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Abstract

Aims: Marketing and advertising alcoholic beverages on the internet creates novel problems for control over these products. This study presents an initial overview of what alcoholic beverages are on offer over the internet and how they are advertised. Method: The research was conducted by entering generic search terms into internet search engines. The legality of the products identified, their ingredients, and the advertising claims for them were evaluated. Individual products were purchased and then chemically-toxicologically analyzed. Results: Among herbal liqueurs alone, 64 suspicious products were identified. Alcoholic beverages were advertised with misleading messages or with legally forbidden health claims. The quantity of the flavouring agent thujone that was found in absinthe clearly exceeded the maximum limit. A number of clear inconsistencies with youth legal-protection regulations and violations of the alcohol industry's self-regulation code were identified. Conclusions: The sale of alcoholic beverages over the internet must be subjected to effective controls. It seems necessary to examine whether the heretofore voluntarily imposed principles of advertising are adequate.

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... Laut einer aktuellen Untersuchung des Statistischen Bundesamtes haben 2009 bereits 75 % der Befragten Bestellungen von Waren oder Dienstleistungen über das Internet vorgenommen [1]. Der wachsende Internethandel bietet dem Verbraucher ein immer breiteres Produktspektrum, stellt aber gleichzeitig die Lebensmittelüberwachung vor neue Herausforderungen [2][3][4][5][6][7]. Um Verbraucher gezielt auf ihre Produkte aufmerksam zu machen, bietet das Internet durch den rasanten Anstieg der Mitgliederzahlen bei sog. ...
Article
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A multitude of products that are regulated by food laws are traded by mail order over classical media (TV, print media), but more and more also over the internet (online shops, social media). A range of items is exclusively traded over these distribution channels and our working group has previously shown that these items are only scarcely a subject of governmental controls. An interdisciplinary team of experts in law, food chemistry, and pharmacy has investigated in this study, which foundations are required for a sampling scheme aiming to implement effective food surveillance in the new marketing media. For a random sampling the vendor has to be localized and the person responsible for bringing the product on the market has to be identified without doubt. If the vendor is based in the inland with a fully stocked warehouse, the conventional sampling is possible. If the vendor has no warehouse and acts only as sales agency, the control of traceability and the system for verification of food safety is possible. If the sampling would be conducted in the form of an order via the internet, it must be considered that the sample selection is conducted by the vendor and is therefore susceptible to manipulation. In general, the current system does not allow a sampling, if the whole chain of sales Is conducted In third countries. The currently existing laws for sampling are only partially transferable to the new forms of marketing and to the multitude of processes in need of regulation. A new general policy framework and structures are urgently required, such as, e.g., the possibility of sampling by an online order conducted by a governmental agency, which also needs to be done anonymously in cases of reasonable suspicion. Officially sealed secondary samples - which may fulfill the food operator's right to apply for a supplementary expert opinion could be sent to the operator on the same way.
... Im Nicht-Lebensmittelbereich haben sich seit längerem Kontrollstrukturen im Internet, beispielsweise durch das Bundeskriminalamt aber auch durch die Arzneimittelüberwachung, bewährt (Tschiersky-Schöneburg 2009). Auf die mit dem Internethandel mit Lebensmitteln verbundenen Probleme und Regelungslücken wurde bereits mehrfach hingewiesen , 2011Kuhr und Schreiber 2009;Löbell-Behrends et al. 2008aLöbell-Behrends et al. , b, c, 2010Tschiersky-Schöneburg 2009). Der Internet- handel mit Stoffen und Erzeugnissen, die dem LFGB unterliegen, bedarf einer effektiven Kontrolle, welche in Umfang und Qualität mit der ,,herkömm- lichen'' U ¨ berwachungstätigkeit vergleichbar ist. ...
Article
In einer interdisziplinären Expertengruppe aus Juristen, Lebensmittelchemikern und Pharmazeuten wurde untersucht, welche Voraussetzungen für eine an alle neuen Vermarktungsformen angepasste Lebensmittelkontrolle zu stellen sind. Bei im Internet gehandelten Erzeugnissen wie Lebensmittel, Kosmetika oder Bedarfsgegenstände ist bereits die Einordnung bzw. Abgrenzung zu anderen Bereichen wie Arzneimitteln durch mehrdeutige Informationen oft problematisch. Daher schlagen wir in dieser Arbeit einen Entscheidungsbaum mit einer Einordnungshilfe vor. Des Weiteren sind die vorhandenen gesetzlichen Regelungen zur Probenahme auf die neuen Vermarktungsformen nur teilweise übertragbar. Bei einer Probenahme auf behördliche Bestellung muss beispielsweise beachtet werden, dass die Probenauswahl dem Händler obliegt und somit eine Manipulation möglich ist. Außerdem kann keine versiegelte Gegenprobe hinterlassen werden. Neue Rahmenbedingungen und Strukturen sind daher notwendig, wie beispielsweise die Möglichkeit einer Online-Probenahme, die bei Verdachtsfällen auch verdeckt durchführbar sein muss. Vorschläge für weitere rechtliche Änderungen schließen die Schaffung eines Zentralregisters für Internetbetriebe, sowie eine verbesserte Lebensmittelkennzeichnung ein, die vollumfänglich bereits im Online-Angebot erfolgen sollte. Die hierfür notwendigen gesetzlichen Novellierungen müssen in differenzierter Weise auf die neuen Fallgestaltungen eingehen, wobei in einem ersten Ansatz bundesweite Regelungen, danach EU-weite Normen erforderlich sind. Dabei ist außerdem zu beachten, dass Internethändler im Vergleich zum konventionellen Handel weder privilegiert noch benachteiligt werden sollten. Als flankierende Maßnahmen schlagen wir eine verbesserte Verbraucherinformation über die Gefahren des Internethandels sowie ein zertifiziertes Prüfsiegel für registrierte Onlineshops vor. An interdisciplinary team comprising experts in law, food chemistry and pharmacy, studied the requirements for food surveillance focusing on new forms of trade. In online marketing, the classification of products in categories that are regulated by food laws (i.e., foods, cosmetic products and other commodities) is often problematic, particularly for borderline products. In order to facilitate this classification based on the information provided online, we have established a decision tree. Moreover, existing regulations for sampling are only partially applicable to the new forms of marketing. It must be taken into account that sampling can be manipulated, if specimens are simply ordered by the responsible authority. Furthermore it is not feasible to leave behind samples for a supplementary expert opinion. Therefore a new policy framework is required that allows online sampling - anonymously in suspicious cases. Further suggestions include establishing a central register for online vendors as well as the necessity to present mandatory food information in a conspicuous place before the purchase is concluded. Future law amendments need to be implemented in a sophisticated manner taken into account the realities of online marketing. National regulations in Germany could be established prior to EU-wide regulations. Finally the legislative body must make sure not to privilege or penalize online vendors with respect to conventional trade. We propose complementary measures that include improved risk communication provisions for consumers as well as a certified seal of approval for registered businesses. SchlüsselwörterInternethandel–Nahrungsergänzungsmittel–Kosmetische Mittel–Borderline-Produkte–Arzneimittel–Probenahme–Amtliche Lebensmittelüberwachung–Registrierungspflicht
... The products were advertised and intentionally manufactured for 'high-thujone content" using either pure thujone, cedar leaf oil or artificially high amounts of wormwood oil. Such unscrupulous marketers apparently use the anonymity of the internet to sell their 'drug-like' absinthes based on completely false claims [31]. ...
Article
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Absinthe, a strong alcoholic aperitif, is notorious for containing the compound 'thujone', which has been commonly regarded as its 'active ingredient'. It has been widely theorized that the thujone content of vintage absinthe made it harmful to public health, and caused the distinct syndrome absinthism, which was extensively described in the literature prior to the spirit's ban in 1915. The interdisciplinary research presented in this paper shows that 1) absinthism cannot be distinguished from common alcoholism in the medical research literature of the time, and that 2) due to the physical chemistry of the distillation process, the thujone content of vintage absinthe was considerably lower than previously estimated and corresponds to levels generally recognized as safe, as proven by analyses of absinthes from the pre-ban era. Due to the re-legalization of absinthe in the European Union and more recently in the United States, potential public health concerns have re-emerged, not expressly based on worries about thujone content or absinthism, but on alcohol-related harm and youth protection issues, exacerbated by marketing strategies promoting absinthe using false and discredited claims pertaining to thujone and stubbornly persistant myths.
... In several previous articles, deficits in control of the internet trade with food products were pointed out, especially in the areas of misleading claims, health claims, mandatory food information and problems regarding sampling and analysis [1][2][3][4][5][6][7]. There appears to be consensus that immediate action is required with the aim to provide the same level of food safety for online sales as for the conventional retail trade. ...
Article
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A vast multitude of food products is currently offered by internet trade. The two largest platforms in Germany alone have more than 250,000 products in the sale. A manual control of these websites by the food safety authorities (e. g. regarding the sale of products with unapproved ingredients, the advertisement with misleading claim or the lack of mandatory food information) appears to be difficult not only for reasons of the necessary personnel expenditure of time but also as searches with lists of suspicious product groups or keywords (e. g. novel food ingredients) reduce the search hits to already known problems. Furthermore, this would allow the dishonest vendor to remove himself from controls by avoiding those keywords, if they become known. For these reasons, a productive approach could be to employ a software system, which identifies suspicious products automatically using data analytical methods (similar to e-mail spam filtering). In the context of a feasibility study, we have evaluated different text mining and data analysis techniques such as PCA and SVM. Using a testset with 100 products, an extremely sufficient detection quota was reached (only 1 product was false-positively classified as suspicious using SVM). This approach shows great promise to improve the food control of the internet market. Due to the complexity of the processes, such investigations could be conducted by a central authority, which would need not only expertise in the software approaches but also expert knowledge in food evaluation, which is required for training of the classification algorithms.
Article
Immer mehr Verbraucher nutzen das Internet zum Einkaufen, wobei zehn Prozent der Onlinekäufer auch Lebensmittel online bestellen (Tschiersky-Schöneburg, 2009). Besonders betrifft dies Produktgruppen mit den gemeinsamen Merkmalen lange Haltbarkeit, problemlose Versendbarkeit und große Gewinnmarge/Wertschöpfungsanteil (LöbellBehrends, Maixner et al., 2008). Diese Merkmale treffen sicherlich besonders auch auf alkoholhaltige Getränke zu, wobei nach unserem Erkenntnisstand noch keine systematischen Untersuchungen zum Ausmaß des Online- und Versandhandels vorliegen. Empirische Studien haben jedoch gezeigt, dass Wein mit höherer Wahrscheinlichkeit im Internet gekauft wird als andere Lebensmittel und alkoholfreie Getränke (Grunert & Ramus, 2005). Bestätigt wird dies durch eine stichprobenartige Betrachtung des deutschen eBay Angebots, das im November 2010 im Bereich Bar und Spirituosen 35,319 Artikel, im Bereich Wein 23,681 Artikel, jedoch im Bereich alkoholfreie Getränke nur 3,843 Artikel listet. Das European Centre for Monitoring Alcohol Marketing (EUCAM, 2009) hat kürzlich gezeigt, dass das Ausmaß der Alkoholwerbung im Internet (Seiten der Hersteller, Händler, zielgruppen- und stichwortbezogene Werbung bei Google) und insbesondere in den neuen Medien (Social Networks wie Facebook oder Twitter) stark angestiegen ist, wobei diese von der Aufmachung und dem Umfeld besonders Jugendliche ansprechen. Weniger ist darüber bekannt, ob und in welchem Umfang alkoholhaltige Produkte direkt an Jugendliche vertrieben werden
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In einer interdisziplinären Expertengruppe aus Juristen, Lebensmittelchemikern und Pharmazeuten wurde untersucht, welche Voraussetzungen für eine an alle neuen Vermarktungsformen angepasste Lebensmittelkontrolle zu stellen sind. Bei im Internet gehandelten Erzeugnissen wie Lebensmittel, Kosmetika oder Bedarfsgegenstände ist bereits die Einordnung bzw. Abgrenzung zu anderen Bereichen wie Arzneimitteln durch mehrdeutige Informationen oft problematisch. Daher schlagen wir in dieser Arbeit einen Entscheidungsbaum mit einer Einordnungshilfe vor. Des Weiteren sind die vorhandenen gesetzlichen Regelungen zur Probenahme auf die neuen Vermarktungsformen nur teilweise übertragbar. Bei einer Probenahme auf behördliche Bestellung muss beispielsweise beachtet werden, dass die Probenauswahl dem Händler obliegt und somit eine Manipulation möglich ist. Außerdem kann keine versiegelte Gegenprobe hinterlassen werden. Neue Rahmenbedingungen und Strukturen sind daher notwendig, wie beispielsweise die Möglichkeit einer Online-Probenahme, die bei Verdachtsfällen auch verdeckt durchführbar sein muss. Vorschläge für weitere rechtliche Änderungen schließen die Schaffung eines Zentralregisters für Internetbetriebe, sowie eine verbesserte Lebensmittelkennzeichnung ein, die vollumfänglich bereits im Online-Angebot erfolgen sollte. Die hierfür notwendigen gesetzlichen Novellierungen müssen in differenzierter Weise auf die neuen Fallgestaltungen eingehen, wobei in einem ersten Ansatz bundesweite Regelungen, danach EU-weite Normen erforderlich sind. Dabei ist außerdem zu beachten, dass Internethändler im Vergleich zum konventionellen Handel weder privilegiert noch benachteiligt werden sollten. Als flankierende Maßnahmen schlagen wir eine verbesserte Verbraucherinformation über die Gefahren des Internethandels sowie ein zertifiziertes Prüfsiegel für registrierte Onlineshops vor.
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The influence of alcohol advertising on young people continues to be the subject of much debate. This paper presents a review of the literature showing that, while many econometric studies suggest little effect, more focused consumer studies, especially recent ones with sophisticated designs, do show clear links between advertising and behaviour. Furthermore, these effects have to be viewed in combination with the possible impact of other marketing activities such as price promotions, distribution, point of sale activity and new product development. Here, the evidence base is less well developed, but there are indications of effects. It must be acknowledged that categorical statements of cause and effect are always difficult in the social sciences; marketing is a complex phenomenon involving the active participation of consumers as well as marketers and more research is needed on its cumulative impact. Nonetheless, the literature presents an increasingly compelling picture that alcohol marketing is having an effect on young people's drinking.
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The alcoholic beverage absinthe is recently experiencing a revival after a yearlong prohibition. This review article provides information on all aspects of this bitter spirit and its major components, especially wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.), which contains the toxic monoterpene thujone. Over 100 references on historic and current literature are provided. The topics comprise the history of the alcoholic drink starting from its invention in the eighteenth century. Historical and modern recipes are discussed in the context of different quality categories and possibilities to reduce the content of thujone are given. The analytical techniques used to verify compliance with the maximum limit of thujone as well as further possibilities for quality control of absinthe are discussed. The toxicology of absinthe is reviewed with regard to the cause of a syndrome called "absinthism," which was described after chronic abuse of the spirit in the nineteenth century. Finally, a food regulatory and food chemical evaluation is provided and minimum requirements for absinthe are suggested. Absinthe should have a recognizable wormwood flavor and after dilution with water the characteristic clouding should arise (louche-effect). Products, which are advertized as being of premium grade should be made by distillation, should have an alcoholic strength of at least 45%vol, and should not contain artificial dye.
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So-called energy drinks with very high amounts of taurine (up to 4000 mg/l are usually granted by certificates of exemption) are increasingly offered on the market. To control the currently valid maximum limits of taurine in energy drinks, a simple and rapid analytical method is required to use it routinely in food monitoring. In this article, we describe a fast and efficient analytical method (FTIR-spectroscopy) that is able to reliably characterize and quantify taurine in energy drinks. The determination of taurine in energy drinks by FTIR was compared with amino acid analyzer (ion chromatography with ninhydrin-postcolumn derivatization). During analysis of 80 energy drinks, a median concentration of 3180 mg/l was found in alcohol-free products, 314 mg/l in energy drinks with spirits, 151 mg/l in beer-containing drinks and 305 mg/l in beverages with wine. Risk analysis of these products is difficult due to the lack of valid toxicological information about taurine and its interferences with other ingredients of energy drinks (for example caffeine and alcohol). So far, the high taurine concentrations of energy drinks in comparison to the rest of the diet are scientifically doubtful, as the advertised physiological effects and the value of supplemented taurine are unproven.
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and content of alcoholic beverage advertisements and sales promotions in magazines popular with adolescents and young people in Australia, and assess the extent to which the ads complied with Australia's self-regulatory Alcoholic Beverages Advertising Code (ABAC). Alcohol advertisements and promotions were identified in a sample of 93 magazines popular with young people. The identified items were coded against 28 measures constructed to assess the content of the items against the five sections of the ABAC. Two thirds of the magazines contained at least one alcohol advertisement or promotion with a total of 142 unique items identified: 80 were brand advertisements and 62 were other types of promotional items (i.e. sales promotions, event sponsorships, cross promotions with other marketers and advertorials). It was found that 52% of items appeared to contravene at least one section of the ABAC. The two major apparent breaches related to section B--the items having a strong appeal to adolescents (34%) and to section C--promoting positive social, sexual and psychological expectancies of consumption (28%). It was also found that promotional items appeared to breach the ABAC as often as did advertisements. It is concluded that the self-regulating system appears not to be working for the alcoholic beverages industry in Australia and that increased government surveillance and regulation should be considered, giving particular emphasis to the inclusion of promotional items other than brand advertising.
Article
Australia, like several other countries, has a self-regulatory approach to advertising. However, in recent years the effectiveness of the regulatory system has been questioned, and there have been increasing public calls for an overhaul of the system. Following a formal review in 2003, the Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy proposed a revised Alcoholic Beverages Advertising Code (ABAC), which came into operation in 2004. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of this revised system. From May 2004 until March 2005 television and magazine advertising campaigns were monitored for alcohol products. Over this period 14 complaints against alcohol advertisements were lodged with the self-regulatory board, and the authors recruited an independent expert panel to assess the advertisements and complaints. In eight of the 14 cases a majority of the judges perceived the advertisement to be in breach of the code, and in no cases did a majority perceive no breach. Conversely, however, none of the complaints were upheld by the Advertising Standards Board (ASB) and only one by the ABAC Panel. The results of this study suggest that the decisions made by the ASB in relation to complaints against alcohol advertisements are not in harmony with the judgement of independent experts, and that the ASB may not be performing an adequate job of representing community standards or protecting the community from offensive or inappropriate advertisements. Further, it appears that the revisions to the ABAC code, and associated processes, have not reduced the problems associated with alcohol advertising in Australia.
Article
Thirteen samples of authentic absinthe dating from the preban era (i.e., prior to 1915) were analyzed for parameters that were hypothesized as contributing to the toxicity of the spirit, including naturally occurring herbal essences (thujone, pinocamphone, fenchone), methanol, higher alcohols, copper, and antimony. The total thujone content of preban absinthe was found to range between 0.5 and 48.3 mg/L, with an average concentration of 25.4 +/- 20.3 mg/L and a median concentration of 33.3 mg/L. The authors conclude that the thujone concentration of preban absinthe was generally overestimated in the past. The analysis of postban (1915-1988) and modern commercial absinthes (2003-2006) showed that the encompassed thujone ranges of all absinthes are quite similar, disproving the supposition that a fundamental difference exists between preban and modern absinthes manufactured according to historical recipes. Analyses of pinocamphone, fenchone, base spirits, copper, and antimony were inconspicuous. All things considered, nothing besides ethanol was found in the absinthes that was able to explain the syndrome "absinthism".
Alcohol advertising in new media. Trends in alcohol marketing
(2009). Alcohol advertising in new media. Trends in alcohol marketing. EUCAM report November 2009. Utrecht, The Netherlands: Autor.
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Liesching, M. (2007). LG Koblenz: Internetversandhandel mit Tabakwaren. Multimedia und Recht, 10, 725–726.
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Löbell-Behrends, S., Maixner, S., Kratz, E., Kohl-Himmelseher, M., Bauer-Aymanns, H., Marx, G. & Lachenmeier, D.W. (2008). Kontrolle des Internethandels mit Anti-Aging-und Schlankheitsmitteln. Eine Pilot-Studie. Deutsche Lebensmittel-Rundschau, 104, 265 -270.
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Tschiersky-Schöneburg, H. (2009). Das Internet. Ein rechtsfreier Raum für Lebensmittelhändler? LVT Lebensmittel Industrie, 54, 1–4.
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Dirk W. Lachenmeier Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe Weißenburger Str. 3
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E-Mail: lachenmeier@web.de 398 W. Böse et al.: Editorial SUCHT, 56 (6) © 2010 Verlag Hans Huber, Hogrefe AG, Bern
General requirements for natural fl avourings (CAC/GL 29.1987). www.codexalimentarius .net (Zugriff am
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Kuunders, M. (2006). Self regulation why and how? How self regulation protects the freedom to promote alcoholic beverages. Helsinki, Finland: Workshop 'Self regulation of commerical communication about alcoholic beverages' at the Eurocare Bridging the Gap Conference.
Lexikon der Ernährung
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Maid-Kohnert, U. (2002). Lexikon der Ernährung. Heidelberg, Berlin: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag.
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Drogen-und Suchtbericht Mai
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Council Directive (EEC) No 88/388 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to fl avourings for use in foodstuffs and to source materials for their production
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European Council. (1988). Council Directive (EEC) No 88/388 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to fl avourings for use in foodstuffs and to source materials for their production. Offi cial Journal of the European Communities, L184, 61 -66.
Chemical Composition of Vintage Preban Absinthe with Special Reference to Thujone
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Lachenmeier, D.W., Nathan-Maister, D., Breaux, T.A., Sohnius, E.M., Schoeberl, K., & Kuballa, T. (2008). Chemical Composition of Vintage Preban Absinthe with Special Reference to Thujone, Fenchone, Pinocamphone, Methanol, Copper, and Antimony Concentrations. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 3073 – 3081.
The Green and Healthy Image of Alcohl Niederlande: The European Centre for Monitoring Alcohol Marketing. Zugriff am 25.11
EUCAM. (2008). The Green and Healthy Image of Alcohl. Trends in Alcohol Marketing. EUCAM report 2008. Utrecht, Niederlande: The European Centre for Monitoring Alcohol Marketing. Zugriff am 25.11.2008 unter http://www.stap. nl/content/bestanden/responsible_alcohol_fi nal.pdf Europäisches Parlament und Rat. (2006).
Vorläufi ges Biergesetz i.d.F. vom 29.01.1998, BGBl.I
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Bundesgesetzblatt. (1998). Vorläufi ges Biergesetz i.d.F. vom 29.01.1998, BGBl.I, 230.
Lebensmittel-und Futtermittelgesetzbuch in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 26 BGBl. I, 945, zuletzt geändert am 5
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Bundesgesetzblatt. (2007) Lebensmittel-und Futtermittelgesetzbuch in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 26. April 2006, BGBl. I, 945, zuletzt geändert am 5. November 2007, BGBl. I, 2558.
Giftpfl anzen: ein Handbuch für Apotheker, Ärzte
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Frohne, D. & Pfänder, H.J. (1987). Giftpfl anzen: ein Handbuch für Apotheker, Ärzte, Toxikologen und Biologen.
Internet marketing of alcoholic beverages
  • Löbell-Behrends
Löbell-Behrends et al. Internet marketing of alcoholic beverages
Absinthe – A review. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition
  • D W Lachenmeier
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Lachenmeier, D.W., Walch, S.G., Padosch, S.A., & Kröner, L.U. (2006). Absinthe – A review. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 46, 365 – 377.
Leiterin des Forschungsprojekts »Internetrecherche« am CVUA Karlsruhe Thomas Kuballa Lebensmittelchemiker, seit 1993 Laborleiter am CVUA Karlsruhe für Elementanalytik , für Aromen und Gaschromatographie- Massenspektrometrie Oliver el-Atma Apotheker
  • Sigrid Löbell-Behrends Lebensmittelchemikerin
Sigrid Löbell-Behrends Lebensmittelchemikerin, seit 2007 Leiterin des Forschungsprojekts »Internetrecherche« am CVUA Karlsruhe Thomas Kuballa Lebensmittelchemiker, seit 1993 Laborleiter am CVUA Karlsruhe für Elementanalytik, für Aromen und Gaschromatographie- Massenspektrometrie Oliver el-Atma Apotheker, seit 2005 Leiter des Labors für Drogen und pflanzliche Arzneimittel am CVUA Karlsruhe Gerhard Marx Lebensmittelchemiker, seit 2005 Stellvertretender Dienststellenleiter des CVUA Karlsruhe Dirk W. Lachenmeier Lebensmittelchemiker, Forensischer Toxikologe, seit 2003 Leiter des Labors für alkoholhaltige Getränke am CVUA Karls- ruhe
Arzneimittelgesetz in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 12
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Bundesgesetzblatt. (2005). Arzneimittelgesetz in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 12. Dezember 2005. BGBl. I, 3394, zuletzt geändert am 23. November 2007, BGBl. I S. 2631.
Alkohol in Europa -Eine Public Health Perspektive
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Anderson, P. & Baumberg, B. (2006). Alkohol in Europa -Eine Public Health Perspektive. London, UK (http:// ec.europa.eu/health-eu/doc/alcoho-lineu_sum_de_en.pdf): Institute for Alcohol Studies.
Lebensmittel-und Futtermittelgesetzbuch in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 26
  • Bundesgesetzblatt
Bundesgesetzblatt. (2007) Lebensmittel-und Futtermittelgesetzbuch in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 26. April 2006, BGBl. I, 945, zuletzt geändert am 5. November 2007, BGBl. I, 2558.
Ernährungsempfehlungen für Diabetiker 2001: offi zielle Stellungnahme der Diabetes and Nutrition Study Group (DNSG) of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) 2000 und des Ausschusses Ernährung der Deutschen Diabetes-Gesellschaft
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DNSG. (2001). Ernährungsempfehlungen für Diabetiker 2001: offi zielle Stellungnahme der Diabetes and Nutrition Study Group (DNSG) of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) 2000 und des Ausschusses Ernährung der Deutschen Diabetes-Gesellschaft. Zugriff am 25.11.2008 unter http://www.diabetes.uni-duesseldorf.de.
Verordnung (EG) Nr. 1924/2006 des Europäischen Parlamentes und des Rates vom 20
  • Europäisches Parlament Und Rat
Europäisches Parlament und Rat. (2006). Verordnung (EG) Nr. 1924/2006 des Europäischen Parlamentes und des Rates vom 20. Dezember 2006 über nährwert-und gesundheitsbezogene Angaben über Lebensmittel. Amtsblatt der Europäischen Union, L404, 9 -25.