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The need for debris mitigation is illustrated in the context of historic launch activates and operational practices. This has led to the existing space debris environment, with consequent collision flux levels that are based on detailed population and evolution models. Therefore mitigation of space debris has become a major concern for us humans lately. National space agencies have proposed many space debris mitigation measures to reduce and stabilize the predicted long term growth of space object population. Through this article we take a closer look at the mathematical analysis of three main strategies adapted to reduce and stabilize the growth of space debris.

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... An alternative approach of de-orbiting debris is to use equipped ion engines with satellites, but due to their high-energy requirement, this is not an effective approach. 6 This approach also requires a very long-term altitude control subsystem and a power source to fulfill the de-orbiting goal at the end of the mission period. A more practical approach has to be implemented in order to ensure feasibility in all aspects. ...
Space exploration is a mechanism whereby, with the use of astronomy and space technology, humans are able to explore outer space and the universe at large. In this article, the authors address space debris issues with a discussion of future space law issues along with a brief elaboration of how the adaptation took place for space debris mitigation guidelines. The history of space law formulated during the United Nations’ General Assembly is justified, along with the resolutions that took place throughout recent years. The authors also elaborate on the importance of theoretical modeling and how it could be adopted into practice utilizing the established debris mitigation guidelines. Legal and political constraints are also highlighted, along with where the future focus on legal factors should be when considering space debris mitigation.
The ESA Space Debris Mitigation Handbook 2002 was jointly produced by an industrial consortium and ESA, under an ESA contract. The Handbook is a non-regulatory, self-standing document, providing technical information in support of European debris mitigation standards. The necessity of debris mitigation is illustrated in the context of historic launch activities and operational practices, which led to the current debris environment, with corresponding collision flux levels. Based on detailed population evolution models, this initial population is analysed with respect to its growth and stability under different traffic assumptions. The implementation of debris mitigation measures, in particular the de-orbiting of spacecraft and upper stages, is shown to reduce the debris growth to an acceptable level within a few decades. The risk on ground due to re-entering space objects, its assessment, and its control is also analysed. For on-orbit systems, collision risk reduction by avoidance manoeuvres, and passive protection by shielding is outlined. ESA's Handbook also compares recommended debris mitigation and risk reduction practices proposed by several other space agencies. The Handbook will be available by the end of 2002.
This fourth edition of the bestselling Spacecraft Systems Engineering title provides the reader with comprehensive coverage of the design of spacecraft and the implementation of space missions, across a wide spectrum of space applications and space science. The text has been thoroughly revised and updated, with each chapter authored by a recognized expert in the field. Three chapters-Ground Segment, Product Assurance and Spacecraft System Engineering-have been rewritten, and the topic of Assembly, Integration and Verification has been introduced as a new chapter, filling a gap in previous editions. This edition addresses 'front-end system-level issues' such as environment, mission analysis and system engineering, but also progresses to a detailed examination of subsystem elements which represents the core of spacecraft design. This includes mechanical, electrical and thermal aspects, as well as propulsion and control. This quantitative treatment is supplemented by an emphasis on the interactions between elements, which deeply influences the process of spacecraft design. Adopted on courses worldwide, Spacecraft Systems Engineering is already widely respected by students, researchers and practising engineers in the space engineering sector. It provides a valuable resource for practitioners in a wide spectrum of disciplines, including system and subsystem engineers, spacecraft equipment designers, spacecraft operators, space scientists and those involved in related sectors such as space insurance. In summary, this is an outstanding resource for aerospace engineering students, and all those involved in the technical aspects of design and engineering in the space sector.
Recent analyses on the instability of the orbital debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 have reignited interest in using active debris removal (ADR) to remediate the environment. There are, however, monumental technical, resource, operational, legal, and political challenges in making economically viable ADR a reality. Before a consensus on the need for ADR can be reached, a careful analysis of its effectiveness must be conducted. The goal is to demonstrate the need and feasibility of using ADR to better preserve the future environment and to explore different operational options to maximize the benefit-to-cost ratio. This paper describes a new sensitivity study on using ADR to stabilize the future LEO debris environment. The NASA long-term orbital debris evolutionary model, LEGEND, is used to quantify the effects of several key parameters, including target selection criteria/constraints and the starting epoch of ADR implementation. Additional analyses on potential ADR targets among the existing satellites and the benefits of collision avoidance maneuvers are also included.
Firstly, the paper outlines the different space debris mitigation measures proposed or in use by the national space agencies in order to reduce and stabilise the predicted long-term growth of the space object population. The rationale for analysing the effectiveness of these different mitigation techniques with space debris models is introduced. Then, the features of Debris Environment Long Term Analysis (DELTA) model are described. Special attention is given to the DELTA model approach for the detailed simulation of realistic mitigation measure scenarios. The model predictions of long-term debris environment evolution for these scenarios are then analysed and discussed in terms of their relative efficiency in reducing the debris population and the consequences for the collision risks in key operational orbits.
Herausgegeben durch das Kuratorium "Der Mensch und der Weltraum". Contents: 1. Vorwort zur 3. Auflage (F. Schmeidler, A. Korte). 2. Geleitwort (H. O. Ruppe). 3. Biographische Daten zum Leben und Wirken von Walter Hohmann (M. Hohmann). 4. Die Erreichbarkeit der Himmelskörper (Faksimile der 1. Auflage 1925). 5. Kommentar (F. Schmeidler).
We model the orbital debris environment by a set of differential equations with parameter values that capture many of the complexities of existing three-dimensional simulation models. We compute the probability that a spacecraft gets destroyed in a collision during its operational lifetime, and then define the sustainable risk level as the maximum of this probability over all future time. Focusing on the 900- to 1000-km altitude region, which is the most congested portion of low Earth orbit, we find that – despite the initial rise in the level of fragments – the sustainable risk remains below 10-3 if there is high (>98%) compliance to the existing 25-year postmission deorbiting guideline. We quantify the damage (via the number of future destroyed operational spacecraft) generated by past and future space activities. We estimate that the 2007 FengYun 1C antisatellite weapon test represents ≈1% of the legacy damage due to space objects having a characteristic size of ⩾10 cm, and causes the same damage as failing to deorbit 2.6 spacecraft after their operational life. Although the political and economic issues are daunting, these damage estimates can be used to help determine one-time legacy fees and fees on future activities (including deorbit noncompliance), which can deter future debris generation, compensate operational spacecraft that are destroyed in future collisions, and partially fund research and development into space debris mitigation technologies. Our results need to be confirmed with a high-fidelity three-dimensional model before they can provide the basis for any major decisions made by the space community.
Space debris mitigation, Space Elevator Conference
  • S Chaddha
Chaddha S. Space debris mitigation, Space Elevator Conference; 2010 Aug 13;
Rocket and space technology
  • R A Braeunig
Braeunig RA. Rocket and space technology. Electronic Resource; 2005.
Space Debris: Hazard Evaluation and Debris
  • N N Smirnov
Smirnov NN. Space Debris: Hazard Evaluation and Debris, Taylor & Francis; 2001.