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Response of Gossypium hirsutum genotypes to various nitrogen levels

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Abstract

Response of six different upland cotton genotypes to various nitrogen levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1) was studied during crop season 2010 at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. Highly significant differences in yield and yield parameters were observed among cultivars, nitrogen levels and the interaction of cultivars vs. nitrogen levels for the given parameters. Application of N significantly increased plant height, sympodia per plant, bolls per plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield but various cultivars responded differently in term of percent increase over control. Maximum value of the given parameter for the given cultivar was observed at higher N level of 150 kg N ha-1. However, when percent increases in the given parameter was considered, it was observed that those cultivars having lower growth and yield traits at control responded more to N application than those having initially higher growth traits which could be due to genetic variation and efficient use of N. Overall, the cultivar CIM-506 maintained higher plant height, sympodia per plant, boll per plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield at all nitrogen levels suggesting that it could be the promising cultivar under environmental conditions of Peshawar and could be grown by supplying 150 kg ha-1 N. Since a linear increase in all growth parameters was observed up to 150 kg N ha-1 for all cultivars, studies with further higher doses (levels beyond 150 kg ha-1) are recommended for the confirmation of the findings of present study.
Pak. J. Bot., 43(5): 2403-2409, 2011.
RESPONSE OF GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM GENOTYPES TO
VARIOUS NITROGEN LEVELS
ZARINA BIBI1*, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN2, MARIA MUSSARAT3, MOHAMMAD JAMAL KHAN3,
RAFIQ AHMAD1, IMDAD ULLAH KHAN1 AND SALMA SHAHEEN1
1Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan
2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan
3Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan
Abstract
Response of six different upland cotton genotypes to various nitrogen levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1) was studied
during crop season 2010 at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. Highly significant differences
in yield and yield parameters were observed among cultivars, nitrogen levels and the interaction of cultivars vs. nitrogen
levels for the given parameters. Application of N significantly increased plant height, sympodia per plant, bolls per plant,
boll weight and seed cotton yield but various cultivars responded differently in term of percent increase over control.
Maximum value of the given parameter for the given cultivar was observed at higher N level of 150 kg N ha-1. However,
when percent increases in the given parameter was considered, it was observed that those cultivars having lower growth and
yield traits at control responded more to N application than those having initially higher growth traits which could be due to
genetic variation and efficient use of N. Overall, the cultivar CIM-506 maintained higher plant height, sympodia per plant,
boll per plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield at all nitrogen levels suggesting that it could be the promising cultivar under
environmental conditions of Peshawar and could be grown by supplying 150 kg ha-1 N. Since a linear increase in all growth
parameters was observed up to 150 kg N ha-1 for all cultivars, studies with further higher doses (levels beyond 150 kg ha-1)
are recommended for the confirmation of the findings of present study.
Introduction
Cotton crop, the white gold, serves as a backbone of
Pakistan economy by occupying a prominent position in
local textile and edible oil industry (Khan et al., 2009).
Consequently, not only sustainable production of cotton is
imperative but efforts must be made to further increase its
yield per unit area since we are not in a position to
allocate more land for cotton production at the expense of
other crops. Cotton occupy 12% of the total cultivated
area and during 2008-09 it was grown on 2.82 m ha which
produced 11.82 million bales of seed cotton with an
average of 713 kg ha-1 (Anon., 2009).
In Pakistan, cotton yield is comparatively lower than
other countries which can be attributed to lack of
advanced agronomical practices, cropping husbandry,
market constraints and poor socio-economic conditions of
the farming community. Poor soil fertility management
resulting from imbalanced and non-judicial fertilizer
application is another reason for lower seed cotton yields.
Among plant nutrients, nitrogen plays an important
role in crop productivity and is regarded as growth and
yield determinant in irrigated cotton (Ahmad, 2000).
Management of nitrogen and irrigation is of prime
importance for high cotton yield and quality. Being the
primary constituent of chlorophyll molecule, protein and
nucleic acids (Marschner, 1986), it determines plant
growth, fruiting and seed cotton yield (Boquet et al., 1994;
Khan, 1996). Nitrogen has been reported to increase plant
height, monopodial/sympodial branches, boll weight and
bolls per plant and eventually seed cotton yield (Soomro &
Waring, 1987; Mukand et al., 1989; Prakash & Prasad,
2000; Karthikeyan & Jayakumar, 2002; Dar & Anwar,
2005; Swan et al., 2006; Nadeem et al., 2010). Seed cotton
weight per boll and seed cotton yield ha-1 have also been
found affected by nitrogen application at various doses
(Nehra et al., 1986; Touchton, 1987; Khan et al., 1993;
Hussain et al., 2000; Rochester et al., 2001; Anjum et al.,
2007; Kumbhar et al., 2008; Saleem et al., 2010).
With continuous cropping systems, the N supplied
from the decomposition of organic matter must be
supplemented from other sources (Strong et al., 1986;
Herridge & Doyle, 1988; McDonald, 1992). In developed
countries, adequate N is supplied as chemical fertilizer;
however, in developing countries including Pakistan, it is
not possible due to high cost of fertilizers, low per capita
income and limited credit facilities (Shah et al., 1995). As
a result, the crop receives less fertilizer or even remains
unfertilized (Herridge et al., 1995) that significantly
reduces genotypes yield than its genetic potential. Like
lower N, excess of N also reduced the crop yield by
promoting vegetative growth and delaying maturity
(McConnell et al., 1996; Howard et al., 2001). In both
cases i.e. excess and deficiency of N reduces the crop
productivity which necessitates applying N in appropriate
doses to get maximum economical potential yield.
The appropriate amount of N depends on factors like
soil type, nitrogen concentrations in soil and its
mineralization potential, crop specie and cultivar and
other numerous environmental factors (Power &
Schepers, 1989). Applications of N fertilizer between 100
and 215 kg N ha-1 are typically required to optimize lint
yield of irrigated cotton in Australia (Constable &
Rochester, 1988), USA (McConnell et al., 1995), China
(Jin et al., 1997) and Egypt (Hussein et al., 1985). In
Pakistan, 120-160 kg N ha-1 is recommended depending
on soil, climate and crop types. The management of N
will correct the future elevated CO2 deleterious effects on
fiber quality if nitrogen is optimum (Reddy et al., 2004).
Recognizing the importance of cotton crop and its
role in the economy of the country, there is a dire need to
get and improve the yield of cotton genotypes under
prevailing environmental conditions. The research project
was initiated with the objectives to evaluate the response
of different upland cotton genotypes to various nitrogen
levels and their effect on yield contributing traits and seed
cotton yield under the agro-ecological conditions of
Peshawar, Pakistan.
*Corresponding author email: bibizarina100@yahoo.com
ZARINA BIBI ET AL.,
2404
Materials and Methods
Plant material and field procedure: The study on
evaluating the response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum
L.) genotypes to various N levels was conducted during
crop season 2010 at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural
University, Peshawar, Pakistan. Treatments included six
genotypes (CIM-473, CIM-496, CIM-499, CIM-506,
CIM-554 and CIM-707) and four levels of nitrogen (0, 50,
100 and 150 kg N ha-1) in randomized complete block
(RCB) design with split plot arrangement replicated three
times. Cotton seeds of each cultivar were hand sown with
plant to plant and row to row spacing of 30 and 75 cm
respectively during May 2010. All the N levels were
applied in three equal split doses to respective treatment
plots at sowing, first irrigation and flowering stage,
respectively. Thinning was performed after 15 to 20 days
when plants gained height of 15 to 20 cm to ensure single
plant per hill. Recommended cultural practices were
adopted and crop was grown under uniform field
conditions to minimize environmental variations to
maximum possible extent. Pickings were made during
mid to end of November on individual plant basis.
Traits measurement and statistical analysis: Data were
recorded on 10 randomly selected plants in each treatment
for plant height, sympodia per plant, bolls per plant, boll
weight and seed cotton yield. After compilation and
taking averages of per plant data, finally replicated data
were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA)
techniques through MSTATC computer programme to
compare mean differences among cotton genotypes, N
levels and their interactions for various morpho-yield
traits as outlined by Steel & Torrie (1980). Least
Significant Difference (LSD) test was used for means
separation and comparison after significance.
Results and Discussion
Cultivars (C), nitrogen levels (N) and their interaction
(C × N) exhibited highly significant (p0.01) differences
for plant height, sympodia per plant, bolls per plant, boll
weight and seed cotton yield ha-1 (Table 1). The
significant differences in means of cultivars, nitrogen
levels and their interactions were further separated and
compared using LSD test (Tables 2-6).
Table 1. Mean squares of cultivars, nitrogen levels and their interaction (C × N) for various traits in upland cotton.
Mean squares
Variables Cultivars Nitrogen levels
Interactions
(C × N)
Correlation (r)
with yield
Plant height 2810.114** 1316.718** 6.529** 0.451**
Sympodia plant-1 67.567** 259.125** 1.022** 0.787**
Bolls plant-1 90.1897** 467.944** 3.278** 0.940**
Boll weight 0.123** 0.520** 0.010** 0.706**
Seed cotton yield ha-1 382841.389** 1999131.019** 5488.796** -
** Significant at p
0.01
Table 2. Effect of nitrogen levels on plant height of various cotton cultivars.
Nitrogen levels (kg ha-1)
Cultivars Control 50 100 150 Mean (cm)
CIM-473 70 78 88 94 83
CIM-496 71 77 84 88 80
CIM-499 62 67 76 83 72
CIM-506 75 82 88 94 85
CIM-554 105 110 120 123 115
CIM-707 89 96 103 105 98
Mean (cm) 79 85 93 98
Table 3. Effect of nitrogen levels on sympodia plant-1 of various cotton cultivars.
Nitrogen levels (kg ha-1)
Cultivars Control 50 100 150 Mean
CIM-473 11 13 15 20 15
CIM-496 9 12 14 17 13
CIM-499 7 9 11 16 11
CIM-506 12 15 17 20 16
CIM-554 12 16 19 23 17
CIM-707 12 14 16 21 16
Mean 10 13 15 19
RESPONSE OF GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM TO NITROGEN LEVELS 2405
Table 4. Effect of nitrogen levels on bolls plant-1 of various cotton cultivars.
Nitrogen levels (kg ha-1)
Cultivars Control 50 100 150 Mean
CIM-473 13.33 17.00 20.67 25.00 19.00
CIM-496 11.33 16.00 17.67 23.00 17.00
CIM-499 9.33 15.00 18.67 21.00 16.00
CIM-506 16.67 20.33 24.00 31.00 23.00
CIM-554 15.00 18.67 22.33 28.67 21.17
CIM-707 12.33 16.00 17.67 22.00 17.00
Mean 13.00 17.17 20.17 25.11
Table 5. Effect of nitrogen levels on boll weight of various cotton cultivars.
Nitrogen levels (kg ha-1)
Cultivars Control 50 100 150 Mean (g)
CIM-473 3.00 3.20 3.30 3.41 3.23
CIM-496 2.95 3.18 3.25 3.38 3.19
CIM-499 3.02 3.22 3.32 3.40 3.24
CIM-506 3.19 3.21 3.30 3.40 3.28
CIM-554 2.70 2.95 3.03 3.30 3.00
CIM-707 2.88 3.15 3.20 3.29 3.13
Mean (g) 2.96 3.15 3.23 3.36
Table 6. Effect of nitrogen levels on seed cotton yield of various cotton cultivars.
Nitrogen levels (kg ha-1)
Cultivars Control 50 100 150 Mean (kg ha-1)
CIM-473 1220 1420 1610 1960 1553
CIM-496 1100 1240 1613 1887 1460
CIM-499 1000 1140 1510 1800 1363
CIM-506 1560 1700 1950 2280 1873
CIM-554 1260 1453 1650 1953 1579
CIM-707 1100 1200 1590 1880 1443
Mean (kg ha-1) 1207 1359 1654 1960
Plant height: The cotton plant height linearly increased
with each increment of N from 0 to 150 whereby each
higher dose was significantly higher the preceding level
(Table 2). When values were averaged across cultivars,
plant height increased by 8.19, 18.49 and 24.49% with 50,
100 and 150 kg N ha-1, respectively as compared to
control. The increases in plant height with each increment
of the said levels as compared to preceding lower levels
were 8.19, 9.53 and 5.06%, showing that percent increase
in plant height was relatively lower at higher increment of
150 as compared to lower levels of N. The significant
interaction of nitrogen levels x cultivars revealed that N
levels exhibited variable increase in plant height of the
cultivar. Cultivars CIM-473 and CIM-499 expressed
34.29 and 33.87% increases in plant height with 150 kg N
ha-1 as compared to control whereby the same level of N
increased plant height of CIM-554 and CIM-707 cultivars
by only 17.14 and 18.31%, respectively. Those cultivars
which had comparatively lower plant heights at control
like CIM-473 and CIM-499 showed higher response to N
as compared to those cultivars having comparatively
maximum plants heights at control like CIM-554 and
CIM-707. These results are in agreement with those of
Rochester et al., (2001) and Kumbhar et al., (2008) who
reported that plant height of cotton is related to nitrogen
application. Similar effect of nitrogen on plant height and
enhancement in the said trait has also been reported (Brar
et al., 1993; Sawaji et al., 1994; Soomro & Waring,
1987).
Various cultivars had significantly different plant
heights at each level of N. However, the cultivar having
higher plant height at control maintained higher plant
height at succeeding all N levels and vice versa (Table 2).
For example the CIM-554 had a plant height of 105, 110,
120 and 123 cm at 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1,
respectively which were the maximum for the cultivars at
any given N level. When averaged across the N levels, the
maximum plant height of 114.60 cm was recorded for
CIM-554 whereas the lowest of 72.00 cm was recorded
for CIM-499. Such differences could be attributed to the
genetic variations in the genotypes. Dar & Anwar (2005)
observed that growth was significantly influenced by
different nitrogen levels and N applied @ 150 and 200 kg
ha-1 showed maximum plant height, monopodial and
sympodial branches, however, lowest values of these
variables were observed at 50 kg N ha-1. Khan et al.,
(1993; 1994) and Soomro et al., (1997) also observed
significant increase in plant height due to optimum doses
ZARINA BIBI ET AL.,
2406
of nitrogen fertilizers. Plant height was found highly
significant and positively correlated (r = 0.451) with seed
cotton yield (Table 1) and same positive association of the
said trait with seed cotton yield was also observed in
previous findings if lodging didn’t occur (Khan et al.,
2009). Results revealed that increase in plant height
resulted in increased number of sympodia and bolls,
which in turn increased seed cotton yield. However,
cotton breeders are mostly interested in short stature
plants due to lodging threat and also suitable for
mechanical picking.
Sympodia per plant: The fruiting branches were
significantly increased with increase in N levels from 0 to
150 with values from 10.33 to 19.33 when averaged
across cultivars (Table 3). When compared to control,
application of 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1 increased
sympodia per plant by 27.49, 48.40 and 87.12%,
respectively. However, cultivars responded differently to
increasing N levels. Those cultivars having initially lower
sympodia at control exhibited relatively higher increases
when compared to those cultivars having initially higher
sympodia. For example, CIM-499 having 7.00 sympodia
per plant at control (N0) showed 128.57% increases in
sympodia by getting 16.00 sympodia at 150 kg N ha-1
while on the other hand CIM-544 and CIM-707 which
had initially 12.33 and 11.67 sympodia per plant exhibited
82.48 and 75.66% increases with same level of N. Dar &
Anwar (2005) reported that growth was significantly
influenced by different nitrogen levels and N applied @
200 and 150 kg N ha-1 enunciated maximum plant height,
fruiting and vegetative branches per plant as compared to
the other nitrogen levels and control. Boquet et al., (1993)
also observed that sympodial branches enhanced with
increased nitrogen rates.
It was observed that sympodia per plant were closely
associated with plant height. Those genotypes which were
comparatively of short stature had lower sympodia per
plant as compared to taller cultivars. Cultivar CIM-544
which was the tallest cultivar at all N levels also produced
the maximum number of sympodia per plant at the given
N levels. When averaged across N levels, CIM-499 which
had the lowest plant height (72.00 cm) and also produced
the minimum sympodia per plant with value of 10.75 as
compared to 17.38 produced by tallest cultivar CIM-544
which had a plant height of 114.60 cm. Karthikeyan &
Jayakumar (2002) observed that increased N rates had
produced more sympodia and bolls per plant and
eventually increased seed cotton yield as compared to
control. Kumbhar et al., (2008) reported that nitrogen
played its part in the accelerated vegetative growth of the
plants and sympodial and monopodial branches showed
better response to increased nitrogen levels. The increase
in fruiting branches with increasing N application rate has
also been reported by Mukand et al., (1989). Highly
significant and positive relationship (r = 0.787) was
observed for fruiting branches with yield (Table 1).
Sympodium is very important yield contributing trait and
has greater share in managing seed cotton yield after bolls
per plant and boll weight.
Bolls per plant: Application of N also significantly
increased the bolls per plant of each cultivar. When
averaged across cultivars, application of 50, 100 and 150
kg N ha-1 increased bolls per plant from 13.00 at control
to 17.17, 20.17 and 25.11, respectively. However, the
response was different for various cultivars. CIM-499
showed higher response and its bolls per plant increased
from 9.3 at control to 21 at 150 kg N ha-1 while CIM-707
showed the least net increase of 78.43% with the same
higher N level. This variable response could be attributed
to genetic variations among genotypes which could not be
avoided. However, in interactions of genotypes and N
levels, maximum bolls per plant (31.00) were exhibited by
cultivar CIM-506 with 150 kg N ha-1 and here the genetic
potential played important role in boosting the bolls per
plant. Certainly, all the cultivars except CIM-506 and
CIM-554 in control plots showed minimum bolls per plant
which ranged from 9.33 to 13.33. However, the cultivars
CIM-506 (16.67) and 554 (15.00) were better in
performance than other cultivars even at zero N kg ha-1
which may be due to their genetic potential. Hooger &
Gidnavar (1997) mentioned that excessive vegetative
growth of plant was due to high rate of nitrogen which
also enhanced yield components like bolls per plant and
boll weight and eventually seed cotton yield. Bolls per
plant observed in present study were also agreement with
those obtained by Ali & El-Sayed (2001) where N was
applied @ 95 to 190 kg ha-1, and Ram et al., (2001) the N
was applied up to 100 kg ha-1 and Swan et al., (2006)
when N applied @143 kg ha-1.
When values were averaged across N levels,
maximum bolls per plant were observed in cultivar CIM-
506 (23.00) and CIM-554 (21.17) (Table 4). The said
cultivars were also having more fruiting branches and
plant height and that may be the reason of having more
bolls per plant. Cultivar CIM-473 with 19.00 bolls per
plant followed the above promising genotypes. Cultivars
CIM-496 and CIM-707 manifested medium and at par
(17.00) bolls per plant. Least number of bolls per plant
(16.00) was noted in cultivar CIM-499 and same genotype
was also at the bottom for sympodia per plant and plant
height. Brar et al., (1993) results also revealed that
nitrogen increased the plant height and bolls per plant.
Khan et al., (2001) mentioned that nitrogen levels
significantly affected sympodial branches, bolls per plant
and seed cotton yield, and nitrogen @ 187 kg ha-1
provided significant increase in yield components and
yield. Boll production was significantly higher with
adequate application of nitrogen and when cotton crop
was grown in the field after legume crop (Prakash &
Prasad, 2000). However, the over increase application of
nitrogen also enhanced the plant height, flowers and bolls
but didn’t increase the seed cotton yield because of
increased shedding of lower bolls (Nehra et al., 1986;
Howard et al., (2001); Khan et al., (1993 & 2001); Hassan
et al., 2003). Therefore, care should be made in managing
optimum requirement of N for cotton crop because
nitrogen impacts the crop productivity through either
excess or deficiencies. Bolls per plant have direct
influence and major role in managing seed cotton yield
and the said trait was also found significantly positively
correlated (r = 0.940) with seed cotton yield (Table 1).
Boll weight: Like plant height, sympodia and bolls per
plant, the boll weight was also significantly increased with
increase in N levels from 0 to 150 kg ha-1. Application of
N @ 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 increased the boll weight by
RESPONSE OF GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM TO NITROGEN LEVELS 2407
6.42, 9.12 and 13.51% as compared to control. However,
the cultivars responded differently to increasing N levels
in terms of boll weight which can also be observed in
interaction of N levels and cultivars. Maximum percent
increase in boll weight was observed in CIM-554
(22.22%) followed by CIM-496 (14.58%) and CIM 707
(14.24%) with 150 kg N ha-1 as compared to control
(Table 5). Maximum and at par boll weight were noticed
in cultivars CIM-473 (3.41 g), CIM-506 (3.40 g), CIM-
499 (3.40 g) and CIM-496 (3.38 g) with 150 kg N ha-1.
Cultivars CIM-499, CIM-506 and CIM-473 with 100 N
kg ha-1 (ranged from 3.30 to 3.32 g) also followed the
above promising interactions for boll weight. The least
and at par boll weight of 2.70 and 2.88 g was governed by
cultivars CIM-554 and CIM-707 with zero nitrogen level.
Other interaction of various cultivars and nitrogen levels
showed medium boll weight. Increase in boll weight was
also noticed with optimum nitrogen doses (Karthikeyan &
Jayakumar, 2001; Ram et al., 2001). Hassan et al., (2003)
noted that N @168 kg ha-1 applied in three equal split
doses produced significant increase in boll weight, plant
height, bolls per plant and seed cotton yield. Boll weight
increased as N rate increased from 95 to 143 kg ha-1.
Khan et al., (1993), Arain et al., (2001), Memon et al.,
(2001) and Soomro et al., (2001) also reported significant
increase in boll weight and seed cotton yield with split
application of nitrogen. However, Anjum et al., (2007)
reported that seed cotton yield, ginning outturn and lint
yield were not influenced by split nitrogen application.
When values were averaged across the N levels,
cultivar CIM-506 showed the highest boll weight (3.28 g)
followed by CIM-499 and CIM-473 with at par boll
weight of 3.24 and 3.23 g, respectively (Table 5).
Cultivars CIM-496 and CIM-707 exhibited medium boll
weight of 3.19 and 3.13 g, respectively, while lowest boll
weight of 3.00 g was recorded in cultivar CIM-554.
Increased nitrogen fertilizer also increased leaf
photosynthetic rate which might have resulted higher
accumulation of metabolites thus impacted boll weight
(Cadena & Cothren, 1995). Increase in boll weight may be
due to increase in N rate and increases in mineral uptake,
photosynthetic assimilation and accumulation (Sawan et
al., 2006). Significant effect of various nitrogen rates on
boll weight and seed cotton yield has also been reported
by Nehra et al., (1986) and Khan et al., (1993). However,
Hussain et al., (2000) and Saleem et al., (2010) reported
that nitrogen fertilizer @ 120 kg ha-1 proved to be best for
obtaining highest boll weight and seed cotton yield but no
effect on fiber quality traits. Boll weight has highly
significant positive correlation (r = 0.706) with yield
(Table 1). Boll weight is 2nd major yield contributor after
bolls per plant in creation of variation and managing seed
cotton yield.
Seed cotton yield: Seed cotton yield was significantly
influenced by N levels, cultivars and N levels x cultivars
interaction (Table 1). Seed cotton yield enhanced with
each increment of N from 50 to 150 kg ha-1 in each
cultivar. When values were averaged across the cultivars,
the application of 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1 increased
seed cotton yield from 1207 kg ha-1 to 1359, 1654 and
1960 kg ha-1, respectively. In other words, when
compared with control, application of 50, 100 and 150 kg
N ha-1 increased cotton yield by 12.59, 37.03 and 62.39%,
respectively. Perusal of the data further revealed that
increase in seed cotton yield with each increment was not
the same. First increment of 50 kg N ha-1 increased the
yield by 12.59% while the second and third increment
increased the yield by 21.70 and 18.50%, respectively
suggesting that further increases in N may increase the
seed cotton yield under the prevailing agro-climatic
conditions.
Though, the seed cotton yield of all cultivars
increased with increase in N levels, however, the response
in term of percent increase in yield varied for various
cultivars. CIM-499 showed the maximum increase of
80.00% with 150 kg N ha-1 as compared to control while
CIM-506 showed an increase of 46.15% with the same
level of N. The percent increases in CIM-499 and CIM-
506 with 150 kg N ha-1, revealed that those cultivars
having initially lower seed cotton yield responded more to
N as compared to those cultivars having higher seed
cotton yields at control (Table 6). However, the highest
seed cotton yield (2280 kg ha-1) was noted in cultivar
CIM-506 with 150 kg N ha-1. It was followed by at par
yield of three cultivars CIM-473 and CIM-707 at 150 kg
N ha-1 and CIM-506 with 100 kg N ha-1 ranged from 1950
to 1960 kg ha-1, and that may be due to there genetic
potential which even excelled other genotypes. Certainly,
the lowest seed cotton yield of 1000 to 1100 kg ha-1 was
observed in cultivars CIM-496, CIM-499 and CIM-707
with zero nitrogen intensity. Other associations of various
cultivars and nitrogen levels showed medium seed cotton
yield. Results also revealed that seed cotton yield
increased due to positive role of major yield contributors
i.e., bolls per plant and boll weight. The yield response of
each cultivar to N increments was best expressed by a
quadratic response model (Ibrahim et al., 2010).
Increasing N rate from 0 to 84 kg ha1 increased average
boll weight by 0.16 g and average yield per fruiting site
by 0.29 g (Boquet et al., 1994). Nitrogen fertilizers level
of 150 kg ha-1 was found sufficient for satisfactory seed
cotton yield and recorded maximum values for yield
contributing traits, yield and N-uptake (Kumbhar et al.,
2008).
When cultivars values averaged over N levels,
cultivar CIM-506 presumed maximum seed cotton yield
with a mean of 1873 kg ha-1 (Table 6). The said promising
cultivar was followed by two cultivars i.e., CIM-554 and
CIM-473 having at par seed cotton yield of 1579 and
1553 kg ha-1, respectively. Cultivars CIM-496 (1460 kg
ha-1) and CIM-707 (1443 kg ha-1) exhibited at par and
medium seed cotton yields, while lowest yield was
observed in cultivar CIM-499 (1363 kg ha-1). Previous
studies revealed that nitrogen levels had created
significant differences in yield contributing traits and seed
cotton yield, and nitrogen level of 100 kg ha-1 revealed
significant increase in seed cotton yield due to more
sympodial branches, bolls per plant and boll weight
(Nadeem et al., 2010). Highest seed cotton yield of 3120
kg ha-1 was observed with increased application of N
(187.5 kg ha-1) followed by 150 and 112.5 kg N ha-1
(Singh & Sigh, 2009). Correlation of seed cotton yield
was highly significant positive with all morpho-yield traits
(Table 1). It is concluded that a unit increase in yield
contributing traits will increase seed cotton yield and a
little accomplishment will have a great positive impact on
yield.
ZARINA BIBI ET AL.,
2408
Nitrogen is the basic component in raw food of the
plant, which ultimately processed through photosynthesis
and other chemical reactions and finally converted into
the photosynthates which are the primary prerequisites in
all the physiological processes undergoing in the plant
body. Thus, more the available nitrogen more will be the
partition of photosynthetic outcomes towards final seed
cotton yield. Khan & Ahmed (1996) also declared the role
of nitrogen in enhancing seed cotton yield, and nitrogen is
an essential component of photosynthetic activity
(Bondada & Oosterhuis, 2000). In fact, the N is an
important nutrient in controlling new growth (Perumai,
1999; Borowski, 2001) and nutrient uptake, and in
preventing abscission of squares and bolls. Integration of
growth and development mediated by N led to a favorable
canopy environment for productivity (square formation
and seed cotton yield) (Perumai, 1999). Zhao &
Oosterhuis (2000) indicated that low N supply at the
reproductive stage decreased cotton leaf area, leaf net
photosynthetic rate, and chlorophyll content. They also
observed that fruit abscission increased and lint yield
decreased in N deficient plants. Yield decrease also
reported as a result of N application above an optimum
level (Howard et al., 2001).
Conclusion
From the results it can be concluded that significant
variations were observed among cultivars, nitrogen levels
and cultivars × nitrogen levels for all the traits.
Application of N significantly increased plant height,
sympodia per plant, bolls plant-1, boll weight and
consequently the seed cotton yield of all cultivars.
However, the percent increases in these parameters with
increasing level of N were different for various cultivars
that could be associated with genetic variations of
genotypes. When percent increase in the given parameter
was considered, it was observed that those cultivars
having lower growth and yield traits at control responded
more to N application than those having initially higher
growth traits. Overall, the cultivar CIM-506 showed best
performance and increased seed cotton yield at all levels
of N suggesting that it could be the promising cultivar if
grown with maximum N level of 150 kg ha-1 under
environmental conditions of Peshawar, Pakistan.
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... This is due to increased availability of nutrients and uptake of nutrients from the soil, this resulted in better assimilation and growth of the plant in aspects of both shoot and root, which helped in utilization of more sunlight, water and nutrients and thus resulted in increases in growth characters and in turn increasing drymatter production and leaf area. The present results were in accordance with Zarina et al. [10] and Udikeri and Shashidhara [11]. ...
... Regarding nitrogen, significantly higher seed cotton yield (2072 kg ha ). While increased seed cotton yield with increased N levels was observed by Zarina et al. [10] and Munir et al. [20]. ...
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Despite low intra-cellular requirements for Ca in the higher plants, Ca deficiency has been recorded in agricultural and horticultural plants during recent years. Because of insufficient selective and active uptake of Ca and its slow translocation, a high Ca concentration at the root surfaces is essential. The Ca requirement also increases when the supply of other nutrients, particularly cations increases. The use of inorganic fertilizers containing Ca should therefore receive more consideration. 56 references. (Abstract retrieved from CAB Abstracts by CABI’s permission)
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Field experiments were conducted during 1999-2000 and 2000-01 in a split plot design to study the effect of split application of nitrogen and weed control strategies on weeds, growth and yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The 3 N applications, namely 25% at sowing + 50% at squaring and 25% at flowering; 25% at sowing + 25% at first irrigation and 50% at flowering; 15% at sowing + 15% at first irrigation + 35% at squaring and 35% at flowering. Six weed control methods included 2 manual hoeings at 3 and 6 weeks after sowing, 1 hoeing at 3 weeks and 1 earthing-up at 6 weeks, S-metolachlor (2.4 kg a.i./ha as pre-plant), S-metolachlor (2.4 kg ai/ha as pre-plant) + 1 hoeing at 6 weeks, S-metolachlor (2.4 kg a.i./ha as pre-plant) + 1 earthing-up at 6 weeks and weedy check (control). Dry weight of weeds was significantly minimum (81.18 g/m 2) with 15% N at sowing + 15% at first irrigation + 35% at squaring and 35% at flowering. Different weed-control methods generally resulted in low dry weight of weeds than the weedy check and consequently plants had more leaf area index. Total bolls produced/plant (19.51-30.59), average boll weight (2.36-2.63 g) and ginning outturn (39.75-40.80%) was significantly more in weed-control methods than the weedy check. Two hoeings at 3 and 6 week resulted in maximum seed-cotton yield (2 160.5 kg/ha) and lint yield (889.7 kg/ha). This treatment gave a maximum of 87% increase in seed cotton yield over weedy check. Seed cotton yield, ginning outturn and lint yield were not influenced by split nitrogen application.
Article
A field experiment was conducted during the rainy (kharif) and winter (rabi) seasons of 1994-95 and 1995-96 at New Delhi, to study the effect of nitrogen, chlormequat chloride and FYM applied to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and their residual effect on succeeding wheat (Triticum aestivum L. emend. Fiori & Paol.) crop, The treatment comprised 2 levels of FYM (0 and 10 tonnes/ha), 3 of nitrogen (0, 50 and 100 kg N/ha) and 3 of chlormequat chloride (0, 50 and 100 ppm). Results showed that FYM @ 10 tonnes/ha gave significantly more bolls/ plant, higher boll weight and seed-cotton yield than that of no FYM. Nitrogen application significantly increased bolls/plant, boll weight, seed-cotton yield and N uptake over the control. Spraying 50 ppm chlormequat chloride gave significanly more bolls/plant, boll weight and seed-cotton yield than those of 0 and 100 ppm. The FYM left the highest residual effect on succeeding wheat crop. The highest net returns in cotton-wheat system was registered with FYM @ 10 tonnes/ha, followed by 100 kg N/ha and chlormequat chloride @ 50 ppm.