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History of SWOT Analysis
Having arrived on this page you have probably surfed the Internet and scoured books and
journals in search of the history of SWOT Analysis. The simple answer to the question What
is SWOT? is that there is no simple answer, and one needs to demonstrate a little academic
wisdom in that nobody took the trouble to write the first definitive journal paper or book
that announced the birth of SWOT Analysis.
A refocusing of SWOT was offered by Panagiotou (2003). He introduces a TELESCOPIC
OBSERVATIONS strategic framework which in effect maps strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities and threats against his suggested acronym TELESCOPIC OBSERVATIONS. So,
for example T = technological advancements, E= economic considerations, L = legal and
regulatory requirements, etc. The most useful aspect of Panagiotou’s article is that not only
does he recognise the difficulty in finding the origins of SWOT, but he also manages to
unearth some interesting alternatives. In contrast to crediting the tool to Stanford
University’s Albert Humphrey, SWOT is credited to two Harvard Business School Policy Unit
professors George Albert Smith Jr and C Roland Christiensen during the early 1950s. Later
in the 1950s another HBS Policy Unit professor Kenneth Andrews developed its usage and
application. All professors were specialists in organizational strategy as opposed to
marketing. SWOT went on to be developed by the HBS during the 1960s until SWOT became
the tool that we use today.
There are a number of contrasting, if not contradictory views on the origin of SWOT. Here
are a few of the leading thinkers on the topic (and if you have more please let us know so
that we can add them).
Stanford University’s Albert Humphrey led a research project in the 1960s-1970s based
upon the United States’ Fortune 500. Humphrey lead a research project which ultimately
developed his Team Action Model (TAM) which is a management concept that enables
groups of executives to manage change. SWOT was to have originated from his
‘Stakeholders Concept and SWOT Analysis.’ However, if one proceeds to find out more
about the author in academic libraries there is nothing accredited to him. It is unusual for
such a prolifically cited piece of research not to have an original definitive publication as its
centrepiece. The TAM approach is one of a number that are used by trainers around the
World, although for us the crediting to Humphrey as the creator of SWOT cannot be
King (2004) also recognised that it was tricky to track down the origins of the acronym
SWOT. He cites Haberberg (2000) as stating that SWOT was a concept used by Harvard
academics in the 1960s, and Turner (2002) attributing SWOT to Igor Ansoff (1987), of
Ansoff’s Matrix fame. Koch (2000) considered the contributions of Weihrich (1982), Dealtry
(1992) and Wheelan and Hunger (1998). Again whilst these are the commonly accepted
views of thinkers on the topic of SWOT, even the common observer would recognise that
Weihrich (1982) was not the originator of the concept but rather an innovator of it. As Koch
(2004) comments he recognised that a series of SWOT/TOWS analyses had the advantages
of a single arbitrary matrix. Wheelan and Hunger (1998) used SWOT to look for gaps and
matches between competences and resources and the business environment. Dealtry
(1992) considered SWOT in terms or groups and vectors with common themes and
interactions. Shinno et al (2006) amalgamated SWOT analysis with an Analytic Hierarchy
Process (AHP) which ranked and prioritised each element using software. Shinno et al (2006)
do not really deal with the obvious limitations of SWOT (see our SWOT lesson for a
Again despite their interest in the concept of SWOT Analysis, none of these respected
authors actually cite its origins. It may be that SWOT’s origins have been forgotten and are
confined to the corner of the library labelled ‘folklore.’ It may be that SWOT originated in a
number of places, or became common place in the training rooms of corporate America in
the 1950s and 1960s. One thing is true and that is if you conduct your own review of the
literature on SWOT that there is no obvious history of thinking on the topic i.e. that it has no
documented epistemology. In this case marketing student beware! Web based searches
proclaim to have an answer to What is SWOT? but they do not. They perpetuate plagiarised
views. There is no documented history of SWOT that is the answer!
Ansoff, H.I. (1987), Corporate Strategy, revised edition, Penguin Books.
Brooksbank, R (1996) The BASIC marketing planning process: a practical framework for the
smaller business, Journal
of Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol 14, 4, P 16-23.
Dealtry, R. (1992) Dynamic SWOT Analysis, DSA Associates, Birmingham, Haberberg, A.
(2000), “Swatting SWOT”, Strategy, (Strategic Planning Society), September.
Hill, T. & R. Westbrook (1997), “SWOT Analysis: It’s Time for a Product Recall,” Long Range
Planning, 30, No. 1, 46-52.
GRAPH: A Case Study on the Microsoft Corporation, Proceedings of TRIZCON2004, 6th
Annual Altshuller Institute.
Koch, A.J. (2000), SWOT Deos Not Need to be Recalled: It Needs to be Enhanced, accessed 15th September 2008.
S.F. Lee, K.K. Lo, Ruth F. Leung, Andrew Sai On Ko (2000), Strategy formulation framework
for vocational education: integrating SWOT analysis, balanced scorecard, QFD methodology
and MBNQA education criteria, Managerial Auditing Journal Vol 15 (8), pp407-423.
Menon, A. et al. (1999), “Antecedents and Consequences of Marketing Strategy Making,”
Journal of Marketing, 63, 18-40.
Piercy, N. and Giles, W. (1989) Making SWOT Analysis Work Journal of Marketing
Intelligence & Planning, Vol 7, Issue 5/6, P 5-7.
Panagiotou, G. (2003) Bringing SWOT into Focus, Business Strategy Review, Vol 14, Issue 2,
Shinno, H., Yoshioka, S., Marpaung, S., and Hachiga, S. (2006), Qualitative SWOT analysis on
the global competiveness of machine tool industry, Journal of Engineering Design, Vol 17,
No.3, June 2006, pp251-258.
Tiles, S. (1968), Making Strategy Explicit, in I. Ansoff (ed), Business Strategy, Penguin. Turner,
S. (2002), Tools for Success: A Manager’s Guide. London: McGraw-Hill.
Valentin, E.K. (2001), SWOT analysis from a resource-based view journal of marketing
theory and practice, 9(2): 54-68.
Wheelan, T.L. and Hunger, J.D. (1998), Strategic Management and Business Policy, 5th
Edition, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.
Weihrich, H. (1982). The Tows Matrix a Tool for Situational Analysis, Long Range Planning,
April (60).
... Technológiai környezet Gazdasági környezet Természeti környezet Politikai -jogi tényezők -Florida állam lakossága 22 177 997 fő (World population review, 2022), -az alkoholfogyasztási és alkoholtörvény korhatár Floridában 19 év, -gyorsan növekvő etnikai népesség széles termékválaszték különböző árkategóriában, -a fogyasztói trendek változásai, -a fogyasztók egyre inkább a minőséget részesítik előnyben, -a családok élelmiszerekre fordított kiadásai növekednek -technológiai fejlesztések, -automatizálás, -magas minőségű termékek, ahol a termelés fontos tényező -a szolgáltatási szektor növekvő jelentősége, -trendek, -árfolyam-ingadozások, -az importált borokra kivetett vámok növekedése, -a borászati termékekre kivetett adó növekedése, -a prémium és minőségi termékek értékesítési lehetőségeinek növekedése -nagyfokú függőség a természeti erőforrásoktól és az energiától, -vízhiány, amely nyomást gyakorol az élelmiszeriparra, hogy csökkentse a termelés során a vízfogyasztását, -az éghajlatváltozás hatással van a szőlőtermelésre -az államok eltérő szabályozása, -szigorú követelmények az élelmiszeriparban, -a termékcímkézés növekvő jelentősége, -átlátható és nyomon követhető termék-tanúsítványokra van szükség, -Ahhoz, hogy helyi terméknek minősüljön, a bor 60%-ának Floridában termesztett mezőgazdasági termékekből kell készülnie (Honaker, 2021) forrás: Saját szerkesztés Panagiotou (2003) elvégezte a SWOT-elemzés újrafókuszálását (in Friesner, 2011;Puyt, Lie és de Graaf, 2017), melynek használata széles körben elterjedt. A SWOT-elemzés egy mikrokörnyezetivizsgálat, amelyben a vállalat belső és külső tényezőit vizsgáljuk. ...
... The development of programs aimed to divulgate TRBs' cultural values by involving people could develop a sense of attention for such buildings by constituting the basis for their preservation. The analysis of the profile site's average visitor supplies essential information to conduct a 'focused' [37] evaluation of the heritage site's strengths, weakness, potential opportunities, and possible threats coming from exterior aspects (Analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats [SWOT analysis]). The results of this analysis are an important aid to choose the most appropriate interpretative elements of TRB by linking it with neighboring areas. ...
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The study describes the methodology implemented to include a rural cultural heritage attraction within an existing tourist route, i.e., the Sicilian Roads of Wine (“Strade del vino”). The aim was to promote a traditional rural building (TRB) as a tourist attraction and diversify rural tourism offerings. By promoting TRB and wine and food, the rural tourism sector offers a significant opportunity to achieve sustainable socio-economic development in rural areas, rural diversification, and landscape preservation. The inclusion of the TRB within the visitor route is based on a detailed heritage analysis approach as an operative process which could enable the comprehension and collective use of the cultural sites. The valorization of a traditional rural building with wine cellars and oil mills, located within the Chiaramonte Gulfi (RG) boundary, will be described. The objective is to make an architectural heritage building made with local materials and following the traditional Sicilian building techniques accessible to tourists. Special attention is paid to restore the building by respecting its identity and relevant building regulations and focusing on a complete, sustainable approach regarding social, environmental, and economic factors.
... The Harvardians' work was continued by Kenneth Andrews and based on his lectures at the Harvard Business School SWOT became a known marketing tool. [1] [2] The aim of the analysis is to position a product properly in the market. Strengths and weaknesses are internal factors that refer to the physical and financial characteristics of the product and the human resources behind it. ...
Ang pagbibigay ng halaga ng mananaliksik sa edukasyon at kultura ang nag-udyok sa kanya upang isakatuparan ang pag-aaral na ito na tumatalakay sa usapin ng edukasyong di pormal ng mga katutubong Agta sa General Nakar, Quezon. Dito sinuri niya ang kalagayan ng Sentrong Paaralan ng mga Agta sa aspektong kultural, pedagohikal, kaguruan at ekonomikal gamit ang makapangyarihang SWOT Analisis.
ContentsEditorial ........................................... v Surpassing the Spectre of Impossibility: Ideational Impoverishment and the Quest for Sustainable Rural Learning Ecologies in Africa Ato Kwamena Onoma ..................................... 1 Using Indigenous Games to Teach Problem-solving in Mathematics in Rural Learning Ecologies Tshele John Moloi .............................. 21 Sustainable Rural Learning Ecologies: A Pathway to Acknowledging African Knowledge Systems in the Arena of Mainstreamof Knowledge Production? Milton M. Nkoane ..................................... 33 Exploring Strategies to Strengthen Continuing Professional Development of Teachers in Rural South Africa Cias T. Tsotetsi & Sechaba Mahlomaholo ....................... 45 An Investigation into the Effectiveness of the University Curriculum in Preparing Pre-service Technology Teachers Sylvia M. Ramaligela, Ugorji I. Ogbonnaya & Andile Mji ............... 75 ‘From Cradle to Grave’: Transforming South Africa’s Learning Ecologies Lebusa Monyooe ........................................... 89 Improving the Quality of Education Among Rural Learners Through the Use of Open and Flexible Approaches in Lesotho’s Secondary Schools Thabiso Nyabanyaba ......................... 111 Transformative Autonomy: Mixed Notes from Teachers to Higher Education Willy Nel ..................................... 133 School–University Partnerships for Professional Development of Teachers: A Case of Lesson Study Intervention in Mathematics Maleho D. Letloenyane & Loyiso C. Jita ........................ 147 Strategies and Outcomes of Involving University Students in Community Engagement: An Adaptive Leadership Perspective Dipane Hlalele, Desiree Manicom, Julia Preece & Cias T. Tsotetsi ..... 169 Creating Sustainable Learning Environments for Professional Curriculum Leadership through Information and Communication Technologies Molaodi Tshelane & Sechaba Mahlomaholo ......................... 193 Accounting Teacher Preparation: A Critical Accounting Perspective Makeresemese R. Qhosola ........................ 213 Creating Effective Postgraduate Learning Environments: An Analysis of an Intervention from Realist Social Theory Sechaba Mahlomaholo ........................... 229
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At this time, Indonesia has entered the New Normal period, or adaptation of new habits is a method carried out by the Indonesian government during the global Covid-19 pandemic. So that people can continue to carry out activities as usual by implementing health protocols during a pandemic. The purpose of this study is to examine the SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Treats) study at the Bumi Sawunggaling hotel in Bandung, which the researcher will do as a step in exploiting the potential that exists in the Bumi Sawunggaling hotel and as an effort in increasing revenue at Hotel Bumi Sawunggaling. In this study, the method used is qualitative. The qualitative research method, as said by Sugiyono (2009:9), is a research method carried out to examine every condition of an object naturally, and researchers here are the main instrument; data collection techniques are carried out based on the results of observations and interviews.
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Im Rahmen der Debatte um die Chancen und Risiken nanotechnologischer Anwendungen werden die möglichen Beiträge zu einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung zunehmend kontrovers diskutiert. Eine Versachlichung der Debatte ist nötig. Sie kann jedoch nur auf Grundlage fallspezifischer, am gesamten Lebenszyklus ausgerichteter und möglichst quantitativer Chancen-Risiko-Abwägungen erfolgen. Die methodischen Grundlagen für eine solche systemische Betrachtung fehlen jedoch bislang weitgehend. Vor diesem Hintergrund stellt das Öko-Institut mit dem Nano-NachhaltigkeitsCheck ein Instrument vor, das ein systematisches Raster zur integrierten Betrachtung der Nachhaltigkeitsaspekte von nanotechnologischen Anwendungen bietet. Aufgrund der gewählten Herangehensweise eignet sich der Nano-NachhaltigkeitsCheck als strategisches Radar für eine interne Abschätzung der Chancen und Risiken, um beispielsweise einerseits Umweltentlastungseffekte und neue Märkte identifizieren zu können, andererseits Fehlinvestitionen sowie Gefahren für die Gesellschaft möglichst zu vermeiden.
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The origins of SWOT analysis have been enigmatic, until now. With archival research, interviews with experts and a review of the available literature, this paper reconstructs the original SOFT/SWOT approach, and draws potential implications. During a firm's planning process, all managers are asked to write down 8 to 10 key planning issues faced by their units. Each manager grades, with evidence, these issues as either safeguarding the Satisfactory; opening Opportunities; fixing Faults; or thwarting Threats: hence SOFT (which is later merely relabeled to Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats, or SWOT). Subgroups of managers have several dialogues about these issues with the instruction to include the needs and expectations of all the firm's stakeholders. Their developed resolutions or proposals become input for the executive planning committee to articulate corporate purpose(s) and strategies. SWOT's originator, Robert Franklin Stewart, emphasized the crucial role that creativity plays in the planning process. The SOFT/SWOT approach curbs mere top-down strategy making to the benefit of strategy alignment and implementation; Introducing digital means to parts of SWOT's original participative, long-range planning process, as suggested herein, could boost the effectiveness of organizational strategizing, communication and learning. Archival research into the deployment of SOFT/SWOT in practice is needed.
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Előszó Az első gazdálkodástani értelemben vett stratégiákat a 20. század elején alkották, a General Motors és a Ford Motor Co. gazdasági háborúja során. A tudásunk a vállalat stratégiájáról az azóta eltelt több mint száz évben sokrétűen gyarapodott, a stratégiai és üzleti tervezést, valamint a stratégiai menedzsmentet napjainkra önálló, könyvtárnyi méretű szakirodalmi bázissal rendelkező diszciplínaként tartjuk számon, ezért merült fel bennem az igény arra, hogy kísérletet tegyek a klasszikus és modern stratégia elméletek szintetizálására. A vállalt feladat nem egyszerű, hiszen a szóban forgó elméletek jellemzően egymást kiegészítve vagy kritizálva igyekeztek teret nyerni a szakirodalomban, így a tudományos forrásokon átívelő, általánosítható megállapítások megfogalmazása különösen nehéz. A szintézis célja: azonosítani azokat a megemelkedett jelentőségű, a modern gazdasági versenyzésben meghatározó jelentőséggel bíró vállalati belső tényezőket, amelyekkel az elméleti és gyakorlati szakembereknek kiemelten is foglalkozniuk kell. A makrokörnyezeti változások alapvetően formálják a gazdálkodástan fejlődését is és a stratégiai gondolkodás evolúcióját is. Figyelembe véve azt, hogy az ágazatok döntő többségében rendkívül magas intenzitású gazdasági verseny zajlik, és a 21. században számos extrém változás történt (és zajlik jelenleg is) a külső környezetben (pl. technikai-technológiai fejlődés, társadalmi és szociokulturális átalakulás, pénzügyi válság, természeti környezet felértékelődése, alapanyagválság, koronavírus válság, modernkori népvándorlás, háborúk Európában és a világ más részein, energiaválság stb.), úgy gondolom, hogy ez a törekvés fontos és időszerű. A bemutatott célok mentén a mű felépítésének alábbi struktúrája mellett döntöttem: - Az 1. fejezet a stratégia alapfogalmakat, a stratégiai gondolkodás fejlődésének történetét és a stratégia formálásának alapvető érdek- és viszonyrendszerét mutatja be. - A 2. fejezetben a stratégiai jelentőségű dokumentumok hierarchiájának legmagasabb szintjeit, a vállalati és az üzleti stratégiát tekintjük át. - A 3. fejezet a klasszikus külső és belső tényezőkre alapozott versenyelőny és versenyhátrány elméleteiről szól. A fejezetben szintetizáljuk is a stratégia elméleteket, valamint azonosítjuk és röviden részletezzük a modern versenyzés szempontjából megemelkedett jelentőségű belső vállalati tényezőket. - A 4. fejezet a stratégiai és üzleti tervezés, valamint a stratégiai menedzsment gyakran alkalmazott vállalati diagnosztikai és környezetelemzési módszereinek gyűjteményét tartalmazza. Ugyan a tervezés, a stratégiai és üzleti tervezés, valamint a stratégiai menedzsment területén számos kiváló hazai (pl. Horváth – Csath 1983, Ilosvai 2008, Csath 2008, Jelen – Mészáros 2008, Balaton – Hortoványi (szerk.) 2018, Balaton – Tari (szerk.) 2014, Balaton és társai 2014, Deutsch – Jelen 2019) és nemzetközi (pl. David – David – David 2019, Hitt – Ireland – Hoskisson 2019, Hill – Schilling – Jones 2019, Lynch 2022) szakkönyv született már, mégis, ez a könyv hozzá kíván adni a tudományterületen felhalmozott ismereteinkhez. A hozzáadott érték elsősorban a klasszikus és modern elméletek szintézise, újszerű kontextusba helyezése, valamint a modern versenyzés szempontjából megemelkedett jelentőségű belső vállalati tényezők részletezése kapcsán bontakozik ki. Pécs, 2023.02.10. Dr. Rideg András
Conference Paper
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It's about some Participative Action Research techniques in qualitative research: Delphi, Brainstorming and SWOT.
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There is a strong rekindling of academic and practitioner interest in the marketing strategy making (MSM) process and its effect on firm performance. However, there is a dearth of research on process issues in marketing strategy. This study attempts to fill this important gap in the marketing strategy literature by using a discovery-oriented approach to develop a (1) multifaceted conceptualization of MSM, (2) model of the antecedents and consequences of MSM, and (3) test of this model using data on more than 200 marketing mix-related decisions. After ruling out common method bias, the authors find that innovative culture is the fundamental antecedent of effective MSM. They also find that the components of MSM (situation analysis, comprehensiveness, emphasis on marketing assets and capabilities, cross-functional integration, communication quality, consensus commitment, and resource commitment) have differential effects on the outcomes measured, strategy creativity, organizational learning, and market performance. The authors find that strategy creativity affects market performance and organizational learning directly and as a mediator variable.
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The strategic importance of global competitiveness of the machine tool industry in Japan is steadily increasing, and therefore machine tool manufacturers require effective corporate strategy to achieve sustainable competitive advantages. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis is one of the most effective approaches used for analysing strategic management policy of an organization. However, the use of conventional SWOT analysis is based on the qualitative analysis and has no means of determining the importance of each SWOT factor. In this study, a newly structured SWOT analysis has been proposed for weighting and rating individual SWOT factors using the pairwise comparison matrices. As a result, effective industrial strategy planning for the machine tool industry can be carried out by applying the proposed method.
An approach to SWOT analysis is delineated and illustrated that mitigates shortcomings fostered by prevailing SWOT analysis conventions. SWOT analysis - the identification and assessment of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats - is intended to yield strategic insights. However, typical procedural guidelines consist largely of catchall questions devoid of explicit theoretical underpinnings. Too often, they produce shallow misleading results. As shown in this article, more penetrating strategic insights can be gained by following SWOT analysis guidelines derived from contemporary strategic management theory, especially the resource-based view of the firm.
This article has two main purposes. One is to review general considerations in strategic planning and the second to introduce the TOWS Matrix for matching the environmental threats and opportunities with the company's weaknesses and especially its strengths. These factors per se are not new; what is new is systematically identifying relationships between these factors and basing strategies on them. There is little doubt that strategic planning will gain greater prominence in the future. Any organization—whether military, product-oriented, service-oriented or even governmental—to remain effective, must use a rational approach toward anticipating, responding to and even altering the future environment.
The analysis of Strengths and Weaknesses, and Opportunities and Threats is probably the most common and widely-recognised tool for conducting a strategic marketing audit. The authors suggest SWOT analysis has suffered from familiarity breeding contempt and that the technique is normally used very badly and to little effect. The article draws on experience of marketing planning process management in a variety of companies to propose a five-point approach to make SWOT analysis work effectively.
No abstract available.
Making Strategy Explicit
  • S Tiles
Tiles, S. (1968), Making Strategy Explicit, in I. Ansoff (ed), Business Strategy, Penguin. Turner, S. (2002), Tools for Success: A Manager's Guide. London: McGraw-Hill.