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A Whole New
Global Mindset for Leadership
By Mansour Javidan and Jennie L. Walker
VOLUME 35/ISSUE 2 — 2012 37
to 63,000 (Gabel, Medard and Bruner, 2003).
During that same time period, multinationals
in the United States created 31 percent of the
country’s growth in private-sector real GDP
and 41 percent of labor productivity gains
(McKinsey Global Institute, June 2010).
Despite the exponential growth (or perhaps
because of it), leaders continue to be unpre-
pared for global contexts. A recent survey of
senior HR executives revealed that a shortage
of global executive talent was the primary
concern in their rm’s global expansion plans
Global Mindset includes specific
knowledge, skills and abilities that
have been dened through scientic
research at the Naja Global Mindset Insti-
tute at Thunderbird School of Global
Management. This article discusses the criti-
cal importance of Global Mindset
development for leaders. It also denes and
describes each component.
A Whole New Global
Mindset for Leadership
In 1969, Howard Perlmutter was among the
rst researchers to point out that running suc-
cessful global operations required a whole
new mindset. This gives pause for reection.
How did this mindset differ from status quo
leadership? Perlmutter found that global
leaders needed to navigate increased com-
plexity in organizational culture, management
practices and recruitment of top talent (1969)
— the very domains human resources profes-
sionals are charged with developing. This
holds true today. Global leadership is excit-
ing, challenging and certainly complex (see
Exhibit 1). It has only been recently, however,
that the whole new mindset to which Perl-
mutter referred was scientically dened by
the Naja Global Mindset Institute at Thun-
derbird School of Global Management.
Are Your Leaders
Prepared for Global
Before we dive into the specics of Global
Mindset, take a moment to assess the global
leadership needs in your own organization
(see Exhibit 2). Chances are that your orga-
nization is touched by global complexities,
even if it does not have geographically dis-
persed operations.
In the past 40 years, both the number and
impact of multinational companies grew
exponentially. Between 1990 and 2003 alone,
the number of multinational corporations
throughout the world increased from 3,000
Global leaders need to navigate increasing complexity in organizational culture, management
practices and recruitment of top talent — the very domains human resources professionals are
charged with developing. This requires a whole new mindset for leadership: Global Mindset.
• International JV,
global partners
and alliances
1. Throughout the next five years, your corporation’s opportunities, in terms of markets and
supplies, are mostly outside of your country.
2. Throughout the next five years, managers at your firm will increasingly need to work with
people from other par ts of the world.
3. Throughout the next five years, managers at your firm will increasingly need to work with direct
reports who are located in different parts of the world.
4. Your company believes that a key to its sustainable competitive advantage in the future
resides in its capability to manage cross-cultural complexity in its value chain of suppliers,
managers, employees, distributors and customers better than its competitors.
Influencing people who are different from you is harder than influencing people who are like you.
Javidan & Dastmalchian, 2009
(Smith, A., Caver, K., Saslow, S., & Thomas,
2009). And managers agreed: In a survey of
managers in global positions, more than 60
percent reported themselves to be poorly pre-
pared for their jobs (Howard, A. & Wellins,
R.S., 2009, September). It is important to
note that even domestically based leaders are
faced with increasing global diversity. In a
survey of 500 senior executives at 100 global
corporations, almost 60 percent reported
that their workers will have more diverse
backgrounds and experiences and more than
half expected managers to become more
international in composition (Economist
Intelligence Unit report, 2010).
The Global Mindset
Based on an extensive research project that
now includes data from more than 13,000
managers from companies around the world,
we view Global Mindset as the set of attri-
butes that help a manager influence
individuals, groups and organizations from
diverse cultural, political and institutional
backgrounds. In short, Global Mindset is the
capability to inuence others unlike yourself
and that is the key difference between lead-
ership and global leadership. Leadership is all
about inuencing others. In terms of the clas-
sic distinction that leaders must manage
“data, people and things,” ask any manager
and they will almost certainly tell you that the
management of people is the most complex
and difcult of the three. And for a global
leader, it is all the more challenging, because
they must influence people different from
themselves in numerous, compounded ways.
The Global Mindset Project (GMP) started in
late 2004 at the Thunderbird School of Global
Management. Eight professors reviewed the
literature on global leadership, cross-cultural
leadership and Global Mindset, conducted
interviews with another 26 Thunderbird pro-
fessors who are experts in various aspects of
global business, and interviewed 217 global
executives in the United States, Europe and
Asia. We also convened an invitation-only
conference where more than 40 academic
experts known for their scholarly contribu-
tions to the global business eld from around
the world were asked to test, stretch and rene
our thinking — and so they did.
The above process helped us identify the
scope and components of the concept of
Global Mindset. We then worked with the
Dunnette Group, a renowned instrument
design firm, to empirically verify the con-
struct of Global Mindset and to scientically
design an instrument that would measure an
individual’s prole of Global Mindset. We
used an iterative process involving more than
200 MBA students and more than 700 man-
agers working for two Fortune 500
corporations in a series of surveys and pilot
tests. The process resulted in an empirically
verified construct of Global Mindset that
consists of three major dimensions: Intellec-
tual Capital (IC), Psychological Capital (PC)
and Social Capital (SC). Exhibit 3 shows the
scientic structure of Global Mindset.
Toward a Theory of
Global Leadership
Despite the plethora of advice and writing on
global leadership, there is little effort to
clearly dene the concept. With few excep-
tions, much of the literature on global
leadership tends to focus on lists of compe-
tencies and suggestions for improvement
without offering a clear denition of global
leadership (e.g., Brake, 1997 Rhinesmith,
1996; Mendenhall, et al., 2001; Black, Mor-
rison and Gregersen, 1999). This is in part
due to the fact that no theory of global lead-
ership currently exists, despite the plethora of
published leadership theories. Case in point,
Stephen Covey wrote a very concise and use-
ful review of leadership theories in the
appendix of “The 8th Habit: From Effective-
ness to Greatness” (Covey, 2004). He lists 20
leadership theories that were put into prac-
tice from 1936 through 2003. For those of us
in the business of leadership development, the
chart should serve as a reminder that, as our
world changes, so must our leadership
approach. Yet there is a noticeable absence of
a theory of global leadership on the chart.
This was not an oversight on Covey’s part;
the truth of the matter is that it simply did
not exist as of 2004. Enter our work at the
Naja Global Mindset Institute. We dene
global leadership as:
The process of inuencing individu-
als, groups, and organizations (inside
and outside the boundaries of the
global organization) representing
diverse cultural/political/institutional
systems to help achieve the global
organization’s goals (Beechler and
Javidan, 2007).
We view global leadership as a process of inu-
ence, in line with the conventional literature
on leadership where most denitions reect
the notion of intentional inuence exerted by
one person over other people (Yukl, 2006).
While much of the extant literature is focused
on how leaders can motivate their direct
reports toward common goals, we also explic-
VOLUME 35/ISSUE 2 — 2012 39
itly acknowledge that the direct reports may
be scattered around the world and may not
neatly t in a typical hierarchical structure.
Additionally, since a typical global organiza-
tion is more of a network of supply chain
partners, joint venture partners or strategic
alliance partners trying to execute integrated
global strategies (Brake, 1997), the boundaries
of the typical global organization are more
permeable and fuzzy than the traditional orga-
nization (Ashkenas et al, 1995). Global leaders
need to inuence individuals, teams and orga-
nizations from different parts of the world to
help achieve their organizations’ objectives.
And they need to do this without relying on
traditional lines of authority.
Global Leadership
Requires More Than
Much of the literature on global leadership
tends to focus on leading across cultures
(Adler, 1997; House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorf-
man, and Gupta, 2004; Javidan and Carl,
2004; Dorfman, 2004). While the difference in
national cultures is indeed critical, it is not the
only issue. The global leader’s targets of inu-
ence may come from cultural backgrounds,
institutional systems, legal frameworks and
social structures that are different from those
in the global leader’s home context (North,
1990). They may even have different views on
the whole notion of the corporation and its
role in the society (Hunt, 2000). Because
global leadership is about inuencing those
who are different from the leader in many
important ways, it is useful to identify what
those key differences may include.
Global Leadership
Requires Intellectual,
Psychological and
Social Capital
Exhibit 3, developed from our research,
shows the three core “capitals” and nine
underlying building blocks of a global mind-
set that enable managers to inuence others
unlike themselves in achieving their organiza-
tions’ global ambitions. Here is a closer look
at each, and why they matter.
Intellectual Capital (IC) — the cognitive side
of Global Mindset
IC refers to the leader’s knowledge of his/her
global surroundings, as well the ability to
digest and leverage the additional level of
complexity embedded in global environ-
ments. It consists of three building blocks:
Global Business Savvy: Knowledge of the
way world business works
Knowledge of global industry
Knowledge of global competitive business
and marketing strategies
Knowledge of how to transact business
and manage risk in other countries
Knowledge of supplier options in other
parts of the world
advances in information technology, trans-
portation and distribution, it remains very
bumpy in terms of cross-cultural differences.
As Douglas Ivester, former CEO of Coca-
Cola, summarized,As economic boundaries
come down, cross-cultural barriers go up,
presenting new challenges and opportunities
in business.
Our work in the GLOBE project has identi-
ed a number of cross-cultural bumps that
show, for example, American managers are
typically much more performance oriented
than are Greek managers. We have also
shown that American managers expect their
supervisors to be much more enthusiastic
than do French managers. A typical American
The global leader’s targets of inuence may come from
cultural backgrounds, institutional systems, legal
frameworks and social structures that are different
from those in the global leader’s home context.
Cosmopolitan Outlook: Understanding that
the manager’s home country is not the center
of the universe
Knowledge of cultures in different parts of
the world
Knowledge of geography, history and im-
portant persons of several countries
Knowledge of economic and political is-
sues, concerns, hot topics, etc., of major
regions of the world
Up-to-date knowledge of important world
Cognitive Complexity: Global is just more
complicated than domestic-only
Ability to grasp complex concepts quickly
Strong analytical and problem-solving
Ability to understand abstract ideas
Ability to take complex issues and explain
the main points simply and understandably
IC matters because, despite what you may
have heard, the world is not at. Although
Thomas Friedman’s world is at, with respect
to its being much more interconnected via
manager may find it difficult to make the
necessary adjustments in working with his
Greek or French team. Also, the United States
is relatively low on “power distance” versus
Thailand, which is very high. So the U.S. man-
ager who goes on assignment in Thailand and
engages her direct reports in empowered,
consultative decision making may be greeted
with confusion, dismay or disbelief.
These bumpy challenges are why, in a recent
survey of CEOs, “mobilizing teams” and
“working across cultures” were the top two
critical leadership competencies (Howard, A.
and Wellins, 2008/2009). The same CEOs
reported that “decision making in complex
environments and ability to read cultural
nuances and to adapt leadership style accord-
ingly” is the key to successful global
leadership. This was reinforced in a more
recent survey of senior executives who identi-
ed “ability to inuence people from other
cultures” as the most important skill for a
global executive (Smith, A., Caver, K., Saslow,
S., & Thomas, N., 2009).
Psychological Capital (PC)the affective
aspect of Global Mindset
PC helps a manager leverage his/her Intel-
lectual Capital. Without a strong
psychological platform, extensive knowledge
of global industry and global environment is
less likely to result in successful action. Psy-
chological Capital consists of:
Passion for diversity: Do not just tolerate or
appreciate diversity, but thrive on it
Interest in exploring other parts of the
Interest in getting to know people from
other parts of the world
Interest in living in another country
Interest in variety
Quest for Adventure: The Marco Polos of the
Interest in dealing with challenging
Willingness to take risk
Willingness to test one’s abilities
Interest in dealing with unpredictable
Self-Assurance: The source of psychological
resilience and coping
Comfortable in uncomfortable situations
Witty in tough situations
A senior executive we have been working
with, who is low in psychological capital, is
originally from New Zealand. He had a suc-
cessful track record at home and was
promoted to a senior position for the rm in
a Middle Eastern country, reporting to an
Italian senior executive in Milan and working
closely with his colleagues in the Mediterra-
nean. His one-year tenure was full of
frustration and confusion. He was having a
hard time building trust with his direct
reports. He had a hard time guring out what
was really going on and felt uneasy about the
local culture. He was also struggling with his
supervisor and the Mediterranean colleagues.
After a few months, he found himself gravi-
tating toward other New Zealand or
Australian expats and Western clubs and res-
taurants in his city. He was so stressed during
the day that he wanted the relief of a familiar
environment in the evening. He was spending
more of his time with other expats who were
also suffering, avoiding those who were
enjoying their experiences. In sum, he lacked
the psychological and emotional resilience
necessary to make sense of cultural and
national differences, manage them and enjoy
the process while doing so.
Social Capital (SC) — the behavioral aspect
of Global Mindset
SC reects the individual’s ability to act in a
way that would help build trusting relation-
ships with people from other parts of the
world and also consists of three building
Intercultural Empathy: Display “global”
emotional intelligence
Ability to work well with people from
other parts of the world
Ability to understand nonverbal expres-
sions of people from other cultures
Ability to emotionally connect to people
from other cultures
Ability to engage people from other parts
of the world to work together
Interpersonal Impact: Difference maker; sel-
dom ignored across boundaries
Experience in negotiating contracts in
other cultures
Strong networks with people from other
cultures and with inuential people
Reputation as a leader
Diplomacy: Seeks rst to understand, then to
be understood
Ease of starting a conversation with a
Ability to integrate diverse perspectives
Ability to listen to what others have to say
Willingness to collaborate
Social Capital includes the trust-building and
networking behaviors that allow managers to
knit together the various elements in their
increasingly cross-cultural, complex, global
network of relationships. As Sam Palmisano,
outgoing CEO of IBM, observes: “Today’s
global corporations are shifting their focus
from products to production — from what
things companies choose to make to how
they choose to make them, from what ser-
vices they offer to how they choose to deliver
them. Simply put, the emerging globally inte-
grated enterprise is a company that fashions
its strategy, its management, and its opera-
tions in pursuit of a new goal: the integration
of production and value delivery worldwide.
State borders dene less and less the boundar-
ies of corporate thinking or practice”11.
A high stock of Social Capital, together with
Intellectual Capital and Psychological Capi-
tal, equips companies to pursue a new source
of sustainable competitive advantage: superi-
ority in managing the cross-border
complexity of their global supply chain. In
sum, Intellectual Capital (IC) ensures that the
manager is aware of the many dimensions of
global complexity. Psychological Capital
(PC) generates the enthusiasm, energy and
self-condence to deal with such level of com-
plexity. And Social Capital (SC) helps the
manager behave in ways that are likely to
build trust and help achieve his objectives.
In order to nd Global Mindset in people and
have a basis for nurturing it, companies must
be able to measure it with condence. One
means for doing so is through the use of the
Global Mindset Inventory (GMI) survey
instrument. The GMI measures a manager’s
prole of Global Mindset in terms of nine
dimensions and three capitals.
Identifying Global
Mindset in Managers
Our research to date has identied a number
of factors that point to a high Global Mindset
in individuals:
Prociency in more than one language is a
strong predictor of Global Mindset. Anglo
speakers (citizens of the United States,
Canada, the United Kingdom, New Zea-
land and Australia) who speak other lan-
guages are more likely to have higher
Global Mindset scores. But proficiency
level is a major factor. For those with low
proficiency, the magic number is three.
Those who have low prociency in more
than three languages actually score lower
on Global Mindset. For those with moder-
ate to high levels of prociency, the more
languages, the better. (The more languages,
the better? Is there not a level where “di-
minishing returns” occur?) We also found
that for non-Anglo managers, their pro-
ciency in the English language is a strong
predictor of their Global Mindset.
The number of countries one has lived,
studied and worked in is also important. In
VOLUME 35/ISSUE 2 — 2012 41
general, the more countries a manager has
lived in, the higher the average Global
Mindset score. However, there is an impor-
tant caveat: The length of stay is also an
important consideration. The optimum
length of stay in each country seems to be
between six months and two years. Rela-
tively speaking, stays of between six
months and two years have the largest im-
pact on a manager’s Global Mindset. We
also found that the number of countries a
person is educated in, up to four, has an
impact on Global Mindset score. Further-
more, we found that the more friends a
manager has from other countries, the
higher his/her Global Mindset score.
An international graduate degree matters.
Those with a graduate degree in interna-
tional management, international business
or international affairs have a higher aver-
age score on Global Mindset. While such a
degree is indicative of an individual’s inher-
ent interest in global issues, it has other
important contributions. Our data show
that the impact of living and working in
multiple countries on the Global Mindset
score is quite larger for those with an inter-
national master’s degree. Of those with
experience in several countries, managers
with an international master’s degree have
much higher scores than those without it.
In other words, an international degree
boosts the manager’s ability to leverage the
international experience. Finally, our re-
sults show that those without an interna-
tional degree need to live in two additional
countries to achieve the same Global
Mindset scores as those with an interna-
tional graduate degree.
Age matters, and that’s the bad news! In
our database of more than 12,000 indi-
viduals, we found that those in the age
group of low-40s to mid-50s had the low-
est average scores on Global Mindset com-
pared to other age groups. It is not entirely
clear why this is the case, but whatever the
reason, it is cause for concern, because this
is the age group that is typically in charge
of running corporations and governments.
Most CEOs, senior executives, senior gov-
ernment ofcials and politicians in many
countries are in this age group. This raises
the question: How easy will it be for cor-
porations to globalize their mindset if their
senior leadership is not leading by exam-
ple? But perhaps an even bigger concern is:
How will governments prepare their citi-
zens for the globalized world if those in
charge just don’t get it?
Building the
Company’s Stock of
Global Mindset
To build the company’s stock of Global
Mindset, the options are largely to find it
from outside talent or nurture it from within.
It would be ideal if we could nd individuals
with high levels in all three capitals (IC, PC
and SC). But we don’t live in an ideal world.
We live in a world with few super men or
women. In an imperfect world, which of the
three capitals should you look for when hir-
ing managers? Our work with hundreds of
mangers shows that Psychological Capital
has some unique features compared to the
other two. You can teach people about glob-
al business and cross-cultural issues, and you
can help them improve their Social Capital
through a variety of experiential experiences.
But enhancing someone’s Psychological Cap-
ital is much harder and takes much more
time. For example, it is not that easy to
improve someone’s low passion for diversity.
Therefore, at a minimum, companies need to
make sure the people they hire or promote
have reasonably high levels of PC.
In our work with one Fortune 50 corpora-
tion, we helped them incorporate Global
Mindset as an integral component of their
senior executives’ annual personal develop-
ment plans. Every year, all executives set an
objective regarding their own Global Mind-
set prole. They also prepare a set of action
plans to achieve those objectives.
All such interventions have benecial out-
comes, but our view is that to have maximum
impact, you need an integrated strategy that
has elements from your talent management
system, your performance management pro-
cess and your leadership development
strategy. Global Mindset should be an impor-
tant part of your talent management system.
It should be a critical competency for several
managerial levels in your organization. Your
leadership development strategy should
ensure that Global Mindset capitals are prop-
erly developed, and your performance
management system should ensure that they
are properly assessed and rewarded.
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International. 2009.
Multiple award-winning executive edu-
cator and author whose teaching and
research interests span the globe,
Dr.Mansour Javidan received his MBA
and Ph.D. degrees from the Carlson
School at the University of Minnesota.
He is former dean of research at Thun-
derbird School of Global Management
and is currently the Garvin Distin-
guished Professor and Founding
Director of the Global Mindset Institute.
Dr. Jennie Walker is a faculty associate
for the Naja Global Mindset Institute
at Thunderbird School of Global Man-
agement. Her area of expertise is in
global leadership development. She
began work in human resources devel-
opment in 1995 and has specialized in
developing corporate leadership pro-
grams for Fortune 500 companies
since 2002. She earned her Ph.D. at the
University of Denver.
... The first component, intellectual capital (IC), refers to the degree of knowledge of a leader, regarding the environment surrounding them, and their ability to analyze, manage, and interpret these various pieces of information (Javidan & Bowen, 2013). Intellectual capital (IC) is the cognitive aspect of global mindset, having three dimensions, being: (1) global business savvy (a knowledge of global business); (2) cosmopolitan outlook (the understanding that the culture in which an individual develops is not the only standard); and (3) cognitive complexity (an understanding that operating in a global sphere demands more complexity of thought than that required in one's native country ;Javidan & Bowen, 2013;Javidan & Walker, 2012). ...
... Komponen pertama, intellectual capital (IC), merujuk pada derajat pengetahuan seorang pemimpin akan lingkungan sekitarnya, dan kemampuan untuk menganalisis, mengolah, dan menginterpretasi berbagai informasi dari pengetahuan tersebut (Javidan & Bowen, 2013). Intellectual capital (IC) merupakan aspek kognitif dari kesiapan global dengan tiga dimensinya, yakni: (1) global business savvy (pengetahuan akan bisnis global); (2) cosmopolitan outlook (pemahaman bahwa budaya individu bertumbuh bukanlah standar satu-satunya); dan (3) cognitive complexity (pemahaman bahwa global menuntut kompleksitas berpikir lebih dibandingkan negara asal; Javidan & Bowen, 2013;Javidan & Walker, 2012). ...
... There will be enthusiasm, a desire/readiness, and confidence to take responsibility, take a role, in the global environment. (Javidan & Bowen, 2013;Javidan & Walker, 2012). ...
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Indonesian State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) have strategic positions in a number of economic sectors, making it pioneers of Indonesian global excellence. Along with the visions it holds, the leaders of Indonesian State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) must be reliable in business management, always respecting local Indonesian sensibilities. Within the framework of providing an empirical basis in leadership development, this study was aimed at exploring the relationship of facilitative leadership with global mindset, through Indonesian standard culture mediator, in the form of “guyub”. The correlational study, utilizing quantitative analysis, was conducted with 202 employees of two Indonesian State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs). The mediational analysis by Baron and Kenny (1986), with the testing of the scales of influence using Sobel test, showed that facilitative leadership significantly supported global mindset through “guyub”, although the mediating effect was only partial. The implications of the results of this study, for State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs), was the need for the acceleration of the provision of intellectual capital (IC) to achieve optimal ability in managing the global uniformity of businesses, markets, and cultures. Two other forms of capital, i.e., social capital (SC) and psychological capital (PC), as the results of domestic multiculturalism, need to be transformed into global uniformity, by the development of intercultural sensitivity as an active component. Badan Usaha Milik Negara (BUMN) memiliki posisi strategis di sejumlah sektor ekonomi yang menjadikannya sebagai pelopor keunggulan global Indonesia. Sejalan dengan visi yang dimiliki, pemimpin Badan Usaha Milik Negara (BUMN) harus handal dalam mengelola bisnis, dengan tetap menjunjung kearifan lokal Indonesia. Dalam rangka menyediakan dasar empiris dalam pengembangan kepemimpinan, studi ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi hubungan kepemimpinan fasilitatif, dengan kesiapan global melalui mediator budaya standar Indonesia berupa “guyub”. Studi korelasional dengan analisis kuantitatif dilaksanakan pada 202 karyawan dua Badan Usaha Milik Negara (BUMN) di Indonesia. Analisis mediasi Baron dan Kenny (1986) dengan pengujian besaran pengaruh melalui uji Sobel menunjukkan kepemimpinan fasilitatif signifikan mendorong kesiapan global melalui mediator guyub, namun efek mediasinya bersifat parsial. Implikasi hasil studi ini bagi Badan Usaha Milik Negara (BUMN) adalah perlunya mengakselerasi intellectual capital (IC) agar kemampuan dalam mengelola keberagaman bisnis, pasar, dan budaya secara global menjadi optimal. Dua kapita lainnya, social capital (SC) dan psychological capital (PC), sebagai hasil dari multikulturalisme domestik, perlu ditransformasi menjadi keberagaman global, dengan mengembangkan sensitivitas antar budaya sebagai komponen aktif.
... The WEF Survey on the Global Agenda (WEF, 2019) is unambiguous about the preferred skill for a strong leader. Having a 'global perspective' (WEF, 2019) or a 'global mindset' (Javidan, 2010) is seen as important. A leader with a global mindset is one who is knowledgeable and appreciative of cultural, political, and economic systems in other countries and understands how their global industry works (Javidan, 2010). ...
... Having a 'global perspective' (WEF, 2019) or a 'global mindset' (Javidan, 2010) is seen as important. A leader with a global mindset is one who is knowledgeable and appreciative of cultural, political, and economic systems in other countries and understands how their global industry works (Javidan, 2010). Although developing a global mindset will to an extent be possible in a national context, developing global norms might be a scuffle (WEF, 2019: 70). ...
In this article, the aim is to question the relevance of well-known public leadership styles to the 21st century. The aim is buoyed by the notion that traditional leadership styles, even more so conventional ways of leading, will no longer ensure success, as 21st-century risks have had a considerable impact on the role and disposition of the public leader. The article draws on a qualitative review of academic papers and articles, documentary materials, surveys, and reports. An analysis of this material is used to gain a broad understanding of how public leadership styles are transforming under the impetus of the 21st century. The discussion is based on the challenges that public leaders are likely to face over the next decade, the pacesetters for public leaders to transform in the 21st century, and recommendations guiding public leadership styles for the 21st century.
... Self-orientation produces psychological capital; others-orientation produces social capital; while perceptual orientation produces intellectual capital. As Javidan and Walker (2012) argue, intellectual capital is usually the easiest to develop because it is cognitively based and consists of knowledge and information. Social Capital is somewhat harder to develop because it is mostly relationship-based and requires experiential opportunities for learning. ...
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All expatriates are generally advised to expect culture shock on their assignments abroad. Some may experience a debilitating sense of anxiety, nervousness and alienation caused by being ex-posed to an alien environment and culture. Past experiences have shown that good pre-departure preparations help managers to move through the stages of cultural transition with less anxiety and pain and achieve sufficient integration into their new cultures and thereby enhance their performance. But those who refuse to acknowledge culture shock and fail to upgrade their cultural intelligence are often unable to achieve smooth and rapid adjustment. This may result in great disillusionment and return to the home country before the end of their assignment. Such expatriate failures occur particularly often in cases where the cultures of home and host countries differ drastically. In the light of these observations, this chapter provides the reader with an overview of the contemporary knowledge on culture shock and approaches to cultural adjustment. This should guide the foreign executive in making the appropriate decisions and prepare well before arrival in Ghana.
... As such, the mindset and characters will empower managers to inspire, manage, and govern others despite diverse cultural backgrounds, political views, institutional backgrounds, and other contextual factors that affect their actions, communication styles, and thinking [3]. Previous research emphasizes the capital element that contributes to the development of global mindsets, specifically social capital, intellectual capital, and physiological capital [4], [5]. However, several studies show that there is diminutive research that examines the relationship between international experience and the development of global mindset [6], [7]. ...
This book chapter summarizes a qualitative phenomenological study that was conducted with 18 global leaders to identify the competencies that are found at the intersection of the global workplace, the significance of a global mindset, and how cultures impact global competencies. The 18 global leaders that were selected for this study have served on multiple global platforms for at least 10 years and represent India, China, several parts of Europe, the African continent, the Middle East, and South America. The findings of this study reveal multiple areas of development that clarify what is meant by global competencies to prepare and empower the next generation of global leaders. Global leadership must be a priority, as humans become more globally conscious and culturally connected than any other time in history because of advances in technology and globalization. There is an increased demand for cross-cultural collaboration and communication as the global economy advances and takes shape. However, the research focused on global leadership and what makes a global leader is nascent. This paper introduces a new leadership mental model that embraces both Eastern and Western modalities of leading with a focus on global leadership competencies. The difference between Eastern versus Western mentalities is illustrated well by three frameworks that are introduced in this book chapter. Michelle Gelfand’s theory of “cultural tightness and looseness” is a framework that depicts cultures who are “tight” as having strict norms and standards while “loose” cultures have more tolerance for deviant behaviors, divergent thinking, and isolated decision-making. Hofstede provides a framework on cultural dimensions that highlights the differences found when examining culture from a global lens. Edward Hall’s theory from anthropology describes the communication variants found in “high-context” and “low-context” societies, where expectations are either implicit or explicit. This paper introduces a holistic leadership approach towards Global Leadership theory. Findings conclude that global leaders have an ability to immerse their whole being into a new culture without passing judgment and can put their biases aside to learn for the sake of the greater good of humanity. Holistic Global Leaders also have a growth mindset which primes them for the constant growth and evolution of a global economy.
International-mindedness is a strategy employed by international schools (IS) to create environments successfully promoting social justice, cultural diversity, and tolerance. The composition of the student body forces accommodation and assimilation of multiple cultures, backgrounds, and languages into one location or contact zone. The purpose of the study is to understand how IS navigate, manage, and lead educators and students from different races, genders, religions, and socioeconomic statuses by promoting equity and creating an environment with zero tolerance for discrimination. However, social justice gaps in education in general still exist, and practical applications and strategies to embrace diversity and equalize the marginalized are lacking. This chapter provides strategies as to how educators worldwide can benefit from approaches used by IS for social justice and tangible strategies used by IS to promote ethical-international-mindedness and decrease discrimination.
To better prepare the educators who will guide students into their global future, educational leadership programs have become more focused on developing globally competent students who are not only more marketable, but who are also better prepared to make positive contributions to a global society. This chapter portrays that cross institutions in America there is a need to prepare students more adequately for the challenges of an increased global workforce. In the chapters, we follow the experiences of two scholars as they progressed through their development of becoming intercultural responsive educators by means of a study abroad program. From this experience, reflection questions encompass self-reflection about global perspectives. Also, interactions of others who hold various interests, values, and perspectives as they related to their growth in leadership. Situational leadership as a part of a critical skill set will also be examined.
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The current global crises, including climate, COVID-19, and environmental change, requires global collective action at all scales. These broad socio-ecological challenges require the engagement of diverse perspectives and ways of knowing and the meaningful engagement of all generations and stages of personal and professional development. The combination of systems thinking, change management, quality improvement approaches and models, appreciative/strength-based approaches, narratives, storytelling and the strengths of Indigenous knowledges, offer synergies and potential that can set the stage for transformative, strengths-based education for sustainable healthcare (ESH). The need for strong leadership to enact a vision for ESH is outlined here with the intent to enable and nurture the conditions for change, ultimately improving health and well-being across generations.
Foreign Affairs, May/June 2006 BEYOND MULTINATIONAL The multinational corporation (MNC), often seen as a primary agent of globalization, is taking on a new form, one that is promising for both business and society. From a business perspective, this new kind of enterprise is best understood as "global" rather than "multinational." The corporation has evolved constantly during its long history. The MNC of the late twentieth century had little in common with the international firms of a hundred years earlier, and those companies were very different from the great trading enterprises of the 1700s. The type of business organization that is now emerging --the globally integrated enterprise --marks just as big a leap. Many parties to the globalization debate mistakenly project into the future a picture of corporations that is unchanged from that of today or yesterday. This happens as often among free-market advocates as it does among people opposed to globalization. But businesses are changing in fundamental ways --structurally, operationally, culturally --in response to the imperatives of globalization and new technology. As CEO and chair of the board of IBM, I have observed this within IBM and among our clients. And I believe that rather than continuing to focus on past models, regulators, scholars, nongovernmental organizations, community leaders, and business executives would be best served by thinking about the global corporation of the future and its implications for new approaches to regulation, education, trade, and commerce.
Foreword - Harry Triandis Preface - Robert J. House Part 1 Introduction Chapter 1 Introduction - Robert House Chapter 2 Overview of the Globe Research Program - Robert House and Mansour Javidan Part 2 Literature Chapter 3 Literature Review - Mansour Javidan and Robert House Chapter 4 Cultures and Leadership - Peter Dorfman and Robert House Chapter 5 The Impact of Societal Culture and Industry on Organizational Culture - Marcus Dickson, Renee BeShears, and Vipin Gupta Part 3 Project GLOBE: Research Methodolgy - Overview by Paul Hanges Chapter 6 Research Design - Robert House, Paul Hanges, and Peter Dorfman Chapter 7 The Linkage Between GLOBE Findings and Other Cross Cultural Information - Mansour Javidan and Markus Hauser Chapter 8 The Development and Validation of the GLOBE Culture and Leadership Scales - Paul Hanges and Marcus Dickson Chapter 9 Multi-source Construct Validity of GLOBE Scales - Vipin Gupta, Mary Sully de Luque, and Robert House Chapter 10 Regional and Climate Clustering of Social Cultures - Vipin Gupta, Paul Hanges, Peter Dorfman, and Robert House Chapter 11 Rational for GLOBE Statistical Analysis: Societal Rankings and Test of Hypotheses - Paul Hanges, Marcus Dickson, and Mina Sipe Part 4 Empirical Findings - Intro by Mansour Javidan Chapter 12 Performance Orientation - Mansour Javidan Chapter 13 Future Orientation - Neal Ashkanasy, Vipin Gupta, Melinda Mayfield, and Edwin Trevor-Roberts Chapter 14 Cross-Cultural differences in Gender Egalitarianism: Implications for Societies, Organizations, and Leaders - Cynthia G. Emrich, Florence L. Denmark, and Deanne Den Hartog Chapter 15 Assertiveness - Deanne Den Hartog Chapter 16 Individual and Collectivism - Michele J. Gelfand, D.P.S. Bhawuk, Lisa H. Nishii, & David J. Bechtold Chapter 17 Power Distance - Dale Carl, Vipin Gupta with Mansour Javidan Chapter 18 Humane Orientation in Societies, Organizations, and Leader Attributes - Hayat Kabasakal and Muzaffer Bodur Chapter 19 Uncertainty Avoidance - Mary Sully de Luque, Mansour Javidan, and Ram Aditya Chapter 20 Societal, Cultural, and Industry Influences on Organizational Culture - Felix Brodbeck, Paul Hanges, Marcus Dickson, Vipin Gupta, and Peter Dorfman Chapter 21 Leadership and Cultural Variation: The Identification of Culturally Endorsed Leadership Profiles - Peter Dorfman, Paul Hanges, and Felix Brodbeck Part 5 Conclusion Chapter 22 Conclusions, (theoratical and practical) Implications, and future directions - Mansour Javidan, Robert House, Peter Dorfman, Vipin Gupta, Paul Hanges, and Mary Sully de Luque Appendix A Correlations GLOBE Scales - Paul Hanges Appendix B Response bias Outliers - Paul Hanges Appendix C Hierarchical Linear Modeling - Paul Hanges, Mina Sipe, and Ellen Godfrey Appendix D Confidence Internval Demonstration - Paul Hanges
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