Article

Folic acid (folacin) - New application of a cosmetic ingredient

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Many years of trials and research tests proved that a lot of well-known vitamins could be successfully used in cosmetology. The available data indicate that one of them - folic acid plays an important role in life process of mitotically active tissues and its deficiency increases background level of DNA damage. Folic acid seems to have skin regeneration properties and it can modulate DNA repair in UV-damaged skin. In this study we check the possibility of using the folic acid (folacin) in personal care products and cosmetics as an anti-photo-aging cosmetic ingredient. At first in vitro research was performed on primary fibroblast culture: cell viability was determined in a Burker chamber; the shape of the cells was observed using confocal microscopy; the alkaline comet assay was used for assessment repairing activity of UV-induced DNA damage. The in vivo research has been conducted in a group of 30 volunteers. We have measured skin moisturisation, sebum secretion, elasticity, transepidermal water loss and micro topography of the forearm and skin face. The folic acid, depending on concentration, improved viability of the primary human fibroblasts and stimulates its proliferation. The folacin-treated cells in contrast to the control cells were very regular in shape (spindle-shaped) with high ability of reproduction. Interestingly, we have found that treatment with folic acid increased the rate of repair of UV-induced DNA damage. Our data suggest that folic acid modulates DNA repair and the observed effects apparently are due to accelerated rejoining of strand breaks. In vivo tests showed that 30-day treatment with cream containing folacin improved the skin moisturisation, decreased TEWL without any significant change of sebum secretion. Skin elasticity was almost two times greater after using tested cream and analysis micro topography showed decrease of skin roughness, number of trough and irregularity and desquamation index.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Numerosi studi sono stati condotti con l'intento di valutare potenziali effetti benefici che l'assunzione di acido folico può avere nella prevenzione di alcune Formulazioni folico (per esempio veicolato in liposomi) promuove un aumento della proliferazione cutanea, un incremento della produzione sebacea, creando così una barriera che protegge la cute dalla perdita di acqua, essenziale per evitare la secchezza indotta dall'invecchiamento. Il miglioramento dell'elasticità cutanea a opera dell'acido folico è da associare alla sua capacità di stimolare la crescita dei fibroblasti, responsabili della sintesi del collagene, i quali presentano un aumentato turnover di collagene ed elastina [10]. Studi condotti da Fischer et al. [13] hanno provato che l'applicazione cutanea di acido folico, in combinazione con la creatina, è in grado di stimolare l'espressione del gene 1A1 codificante per la sintesi del collagene e la cui espressione si riduce considerevolmente con l'età [12]. ...
... Studi condotti da Fischer et al. [13] hanno provato che l'applicazione cutanea di acido folico, in combinazione con la creatina, è in grado di stimolare l'espressione del gene 1A1 codificante per la sintesi del collagene e la cui espressione si riduce considerevolmente con l'età [12]. Indagini micro topografiche, condotte in 18 donne trattate per 4 settimane con acido folico hanno evidenziato una riduzione delle rughe, del volume e del numero delle irregolarità cutanee ottenendo una pelle molto levigata ed elastica [10]. Altri studi hanno messo in evidenza che l'acido folico è dotato di un'azione antiossidante, esso infatti è in grado di interagire con radicali liberi quali CCl 3 O 2 · , N 3 · , SO 4 ·-, Br 2 ·-, OH · e O ·-, che mimano i radicali perossidici che si formano nella cellula. ...
... È stato osservato che ponendo in un brodo di coltura fibroblasti, in presenza di acido folico, questo è in grado di stimolare l'attività mitotica, sia nelle cellule giovani, sia in quelle mature, e dall'analisi morfologica è stato rilevato che le cellule cresciute in un terreno privo di acido folico assumono una forma ampia e a stella, con protuberanze che le mantengono unite le une alle altre. Al contrario, il trattamento con acido folico in concentrazioni pari allo 0,01%, promuove una crescita con un volume plasmatico ridotto, una forma affusolata e stretta, e una disposizione molto serrata indice di un'attività mitotica molto intensa [10]. È stato dimostrato, inoltre, che l'applicazione a livello delle guance di formulazioni a base di acido elastica, secca e con aumentato spessore a carico dello strato corneo e dell'epidermide. ...
... FA functions primarily as a methyl donor involved in many important body processes, including DNA synthesis [4]. FA can be used as an antiaging constituent [5]. FA plays an important role in mitotically active tissues thus it can induce skin cell regenerating properties by supplementing necessary micronutrients. ...
... There are thus many possibilities to use it in personal care products and cosmetics. Small amounts of this vitamin have been only observed in cosmetic preparations based on algae [5]. FA deficiency is quickly observed at those who take sunbaths or solaria due to engagement of FA in the repair of skin damage. ...
... UV-radiation cause genetic damage and together with FA deficiency may cause skin cell death. It seems that FA improves viability of UV-damaged skin cells by modulation of DNA-repair mechanism [5]. ...
Article
Ageing is the progressive deterioration of physiological functions in organisms. Folic acid (FA) can be used as antiaging. The objective of this research is the feasibility of topical delivery of FA using nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) to offer sustained antioxidant and antiaging effects. FA NLCS were prepared by hot high pressure homogenization. Encapsulation efficiency (EE), in vitro release, ex vivo permeation and skin targeting were evaluated. Characterization of selected formulations was assessed, together with stability and water occlusion. Further, histology and antioxidant potential were evaluated. EE exceeded 95%. Formulations with 30% oil showed maximum skin targeting, water occlusion and high efficiency of hydration and antioxidant potential. Incorporation of oil into solid lipids causes more imperfections in the crystal lattice, providing high drug encapsulation. The small particle size leads to forming a depot in the skin providing efficient skin targeting, water occlusion, antiaging and antioxidant effects especially for the 30% oil containing formula; F11. The results emphasize the success of topical application of FA NLCs. F11 represents a promising, stable preparation, achieving remarkable long acting skin hydration, in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant potential lasting for >4 days.
... The actual value of the pixel is compared to the average. High variance indicates high roughness of skin surface [16]. In this study, a decrease in the variance values for the active cream was statistically significant at all reading intervals but the base produced insignificant effects. ...
... The higher the contrast, the higher the different values of two neighbors. A good skin condition will show low contrast values [16]. In this study, a decrease in the contrast values for the active cream was statistically significant at all reading intervals but the base produced insignificant effects. ...
... Retaining a proper water gradient in the skin is essential for maintenance of mechanical properties of collagen as well as elastic fibers. Collagen and elastin retain their three-dimensional structure in the hydrated form only -water deficiency leads to altered physical qualities of the proteins [16]. Enhanced elasticity of the skin on the cheeks after the use of the moringa leaf extract-enriched cream may result from proper skin hydration and at the same time from normal activity of fibroblasts responsible for collagen synthesis. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Solar ultraviolet exposure is the main cause of skin damage by initiation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to skin collagen imperfection and eventually skin roughness. This can be reduced by proper revitalization of skin enhancing younger and healthier appearance. Aim: To evaluate the skin facial revitalization effect of a cream formulation containing the Moringa oleifera leaf extract on humans. Material and methods: Active cream containing 3% of the concentrated extract of moringa leaves was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of cream. Base contained no extract. Skin revitalizing parameters, i.e. surface, volume, texture parameters and surface evaluation of the living skin (SELS) were assessed comparatively after application of the base and active cream on human face using Visioscan(®) VC 98 for a period of 3 months. Results: Surface values were increased by the base and decreased by the active cream. Effects produced for the base and active cream were significant and insignificant, respectively, as observed in the case of surface. Unlike the base, the active cream showed significant effects on skin volume, texture parameters (energy, variance and contrast) and SELS, SEr (skin roughness), SEsc (skin scaliness), SEsm (skin smoothness), and SEw (skin wrinkles) parameters. Conclusions: The results suggested that moringa cream enhances skin revitalization effect and supports anti-aging skin effects.
... Some cosmetic creams, designed to improve the appearance of aged and photoaged skin, contain FA [6,7,19]. Phototoxic reactions after the use of FA-containing creams have not been reported so far [5][6][7]19]. ...
... Some cosmetic creams, designed to improve the appearance of aged and photoaged skin, contain FA [6,7,19]. Phototoxic reactions after the use of FA-containing creams have not been reported so far [5][6][7]19]. Topical FA application was proposed for increasing cutaneous folate levels to prevent skin cancer [1]. ...
... The actual value of the pixel is compared to the average. High variance indicates high roughness of skin surface [10]. Our findings indicate reduced roughness of the skin surface. ...
... Contrast indicates the difference between gray levels of the two neighbored pixel. Contrast is higher, the higher the difference between the values of two neighbors [10]. Reduction in contrast indicates better condition and smoothness of skin resulting in a reduction of roughness. ...
Article
Full-text available
dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v12i3.8 Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a topical application of a cream formulation containing extract of Acacia nilotica bark extract on human cheek skin texture. Methods: A cream containing 3 % concentrated extract of Acacia nilotica bark was developed by entrapping the extract in the internal aqueous phase of the cream having strong antioxidant activity. A similar cream but without the extract was also prepared. Each of the formulations was applied to the cheeks of 11 human volunteers for a period of three months. Both cream formulations were assessed, using Visioscan VC 98, for various parameters including texture parameters (energy, contrast and variance) as well as for skin roughness (Ser), skin scaliness (SEsc), skin smoothness (SEsm) and skin wrinkles (Sew). Results: Unlike the cream base, the extract cream exhibited steady, significant improvement in skin parameters over the 3-month period of application. Images showed visible improvement of the overall skin appearance and reduction of fine lines by the extract cream. Furthermore, skin texture (variance and contrast) and SELS (SEr, SEsc, SEsm and SEw) parameters showed significant decline (p < 0.05) and the texture parameter of energy showed significant increase (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the cream containing 3 % Acacia nilotica bark extract possesses anti-aging effect and improves skin surface appearance..
... Vitamin B9 [(2S)-2-[[4-[(2-amino-4-oxo-1H-pteridine-6-yl) methylamino] benzoyl]amino] pentanedioic acid] is the selected ingredient in this work. Known also as folic acid (sintetic form) or folate (natural form), it is a water-soluble micronutrient that presents an essential role in the process of mitotically active tissues, as well as in DNA synthesis and repair [10,11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The food industry has been expanding, and new vectors to entrap vitamins have been constantly investigated, aiming at versatile systems with good physico-chemical characteristics, low-cost production, high stability and the efficient release of active ingredients. The vitamin B9 (folic acid or folate) is essential for the healthy functioning of a variety of physiological processes in humans and is beneficial in preventing a range of disorders. In this study, two approaches were developed to encapsulate vitamin B9. Zein and the combination of modified starch with two plasticizers were the selected encapsulating agents to produce microstructures via the electrospinning technique. The objective was to improve the stability and the B9 antioxidant capacity in the final formulations. The work strategy was to avoid limitations such as low bioavailability, stability and thermosensitivity. The microstructures were fabricated and the morphology and shape were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. The B9 release profiles of modified starch and zein microstructures were analyzed in simulated gastric fluid at 37 °C, and in deionized water and ethanol at room temperature. The B9 encapsulation efficiency and the stability of the systems were also studied. The ABTS assay was assessed and the antioxidant activity of the produced microstructures was evaluated. The physico-chemical characterization of loaded B9 in the microstructures was achieved. High encapsulation efficiency values were achieved for the 1% B9 loaded in 12% w/w modified starch film; 5% B9 vitamin encapsulated by the 15% w/w modified starch with 4% w/w tween 80; and 4% w/w glycerol film with heterogeneous microstructures, 5% w/w zein compact film and 10% w/w zein film. In conclusion, the combinations of 7 wt.% of modified starch with 4 wt.% tween 80 and 4 wt.% glycerol; 15 wt.% of modified starch with 4 wt.% tween 80 and 4 wt.% glycerol; and 12 wt.% modified starch and 5 wt.% zein can be used as delivery structures in order to enhance the vitamin B9 antioxidant activity in the food and nutraceutical fields.
... Folic acid increases sperm production in men, boosts fertility in males and females, and could be used as a fertility supplements for males and females (Morin et al., 2002;Ajrouche et al., 2014;Hodgetts et al., 2015). Folic acid is an antioxidant, anti-aging and moisturizing, helping to maintain the skin natural beauty (Josh et al., 2001, Debowska et al., 2005. ...
Article
Full-text available
Some researchers have inferred that folic acid is necessary for reproduction and could enhance blood formation. Thus, a Completely Randomized Design Experiment (CRD) was conducted to evaluate the impact of oral administration of folic acid on the semen and haematological characteristics of New Zealand White rabbit bucks. The treatments designated treatment 1 (T1), treatment 2 (T2) and treatment 3 (T3) having 12 rabbits each were replicated 3 times with 4 rabbits per replicate. The ages of the 36 pre-pubertal rabbit bucks were between 2 to 3 months, and weighed approximately 2.56 kg. Three experimental diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of rabbit bucks. Each rabbit buck on T1 were orally administered folic acid at 0.0 mg, T2 2.5mg folic acid and T3 5.0 mg folic, respectively. Data were collected for semen characteristics and haematology from the rabbit bucks. Data collected on different parameters were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that significant increases (p<0.05) were observed on libido, semen pH, spermatozoa progressive motility (67.40-80.20%), spermatozoa live proportion (83.01-94.12%), sperm concentration (112.24-133.80 x10 6 /ml), total number of sperm per ejaculate (50.65-67.66 x10 6 /ml), total viable sperm (291.58-496.69 x10 9 /ml), normal sperm proportion (85.16-91.64%). Also, significant reductions (p<0.05) were observed on the percentage head abnormality of the spermatozoa (3.74-3.18), total abnormality (2.13-0.93), mid-piece abnormality (2.35-0.79), cytoplasmic abnormality (7.17-2.89), and total abnormality (14.84-8.35); while the haematological parameters such as haemoglobin (13.53-14.20g/dl), packed cell volume (33.00-34.96%), white blood cell (6.81-7.80 x10 3 mm 3) and the differential white blood cells improved significantly (p<0.05) following the oral administration of folic acids to the rabbit bucks. Thus, the oral administrations of folic acid at 5.0 mg per rabbit buck most significantly improved the semen characteristics, enhanced the overall spermatozoa morphology, reduced sperm cells abnormalities and also improved some haematological parameters of the rabbit bucks.
... W profilaktyce i łagodzeniu odczynów popromiennych można zastosować preparaty z d-panthenolem, kwasem foliowym, maść z nagietka. Zwiększają uwodnienie warstwy rogowej naskórka, uelastyczniają skórę oraz przyspieszają proces epitelizacji [8,35]. W przypadku bardziej nasilonych zmian (wilgotne złuszczanie się, krwawienie wywołane niewielkim urazem, otarciem) należy włączyć preparaty zawierające jony srebra oraz opatrunki pochłaniające nadmiar wysięku (opatrunki hydrokoloidowe, hydrożelowe, poliuretanowe) [28,29]. ...
... W profilaktyce i łagodzeniu odczynów popromiennych można zastosować preparaty z d-panthenolem, kwasem foliowym, maść z nagietka. Zwiększają uwodnienie warstwy rogowej naskórka, uelastyczniają skórę oraz przyspieszają proces epitelizacji [8,35]. W przypadku bardziej nasilonych zmian (wilgotne złuszczanie się, krwawienie wywołane niewielkim urazem, otarciem) należy włączyć preparaty zawierające jony srebra oraz opatrunki pochłaniające nadmiar wysięku (opatrunki hydrokoloidowe, hydrożelowe, poliuretanowe) [28,29]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Pharmaceutical care of patients with cancer · A comprehensive approach to the needs of an oncological patient requires the involvement of specialists of various fields. Regardless of the type of therapy or medical problem effective communication, the transmission of informations, the subjective treatment of the patient (as a member of therapy) is important. This procedure is called „adherence“. Understanding the legitimacy of diagnostic activities, assumptions and course of treatment by the patient is the way to its acceptance and increase of effectiveness of therapy. Cooperation between medical staff and the patient and their caregivers should be continuous and dynamic, adapted to changing needs (depending on the stage of treatment, type and severity of the disease). Keywords: pharmaceutical care, clinical pharmacy, pharmacy of oncology, chemotherapy, drug related problem.
... Debowska et al. observed a fast cellular repair after incubating skin cells carrying damaged DNA with FA. Moreover, a second study demonstrated that UV induced apoptosis was prevented in presence of FA (Debowska et al., 2005;Debowska et al., 2006;Knott et al., 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Folic acid (FA) is a key factor in the physiological processes of cell metabolism; as it is involved in DNA synthesis and repair, it can be used in the treatment of aged and photo-damaged skin. The main drawbacks associated to FA use, particularly for topical applications, are the limited solubility and the sensitivity to UV rays. Hybrids of FA with two kinds of layered double hydroxides (ZnAl-LDH and MgAl-LDH) were prepared and characterized showing suitable particle size, flow properties and UV photoprotection. The introduction of FA-LDHs in the external water phase of O/W emulgels produced an enhancement of their flow properties; moreover, the spectrophotometric analyses showed that very good photostability is maintained even after their introduction into the formulations. In-vitro release studies showed that the FA-LDH containing emulgels promoted a sustained FA release as expected. Finally, the safety of FA-LDH was evaluated by in-vitro studies performed on human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and human primary dermal fibroblasts (as a skin representative). The obtained results showed a high cytotoxic effect of ZnAl-LDH-FA in both cell lines.
Article
In this study, development of folic acid-loaded liposomes using a basic amino acid, histidine as a solubilizing agent for folic acid was presented, which tackled the poor solubility of this vitamin. The effect of the liposomal membrane modifiers, cholesterol and SPAN 20 on the characteristics of the final formulations was examined. Liposomes prepared from a commercially available purified soybean lecithin (Phospholipon 90G) by proliposome method were between 503 and 877 nm in average diameter, where cholesterol induced enlargement and SPAN.20 reduction of vesicles. High encapsulation efficiency of 84% and drug loading of 0.123 mg g–1 were achieved, irrespective to the composition. According to AFM images, folic acid-loaded liposomes of a fraction with a nano size were flattened compared to globular empty liposomes. FTIR analysis revealed possible interactions between phospholipids and histidine, while DSC study suggested interactions between folic acid and lipids during heating. Release study done by a Franz diffusion cell showed prolonged release of folic acid from liposomes and the release rate was determined by folic acid solubility.
Article
Ultraviolet (UV) is an omnipresent environmental carcinogen transmitted by sunlight. Excessive UV irradiation has been correlated to an increased risk of skin cancers. UVB, the most mutagenic component among the three UV constituents, causes damage mainly through inducing DNA damage and oxidative stress. Therefore, strategies or nutrients that strengthen an individual's resistance to UV-inflicted harmful effects shall be beneficial. Folate is a water-soluble B vitamin essential for nucleotides biosynthesis, and also a strong biological antioxidant, hence a micronutrient with potential of modulating individual's vulnerability to UV exposure. In this study, we investigated the impact of folate status on UV sensitivity and the protective activity of folate supplementation using a zebrafish model. Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and morphological injury were observed in the larvae exposed to UVB, which were readily rescued by supplementing with folic acid, 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5-CHO-THF) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). The UVB-inflicted abnormalities and mortality were worsened in Tg(hsp:EGFP-γGH) larvae displaying folate deficiency. Intriguingly, only supplementation with 5-CHO-THF, as opposed to folic acid, offered significant and consistent protection against UVB-inflicted oxidative damage in the folate-deficient larvae. We concluded that the intrinsic folate status correlates with the vulnerability to UVB-induced damage in zebrafish larvae. In addition, 5-CHO-THF surpassed both folic acid and NAC in preventing UVB-inflicted oxidative stress and injury in our current experimental zebrafish model.
Article
Full-text available
Although medical and pharmacological methods of treatment improve constantly, the treatment of malignant tumors is still connected with high risk of adverse effects of the treatment. It is mostly related to radiotherapy, which causes general (e.g. discomfort and ill-being) and local side effects - it damages the patient's skin in the area that is directly exposed to radiation. Such damages of the skin require appropriate treatment and nursing care, both during the therapy and after the treatment is finished. Many patients search for cosmetic products that could restore the healthy state of their skin, previously damaged by radiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy, tolerability and cosmetic features of Folacin-containing cream applied on the skin of patients undergoing and after radiotherapy. In vitro research was performed on primary fibroblast culture: the alkaline comet assay was used for the assessment of repairing effect of Folacin on X-ray-induced DNA damage. The in vivo study have been conducted in the group of 41 patients undergoing and after radiotherapy. Non-invasive measurements of skin parameters (erythema, moisturization and sebum level) were preformed on irradiated body skin surface (cheeks, neck or breast) after 2, 4 and 8 weeks of cosmetic treatment. The rate of repair of DNA damage (up to 15-30 minutes) in X-irradiated primary human fibroblasts was higher in folate-treated cells than in untreated ones. Our data suggest that folic acid modulated DNA repair and the observed effects apparently was due to accelerated rejoining of strand breaks. We found that Folacin-containig cream sufficiently improved skin condition in patients undergoinig and after radiotherapy. Application of Folacin-containig cream in comparison to non-treated area significantly diminished skin redness and couperoses and improved moisturization level and sebum content. The cream was very well tolerated by patients and has a very good cosmetic features.
Article
Radiotherapy is one of the most effective therapies for many different neoplasmatical diseases. It is also connected with high risk of very serious side effects, such as post-radiation skin damage (radiodermatitis). The clinical study conducted in Dolnoślaskie Centrum Onkologii in Wrocław showed that application of X-ray Liposubtilium cream on the skin in the course and after finishing a radiotherapeutic session highly improves the skin's condition, while decreasing inflammatory symptoms and skin cell damage. It also improves patients' quality of life.
Article
Cells from the L5178Y murine lymphoma subline LY-R are twofold more resistant to killing by ionizing radiation than the subline LY-S. In contrast, LY-R cells are more sensitive to killing by hydrogen peroxide. Cells of the two sublines in logarithmic growth phase were treated with hydrogen peroxide in phosphate-buffered saline for 1 h at 4 degrees C or 37 degrees C. From the comparison of D(o) values it followed that at 37 degrees C LY-R were 3.6 times more sensitive to the killing effect of H2O2 than LY-S cells; at 4 degrees C they were 11 times more sensitive. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide at 4 degrees C gave a considerable sparing effect, which was substantially greater for the LY-S subline; for LY-S cells D(o) was 5.7 times lower at 37 degrees C than at 4 degrees C, for LY-R cells only 1.9 times. The mutation frequency (HGPRT) in LY-R cells was increased in proportion to H2O2 concentration and was the same at both treatment temperatures. In contrast, mutation frequencies initially increased, then decreased with increasing H2O2 concentration in LY-S cells treated at 4 or 37 degrees C. The concentration at which the decline was initiated was higher at 4 than at 37 degrees C. DNA damage after H2O2 treatment (both temperatures, 5 min) was estimated from the 'comet' assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis). The initial damage, but not the residual damage, differed significantly in LY sublines. A period of slower repair (between 3 and 10 min) was found in LY-R cells.
Article
Elevated plasma homocysteine levels are a risk factor for atherosclerotic disease. Elevated fasting plasma homocysteine concentrations can be reduced by vitamin supplementation with folic acid, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12, but the effect of nutritive amounts of single vitamins on homocysteine plasma levels within the normal range is not known. This study was performed to investigate the effect of folic acid supplementation (400 micrograms/d) on fasting plasma homocysteine levels in healthy young women, in comparison to vitamin B6 (2 mg/d) or a combination of both vitamins. Healthy young women with normal homocysteine levels were supplemented for four weeks either with folic acid, vitamin B6 or the combination. The combination of folic acid and vitamin B6 reduced plasma homocysteine by 17%. Supplementation with folic acid reduced plasma homocysteine levels by 11.5%. The effect of folic acid and vitamin B6 was not significantly different from the effect of folic acid alone. Vitamin B6 had no effect on plasma homocysteine concentrations. Results show that homocysteine levels within the normal range are lowered by low-dose vitamin supplementation including folic acid.
Article
Pulsed dye laser treatments usually result in purpura. Any topical application that eliminates or shortens the duration of purpura would be extremely useful. The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the safety and efficacy of topical vitamin K cream in shortening the duration of laser-induced purpura. Twenty adult subjects were enrolled. Each subject had five 1.5 cm sites treated with a pulsed dye laser at 585 nm, 450 nsec, 7 mm spot size at each subject's respective threshold fluence. Each subject had a control site where no topical application was used and four other sites where a different formulation was applied to each for 2 weeks before and for 2 weeks after laser irradiation. Five vitamin K formulations with or without retinol were studied: 3% vitamin K in acrylates copolymer cream, 5% vitamin K in acrylates copolymer cream, 1% vitamin K and 0.3% retinol in acrylates copolymer cream, 1% vitamin K and 0.15% retinol in acrylates copolymer cream, 1% free vitamin K cream. Purpuric discoloration at each site was rated on days 0, 1, 3, 7, 10, and 14 after laser treatment on a quartile scale. Each site was assigned 100% discoloration on day 0 after laser irradiation. Laser-induced purpuric discoloration resolved faster with 1% vitamin K and 0.3% retinol in acrylates copolymer cream than with no topical application. The difference is statistically significant from day 3 onward. A combination of 1% vitamin K and 0.3% retinol in acrylates copolymer cream hastened the resolution of laser-induced purpura.
Article
We have recently shown that exposure of human keratinocytes to physiologic doses of ultraviolet B (UVB) activates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/extracellular-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and p38 signaling pathways via reactive oxygen species, an effect that can be modulated by antioxidants. Trolox, a water-soluble vitamin E analog, is among the antioxidants that are currently being investigated for their preventive and protective potential against harmful effects of UV radiation to the skin. We found that Trolox inhibits both basal and UVB-induced intracellular H(2)O(2) generation in primary keratinocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Trolox did not significantly affect UVB-induced phosphorylation of EGFR. Stronger inhibition was observed for ERK1/2 activation at lower, and for p38 activation at higher, concentrations of Trolox added to cells before exposure to UVB. Similarly different effects were found with regard to length of pretreatment with Trolox before UVB exposure-increasing inhibition for ERK1/2 activation at shorter, and for p38 activation at longer, pretreatment intervals. UVB-induced c-jun-N-terminal kinase activation was potently suppressed by Trolox. Also, increasing the pretreatment time of Trolox decreased the rate of cell death following UVB. In conclusion, UVB-induced signaling pathway activation is differentially modulated by Trolox. Further investigation into the time-dependent biologic activation of Trolox and its metabolic products, and modulation of signal transduction with cell outcome should facilitate development of rational strategies for pharmacologic applications.