (F(1, 100) = 15.50, p = 0.0002) and average trip length (F(1, 100) = 6.39, p = 0.01). And thirdly supporting Ha(5), corporate social responsibility had a significant relationship with global business travel (91%). Ho(2) and Ho(3) were accepted. The case study found that smart corporate travel policies and regulations should be instantiated to enhance our environment, which would also benefit employee wellbeing. Travel can be reduced significantly despite being demonstrated that physical co-presence is important for building trust. The case study suggests tools to support the monitoring and management of global business travel by organizations. Conclusions: COVID-19 has impacted travel for business significantly, and future research will be necessary to assess its impact. The article explores the ongoing research in this area, and several relevant implications are proposed for future leaders. The case study found willingness to pay both corporate and individual green taxes, and a deficiency in corporate communication around the environment. Business travel is needed to build trust; however, it can be reduced.
Article
Dubbed as road warriors in the popular press, there is a select group of business traveling dealmakers that take at least four trips by commercial airline and stay in hotels at least thirty-five nights in a given year. These high value employees have often been subjected to cost-focused travel policies potentially to the detriment of their well-being. From a theoretical viewpoint, the boundaries of the existing sales literature are expanded to show how this unique group of salespeople, road warriors, face stressors and how these relate to major sales focused outcomes (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions). Further, this study adds an additional construct, travel friction, into the literature, yielding support for the importance of developing our understanding of this construct. Travel friction is found as a significant antecedent to both work-family conflict and emotional exhaustion. Moreover, through emotional exhaustion both travel friction and work-family conflict ultimately manifest in reduced job satisfaction, diminished organizational commitment, and increased attrition risk. The lack of business travel in the short-term due to the global pandemic offers corporate travel managers a unique opportunity to pause and recalibrate their travel policies to focus more on traveler well-being. Practical suggestions from travel experts that can potentially help to mitigate travel friction among road warriors are offered.
Article
The study introduces the term “on-site animosity” with respect to expressions of hostility against travelers' nation during their stay at the visited destination. Behavioral responses to on-site animosity are examined by focusing on performances of national identity among Israeli business travelers while interacting with locals and host colleagues. Based on the analysis of in-depth interviews and in line with a Goffmanian perspective, the study presents four performative strategies that span across two dimensions of situational behavior: the inclination of the travelers to conceal or display national identity and their motivations to do it. The study advances a fresh perspective and provides an empirically based conceptualization regarding the influence of animosity on travel behavior.
Article
The current study explores the destination experiences of business travelers by focusing on their social contacts with local colleagues. By crossing out of the local “tourist environmental bubble” (TEB), as conceptualized by Erik Cohen, business travelers are expected to experience difficulties associated with the strangeness of the visited destination but to gain an authentic experience in return. Based on in-depth interviews (n = 28) and a quantitative survey (n = 231) of Israeli business travelers, this mixed-methods study confirms that the supposedly inconvenient extra-TEB experience (particularly confronting strangeness) turns out to be rewarding, and the assumed benefits of crossing out of the bubble (mainly experiencing authenticity) are limited. By focusing on business travelers, the current study provides insight into guest–host interactions and the subjective experiences of travelers who cross out the TEB, mainly with respect to the complex and multidimensional sense of authenticity.
Article
Organizations cannot function without healthy and safe employees, a stark reality evidenced by the COVID-19 pandemic in 2019-20: when lives are threatened, everything else becomes secondary. Few would question that there is a critical need to build HR-relevant knowledge of how to manage the health and safety of employees. Despite the duty of care carried by organizations and the fact that those who work across national borders are a particularly vulnerable group, there is surprisingly little discussion about their health and safety. We examined the literature relevant to the health and safety of international employees across four research disciplines. Our review of 180 papers found a growing yet fragmented field offering important insights with implications for HRM. Our paper is intended as both a review and a call for future advancement. We bring together disparate but related research streams in order to understand what is known about occupational health and safety related to working across national borders and to outline a roadmap for future research and practice.
Thesis
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Business travel has become a ubiquitous function of domestic, transnational and global business. The result is that personnel, information, assets and operations of multinational organisations are increasingly dispersed across varying geographical locations and contexts. Therefore, this paper seeks to explore the leading private security risk management factors associated with transnational business mobility. Through a systematic literature review, this dissertation identifies critical themes and associated topics within related literature. This systematic literature review employs new, advanced research technologies and software to inform the process. Because of this novel approach, the methodology chapter of this dissertation provides far greater detail on the methodological approach. Clear, documented steps were essential for identifying and classifying content and literature across a disparate range of topics influencing business travel. The objective methodology significantly reduced the influence of procedural and human biases. As a result, this paper suggests that a surprising lack of empirical and academic literature informs that act of business travel security or risk management. Fragmented themes are present within tourism, mobility and leisure travel literature but little targeted research outside of the tourism industry or the business of tourism is identifiable. Dominant themes of mobility and fixity form the theoretical and empirical basis of this dissertation. Chapter one explores mobility themes influencing business travel such as space, risk, work and hierarchies. Chapter two explores more static or fixed themes such as place, cities, the criminality of place and crime concentration. As the depth of existing literature varies immensely across these themes, greater detail is concentrated on themes with more available and established literature. More summary evaluation addresses less represented themes. In contrast, supporting annexes explore topics with background details. Overall, this paper proposes that very little empirical and academic research informs or supports transnational business mobility.
Article
Zusammenfassung Beruflich bedingte Mobilität ist mit einer Reihe gesundheitsbezogener Risiken verbunden. Zugleich bietet sie Chancen für ein erholungswirksames Abschalten vom Arbeitsalltag. Aktuelle Studien zeigen, dass insbesondere Belastungen durch hohen Zeitdruck sowie geringe Zeitsouveränität mit gesundheitlichen Beeinträchtigungen zusammenhängen. Von zentraler Bedeutung ist deshalb die konsequente Umsetzung der Gefährdungsbeurteilung auch bei mobil Beschäftigten.
Chapter
Planning and executing a vacation can be an exhausting process. Several factors influence vacation planning. The most important factors are the destination and the accommodation. People face difficulties in deciding the destination that allows them to experience the location with a suitable accommodation. Social media plays a crucial role in promoting different destinations and providing associated travel information influencing travelers to finalize a location. Deciding the location on the bases of online content often causes disappointment. Virtual reality has been proven earlier to enhance the experience and streamline the way information is presented to the viewer. This research aims at exploring the possibility of including further technological advancements to reduce the extraneous cognitive load taken by a tourist while planning a vacation. The objective of the research is to understand the multi-stage process in tour planning in order to aid stress free and quicker travel planning. The data was collected by survey and interviews to note the travel routine and understand the process of decision making and the reasons leading to informational overload while planning a trip. The data collected was analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Enhancing the tourist’s experience by incorporating technology in the tourism industry reduce the bombardment of irrelevant visuals and information and simplify the decision making process. Incorporating virtual reality in the planning stage of a vacation will increase the confidence of the tourist in their travel decisions and encourage them to explore a wider variety of options in lesser time before booking.
Article
Ask Diana Fairechild what it's like to have jet lag so severe you can't tell a coffee cup from a calculator, and she'll give you a knowing smile. Fairechild is not a corporate CEO, traveling to meet important clients around the country, nor an international strategist hobnobbing with office heads around the globe. But, having been an airline stewardess for 21 years—now grounded due to flying-related illnesses—she can sympathize with the flight plight of those whose business takes them miles from home much of the time.