Article

Vietnam - A New Economic Dragon in Southeast Asia?

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Abstract

This study investigates and identifies some of the primary determinants of Vietnam's growth during the Doi Moi era and provides an assessment of their relevance and application to contemporary challenges. The Socialist Republic of Vietnam has an impressive record of economic growth and poverty reduction over the past two decades. Capitalizing on the advantages of its cultural and economic features, the strategy of incremental Doi Moi reforms has demonstrated the strength and commitment of Vietnam's political leadership. The country has achieved middle-income economy status in 2009 and is aiming to become an industrialized nation by 2020. However, on the background of mounting domestic challenges and less favorable international economic conditions, the achievement of this ambitious goal seems uncertain. Growing economic affluence may have hampered some of the positive features, which had previously been instrumental in catalyzing growth and development, and the current reform processes appear to be stalling.

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... For instance, the Vietnam government set rules and regulations as well as established governmental agencies for anticorruption (Smith, 2012).Unfortunately, the corruption problem are still continues to tarnish and influence the international image of Vietnam due to violations of the human rights and restriction of the civil rights in Vietnam (Stiftung, 2014). Nonetheless, Vietnam is still known as one of the higher political stability countries in South East Asia (Anne et al., 2013). Foreign investors see Vietnam as an attractive country as the high stability political, young and well-educated population, high saving rate, and increased in consumer spending in Vietnam country (Gulf One, 2013). ...
... Analysing policies and literature shows that the State has adopted a discriminatory attitude to the VNU. Throughout its modern development, VNU has been generally and persistently portrayed as a dependent region to be subordinated to lowland areas and ethnic minorities living in the region have been portrayed as 'backwarders' with limited intellectual capacity and an unwillingness to develop themselves (Michaud, 2012;Welle-Strand et al., 2013). A hierarchical system has been created which ranks ethnic groups according to level of socialeconomic development and degree of integration into the Kinh-led mainstream development (Epprecht et al., 2011). ...
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Although agricultural innovation systems (AIS) have recently received considerable attention in academic and development circles, links between an AIS's regional specifications and structural-functional analysis have been neglected. This paper aims to understand how regional and structural dimensions determine systemic problems and blocking mechanisms that, in turn, hinder a regional AIS's function. From the basis of a qualitative data set, it presents an analysis of an AIS in Vietnam's Northern Uplands using an integrated regional-structural-functional framework. Results indicate that the existing AIS has six unique problems that are linked to seven blocking mechanisms, mainly belonging to three structural components: infrastructure, actors and institutions. Addressing these blocking mechanisms needs systemic instruments that help stimulate and balance investments, creating spaces for the development of actors' capability, and facilitating the institutional shift towards enabling region-oriented agriculture and demand-driven innovation processes. First, this study contributes an analysis of the integration of regional dimensions and technologies captured as a structural entity into the structural-functional framework, providing novel insights into the functioning of a regional AIS. Second, it deepens the literature on structural-functional innovation systems analysis by looking at the interconnections between structural and regional dimensions and how they create blocking mechanisms. It concludes that the regional-structural-functional analysis allows the design of integrated coherent sets of systemic instruments for a regional AIS.
... http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/554964 doi: bioRxiv preprint first posted online Feb. 19, 2019; development of industrialization, increasing international integration and profound demographic and technological changes (31). ...
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Caesarean section can prevent maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. However, it involves risks and high costs which can be a burden, especially in low and middle income countries. The international healthcare community considers the optimal caesarean rate to be between 10% and 15%. The aim of this study is to assess its magnitude and correlates among women of reproductive age in urban and rural areas in Vietnam. We analyzed microdata from the national Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) conducted in 2013-2014 using representative sample of households at the national level as well as regarding the urban and the rural areas. A total of 1,378 women who delivered in institutional settings in the two years preceding the survey were included. Frequency and percentage distributions of the variables were performed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were undertaken to identify the factors associated with caesarean section. Odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were used to ascertain the direction and strength of the associations. The overall CS rate among the women who delivered in healthcare facilities in Vietnam is particularly high (29.2%) with regards to WHO standards. After controlling for significant characteristics, living in urban areas more than doubles the likelihood of undergoing a CS (OR = 2.31; 95% CI 1.79 to 2.98). Maternal age at delivery over 35 is a major positive correlate of CS. Beyond this common phenomenon, distinct lines of socioeconomic and demographic cleavage operate in urban versus rural areas. The differences regarding correlates of CS according to the place of residence suggest that specific measures should be taken in each setting to allow women to access childbirth services appropriate to their needs. Further research is needed on this topic.
... The country's GDP per capita rose from 398 USD in 1986 to 1685 USD in 2016 (measured in constant 2010 dollar) (WDI, 2015) Vietnam became the third largest exporter of rice in the early 1990s, and the second largest exporter of coffee in the late 1990s (Nhiem et al., 2006). In 2009 the country became a middle income country and is now targeting to become an industrialize country by 2020 (Welle-Strand et al., 2013). ...
... Because Asia is highly populous and has experienced sustained economic growth since the 1980s, its urbanization has given birth to some of the largest and densest cities in the world [1]. Vietnam, one of Southeast Asia's economic dragons [2], is experiencing one of the greatest urban transitions in the world. At the national level, the urban population increased from 23.7% in 1999 to 29.6% in 2009 (with 25.4 million urban residents out of the country's 85.8 million people) [3]. ...
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