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Effect of supplementation of Spirulina on hypercholesterolemic patients

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The effect of Spirulina on hypercholesterolemic patients was carried out in Coimbatore city. Thirty ischaemic heart disease patients without any complications of the disease and with blood cholesterol levels above 250mg/dl were selected for the study and divided into three groups of 10 each for supplementation of Spirulina. Subjects in groups A and B received 2g and 4g Spirulina per day, respectively for three months. Group C served as control. The study has revealed that Spirulina plays a key role in weight reduction, lowering the blood cholesterol levels and improving the lipid profile of patients.

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... Many findings have performed to assess the effect of spirulina on human beings' health and different metabolic disorders (Kim, Kim, 2005;Parikh, Mani, Iyer, 2001;Rodriguez-Hernandez et al., 2001). Spirulina may decrease blood lipids in healthy (Park, Kim, 2003), heart disease (Ramamoorthy, Premakumari, 1996), and diabetic individuals (Mani, Desai, Iyer, 2000). Spirulina also shows antioxidant properties that can inhibit lipid peroxidation (Benedetti et al., 2004). ...
... Spirulina may also have therapeutic effects such as preventing and decreasing the damages caused by hyperlipidemia and antioxidant activity (Bertolin et al., 2009). Studies on different animal models revealed that spirulina reduces plasma and hepatic total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides, while studies on humans have shown a significant decrease in the total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels (Ramamoorthy, Premakumari, 1996). These findings are in agreement with our results (Ramamoorthy, Premakumari, 1996;Shklar, Schwartz, 1988;Torres-Duran et al., 1998). ...
... Studies on different animal models revealed that spirulina reduces plasma and hepatic total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides, while studies on humans have shown a significant decrease in the total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels (Ramamoorthy, Premakumari, 1996). These findings are in agreement with our results (Ramamoorthy, Premakumari, 1996;Shklar, Schwartz, 1988;Torres-Duran et al., 1998). Some other studies have reported that spirulina lowering effect on triglycerides can be because of spirulina's influence on lipoprotein metabolism (Iwata, Inayama, Kato, 1990). ...
... S. (Arthrospira) platensis is a filamentous and multicellular Gram-negative cyanobacterium (blue-green algae) that is a member of the Phormidiaceae family (Seyidoglu et al. 2017;Zahran and Emam 2018). It is increasing in popularity through its high nutritional content (i.e., proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, vitamins and pigments) (Saranraj and Sivasakthi 2014;Seyidoglu et al. 2017) as well as bioactive components which conduce to its therapeutic potential (cancer, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, anaemia, allergic diseases) (Ramamoorthy and Premakumari 1996;Løbner et al. 2008;Juárez-Oropeza et al. 2009;Chen et al. 2012). S. platensis shows antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties through some biochemical constituents such as c-linolenic acid (precursor of arachidonic acid), carotenes, tocopherol and minerals (e.g. ...
... In the literature, many studies are focussing on the therapeutic and immunomodulatory potential of S. platensis (Ramamoorthy and Premakumari 1996;Løbner et al. 2008;Juárez-Oropeza et al. 2009). However, the capability of S. platensis on the genetic regulation of stress mechanisms has not been satisfactorily investigated in detail. ...
Article
Spirulina platensis has gradually gained more attention for its therapeutic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory potential worldwide. However, the current molecular knowledge about the effects of spirulina on stress-related genes is rather limited. The effects of dietary intake of spirulina on the HSP70 gene expression were assessed in a controlled in vivo experimental design. Moreover, alterations in serum corticosterone levels, IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ, triglyceride, ALT, AST, relative gene expression values, and the correlations between them were evaluated. A total of 36 rats were divided into four groups: control group, stress-only group, spirulina group, and spirulina+stress group. To control the dose administration, S. platensis was applied by a gastric gavage in stress groups. Crowded environment stress and hosting alone stress were applied to the stress-only group and spirulina + stress group. RNA was extracted from brain samples using TRIpure and the relative gene expression assessment was performed using Roche-LightCycler-480-II real-time PCR-System. Gene expression values were remarkably different among the four experimental groups. The differences between stress-only and the spirulina groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). The correlation between the HSP70 gene expression and the IFN-γ was found to be statistically significant (P<0.05; r=0.50). Results indicate a novel effect of spirulina on the HSP70 expression related to the stress-response. Data presented in this study may be useful for further studies to define not only the molecular genetic aspects through dietary S. platensis but also the effects of spirulina on stress-response and animal welfare.Graphical abstract
... Iwata et al. (1990) revealed that the increase of triglycerides level in liver and serum is inhibited with lipase activity. Ramamoorthy and Premakumari (1996) illustrated that HDL-C is good cholesterol. The blood serum lipids profile of rats fed on diverse experimental diets is presented in Table 4. Hyperlipidemia induces abnormal higher blood and liver index concentrations, including total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, and low levels of HDL-C. ...
... Several reports have suggested that spirulina might have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular diseases prevention (Chamorro et al., 2002). In addition, Ramamoorthy and Premakumari (1996) administered spirulina supplements in patients with ischemic heart disease, and observed a substantial reduction in the blood cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides, and an increase in HDL-C. The histological changes in the heart and heart biopsy of results of each group are shown in Table 5 and Figure 4. ...
... Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis or maxima), belonging to the family of cyanobacteria, is a microalga containing high amounts of proteins, vitamins and light-harvesting structures such as C-phycocyanin [7]. Animal [8,9] and several-but not all-human trials [10][11][12][13][14][15] have suggested that spirulina lowers serum 1 3 total cholesterol (TC) and / or LDL-C concentrations. Studies in rats have now suggested that inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption could be the mechanism underlying the LDL-C reduction [9]. ...
... In the same meta-analysis, a decrease in triacylglycerol concentrations was found, whereas those of HDL-C were not significantly changed. However, 5 of the 10 RCTs measuring serum lipid concentrations were not blinded, since the control groups received no placebo capsules or tablets [10,[12][13][14]36]. In fact, subgroup analysis revealed that TC, LDL-C, TAG concentrations decreased and those of HDL-C increased in the trials with a no-intervention control group. ...
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Purpose Consumption of the algae spirulina (Arthrospira platensis or maxima) and wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) has been shown to lower LDL cholesterol concentrations in animals and humans, possibly due to the inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption. This mechanism, however, has never been investigated in humans. Therefore, we examined in non-hypercholesterolemic men and women the effects of spirulina and wakame consumption on serum markers for intestinal cholesterol absorption. Methods Thirty-five healthy men and women without hypercholesterolemia consumed in a random order daily 4.8 g spirulina, wakame or placebo for 17 days, separated by 14-day washouts. After 17 days, serum cholesterol-standardized campesterol, sitosterol and cholestanol, and lathosterol concentrations were measured as markers for intestinal cholesterol absorption and cholesterol synthesis, respectively. Concentrations of serum total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and plasma glucose, and blood pressure were measured as well. Results Compared with placebo, spirulina or wakame did not affect serum cholesterol-standardized campesterol (CI − 0.23 to 0.10 μmol/mmol, P = 0.435 and CI − 0.14 to 0.19 μmol/mmol, P = 0.729, respectively), sitosterol (P = 0.314 and P = 0.112), cholestanol (P = 0.610 and P = 0.809), or lathosterol (P = 0.388 and P = 0.102) concentrations. In addition, serum lipid and plasma glucose concentrations, and blood pressure were not changed. Conclusions Daily consumption of 4.8 g spirulina or wakame for 17 days did not affect plasma markers for intestinal cholesterol absorption or cholesterol synthesis in non-hypercholesterolemic men and women. Serum lipid and glucose concentrations, and blood pressure were also not altered.
... Overall, a total of 12 studies (equivalent to 14 treatment arms) with 807 participants were finally considered to be selected for the current metaanalysis. [19][20][21][22][23][28][29][30][31][32][33][34] Study selection and identification process are depicted in Figure 1. ...
... Flowchart of database searches and articles included in the present meta-analysis. Notes: # The work conducted by ramamoorthy et al21 and Park et al 20 were separated into two treatment arms, respectively. (WMD = -35.41 ...
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Purpose Spirulina is generally used as a nutraceutical food supplement due to its nutrient profile, lack of toxicity, and therapeutic effects. Clinical trials have investigated the influence of spirulina on metabolic-related risk factors but have yielded conflicting results in humans. Here, we summarize the evidence of the effects of spirulina on serum lipid profile, glucose management, BP, and body weight by conducting a meta-analysis. Materials and methods Relevant studies were retrieved by systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus databases, and reference lists of relevant original studies from inception to July 2018. Data were extracted following a standardized protocol. Two investigators independently extracted study characteristics, outcomes measures, and appraised methodological quality. Effect sizes were performed using a random-effects model, with weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% CIs between the means for the spirulina intervention and control arms. Subgroup analyses were conducted to explore the possible influences of study characteristics. Publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also performed. Results A total of 1,868 records were identified of which 12 trials with 14 arms were eligible. The amount of spirulina ranged from 1 to 19 g/d, and intervention durations ranged from 2 to 48 weeks. Overall, data synthesis showed that spirulina supplements significantly lowered total cholesterol (WMD = −36.60 mg/dL; 95% CI: −51.87 to −21.33; P=0.0001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (WMD = −33.16 mg/dL; 95% CI: −50.52 to −15.75; P=0.0002), triglycerides (WMD = −39.20 mg/dL; 95% CI: −52.71 to −25.69; P=0.0001), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (WMD = −8.02 mg/dL; 95% CI: −8.77 to −7.26; P=0.0001), fasting blood glucose (WMD = −5.01 mg/dL; 95% CI: −9.78 to −0.24; P=0.04), and DBP (WMD = −7.17 mmHg; 95% CI: −8.57 to −5.78; P=0.001). These findings remained stable in the sensitivity analysis, and no obvious publication bias was detected. Conclusion Our findings provide substantial evidence that spirulina supplementation has favorable effect on select cardiovascular and metabolic biomarkers in humans, including lipid, glucose, and DBP management.
... Healthy individuals consuming Spirulina had a substantially lower total serum cholesterol and LDL level than their counterparts who did not take the supplement [22]. HDL levels was significant in individuals with ischemic heart disease [54]. Two months of Spirulina consumption resulted in significant reductions in triglycerides, total cholesterol, free fatty acids, LDL, and VLDL in patients with type 2 diabetes [14]. ...
Article
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The nutritional and health benefits of Spirulina have been known for thousands of years. Spirulina has been grown and harvested by ancient cultures since written history, and likely before. Much anecdotal evidence has been put forth, and more recently, evidence-based scientific research confirms many of Spriluina's nutritional and health benefits. However, such benefits are far-reaching (and only recently researched). In the commercial exuberance surrounding Spirulina, sparse research regarding any potential toxicity or adverse effects has been undertaken. This review-as a miscellany-highlights notable benefits, potential toxicity, and adverse effects in the human consumption of Spirulina. It is hoped that this review will provide the reader, especially those new to Spirulina, with an introduction and overview regarding the benefits and detriments of Spirulina, which will act as a springboard to more in-depth research regarding Spirulina as a vital nutritional and medicinal source for humans-needed now more than ever.
... This underlines the rising interest in A. platensis in the food [1,2] and feed [3,4] industry for its high nutritive value, such as a high protein content of 43-65% (w/w), and a balanced profile of essential amino acids [2]. Besides the food sector, biomass from A. platensis is also commercially valued as a dietary supplement [1,2,5] since an intake of dried A. platensis has been proven to reduce blood cholesterol levels and improve patients' lipid profiles [6,7]. Recent studies have further attributed anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, antioxidant, cancer-inhibiting [8,9] and antiviral [10] properties to cyanobacterial biomass and metabolites [11,12] such as phycocyanin (8-13% w/w of dry biomass [13]) and carotenoids (0.15-0.2% w/w of dry biomass [14]). ...
Article
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The cultivation of Arthrospira platensis in tubular photobioreactors (tPBRs) presents a promising approach for the commercial production of nutraceuticals and food products as it can achieve high productivity and effective process control. In closed photobioreactors, however, high amounts of photosynthetically produced oxygen can accumulate. So far, there has been a wide range of discussion on how dissolved oxygen concentrations (DOCs) affect bioprocess kinetics, and the subject has mainly been assessed empirically. In this study, we used photorespirometry to quantify the impact of DOCs on the growth kinetics and phycocyanin content of the widely cultivated cyanobacterium A. platensis. The photorespirometric routine revealed that the illumination intensity and cell dry weight concentration are important interconnected process parameters behind the impact that DOCs have on the bioprocess kinetics. Unfavorable process conditions such as low biomass concentrations or high illumination intensities yielded significant growth inhibition and reduced the phycocyanin content of A. platensis by up to 35%. In order to predict the biomass productivity of the large-scale cultivation of A. platensis in tPBRs, a simple process model was extended to include photoautotrophic oxygen production and accumulation in the tPBR to evaluate the performance of two configurations of a 5000 L tPBR.
... BW reduction could be related to a high content of non-essential and essential amino acids, including L-tyrosine and L-phenylalanine, which directly influence neurotransmitters like norepinephrine and dopamine [55]. Additionally, spirulina reduces lipid accumulation in the liver by reducing macrophages' infiltration in visceral fat [56]. ...
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Spirulina is a cyanobacterium rich in proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and bioactive compounds, such as C-phycocyanin, which has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and possible lipid and glucose metabolism effects. This systematic review aimed to analyze the effects of spirulina on lipid profile, glucose metabolism, and anti-inflammatory markers (CRD42018097156). After systematically searching for randomized controlled trials evaluating spirulina supplementation in adults with obesity, diabetes, or dyslipidemia on Scopus, Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases and assessing the risk of bias (Rob 2.0), a random-effects meta-analysis (Mean Difference, CI 95%) was conducted on seven selected articles (n = 338). We found that spirulina supplementation significantly reduced the triglycerides (TG) (mean difference (MD): −15.34 mg/dL; 95% CI: −29.76 to −0.91) and total cholesterol (TC) levels (MD: −11.83 mg/dL; 95% CI: −20.56 to −3.10). However, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (MD: −7.80 mg/dL; 95% CI: −16.94 to 1.33), fasting blood glucose (FBS) (MD: −3.38 mg/dL; 95% CI: −9.88 to 3.12), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (MD: −0.27%; 95% CI: −0.94 to 0.39) levels were not significantly reduced. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) (MD: 0.73 mg/dL; 95% CI: −2.49 to 3.94) was also increased but not significantly. Spirulina supplementation resulted in a decrease in TG and TC levels; it improved the lipid profile of patients with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, overweight, or obesity, showing its significant role as an adjuvant treatment.
... Thirty individuals aged between 40 and 60 years were distributed into three groups: the first group received 2 g of Spirulina fusiformis daily for three months, the second group received 4 g of Spirulina fusiformis daily for three months, and the third group received placebo. The investigators observed that the reduction of the body weight was substantial in both study groups, in comparison with placebo [64]. ...
Article
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Spirulina is a phytosynthetic filamentous cyanobacterium with microscopic dimensions, which naturally grows in the highly-salted alkaline lakes of Africa, Mexico, America, and Asia. Several bioactive peptides extracted from Spirulina were demonstrated to possess antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, immunomodulatory, antiallergic and antihypertensive properties. It has been reported that the consumption of Spirulina could prevent or manage metabolic syndrome components. In women, metabolic disorders are more prevalent during menopause. Postmenopausal women present higher waist circumference, increased blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, and decreased HDL-cholesterol values, leading to an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Therefore, in order to prevent cardiovascular diseases, it is essential to manage the components of the metabolic syndrome during the postmenopausal period. As recent reports indicated the efficiency of Spirulina supplementation in the management of the metabolic syndrome components, our study aims to review all the clinical trials conducted on this topic. Our main objective is to have a better understanding of whether and how this cyanobacterium could manage the abnormalities included in the metabolic syndrome and if it could be used as a therapeutic approach in postmenopausal women with this condition. We selected relevant articles from PubMed, Google Scholar and CrossRef databases, and a total number of 20 studies met our criteria. All included clinical trials indicated that Spirulina has positive effects in managing metabolic syndrome components. Spirulina is a valuable cyanobacterium that can be used as a food supplement for the management of metabolic syndrome, and it is able to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. The optimal dose and period of administration remain a debated subject, and future investigations are required. Considering the beneficial effects reported against each component of the metabolic syndrome, Spirulina could also be effective in the postmenopausal period, when this syndrome is the most prevalent, but there is a strong need for human clinical trials in order to sustain this observation.
... Obesity has been considered as a major global health issue associated with increased the risk of chronic diseases and cancer (Hurt, Kulisek, Buchanan, & McClave, 2010;Pi-Sunyer, 2009 respectively (Ramamoorthy & Premakumari, 1996;Winter et al., 2014). High dropout rate in three studies may affect the generalizability of such data (Shariat et al., 2019;Winter et al., 2014;Yousefi et al., 2018). ...
Article
Obesity and overweight are associated with the burden of chronic diseases. The aim of the present meta-analysis is to determine the efficacy of spirulina in reducing of obesity indices. PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases were searched up to November 2019. Randomized controlled trials comparing spirulina supplementation with a placebo or no treatment for anthropometric indices were included. Meta-analysis was performed using random-effects model. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were carried out. Publication bias was evaluated using standard methods. Spirulina had ameliorative effects on weight (WMD = -1.85 Kg; 95% CI: -2.44, -1.26; p < .001; I2 = 82.4%, p < .001), and waist circumference (WMD = -1.09 cm; 95% CI: -2.16, -0.01; p = .046; I2 = 0.0%, p = .757) while no significant effect was shown on body mass index, even after sensitivity analysis (SMD = -0.53 Kg/m2 ; 95% CI: -1.25, 0.19; p = .149; I2 = 92.9%, p < .001); however, spirulina was effective in studies lasted for at least 12 weeks (SMD = -1.25 Kg/m2 ; 95% CI: -2.21, -0.28; p = .011; I2 = 90.8%, p < .001). Spirulina supplementation exerts beneficial effects on weight and waist circumference. The ameliorative effect of spirulina on body mass index was revealed in longer duration of supplementation.
... The reduction in body weight in both groups given spirulina (−2.2 kg) was highly significant compared with control (0.7 kg; p<0.01). 31 Supplementation of 1 g spirulina for 3 months among Cretan Greek patients with newly diagnosed dyslipidaemia also revealed significant improvements in dyslipidaemia. Mean levels of TGs reduced by 16.3% (p<0.0001), ...
Article
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Spirulina, a cyanobacteria commonly referred to as a blue-green algae, is one of the oldest lifeforms on Earth. Spirulina grows in both fresh and saltwater sources and is known for its high protein and micronutrient content. This review paper will cover the effects of spirulina on weight loss and blood lipids. The currently literature supports the benefits of spirulina for reducing body fat, waist circumference, body mass index and appetite and shows that spirulina has significant benefits for improving blood lipids.
... (1988) in the first human study, gave 4.2g day −1 of Spirulina to 15 male volunteers although there was no significant increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, they observed a significant reduction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol after 8 weeks of treatment. The atherogenic effect also declined [38].Rama moorthy and Prema kumari (1996) in a more recent study administered Spirulina supplements in ischemic heart disease patients and found a significant reduction in blood cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol and an increase in HDL cholesterol [39]. Mani. ...
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Arthospira (spirulina) is a photosynthetic, spiral-shaped, multicellular and blue-green alga. Cell division occurs by binary fission. As it contains chlorophyll a, like higher plants botanist classify it as micro alga belonging to Cyanophceae class; but according to bacteriologists it is a bacterium due to its prokaryotic structure. Mexicans started using this microorganism as human food. Its chemical composition contains proteins (55%-70%), carbohydrates (15%-25%) and essential fatty acids (18%) vitamins, minerals and pigments like carotenes, chlorophyll and phycocyanin, pigments are used in food and cosmetic industries. Spirulina is considered as excellent food, lacking toxicity and have anticancer, antiviral, immunological properties and it also acts as a potent antioxidant. There has been a significant change in spirulina functions under stress conditions.
... As compare to higher plants, very less phenolics are reported in microalgae (Colla et al., 2007). In plant the occurrence of phenolics compound is well documented and these compounds are known to possess antioxidant activity in biological systems but the antioxidants and phenolics property are less reported although decreased cholesterol levels have been reported in hypercholesterolemic patients fed with Spirulina (Ramamoorthy and Premakumari, 1996) and the antioxidant activity of phycobiliproteins extracted from S. platensis has also been demonstrated (Estrada et al., 2001). The effect of growth parameters and conditions on the chemical composition of Spirulina has been well studied by many researchers with the main purpose to optimize the production of economic and nutritionally interesting compounds, especially phycocyanin (PC), phycoerytherine, allophycocyanin (APC), and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) (Cohen et al., 1993;Tanticharoen et al., 1994). ...
... There are many of researchers reported that Spirulina has become a medicinal food because it have good proteins , balanced fatty acids, vitamins, antioxidant compounds and many minerals, that make it able to participate in controlling many health problems like high cholesterol, as well as to decrease body weight in humans (Shao et al., 2019) and (Ramamoorthy & Premakumari, 1996). ...
... Among 926 publications obtained by initial electronic search (328 duplicates), 541 articles were excluded due to irrelevance to the topic. After reading the full text of the remaining eight papers 19,[30][31][32][33][34][35][36] , three studies were excluded due to lack of an appropriate control group 30 , and conducting on infants 31 or childrens 32 . Finally, five eligible RCTs 19, 33-36 were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. ...
Article
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Objective: Evidence has suggested that Spirulina supplementation may affect anthropometric indices. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to summarize published randomized clinical trials which assess the effect of Spirulina supplementation on obesity. Setting: Pertinent studies were identified using Embase, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, PubMed and Cochrane library databases up to May 2019. Mean Differences (MD) were pooled using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity, sensitivity analysis and publication bias were reported using standard methods. Results: Results of 5 studies (7 treatment arms) showed a significant reduction in weight (MD: -1.56 Kg, 95% CI: -1.98 to -1.14) after Spirulina supplementation. Subgroup analysis based on health status revealed that weight change in obese subjects (MD: -2.06 Kg, 95% CI: -2.45 to -1.68) was greater than overweight participants (MD: -1.28 Kg, 95% CI: -1.62 to -0.93) following Spirulina supplementation. Also, pooled analysis showed that Spirulina supplementation led to a significant reduction in body fat percent (MD: -1.02, 95% CI: -1.49 to -0.54) and waist circumference (MD: -1.40, 95% CI: -1.40 to -1.39), but not in body mass index and waist to hip ratio. Conclusion: Spirulina supplementation significantly reduces body weight, especially in obese individuals.
... Supplemented diet with SP resulted in a significant reduction of body weight in obese and ischaemic heart patients with significant improvement of lipid profil 25 . However at feeding of rats on diet containing SPat 10, 20 and 30% (w/w) did not have adverse effect on body weight gains in male and female rats 26 . ...
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Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is used extensively as an industrial solvent and considered the best-characterized experimental animal model of xenobiotic-induced hepatic toxicity via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Spirulina platensis (SP) versus Spirulina platensis supplemented with thiamine (SPt) against subacute CCl4 toxicity in rats. Rats were divided into six equal groups; Control vehicle (0.5 ml/rat 1:1 olive oil in water), SP (800 mg/kg b.wt.), SPt (800 mg/kg b.wt.), CCl4 (1ml/kg b.wt.), SP + CCl4 and SPt + CCl4. All treatments were orally and daily for a month except CCl4 was given three times weekly. CCl4 caused significant reduction in body weight gain, haemoglobin content and haematocrit percentage accompanied by leukocytosis, granulocytosis, monocytosis and lymphocytopenia. Moreover, there were significant increase in the levels of serum ALT, AST; total, direct and indirect bilirubin; urea and creatinine of CCL4- intoxicated rats. CCL4- induced significant increase of malondialdehyde levels with significant reduction of catalase activity in liver and kidney. In addition, hepatic and renal various histopathological alterations were recorded. SP and SPt ameliorated almost these changes while they couldn’t reverse the reduction of body weight gains and red blood indices. The more potent effects on measured parameters were elucidated by SPt. In conclusion SP and SPt could be used as natural antioxidant supplements to counteract the CCl4 adverse effects.
... Studies have also shown that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) regulate levels of blood lipids [18 -20]. In addition, NOM protects the activity of EPA and DHA [14,15] due to its antioxidant pigments and polyunsaturated fatty acids [13,16]. On the other hand, previous studies have shown that the EPA in NOM compound can efficiently be used into the blood, liver, and brain lipids of rats [21 -22]. ...
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Background It is well documented that biologically active components of microalgae can be utilized for treatment of different diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities and weight control of Nannochloropsis oculata microalgae (NOM) in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. Methods Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal administration of Streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). Healthy and diabetic rats were divided in to six groups. Healthy and diabetic rats orally received distilled water or NOM (10 and 20 mg/kg) for three weeks. Results Oral administration of NOM to diabetic rats significantly reduced the serum concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and increased the serum concentration of insulin and HDL-C ( P <0.05). Treatment with NOM had no significant effect on blood parameters in healthy rats ( P >0.05). Also, NOM maintained body weight in diabetic rats (P<0.05). Conclusion It can be concluded that NOM has antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities in diabetic rats.
... Most of the Spirulina platensis' anti-oxidant actions are attributed to its phycobiliproteins (phycocyanin and allophycocyanin) (Piñero-Estrada et al., 2001). On the other hand, Ramamoorthy et al. showed that intervention with Spirulina platensis significantly improved dyslipidemia in hypercholesterolemic patients (Ramamoorthy and Premakumari, 1996). Other possible mechanisms of Spirulina platensis are presented in Fig. 2. ...
Article
Backgrounds Obesity is associated with numerous chronic diseases. The current study was aimed at investigating the effects of Spirulina platensis on Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1), biomarkers of oxidative stress and anthropometric features in obese patients. Methods Fifty six obese individuals, aged between 20–50 years old, participated in the current trial and were randomly allocated into two groups of intervention and control receiving either Spirulina platensis or a placebo daily for 12 weeks, respectively. Changes in serum and blood concentrations of MIC-1, markers of oxidative stress and anthropometric features were evaluated at baseline and after the intervention period. Appetite was also measured by visual analogue scale (VAS). Results Spirulina platensis treatment for 12 weeks significantly reduced MIC-1 concentrations and appetite in obese individuals (P < 0.05); whereas no change was observed in the placebo-treated group. Moreover, Spirulina platensis significantly increased blood concentrations of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and attenuated anthropometric parameters (P < 0.05). Although these changes were also observed in the placebo-treated group, the changes in Spirulina platensis treated group was significantly greater than with placebo- treated group. Conclusion Considering the beneficial therapeutic effects of Spirulina platensis in attenuating anthropometric parameters and reducing oxidative stress, it can be suggested as a complementary therapeutic approach to obesity and related disorders.
... For female athletes, an increase in their haemachrome level was confirmed after taking 10 g Spirulina pills per day for four weeks (Li and Qi, 1997). Also, the addition of Spirulina in the diet has effects in lowering the serum levels of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides (Hosoyamada et al., 1991;Belay et al., 1993;Ramamoorthy and Premakumari, 1996;Walker et al., 2005). ...
Article
Spirulina (Arthrospira) is a microalga that has high protein content and is rich in minerals and vitamins; characteristics that make it a food additive for different population groups. The present work was aimed to develop, characterise and evaluate the stability and acceptance of a meal replacement shake and a high-calorie food, both with Spirulina sp. LEB 18. The average carbohydrate and protein contents for high-calorie food supplement were 71% and 17%, respectively. The meal replacement shakes had 85% of carbohydrates and 19% of protein on average. According to sensory test, the target group accepted both foods developed with Spirulina sp. LEB 18. The shelf life of the products with microalgal biomass was estimated at 26 months for the high-calorie food supplement and 17 months for the meal replacement shake. Thus, the biomass of Spirulina sp. LEB 18 can be considered an interesting alternative for the nutritional intake.
... However, Nagaoka et al. (2005) reported that C-phycocyanin (chromoprotein) might be the contributor to hypolipidemic activity. Few RCTs studies conducted on hypercholesterolemic subjects supplemented with spirulina demonstrated reduced lipid profile (TC, TG, and LDL-c), but no change in HDL-c levels were noted (Kim and Kim, 2005;Ramamoorthy and Premakumari, 1996). To evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of spirulina, a metaanalysis was conducted with seven RCTs, in dyslipidemic subjects which showed that those supplemented with spirulina had a significant reduction in TC (47 mg/dL), LDL-c (41.32 mg/dL) and TG (44.23 mg/dL) with elevation in the levels of HDL-c (6.06 mg/ dL) . ...
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common non-communicable ailment which claims one-third of total global death. This contribution provides an overview of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), hypercholesterolemia and hyperlipidemia (dyslipidemia) and their related complications as well as the current treatment options with special attention to popular functional foods and nutraceuticals. Currently, many synthetic lipid-lowering drugs are available in the market. However, they trigger several adverse effects. Thus, to overcome this problem nutraceuticals and functional foods which are considered safe, and with multifaceted lipid-lowering activity are highly recommended (adjuvant therapy) for treating dyslipidemia. This review intends to shed light on how to choose the appropriate or better nutraceutical/functional food ingredients to alleviate the risk of CVD, based on recent literature survey with the inclusion of clinical trials and meta-analysis to ensure the efficacy of nutraceuticals/ functional foods on lipid profile.
... Hyperlipidemia is the greatest risk factor for coronary heart disease. The hypolipidemic and hypocholesterdemic effects of marine microalgae, Spirulina and Chlorella have been reported earlier and these micro algae showed positive effect with respect to serum cholesterol reduction and the elevation of HDL-cholesterol level and HDL to LDL ratio (26,27,28) . Hence the present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti hyperlipidemic effect of a marine algae, Oscillatoria salina. ...
... Hyperlipidemia is the greatest risk factor for coronary heart disease. The hypolipidemic and hypocholesterdemic effects of marine microalgae, Spirulina and Chlorella have been reported earlier and these micro algae showed positive effect with respect to serum cholesterol reduction and the elevation of HDL-cholesterol level and HDL to LDL ratio (26,27,28) . Hence the present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti hyperlipidemic effect of a marine algae, Oscillatoria salina. ...
... However, Nagaoka et al. (2005) reported that C-phycocyanin (chromoprotein) might be the contributor to hypolipidemic activity. Few RCTs studies conducted on hypercholesterolemic subjects supplemented with spirulina demonstrated reduced lipid profile (TC, TG, and LDL-c), but no change in HDL-c levels were noted (Kim and Kim, 2005;Ramamoorthy and Premakumari, 1996). To evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of spirulina, a metaanalysis was conducted with seven RCTs, in dyslipidemic subjects which showed that those supplemented with spirulina had a significant reduction in TC (47 mg/dL), LDL-c (41.32 mg/dL) and TG (44.23 mg/dL) with elevation in the levels of HDL-c (6.06 mg/ dL) . ...
... However, Nagaoka et al. (2005) reported that C-phycocy- anin (chromoprotein) might be the contributor to hypolipidemic activity. Few RCTs studies conducted on hypercholesterolemic subjects supplemented with spirulina demonstrated reduced lipid profile (TC, TG, and LDL-c), but no change in HDL-c levels were noted ( Kim and Kim, 2005;Ramamoorthy and Premakumari, 1996). To evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of spirulina, a meta- analysis was conducted with seven RCTs, in dyslipidemic subjects which showed that those supplemented with spirulina had a sig- nificant reduction in TC (47 mg/dL), LDL-c (41.32 mg/dL) and TG (44.23 mg/dL) with elevation in the levels of HDL-c (6.06 mg/ dL) ( Serban et al., 2016). ...
... There are various human studies regarding the effect of spirulina on anthropometric parameters in different groups of patients. In patients with ischemic heart disease, a significant loss in body weight was observed after intervention with spirulina 29 . On the other hand, some studies have demonstrated no influence of spirulina on anthropometric parameters 26,30 . ...
Article
OBJECTIVE: Some studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of Spirulina maxima (Arthrospira maxima) consumption on glycemic, lipid, and blood pressure parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Spirulina maxima on body weight, blood pressure, and endothelial function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 40 patients with hypertension but lacking evidence of cardiovascular disease were enrolled to receive daily either 2.0 g Hawaiian spirulina or placebo for three months. Anthropometric parameters, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and stiffness index (SI) using digital plethysmography were measured before and after the intervention. RESULTS: After three months, there was no change in body mass index (BMI) or weight in either the spirulina or the placebo group. However, a significant reduction in SBP and SI was observed. The patients in the spirulina group showed significant reductions in BMI (26.9 ± 3.1 vs. 25.0 ± 2.7 kg/m(2), p = 0.0032), weight (75.5 ± 11.8 vs. 70.5 ± 10.3 kg, p < 0.001), SBP (149 ± 7 vs. 143 ± 9 mmHg, p = 0.0023), and SI (7.2 ± 0.6 vs. 6.9 ± 0.7 m/s, p < 0.001). The tested parameters did not change in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that three months of regular consumption of Spirulina maxima not only improves BMI and weight but also results in improvements in blood pressure and endothelial function spirulina in overweight patients with hypertension but lacking evidence of cardiovascular disease.
... Ceci pourrait expliquer en partie la diminution des taux en cholestérol et triglycérides observés lors des expériences deRamamoorthy & Premakumari (1996) etSamuels et al. (2002). Ces expériences sur l'homme sont cependant réalisées avec de faibles effectifs et sur des sujets souffrant d'hyper cholestérolémie ou hyperlipidémie. ...
... This is mainly because of the health benefits of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA) that can be found in plants including microalgae. Consumption of n-3 PUFAs from both seafood and plant sources may acids between different species of Chlorella, as follows reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk as reported by 14 and beverages known to have therapeutic values in treating hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis [45,46]. Fatty acids composition of oil extracted from Chlorella vulgaris biomass are presented in Table 5. ...
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Cheese analogue (Ch A) is processed cheese-like product, a nutritious food, can be healthy and attractive when redesigned to be prepared with the addition of a natural ingredient, being Chlorella vulgaris. This microalga is recognized as a rich source of protein, fatty acids, fiber and ash. C. vulgaris also represents a valuable source of essential vitamins and minerals. Chlorella has health benefits, as assisting disorders such as gastric ulcers, wounds, constipation, anemia, hypertension, have immune-modulating and anticancer properties and is a promising ingredient in the food industries. Cheese analogue (Ch A) treatments were enriched with C. vulgaris (1, 2 and 3%) and evaluated for chemical, physical and sensory properties, within three months of cold storage. Chlorella biomass cheeses were richer in the protein, carbohydrates and fiber contents than control samples. On the other hand, addition of Chlorella biomass to the cheese gave products more firmness and gives a stronger network and leads to lower oil separation and meltability values than control. The sensory evaluation indicated that addition of 2% C.vulgaris in Ch A did not have any effect on the overall acceptability of Ch A and in the same time introduced a new healthy alternative Ch A for a healthier lifestyle.
... Such increased lipase activity by Arthrospira was suggested as a mechanism for improving the hyperlipidemia induced by high fructose diet. Ramamoorthy and Premakumari (1996) also assessed effect of administered Arthrospira supplements in ischemic heart disease patients and found a significant reduction in blood cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol and an increase in HDL cholesterol. Similarly, Mani and his coworkers (2000) in a clinical study, found a significant reduction in LDL: HDL ratio in 15 diabetic patients who were given Arthrospira. ...
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A r t i c l e I n f o Arthrospira are gram negative, a blue-green photolithoautotroph, filamentous cyanobacterium. The typical morphology of Arthrospira is characterized by its regularly helical coiling or spirals. There is food and dietary supplement made from two species of Arthrospira, Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima, known as spirulina. These and other Arthrospira species were once classified in the genus Spirulina. Arthrospira has been has been shown to be an excellent source of proteins, vitamins, lipids, minerals, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, enzymes and pigments. Arthrospira is useful in human nutrition, due to the high quality and quantity of its protein (60%-70% of its dry weight). The nutritive value of a protein is related to the quality of amino acids, digestibility coefficient, as well as by its biological value. Arthrospira contains essential amino acids; the highest values are leucine (10.9% of total amino acids), valine (7.5%), and isoleucine (6.8%). Arthrospira is the only food priority where the country facing a serious loss of cropland and higher food imports. Arthrospira require less land and water than other and can grow in climates where other crops cannot in the country. Mainly Arthrospira production will help to improve food security and sustainability within the country. It will also create more employment opportunities for local community members. High priority will be given to local community members through increased support for small scale Arthrospira cultivation with demonstration on how individuals can manage cultivation with minimal training and technical supervision.
... Such increased lipase activity by Arthrospira was suggested as a mechanism for improving the hyperlipidemia induced by high fructose diet. Ramamoorthy and Premakumari (1996) also assessed effect of administered Arthrospira supplements in ischemic heart disease patients and found a significant reduction in blood cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol and an increase in HDL cholesterol. Similarly, Mani and his coworkers (2000) in a clinical study, found a significant reduction in LDL: HDL ratio in 15 diabetic patients who were given Arthrospira. ...
Article
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A r t i c l e I n f o Arthrospira are gram negative, a blue-green photolithoautotroph, filamentous cyanobacterium. The typical morphology of Arthrospira is characterized by its regularly helical coiling or spirals. There is food and dietary supplement made from two species of Arthrospira, Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima, known as spirulina. These and other Arthrospira species were once classified in the genus Spirulina. Arthrospira has been has been shown to be an excellent source of proteins, vitamins, lipids, minerals, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, enzymes and pigments. Arthrospira is useful in human nutrition, due to the high quality and quantity of its protein (60%-70% of its dry weight). The nutritive value of a protein is related to the quality of amino acids, digestibility coefficient, as well as by its biological value. Arthrospira contains essential amino acids; the highest values are leucine (10.9% of total amino acids), valine (7.5%), and isoleucine (6.8%). Arthrospira is the only food priority where the country facing a serious loss of cropland and higher food imports. Arthrospira require less land and water than other and can grow in climates where other crops cannot in the country. Mainly Arthrospira production will help to improve food security and sustainability within the country. It will also create more employment opportunities for local community members. High priority will be given to local community members through increased support for small scale Arthrospira cultivation with demonstration on how individuals can manage cultivation with minimal training and technical supervision.
... Other research describing the effects of S. platensis supplements on patients with ischemic heart disease found a significant reduction in blood cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol and an increase in HDL cholesterol [14]. ...
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Background Spirulina platensis produced in Nomayos (Cameroon) is used as a dietary supplement. S. platensis is known as a neutraceutical with many beneficial effects on humans like lipid-lowering action. This study aims to investigate the mechanism of hypolipidemic action of aqueous extract of Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) through the toxicological studies. Methods In this study, we included two month old Wistar rats, weighing between 180 and 200 g. Aqueous S. platensis was extracted and prepared using standard methods. The rats received a supplementation of S. platensis at 5000 mg/Kg of body weight as single dose in acute toxicity whereas different doses (250, 500, 1000 mg / kg body weight) were administered in subacute toxicity compared to control. Acute and subacute toxicities were determined according to the guidelines 420 (14 days) and 407 (28 days) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) respectively. Biochemical parameters such as urea, creatinine, total and direct bilirubin, lipid profile and transaminases; and histopathological analysis of the liver and kidneys were used to evaluate the toxicity of S. platensis on these Wistar rats. Plasmatic hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG CoA reductase) and lecithine cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) were performed to explain the lipid-lowering action of S. platensis. Histopathological analysis of the liver and kidneys was performed. ResultsOur results show a decrease in total cholesterol for male rats (from 84 to 74 mg/dl) when the dose of S. platensis increased; this reduction of the total cholesterol level in male rats was significant at 500 mg/kg. There was also a significant inhibition of HMG CoA reductase in a dose dependent manner between 25 and 84.5 fold compared to the control in both male and female groups. At the dose of 250 mg/kg bw, the level of LCAT was higher compared with other groups and control, but the difference was not statistically significant. A slight inflammation in the liver and the mesangial hyperplasia of the renal glomeruli was revealed by the histopathological investigation in subacute toxicity. Conclusion Spirulina platensis from Cameroon appears to have little toxic effects and may demonstrate hypolipidemic activity through the activation of LCAT.
... As a good source of iron and bioavailable forms of vitamin B 12 (Nakano et al. 2010;De et al. 2011;Merchant et al. 2015), they are potentially of high interest to individuals on vegetarian diets which are becoming increasingly popular in different populations (Dinu et al. 2016). Moreover, the positive effect of the aforementioned microalgae and their ingredients on a lipid profile as well as immunomodulatory, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antitumour activities have been demonstrated not only in in vitro and in vivo experimental models but also, partially, in randomized clinical trials (Ramamoorthy and Premakumari 1996;Yamani et al. 2009;Anwer et al. 2012Anwer et al. , 2013Kwak et al. 2012;Torres-Durán et al. 2012;Panahi et al. 2013;Mazokopakis et al. 2014;Ryu et al. 2014). It has been further shown that Chlorella may be efficiently used in adjunctive therapy for depressive disorders (Panahi et al. 2015) whereas Spirulina intake can significantly increase CD4 cells and reduce the viral load in human immunodeficiency virus infections (Ngo-Matip et al. 2015). ...
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Microalgal food supplements are becoming increasingly popular due to their promising biological effects and high nutritional value, evidenced in in vitro, in vivo, and human studies. Some products of this kind have, however, raised controversies concerning their safety. At the same time, not much is known about the frequency of adverse events following the use of microalgal supplements, potential factors that may influence them, and general characteristics and behaviours of the consumer group. The present study aimed to fill this gap and surveyed a group of Polish consumers of microalgal products (n = 150) using an online questionnaire. As found, microalgal supplements (Spirulina, Chlorella, and Aphanizomenon) were popular in groups representing lacto-ovo-vegetarianism and veganism and were consumed predominantly for nutritional, immune-boosting, and detoxifying purposes. Their use was rarely discussed with specialists; the Internet constituted the most important source of information regarding these supplements. The most frequently self-reported health-beneficial effects of supplementation included the following: increased immunity, higher vitality, improved hair and skin quality, and better general well-being. Diarrhoea, nausea, abdominal pain, and skin rash were among the most often reported adverse events. Pre-existing medical conditions, namely renal failure and hypothyroidism, but not Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, were associated with increased occurrence of side effects. Those individuals who had consulted specialists as to the use of supplements reported adverse events significantly less often. A strikingly high frequency of side effects and very low consumer satisfaction were reported by a group of consumers supplementing Aphanizomenon-based products. In summary, the present study highlights that microalgal consumers may benefit from additional warnings of potential side effects and from consulting a qualified health specialist prior to use.
... The enrichment of spirulina with zinc and selenium as well as the posology used, could possibly explain these differences. Similarly, the same undesirable effects noted with simple spirulina types such as the following: hypoglycaemia, reduction of triglycerides and total cholesterol [23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34], hepato toxicity through increase in transaminases [11,12], increase in hemoglobin [3,7,31], were not observed in patients taking "Spiruline plus" only. This presumably would confirm the important role of oligo elements (zinc and selenium) when added to spirulina. ...
Article
Spirulina is often used in patients being treated with antiretroviral (ART) because of its nutritional and immunostimulatory properties despite the absence of data on the possible consequences of its association with ARTs. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the safety and toxicity of Spirulina enriched with selenium and zinc (“spirulina plus”) in patients treated with ARTs. From 15 April 2010 to 15 April 2012, a randomized clinical test compared four groups of patients infected with HIV- 1 and treated with different diets: a group of patients taking only placebo, a second group treated only with “Spiruline plus”, a third group taking ARTs and placebo, the fourth group taking ARTs and “Spiruline plus”. Anthropometric, clinical and biological data were collected during the inclusion and during the follow-up (3 and 6 months after the inclusion). One hundred and thirteen (113) patients infected with HIV-1 were shadowed from the inclusion to six months; almost two thirds of whom (63.7%) were taking ARTs. Neither a difference of intolerance nor toxicity was observed between the four groups of treatment. There were no significant changes, biological parameters between the four groups of treatment. The few undesirable side effects reported in the ART group and “Spiruline plus” were classified as having low intensity. “Spiruline plus” results in neither more undesirable side effects nor in toxicity in persons with HIV taking ARTs. It is tolerated with ARTs.
... El-Baky et al. [176] also showed that β-carotene supplement can increase the activity of TAG-and phospholipases. Moreover, specific genera of microalgae or cyanobacteria (Chlorella and Arthrospira) have proven to be effective in reducing serum cholesterol and raising HDL-C and HDL/LDL ratio in rats, mice and humans [178][179][180]. Lycopene, similarly to astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, also positively impacts lipid homeostasis [181]. ...
Article
Background: Since the industrial revolution, the consumption of processed food increased dramatically. During processing, food material loses many of its natural properties. Objective: The simple restoration of the original properties of the processed food as well as fortification require food supplementation with compounds prepared chemically or of natural origin. The observations that natural food additives are safer and better accepted by consumers than synthetic ones have strongly increased the demand for natural compounds. Because some of them have only a low abundance or are even rare, their market price can be very high. This is the case for most carotenoids of natural origin to which this review is dedicated. The increasing demand for food additives of natural origin contributes to an accelerated depletion of traditional natural resources already threatened by intensive agriculture and pollution. To overcome these difficulties and satisfy the demand, alternative sources for natural carotenoids have to be found. In this context, photosynthetic microalgae present a very high potential because they contain carotenoids and are able to produce particular carotenoids under stress. Their potential also resides in the fact that only ten thousands of microalgal strains have been described while hundred thousands of species are predicted to exist. Carotenoids have been known for ages for their antioxidant and coloring properties, and a large body of evidence has been accumulated about their health potential. Conclusion: This review summarizes both the medicinal and food industry applications of microalgae with emphasis on the former. In addition, traditional and alternative microalgal sources used for industrial carotenoid extraction, the chemical and physical properties, the biosynthesis and the localization of carotenoids in algae are also briefly discussed.
... Supplementation with spirulina has been reported to exert beneficial effects against a range of diseases including cardiometabolic disease and atherogenic dyslipidemia (161). Hitherto, several RCTs assessed the hypolipidemic effects of spirulina, and uniformly reported a significant effect on all components of lipid profile (163)(164)(165)(166)(167)(168). A recent study Owing to its rich content of micronutrients, it is still unclear which constituent(s) plays the major role in the lipid-lowering effects of spirulina, and the mechanism(s) underlying this effect. ...
Article
The review provides an up-to-date summary of the findings on the lipid-lowering effects of the most important nutraceuticals and functional foods. Based on the current knowledge, nutraceuticals might exert significant lipid-lowering, and their use has several advantages – they have natural origins and are mainly extracted from natural products, they are mostly safe and very well tolerated and their use is supported by the findings from randomizded controlled trials and meta-analyses, finally the lipid-lowering effect of most nutraceuticals is multimechanistic, what makes them potential candidates for improving the effects of current lipid-lowering drugs when used in combination. However, still a number of important questions need to be addressed, including whether longer durations of therapy would result in a better response, and what is the the safety profile of nutraceuticals, especially at doses higher than those consumed in an average diet. In addition, data regarding the impact of nutraceuticals supplementation on the incidence of cardiovascular outcomes are lacking, and it is not clear if additional lipid lowering by nutraceuticals can modify the residual cardiovascular risk that remains following statin therapy.
... However, the nutritional contents of Spirulina depend on the cultivation conditions and the processing methods. The nutritional components and other phytochemicals in Spirulina primarily exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, and anticancer activities [7]. The regular consumption of Spirulina ameliorates the symptoms of premenstrual cycles in women and the symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. ...
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The present study aimed to profile the polyunsaturated fatty acids, sugars, free amino acids, and polyphenols in 37 varieties of Spirulina commonly available in the market using gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. In addition, the biological potentials of the Spirulina samples were evaluated by analysing the in vitro antioxidant activities using various analytical techniques. The analyses revealed the presence of 13 polyunsaturated fatty acids, 18 amino acids, 7 sugars, and polyphenols. The polyunsaturated fatty acids contents were varied between Spirulina samples. The total polyunsaturated fatty acids amount was 4.25 mg/100 g, and the average among of sapienic acid detected was 2.25 mg/100 g, which was followed by linoleic acid (16.7%) and γ -linolenic acid (14%). Among the 7 sugars, the hexose levels were the highest (73.85%). The total amino acids contents ranged from 11.49 to 56.14 mg/100 g, and the individual essential amino acids accounted for 17% to 39.18%. The “natural” tablets exhibited the highest polyphenols levels (24 mg/g). All of the Spirulina samples expressed dose-dependent antioxidant activities. The polyunsaturated fatty acids, sugars, free amino acids, and polyphenols contents varied widely, and the variations in these compounds between the Spirulina samples were significant.
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Spirulina play a very important role in human and animal nutrition. Spirulina use as a supermolecule ingredient within the drink,the benefits of spirulina for reducing body fat, spirulina has vital edges for rising blood supermolecule, spirulina promotes immunity boost and energy drink, spirulina use within the preparation of some complementary baby food formulas, spirulina facilitate in maintain sterol level, spirulina protecting impact against polygenic disease.Spirulina stands out as a property bioactive microalga with health-promoting properties, and a very important active ingredient of natural cosmetics merchandise. Currently, Spirulina has beenincorporated in topical skin-care and hair care formulations, such as a moisturizing and Anti-microbial and anti bacteriaagent.
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Spirulina is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that has a long history of use as a safe functional food. It is commercially produced in large outdoor ponds under controlled conditions. Here we have summarized available information concerning the human clinical potential and applications of Spirulina, as well as clinical data related to the safety and ikside effects of Spirulina. Potential health benefits of Spirulina are mainly due to its chemical composition, which includes proteins, carbohydrates, essential amino acids, minerals (especially iron), essential fatty acids, vitamins, and pigments. In this respect, three major bioactive components of Spirulina, the protein phycocyanin, sulfated polysaccharides, and γ-linolenic acid, seem to play significant roles in imparting improved human body functions. Furthermore, experimental evidence supports the immunomodulation and antiviral effects of Spirulina supplementation. Moreover, the available clinical evidence does not indicate a serious risk to health or other public health concerns due to Spirulina.
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The present study has been undertaken to review the " Hygeinic Practices of Food Handlers in India".
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As diets fed to juvenile steelhead (progeny of anadromous rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared in conservation hatcheries contain relatively high levels of protein and lipid supplied primarily by fish meal and fish oil, a 12-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate alternative ingredients for this species. Using a factorial design, Spirulina meal and a plant oil mixture were evaluated as partial or complete replacements of dietary fish meal and fish oil, respectively. Thus, two diets containing 0 or 50% substitution of Spirulina for fish meal were extruded and top-coated with fish oil or a 63:37 mixture of canola and flaxseed oils. Each of the four dietary treatments was fed to quadruplicate groups of 100 steelhead initially weighing 12.4 g/fish. Steelhead growth rate and feed efficiency were not significantly affected by partial replacement of dietary fish meal with Spirulina, but growth responses were significantly reduced by replacement of dietary fish oil with plant oil. Lipid and protein apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) were significantly higher in steelhead fed the fish meal diets compared with fish fed the Spirulina diets and significantly higher in steelhead fed the plant oil diets compared with fish fed the fish oil diets. Whole body fatty acid profiles generally reflected those of the diets such that percentages of 18:2n-6 were significantly higher and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, were significantly lower in fish fed the Spirulina and plant oil diets compared with those fed the fish meal and fish oil diets. Plasma total cholesterol concentration was significantly reduced in fish fed the Spirulina diets and in fish fed the plant oils diets. Growth results suggest Spirulina is a suitable replacement for 50% of dietary fish meal for steelhead whereas a mixture of canola and flaxseed oil is not suitable as a complete replacement for fish oil in diets for this species.
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Aims: The effect of algae and its extract supplementation on glycolipid metabolism has not been finalized. Therefore, the purpose of the meta-analyses was to assess the effects of its supplementation on glycolipid metabolism concentration. Methods: We have systematically searched PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and Embase to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the impact of algae and its extracts supplementation on glycolipid metabolism. Effect size analysis was performed using weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% CI between the methods of the experiment group and the control group. Subgroup analyses were performed to explore the possible influences of study characteristics. Publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also performed. Results: A total of 27 RCTs (31 trials) with 1221 participants were finally selected for the meta-analysis. The algae and its extract intervention significantly decreased glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, WMD = -0.18%; 95% CI: -0.27 to -0.10; p < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, WMD = -0.22 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.38 to -0.06; p = 0.008), and triglycerides (TC, WMD = -0.31 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.37 to -0.25; p < 0.001) levels and increased insulin (WMD = 6.05 pmol/mL; 95% CI: 4.01 to 8.09; p < 0.001) levels. It did not significantly change the blood glucose, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), 2-h post-meal blood glucose (2hPBG) and other lipid profiles. Subgroup analyses based on the duration of intervention and subjects demonstrated that the intervention of algae and its extracts for 10 weeks or fewer and more than 40 subjects decreased TC levels (p < 0.05). Moreover, the intervention reduced TC and 2hPBG concentrations for East Asians (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings provided evidence that algae and its extract interventions were beneficial for the regulation of human glycolipid metabolism. More precise RCTs on subjects are recommended to further clarify the effect of algae, seaweed polysaccharide, seaweed polypeptide, algae polyphenol and its products intervention on glycolipid metabolism.
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Arthrospira platensis (spirulina), a filamentous fresh-water planktonic cyanobacterium, possesses diverse biological activities and a unique nutritional profile, due to its high content of valuable nutrients. This study aimed to further improve the bioactive profile of spirulina, by fermenting it with the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum. In vitro comparison of the total phenolic content (TPC), C-phycocyanin, free methionine, DPPH radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and protein fragmentation via SDS-PAGE in untreated versus 12 to 72 h fermented spirulina is reported here. After 36 h fermentation, TPC was enhanced by 112%, FRAP by 85% and ORAC by 36%. After 24 h, the DPPH radical scavenging capacity increased 60%, while the free methionine content increased by 94%, after 72 h. Past 36 h of fermentation, the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) diminished, possibly due to deterioration of the heat-sensitive antioxidants. However, protein fragmentation and free methionine content increased, linearly, with the fermentation time. Cyanobacterial peptides and other bioactive compounds trapped within the spirulina cell wall are released during fermentation and have a significant potential as a functional ingredient in nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals, in addition to their nutritive value.
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Cyanobacteria mass production has been known since XVI century. In recent years, it has gained popularity owing to rapid growth, low environmental requirements and special properties of these microorganisms. Cyanobacteria contain high amounts of vitamins, minerals, proteins and polyunsaturated fatty acids. They are used in the food industry and in the production of cosmetics, medicines and in wastewater treatment technologies or removal of biogenic compounds. The most commonly used species is Arthrospira platensis, known as “spirulina”, of a high economic, ecological and nutritional value. Some cyanobacteria, due to the rapid growth, are used as food for animals. It was found that metabolites obtained from these organisms can be used as herbicides and insecticides, so they can play an important role in agriculture. There are also some species of cyanobacteria, which are particularly studied in terms of biofuel production, so they could also become a source of renewable energy.
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Arthrospira (known commercially as Spirulina) is an edible cyanobacterium traditionally used for centuries as human food by various cultures. Its biochemical profile includes many bioactive molecules with enormous potential in human health. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the scientific evidence about the effects of dietary Arthrospira biomass consumption on a range of health outcomes. A search was made in PubMed and the Cochrane Library for randomised controlled clinical trials in which Arthrospira was used as a dietary supplement. An additional search was conducted for studies on rodents. Studies were organised by health outcomes. A total of 25 randomised clinical trials were included in the study. Four analysed the role of Arthrospira in dyslipidaemia, four in diabetes, one in hypertension, two in exercise, two in immune response, four in inflammation and precancerous lesions, and two in allergic rhinitis. Three studies analysed the antiviral effect of Arthrospira and a further three assessed its effect on nutritional status. For most of the targeted health outcomes in the selected clinical trials, daily consumption of Arthrospira biomass provided considerable benefits. However, more extensive studies that meet higher quality criteria are needed to confirm the reported results before any validated and absolute health claims can be made for this microorganism.
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