ArticlePDF Available



Abstract and Figures

Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is a marketing discipline focused on growing visibility in organic (non-paid) search engine results which encompasses both the technical and creative elements required to improve rankings, drive traffic and increase awareness among search engines. Google has recently focused on On-Page SEO strategies, where unique quality content with natural link building are key factor to get good score in major search engines. This article aims to address general questions while writing web content, picking quality keywords and the techniques which boost ranking of a webpage in Google and other popular search engines. Main focus is on the On-Page SEO techniques that are ignored mostly by bloggers and web developers.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Sci.Int.(Lahore),27(6),5079-5086,2015 ISSN 1013-5316; CODEN: SINTE 8 5079
Raza ul Mustafa1*, M. Saqib Nawaz1, M. IkramUllah Lali2
1Department of Computer Science, The University of Lahore, Sargodha Campus, Pakistan
2Department of Computer Science & IT, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan
ABSTRACT: Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is a marketing discipline focused on growing visibility in organic (non-paid)
search engine results which encompasses both the technical and creative elements required to improve rankings, drive traffic
and increase awareness among search engines. Google has recently focused on On-Page SEO strategies, where unique quality
content with natural link building are key factor to get good score in major search engines. This article aims to address
general questions while writing web content, picking quality keywords and the techniques which boost ranking of a webpage in
Google and other popular search engines. Main focus is on the On-Page SEO techniques that are ignored mostly by bloggers
and web developers.
Keywords: SEO, keywords density, keywords optimization, On-page SEO, link optimization.
Search engine is a software program that helps Internet
users to find specific information and contents on the World
Wide Web (WWW) [11]. With increasing dependencies on
Web and expansion of the Internet, search engines are the
key factor for extracting the right information at the time of
need. Today, hundreds of different search engines exist,
having distinct abilities and features. Google, Yahoo, Ask,
MSN and Bing are the popular search engines [4]. In
particular, Google has become an essential link between
Internet users and the information they want to seek online.
For this reason, any webmaster, blogger and engineer
should actively learn and encompass the designing and
marketing techniques to attract visitors to their websites.
The search engine marketing firm iProspect [16] pointed out
that more than 60% users preferred to click on the results
that appeared on the first page of Search Engine Result
Pages (SERP’s), while 40% users continued their search by
changing the keyword and/or the search engine itself.
Furthermore, 90% users visited the result pages and are
satisfied from the respective search engines’ performance.
Besides, 5% users do not go beyond second page and only
2% consumers visited beyond third page [1]. Another study
conducted by Zhu and Wu [27] found that “more than 80%
of first visits to a website comes from web search. Among
these visits more than 76% use Google worldwide.
Therefore, getting top positions in SERP is critical for the
constant flow of users to the websites and this is where the
role of SEO comes into play.
SEO is the process of optimizing a website to achieve high
rankings in major SERP’s [28]. According to Jansen and
Spink [9], there is a need to clearly understand emerging
trends in web searching over different global regions and
between various web search engines in order to design
better searching systems. Concept of SEO was initially
proposed by Sullivan [18] and is evolving since then. From
the appearance of Yahoo to Google and with the emergence
of SEO techniques and theory, search engine perfection
techniques are in a continuous process of evolution. In
Search Engine Marketing (SEM), SEO techniques can be
used primarily to increase the ranking of a website that may
lead to web domination [13, 14]. As the Internet is growing
continuously, SEO techniques have become essential and so
is the increased research of SEO techniques. Enterprises,
webmasters and web content creators are adopting the SEO
based methods in order to make their website and
development more suitable for the basic principles of
information retrieval [17].
With the increasing dependency of people on search engine
services, comprehensive and accurate knowledge on SEO
techniques will become essential for anyone who depends
on the Internet. In this article, On-Page SEO tactics are
discussed that will help webmasters and blog developers to
get high rankings for their websites in search engine results.
Killroan [15] in his tutorial demonstrates that how SEO
techniques can be used to increase the visibility of websites.
Additionally, author addressed two general questions: (i)
Factors that contribute to search engine rankings and (ii)
What webmasters and web content developers can do such
that users can find their content and websites easier using
search engine.
Other than existing SEO techniques, this article evaluates
top secrets of major search engine such as Google regarding
positions in query log. We have considered most demanded
points and effective strategies are highlighted in order to
score good results in popular search engines. Furthermore,
main focus is on Google search engine and providing
lessons that enterprises and webmasters can readily
implement without specialized technical know-how and a
web marketing budget. This work will help business
owners, web developers and SEO engineers to further
expand their knowledge on the ethical application of SEO
techniques in order to improve their websites relevancy
which can lead to higher rankings in SERPs. Moreover,
this work will be of interest to Internet users as it offers
basic guidelines for improving website visibility in search
engines, particularly for those who are interested in creating
their own websites. Rest of the article is organized as
follows. Section 2 defines search-related terminology and
describes how the literature for article was selected.
Important approaches and techniques that are used in SEO
are discussed in Section 3. Finally, in Section 4, article is
concluded with some remarks.
5080 ISSN 1013-5316; CODEN: SINTE 8 Sci.Int.(Lahore),27(6),5079-5086,2015
Search engine works like a system which continuously
crawls information from different online sources. Whenever
a user requests specific information from this system, he/she
simply types in the query and search engine provides
specific information sources against the said query. Search
engine is mainly composed of four parts: crawler, indexer,
database, and graphical user interface [19]. An excellent
search engine should have the following four
characteristics: rapid, accurate, easy to use and strong [20].
Search engines also offer a common interaction for web
users, search marketing practitioners, researchers, and of
course the search engine companies themselves. SERP
displays a list of webpages based on the user’s search query
[15]. SERP normally includes a list of webpages with titles,
a link to the page along-with a short description that shows
where the keywords entered by user matches with the
contents of the page. Users that have used more than one
search engine would have noticed that competing SERPs
show different website rankings for a given query, an
observation highlighted by researchers in [5, 29, 30]. Most
distinctive and successful feature of Google search engine
algorithm is PageRank, introduced by Sergey and Page [6].
PageRank is used to measure the popularity of a webpage,
where popularity is determined by the hyperlinks from other
pages leading to it as well as of the linking pages
SEO methods are divided into two main parts: On-page
optimization and Off-page optimization. On-page
optimization refers to elements of website which comprises
of a web page, such as HTML code, textual content and
images. Off-page optimization refers to back-links (such as
links which point to the website that is being optimized) [1,
2]. In SEO, white hat SEO refers to those techniques and
methods that follow search engine rules and regulations.
These techniques are also called ethical SEO and have the
capability to give long lasting results for a website. On the
other hand, black hat SEO refers to those techniques which
are used to manipulate the search engine algorithm in order
to gain high rankings. It is to be noted that these unethical
techniques are not approved by search engine and using
black hat techniques can cause the blacklisting of a site
from the search engine database index altogether [3, 15].
SEM is another way of marketing that involves the
promotion of websites by increasing their visibility
in SERPs through optimization and advertising. SEO relies
on the organic results listing of related pages which search
engine crawled and ranked them according to content
weightage. Organic search results are generated directly
from the search engine ranking algorithm on the basis of
search query relevancy. Mostly, search engines lists up-to
ten pages in a single page, where pages with top ranking
usually have high quality content and increase click through
rate (CTR). CTR is the total number of clicks a webpage
received whenever it appears in SERPs.
In this article, those SEO strategies and tactics are discussed
and proposed that most webmasters, bloggers and web
developers are not aware of while making their online
business on early stages. Similar to Killoran [15], this article
mainly focuses on the following subset of SEO strategies and
Helpful for all types of websites, especially for most
searched content such as sports, movies, and health
related websites;
Applicable to a wide range of websites, as opposed to
sites requiring specialized search functionality;
Free, as opposed to paid search options such as
Google AdWords;
Ethical, as opposed to the deceptive tactics used by
Furthermore, this article draws its SEO lessons from the
literature distributed by these three classes:
1. Published advice from search engine companies;
2. Empirical studies from the research community;
3. Much experience-based collective wisdom and
occasional empirical studies from SEO
As an advertising technique to build a site's positioning, SEO
considers user interests. After referring to the methods
adopted by previous relevant studies, SEO techniques are
observed from four aspects: structure optimization, keywords
optimization, content optimization and link optimization [2].
Along with four mentioned aspects, we choose some other
factors which are very crucial for online business. These
aspects are discussed next.
3.1. Review of Site Content and Structure
Most search engines now focus on the content of website,
which consists of following three components:
a) Quality of content;
b) Content is unique, easy to read and understand;
c) Grammar must be correct. There must be a
comprehensive style to guide what is coming next.
The main goal of SEO is to construct and place the contents of
a website in a way acceptable to user, such that likelihood of
the page increases. If a web developer or blogger is
constructing a webpage, he/she should explain the product
from a user’s perspective keeping in view the minute details
that the visitor may experience. For instance, draw attention to
the offers by a website; narrate a story highlighting the growth
of the company based on earlier records and future trends, etc.
Use of interesting quotes to keep the visitor’s interest alive so
that he/she stays on the page is another approach. Though, the
development is generally thought of as a technical task, the
developer should place text in a way acceptable to users rather
than search engines. Focus should be on such contents that
will engage users in their website; otherwise user will leave
the website.
Similarly, the structure of the website on the other hand is
very important and has numerous effects on SEO. Web
developers and bloggers should link top pages from he main
navigation. Every category page must have a link from
home page, though it is not a hard and fast rule but can be
treated as a general rule of thumb while keeping the
navigating visitor in mind who does not have the whole
sitemap in view. This will help spiders to rank pages in
SERPs. It should be kept in mind that depth of link must be
less than 4, e.g if home page gives link to contact us page,
Sci.Int.(Lahore),27(6),5079-5086,2015 ISSN 1013-5316; CODEN: SINTE 8 5081
its depth is 1. Navigation plan for websites is shown in
Figure 1.
Figure 1. Navigational plan while creating website link
3.2. On-Page SEO Tactics
Google has revealed that speed of site is now main signal
for top ranking, for this most of site penalized due to poor
performance in Google speed test [7]. Google and other
search engines focused on following aspects:
1. Remove render blocking JavaScript in above the fold-
content, Minify JavaScript (JS);
2. Optimize CSS delivery in above the fold-content;
3. Minify HTML
Insert structure data markup;
Optimize images;
Mobile responsive webpages;
Browser caching;
Reduce server response time.
3.2.1. Minify JavaScript
Minify JavaScript (JS) refers to removing unnecessary
spaces, comments and functions which are not used. This
will compress JS, CSS and HTML to load page faster. Most
search engines recommend not using JS above the fold; the
'fold' is where the bottom of the screen is on page load.
Usually first appearance on a website before scrolling down
is 'above the fold'. Anything which needs to scroll down to
be visible is called 'below the fold'. External scripts must be
fetched before they can be executed. Recommended snippet
is listed in Table 1. JS that are necessary to render page
content must be in line while remaining script can be
separated on external file to give extra SEO score. If JS is
too small and it is necessary to include it in the file, then
follow search engine recommended pattern listed in Table
Table 1. Above the fold
Avoid snippets
Table 2. Inline JS
Avoid snippets
of small
Inline JavaScript will increase page speed, remove external
request to external.js but doing this will also increase page
HTML size. Most search engines preferred to reduce JS file
size as well using JS Compression [21] tool available
online. For performance, include only those JavaScript,
which make too many requests. Another point in handling
of JavaScript is to make JS file asynchronous putting extra
attribute while calling external file. Table 3 has
recommended snippet for asynchronous JS.
Table 3. Asynchronous JS
<script sync src=”example.js”
3.2.2. Minify CSS
Giving exact view of online webpages browser first renders
all CSS information. Search engines allow minified version
of CSS as in case of JS to increase response time.
Recommended snippet is described in Table 4, and inline
CSS is discussed in Table 5.Moreover, according to [25,
26], try to include a critical portion of CSS in the head
section of the web page.
5082 ISSN 1013-5316; CODEN: SINTE 8 Sci.Int.(Lahore),27(6),5079-5086,2015
Table 4. Above the fold CSS
Avoid snippets
Table 5. Inline necessary CSS
Avoid snippets
Recommended snippet
3.2.3. Minify HTML
Google and Bing have given lot more importance on HTML
of webpages [26]. For this, they recommend to give cache
version of HTML, while accessing same page again and
again. Lots of recommendations were provided in recent years
to make user happier while searching query in search engine.
Important recommendations are discussed next. Insert Structure Data Markup
Structured data markup is a standard way to annotate content
so machines can understand it. When webpages include
structured data markup, search engines, then use this
information to index SERPs result better. Site can enhance its
search results with:
a) Rich Snippets
b) Breadcrumbs
c) Sitelinks Search Box
A) Rich snippets offer an extra amount of information to
users as well for search engine. For example person searching
for movie (Frozen 2013) in Google will find results as shown
in Figure 2. Users not only get basic movie information, their
interest on that page is also a ranking signal in search engines.
Not all users watching such results in SERP’s, convinces
him/her to visit such pages, which will increase CTR and
bounce rate for that page.
Figure 2. Rich Snippets in SERPs
Google supports Rich Snippets for the following data types
Product- Information about a product, including
price, availability and review ratings;
Recipe- Recipes that can be displayed in web
searches and Recipe View.;
Review- A review of an item such as a restaurant,
movie, or store;
Event - An organized event, such as musical concerts
or art festivals, that people may attend at a particular
time and place;
Software Application - Information about a software
application, including its URL, review ratings, and
B) Breadcrumbs are used for easy navigation on websites.
An example of such SERPs is shown in Figure 3. In
Figure 3, three breadcrumbs are: Arts, Books and
Poetry. These breadcrumbs make it easier to navigate
webpages. Google provide complete detail in [10] on
how to implement these snippets in HTML code.
Figure 3. Breadcrumb in SERP’s using Structure data
C) With Google Sitelinks search box, users can discover
site content more correctly and precisely without
computational overhead [33].For instance, assume a
user needs to discover a feature related to puppies
health on YouTube. User just searched the YouTube
for his query, follow the link to YouTube, and then
actually search for the dog health videos, as shown in
Figure 4.
Sci.Int.(Lahore),27(6),5079-5086,2015 ISSN 1013-5316; CODEN: SINTE 8 5083
Figure 4.Google Site link Searched Optimize Images
On a web page, images are generally responsible for most
of the bytes downloaded [31]. Due to this, image
optimization can offer both performance improvement and
byte savings. If image size is small, then the browser
renders image in less time, enhancing SERPs improvement
for major search engines. Major search engines have forced
webmasters to use vector images, whose quality upon
shrinking or expanding is never disturbed. Other
recommendations include minifying image size using
compression tools available online such as Yahoo Smush
[22]. Google has pointed out all image optimizations
techniques in [23]. Some important recommendations are:
Eliminate unnecessary image resources;
Apply CSS3 effects where possible;
Use web fonts instead of encoding text in images;
Use right image format. Check JPEG, PNG, GIF while
saving image. Moreover, check size and quality of
image and use that image which serves best. Mobile Responsive Sites
In April 2015, Google has given a new signal that is for
mobile responsive sites and will get SEO ranking in SERPs
[34]. The statistics in [7] showed that in America 94% people
with smart phones search for local information on their
phones. Interestingly, these knowledge sources are mostly
accessed at home or form work places [8]. There are many
factors which are to be kept in mind while implementing, such
It is easier to share single link on social media site rather
than duplicate links;
It is easier for Google to redirect traffic to single page
rather than multiple version of website;
Saves resources when Googlebot crawl website;
Google index more website content and keep it
appropriately fresh.
Be sure not to block the crawling of any page (CSS,
JavaScript and images) for any Googlebot using robots.txt
or other methods. Googlebot detects necessary scripts to
provide exact view of website if it is responsive. Browser Caching
When a web program shows a site page, it needs to load a
few things such as logo, CSS document and other different
contents. There is no need to stack already loaded content
again and again. Once it is loaded at user computer, it must
be cached. Google provides changes in code snippets to
overcome such issues to increase server response time as
Each resource should specify an explicit caching policy that
answers the following questions: whether the resource can be
cached and by whom, for how long, and if applicable, how it
can be efficiently revalidated when the caching policy expires.
When the server returns a response it must provide the Cache-
Control and ETag headers [24]:
Cache-Control defines how, and for how long the
individual response can be cached by the browser and
other intermediate caches.
ETag provides a revalidation token that is
automatically sent by the browser to check if the
resource has changed since the last time it was
requested. Reduce Server Response Time
Server response time measures to what extent it takes to
load the fundamental HTML. Server response time must be
less than 200ms. There are many potential elements which
effects server response time that includes:
Slow application logic;
Moderate database questions;
Slow routing;
CPU starvation;
Memory starvation.
When the issues are determined, try to overcome future
execution bottlenecks.
3.3. Keyword Selection and its Importance in Text
Keywords selection is the most difficult task while making
online business profitable. Picking right phrase for website,
which describes website content, is a challenging task. It is not
about attracting visitors to site rather bringing right visitor to
right site. For example, for an online book store, what will be
the worth of keyword that is chosen for optimization in
SERPs. User can make more sales on history books
purchase online or purchase Science books on low price”.
Well this is confusing. Following factors should be kept in
mind before choosing the keyword:
Does user keyword describe the webpage content?
Or searches find what they are looking to achieve?
Are they happy? Does this search bring any financial
5084 ISSN 1013-5316; CODEN: SINTE 8 Sci.Int.(Lahore),27(6),5079-5086,2015
Does it increase any bounce rate?
Does it increase CTR?
Does it increase average visit length?
Bringing new idea is not much easier, so if users or web
developers are trying to get good rank in SERPs, for a new
site for which many other sites have already optimized their
content for same keyword, then focus should be on those
keywords which are searched widely. However, most of sites
neglect them to put in their text and title tag. Google Adwords
Keyword [12] planner provides this facility to easily search
keywords for local campaign or internationally whom you are
thinking to target. For example, keywords searched for term
Book” has phrases which were searched in last 12 months are
shown in Figure 5.
Figure 5. Keyword search using Google Adwords keyword
planner for “Book”
Those keywords should be picked whose competition is
low. Low competition means only few people around the
globe are working on this topic. Keywords with medium
and high competition are not suitable for newly created
websites. For newly create website try to pick long tail
keywords; as long tail keywords, take brief view of our
online book store example, it would be great to rank #1 for
the keyword "buy books".
Keywords with searches more than 5,000 or even a 500
searches per day covers 30% queries, so what left is 70% of
users queries are long tail keywords. The long tail contains
hundreds of millions of unique searches that might be
conducted a few times in any given day. However, when
taken together, it comprises the majority of the search
volume worldwide. Long tail keywords serve better than
single phrase because they catch people later in the
buying/conversion cycle. A person searching for "book" is
probably browsing and not ready to buy. On the other hand,
someone searching for "best book to buy in 2015" will
increase chance to engage that user in website.
Website with domain age less than six months should
follow these guidelines while picking keywords:
A. Pick keywords which are less optimized;
B. Keywords with complete phrase.
A) Keywords which are less optimized can be searched
after putting complete phrase in Google. When query is
searched, Google will show total numbers of web pages
which have same title tag. Figure 6 shows free books
In Figure 6, 310,000 web pages have title for searched query,
so free books online is not a good keyword to optimize for
web pages whose domain age is less than six months.
Keyword “urdu book free download has 1900 searches from
last twelve months as shown in Figure 7, but online 50 web
pages have title “Urdu book free download” (Figure 8).
Figure 6. Finding less optimized images using allintitle
Figure 7. Less optimized images search e using Google
Adwords keyword planner
Sci.Int.(Lahore),27(6),5079-5086,2015 ISSN 1013-5316; CODEN: SINTE 8 5085
Figure 8. Less optimized keywords checking in Google
Putting such keywords in webpage will direct traffic to web
pages in no time. Once users have chosen keywords for web
pages, then differentiate home page keywords and web pages
keywords according to these roles. Suppose a user or web
developer is creating a website related to mobile phone
specifications and price. Then:
Home cannot be optimized for more than three to four
Home page must have keywords which give complete
idea of whole website e.g. (mobile phones specifications,
mobile phone prices);
Category pages have keywords related to brands, e.g if
category page is Nokia mobile phones then keywords
give idea related to that page such as “Nokia mobile
phone prices, Nokia mobile phone specifications”;
Detail page must include keywords related to brand new
model e.g if Nokia launches Nokia C1, then keywords
would be Nokia c1 price, Nokia c1 specifications.
Once users have chosen keywords for whole website, then
they must follow the subsequent.
Keywords must be included above the fold content;
Once primary keyword is placed in text then there is no
need to repeat it again and again;
First paragraph of content must have primary keyword;
Title and meta description of webpage must have
primary keywords;
Link to category and detail pages must have keyword in
User must include H1,H2,H3 tags in detail and
category pages, which clearly gives idea about primary
and secondary keywords;
Images must have alt tag which must have primary
keyword in it.
Nowadays, with billions of web pages on Internet, search
engines have made it easier for people to find online
information. Searching for right information through pages
and displaying only the relevant results to the user is a
complex task. In this article, On-page SEO techniques are
discussed that enterprises, web developers and bloggers can
use to increase their site’s visibility in SERP’s. Main focus
is on SEO techniques for getting high ranking in Google
search engine. However, webmasters, bloggers and SEO
persons should keep themselves up to date with frequently
changing ranking algorithms and with the associated
changing practices of search optimization professionals.
Moreover, they need to remain in touch with major search
engines guideline on daily basis.
[1]. Dinesh, C., Rewatkar, P. and K. Sweta., “Search
engine optimization. Asian Journal of Computing
Updates and Trends, 2(1): 38-47 (2011).
[2]. Xiaoou, L., “Search engine technique and
optimization tactics. China Medical Education
Technology, 24: 161164 (2010).
[3]. Ochoa, E. D., “An analysis of the application of
selected search engine optimization (SEO)
techniques and their effectiveness on Google’s
search ranking Algorithm.” MS Thesis, California
State University, Northridge (2012).
[4]. Gaur D. and Dagar, P., “SEO techniques: New
dimensions for popular search engines. International
Journal on Advanced Computer Theory and
Engineering, 3(4): 32-36 (2014).
[5]. Mowshowitz, A. and Kawaguchi, A., Measuring
search engine bias. Information Processing &
Management, 41(5): 11931205 (2005).
[6]. Sergey, S. and Page, L., “Reprint of: The anatomy of a
large-scale hypertextual web search engine.
Computer networks, 56(8): 3825-3833 (2012).
[7]. Our mobile planet. Available at:
ads/. Accessed on 21 March (2015).
[8]. Mobile search moments study. Available at:
Published on March 2013. Accessed on 21 March
[9]. Jansen, B. J. and Spink, A., How are we searching
the World Wide Web? A comparison of nine search
engine transaction logs. Information Processing &
Management, 42(1): 248-263 (2006).
[10]. Breadcrumbs. Available at:
data/breadcrumbs. Accessed on 25 June 2015.
[11]. Henzinger, M., The past, present, and future of Web
search engines.In Proceedings of 31stInternational
Colloquium of Automata, Languages and
Programming, p. 3 (2004).
[12]. Geddes, B., Advanced Google AdWords. John
Wiley & Sons Publishers (2014).
[13]. Olbrich, R. and Schultz, C., Search engine
marketing and click fraud.Research Paper No.5.
Fern Universität, Hagen. Available at:
no5_web.pdf, 2008.
5086 ISSN 1013-5316; CODEN: SINTE 8 Sci.Int.(Lahore),27(6),5079-5086,2015
[14]. Thelwall, M., Commercial web site links. Internet
Research, 11(2): 114-124 (2001).
[15]. Killoran, J. B., How to use search engine
optimization techniques to increase website
visibility. IEEE Transactions on Professional
Communication, 56,(1): 50-66 (2013).
[16]. iProspect. iProspect search engine user behavior
study. Avialable at:
serBehavior.pdf (2006).
[17]. Yan, L., Marketing strategy of searching engine.
Journal of Anyang Institute of Technology, 7(1): 54-
56 (2008).
[18]. Sullivan, D., Who invented the term Search Engine
Optimization? Search Engine Watch, pp. 5-
14.Retrieved May 14 (2007).
[19]. Kassim, J. M. and Rahmany, M., “Introduction to
semantic search engine. In Proceedings of 2nd
International Conference on Electrical Engineering
and Informatics, pp. 380-386 (2009).
[20]. Cui, M. and Hu, S., “Search engine optimization
research for website promotion. In Proceedings of
International Conference of Information Technology,
Computer Engineering and Management Sciences,
pp. 100-103 (2011).
[21]. Online Java script compression tool. Available at: Accessed on 23 May 2015.
[22]. Yahoo Smush. Available at: Accessed on 15 April
[23]. Grigorik, I., Image optimization. Available at:
optimization. Accessed on 15 April (2015).
[24]. Grigorik, I., “HTTP caching and validating cached
responses with ETags. Available at:
caching#cache-control. Accessed on 15 April (2015).
[25]. Google HTML/CSS Style Guide. Revision 2.23.
Available at:
ssguide.xml. Accessed on 15 April (2015).
[26]. Robbins, J. N., Learning Web design: A beginner's
Guide to HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and Web
Graphics. O'Reilly Media Inc Publishers, (2012).
[27]. Zhu, C. and Wu, G., Research and analysis of
search engine optimization factors based on reverse
engineering. In Proceedings of 3rd International
Conference of Multimedia Information Networking
and Security, pp. 225-228 (2011).
[28]. Wang, F., Li, Y. and Zhang, Y., An empirical study
on the search engine optimization technique and its
outcomes. In Proceedings of 2nd International
Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Management
Science and Electronic Commerce, pp. 2767-2770
[29]. Bar-Ilan, J., “Comparing rankings of search results on
the Web. Information Processing & Management,
41(6): 15111519 (2005).
[30]. Bar-Ilan, J., Mat-Hassan, M., and Levene, M.,
Methods for comparing rankings of search engine
results.” Computer Networks, 50(10): 14481463
[31]. Image publishing guideline: Avaialbe at: https://suppo,
Accessed on 23 May (2015).
[32]. Rich Snippet. Available online at:
snippets/ Accessed on 23 May (2015).
[33]. Sitelinks search box. Available online at:
overview Accessed on 23 May (2015).
[34]. Google Mobile responsive update available online at:
faqs-april-21st-mobile-friendly.HTML. Accessed on
23 July (2015).
... Google's search engine guidelines have implied the importance of page speed as a deciding factor in their ranking (Mustafa et al., 2015). Speed implies an improvement of your page objects and external objects in JavaScript, CSS, HTML and json and these need to be properly compressed to avoid visitors leaving the page, as well as promoting the navigability of the brand's website as a seamless user experience, because high performance websites lead to greater user engagement, retention and conversion (Manhas, 2013). ...
... The concept of structured data indicates an HTML perception of the hierarchization of the page so the search engine can better categorize and present it in the SERP (search engine results page) (Mustafa et al., 2015). ...
... Long tail are keywords with more than one searched word, lower search volume, and infrequent (Ramlall et al., 2012). As a result, they extend search terms to subcategories (Killoran, 2013) and diversify results (SERP) presented, making billions of searches unique (Mustafa et al., 2015) and further enhance the conversion cycle or even sale, since action verbs are often included for the purpose of redirecting search to a purchase. Numerous specialized agencies and bloggers reaffirm the success of long tail keyword in the Search Engine Marketing (Skiera et al., 2010). ...
This chapter discusses search engine marketing (SEM) techniques that companies should implement in order to stimulate digital traffic. Those techniques include the attraction of organic traffic by search engine optimization (SEO) as well as search engine advertising (SEA). The authors used SEM techniques to a specific case of a company with the purpose of attracting international traffic and develop external marketing. The research discusses the effectiveness of SEM techniques in the case developed through an experimental method. New insights emerged from the experiment and are presented with contributions for international managers who want to develop international digital traffic.
... The research presented in this article aims to address this gap with empirical research about the discoverability of web pages with geospatial metadata content by general-purpose web search engines. We used SEO techniques, which are widely used as a strategy for enhancing the visibility of web pages in the results of search engines [11][12][13][14]. Improving the visibility of web pages with geospatial metadata can have a significant impact on the discoverability of geospatial resources. ...
... SEO techniques are recommended for improved visibility of web resources in the organic search category. They are meant to enhance the indexing process of web pages by search engines [11][12][13][14]. Among others, if web page authors employ SEO techniques, this results in higher web page visibility in response to relevant user queries [16]. ...
... Among others, if web page authors employ SEO techniques, this results in higher web page visibility in response to relevant user queries [16]. Elements that impact on the visibility of web pages are related to the metadata structure of the page, its content and the number of hyperlinks pointing to the web page in question [12][13][14]17,18]. SEO techniques "tune" the metadata structure and content of a web page to increase its visibility by web search engines. ...
Full-text available
With the increasing use of geographical information and technology in a variety of knowledge domains and disciplines, the need to discover and access suitable geospatial data is imperative. Most spatial data infrastructures (SDI) provide geoportals as entry points to the SDI through which geospatial data are disseminated and shared. Geoportals are often known in geoinformation communities only, and they present technological challenges for indexing by web search engines. To overcome these challenges, we identified and categorized search terms typically employed by users when looking for geospatial resources on the Web. Guided by these terms, we published metadata about geospatial sources "directly" on the Web and performed empirical tests with search engine optimization (SEO) techniques. Two sets of HTML pages were prepared and registered with Google and Bing respectively. The metadata in one set was marked up with Dublin Core, the other with Analysis of the results shows that Google was more effective than Bing in retrieving the pages. Pages marked up with were more effectively retrieved than those marked up with Dublin Core. The statistical results were significant in most of the tests performed. This research confirms that pages marked up with and Dublin Core are a novel alternative for improving the visibility and facilitating the discovery of geospatial resources on the Web.
... e marketing strategy and widely used process for improving the volume and quality of customer traffic to a company website through search engines. Those factors were named as; SEO strategies, SEO experience and SEO techniques. The results show that the SEO strategies are not much important but whereas the other three dimensions are all significant.(Mustafa, Nawaz, & Lali, 2015) This article addressed the SEO technique of web content and keyword management. The study proved that these techniques are the most valuable tools for boosting ranking in Google.(Hatab, 2014) The study has concluded that all the four SEO techniques are equally helpful in improving the website ratings. The four variables focused are cont ...
Search engine optimization or SEO is the process of optimizing the website and getting it onto the top of the list. There are various ways of optimizing the website as reviewed in this paper. The paper is a summation of the various review papers done by different researchers in different countries. It showcases the key determinant variables from various studies and their criteria in the implementation based on the purpose of the website design. Search engine optimization (SEO) is making small modifications to website. These modifications have a collective impact on the optimization of the website. They improve the user interface and performance of the website. It is a common practice for search engine users to click only the first 5-7 websites in the search engine and not search through the remaining pages of search results, so to rank the website in the top 10 search results, optimization is required. This article talks about the optimization techniques used across the various sectors and countries for their websites. The paper majorly focuses on building academic websites visibility.
... Lali et. al. [3] show that epidemics trend can be detected with information available on Web. They used SE queries and twitter tweets to detect influenza epidemics in a particular geographical area. ...
Full-text available
Internet has revolutionized the human life. SEs (Search Engines) are one of the major tools being used for finding information over the Internet. SEs enlist the information into links as per relevance to the searched query. A searcher usually visits the top web links retrieved on SERPs (Search Engine Results Pages) in response to a search query. With the evolving nature of Internet and the increasing number of competitors; it is hard to maintain high ranking in SERPs even for professional correspondents. However, correspondents can apply the techniques of web micro-data to achieve high CTR (Click through Rate) in SERPs. Ranking in major SEs is still a critical factor, although in certain cases such as movies, books, recipes rich snippets proved profitable for webmasters. This study aims to address the gap in micro-data moving from top category such as Animals to their limited scope. Animals with information such as name, price, category will have high CTR and hence more user satisfaction for specified result will lead to high ranking in SERPs.
... Eysenbach (2006) showed that most of the clicks on a sponsored link via AdSense (a free advertisement placement platform provided by Google) by search terms "flu" or "flu symptoms" from a person in Canada accurately forecasted the Canada Public Health Agency Flu Watch reports. Keyword selection is one of the most difficult task (Mustafa et al., 2015). Therefore, search query logs investigation for keywords or terms related to infectious disease can offer a novel approach for Internet based detection, monitoring and surveillance of infectious disease. ...
Full-text available
Search engines and social networks are two entirely different data sources that can provide valuable information about Influenza. While search engines hosts can deliver popular queries (or terms) used for searching the Influenza related information, the social networks contain useful links of information sources that people have found valuable. We hypothesize that such data sources can provide vital first-hand information. In this article, we have proposed a methodology for detecting the information sources from social networks, particularly Twitter. The data filtering and source finding tasks are posed as classification tasks. Search engine queries are used for extracting related dataset. Results have shown that propose approach can be beneficial for extracting useful information regarding side effects, medications and to track geographical location of epidemics affected area.
Full-text available
RESUMEN El marcado semántico enriquecido proporciona significado a los contenidos y permite interoperabilidad entre las máquinas, favoreciendo la visualización de la información para los usuarios, como el uso de los rich snippets, que amplían la información de los resultados ofrecidos por motores de búsqueda. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar y enriquecer semánticamente los contenidos de programas de posgrados entregados a los usuarios, para que sean interoperables y contribuir a la comunidad1 mediante la reutilización y propuesta de extensión de una nueva entidad. La metodología utilizada fue descriptiva mediante la compilación y sistematización de información cualitativa y cuantitativa, análisis y caracterización de los contenidos que entregan las páginas Web en estudio y del vocabulario de Como resultado se presenta una propuesta de marcado de contenidos enriquecido semánticamente para los programas de posgrado ofrecidos por universidades latinoamericanas, en una nueva entidad basada en el vocabulario de, llamada ProgramaPosgrado. Concluyéndose que el marcado semántico enriquecido mediante el uso de rich snippets es una aplicación real de la Web Semántica que agrega visibilidad e interoperabilidad a los contenidos Web, verificándose que, es un vocabulario que puede ser extendido para ser usado en diferentes ámbitos.
Full-text available
Search engines and social media are two different online data sources where search engines can provide health related queries logs and Internet users' discuss their diseases, symptoms, causes, preventions and even suggest treatment by sharing their views, experiences and opinions on social media. This chapter hypothesizes that online data from Google and Twitter can provide vital first-hand healthcare information. An approach is provided for collecting twitter data by exploring contextual information gleaned from Google search queries logs. Furthermore, it is investigated that whether it is possible to use tweets to track, monitor and predict diseases, especially Influenza epidemics. Obtained results show that healthcare institutes and professional's uses social media to provide up-to date health related information and interact with public. Moreover, proposed approach is beneficial for extracting useful information regarding disease symptoms, side effects, medications and to track geographical location of epidemics affected area.
Full-text available
The Web and especially major Web search engines are essential tools in the quest to locate online information for many people. This paper reports results from research that examines characteristics and changes in Web searching from nine studies of five Web search engines based in the US and Europe. We compare interactions occurring between users and Web search engines from the perspectives of session length, query length, query complexity, and content viewed among the Web search engines. The results of our research shows (1) users are viewing fewer result pages, (2) searchers on US-based Web search engines use more query operators than searchers on European-based search engines, (3) there are statistically significant differences in the use of Boolean operators and result pages viewed, and (4) one cannot necessary apply results from studies of one particular Web search engine to another Web search engine. The wide spread use of Web search engines, employment of simple queries, and decreased viewing of result pages may have resulted from algorithmic enhancements by Web search engine companies. We discuss the implications of the findings for the development of Web search engines and design of online content.
Conference Paper
In order to make the search engine transfer information efficiently and accurately and do this optimization to improve the web search ranking, beginning with understanding the principle of search engine, this paper exports the specific explanation of search engine optimization. And then it introduces the new website building concepts and design concepts for the purpose of the construction of search engine optimization. Through an empirical research from the fields of the internal coding method, the website content realizable form and website overall architecture, the paper expounds search engine optimization tools, strategies and methods, and analysis the new thought that the enterprise and e-commerce sites with the search engine do the effective website promotion. And when the user through the search engine to search, the website can get a good rankings position in the search results, so as to improve the site traffic and finally enhance the website sales ability or advocacy capacity.
Conference Paper
Search engine optimization (SEO) is a process of improving the prominence of a website. Following a reverse engineering approach, in this paper, we study and analyze the key influence factors in the process of web search. We firstly build a system to automatically crawl all factors of 200 thousand web pages. Then we make a content analysis including Page Rank, URL and HTML analysis based on top 20 positions of Google search result pages. Finally we derive top five factors for search engine optimization. It turns out that although SEO factors vary for different websites, the core SEO factors are similar. Therefore, in the common SEO, it is enough to focus on these core factors.
Conference Paper
Techniques of Search Engine Optimization (SEO) are observed from four aspects: structure optimization, keywords optimization, content optimization, and link optimization. This paper seeks to analyze the impact of SEO techniques on the effectiveness of SEO, to figure out which technique strategy is most effective, and furthermore, to test the possible influence of SEO techniques on Page Interest. Different from previous relevant research, this paper attempts to evaluate the techniques of SEO by means of the third-party measuring tool based on the data collected from 116 websites.
Research questions: This tutorial aims to answer two general questions: (1) What contributes to search engine rankings? and (2) What can web content creators and webmasters do to make their content and sites easier to find by audiences using search engines? Key concepts: Search engines' rankings are shaped by three classes of participants: search engine companies and programmers, search engine optimization practitioners, and search engine users. Key lessons: By applying three key lessons, professional communicators can make it easier for audiences to find their web content through search engines: (1) consider their web content's audiences and website's competitors when analyzing keywords; (2) insert keywords into web text that will appear on search engine results pages, and (3) involve their web content and websites with other web content creators. Implications: Because successful search engine optimization requires considerable time, professional communicators should progressively apply these lessons in the sequence presented in this tutorial and should keep up to date with frequently changing ranking algorithms and with the associated changing practices of search optimization professionals.
Conference Paper
Search engine is the most important tool to discover the any information in World Wide Web. In a row with the terrific growth numbers of the Web, traditional search engine nowadays is not appropriate anymore to be used. Searched by keyword and do not understand polysemy and synonymy are some reasons the traditional search engine is not suitable anymore. Semantic search engine is born of traditional search engine overcome the problem below. This paper will discuss about semantic search engine and the traditional search engine.
In this paper we present a number of measures that compare rankings of search engine results. We apply these measures to five queries that were monitored daily for two periods of 14 or 21 days each. Rankings of the different search engines (Google, Yahoo! and Teoma for text searches and Google, Yahoo! and Picsearch for image searches) are compared on a daily basis, in addition to longitudinal comparisons of the same engine for the same query over time. The results and rankings of the two periods are compared as well.
Conference Paper
Web search engines have emerged as one of the central applications on the Internet. In fact, search has become one of the most important activities that people engage in on the the Internet. Even beyond becoming the number one source of information, a growing number of businesses are depending on web search engines for customer acquisition. The first generation of web search engines used text-only retrieval techniques. Google revolutionized the field by deploying the PageRank technology – an eigenvector-based analysis of the hyperlink structure – to analyze the web in order to produce relevant results. Moving forward, our goal is to achieve a better understanding of a page with a view towards producing even more relevant results.