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... W iley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment begins its fifth year at a seminal moment for the field, defined by the pledge of the world community to decarbonize the economy and the energy system that powers it. The Paris Agreement signals a fundamental shift in direction for technology development, market investment, and policy design with the aim of 'holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 C above preindustrial levels.' 1 Meeting this objective will not be easy. Researchers in the field of energy and environment are challenged to identify new approaches and new ways of thinking if we are to meet what the UN Secretary General has called our historic opportunity 'to secure the well-being of this and succeeding generations.' 2 With four published volumes, the journal has established itself as a well-regarded forum for multidisciplinary research in energy and environment. ...
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Policy support platforms like the Feed-in Tariff and the Renewable Portfolio Standard have been very successful in accelerating renewable energy development around the world. Nonetheless, the sustained and consistent transition to a renewable energy future required, e.g., to avoid further climate change, continues to elude societies. To achieve substantial energy transformation, reconsideration of the finance–policy–market interaction is required and is contemplated here by positioning the build-out of a particular renewable energy technology, photovoltaic (PV) energy, as a commitment to infrastructure-scale development. A so-called 'solar city' strategy is analyzed in which large-scale deployment of PV throughout the urban fabric essentially constructs an urban renewable energy power plant by utilizing the vast rooftop real estate available in all cities. The article explores a capital market strategy for practical implementation of urban PV in six case study cities—Amsterdam, London, Munich, New York City, Seoul, and Tokyo. This study demonstrates the substantial potential of the solar city concept in each location and outlines a financing strategy to realize the potential.
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Against the background of IIASA’s massive (their word) ‘global energy assessment’ (GEA), this paper takes a closer look at the challenges posed by population growth, energy poverty, the fossil fuels and carbon storage, renewable energy, energy efficiency, natural catastrophes, and potential climatic change to offer a somber, although arguably more realistic, overview of what the future may hold than the GEA achieved.For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
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A massive transformation of the global energy supply system is required if deep reductions in atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions are to be achieved. A top-down review of historical data and energy forecasts provides a perspective on the magnitude of the challenge. Global engineering capability has expanded significantly over the last two decades, accommodating more than 100 GW/year increase in electricity generation infrastructure. However, business-as-usual demand forecasts to 2050 will require more than double the global rates of energy project execution. Transforming to a low-carbon energy supply mix requires 30-70 GW/year of additional infrastructure, due to the increased reliance on intermittent renewables, and the earlier-than-expected replacement of existing coal power plants. Although all power systems share many similar subsystems that will need to be delivered regardless of the technology type, meeting the extra demands for engineering design, construction and/or supply chains may not be possible. The discussion focuses only on physical limitations of electricity generation, specifically around the timing and scale of retiring and/or replacing coal-fired power generation capacity to meet the International Energy Agency's two-degree scenario. We ignore the economics and politics of the transition scenarios and the transformation of the transportation and industrial sectors. What is clear is that the longer the delay in starting a significant transformation, the greater the challenge will become. Decision makers must understand the constraints to technology transitions to deliver effective policy. A broad international consensus is not required, instead reaching agreements and developing economically sustainable pathways to technology transitions in the United States, China, and India is more likely to be successful and the only means for significantly curbing global emissions.
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Wind energy in cold climates offers vast wind energy potential. Cold climate, in this context, means icing conditions and/or low temperatures outside the normal operational limits of the wind turbines. Cold climate areas are often located in low population density surroundings. The combination of good wind resources and low population density makes such areas attractive for wind energy generation, but weather conditions hinder the exploitation of these resources. Many technical issues as well as health and safety related ones need to be addressed before wind energy projects can be economically feasible in cold climates. Icing of wind turbines reduces energy yield, reduces the mechanical life time of turbines, and poses safety risks in the form of ice throw, among other challenges. Progress to solve these challenges has been made in recent years, for example, anti- and de-icing systems have been developed, but still more is to be done to reduce further the cost of wind energy in cold climates.For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article.
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Different governance mechanisms have emerged to ensure biomass and bioenergy sustainability amidst a myriad of related public and private regulations that have existed for decades. We conducted a global survey with 59 questions which examined 192 stakeholders' views and experiences related to (1) the multi-leveled governance to which they are subjected, (2) the impacts of that governance on bioenergy production and trade, and (3) the most urgent areas for improvement of certification schemes. The survey revealed significant support along the whole supply chain for new legislation which uses market-based certification schemes to demonstrate compliance (co-regulation). Some respondents did not see a need for new regulation, and meta-standards is a promising approach for bridging divergent views, especially if other proof than certification will be an option. Most respondents had so far experienced positive or neutral changes to their bioenergy production or trade after the introduction of new sustainability governance. Legislative requirements and a green business profile were important motivations for getting certified, while lack of market advantages, administrative complexity and costs all were barriers of varying importance. A need to include, e.g., regular standard revision and dealing with conflicting criteria was identified by respondents associated with bioenergy schemes. Respondents associated with forestry schemes saw less need for revisions, but some were interested in supply chain sustainability criteria. Significant differences among schemes suggest it is crucial in the future to examine the tradeoffs between certification costs, schemes' inclusiveness, the quality of their substantive and procedural rules, and the subsequent effectiveness on-the-ground.For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article.
Article
Strategies that guided development throughout the 20th century relied heavily on economic optimality as a chief guiding principle in the design of energy, technology, markets, and policy. A review of the record of performance of this decision-making process is followed by a review of proposals to redefine energy progress on sustainability principles. An emerging 21st sustainability paradigm is described which relies on commons-based economics and long-term ecological viability. An existing operational expression of the new paradigm—the Sustainable Energy Utility (SEU)—is analyzed as a practical means to arrive at the New Economics and New Policy which might guide the sector. It is compared to the Energy Service Utility and its applications in order to gauge the transformative potential of the SEU.For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article.
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Lane JL, Smart S, Schmeda-Lopez D, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Garnett A, Greig C, McFarland E. Understanding constraints to the transformation rate of global energy infrastructure. Wiley Interdisciplinary Rev Energy Environ 2016, 5:33-48. doi:10.1002/wene.177. 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC): a two-decade history of policy performance. No-policy baseline 2030: 65 GtCO 2 -eq/yr Current Policy 2030: 59 GtCO 2 -eq/yr Unconditional INDCs 2030: 55 GtCO 2 -eq/yr Conditional INDCs 2030: 53 GtCO 2 -eq/yr
Well Below 2 Degree Celsius Scenarios 2030: 42 GtCO 2 -eq/yr "Thus, the INDCs clearly do not put the world on a least-cost path towards limiting warming to well below 2 C
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Well Below 2 Degree Celsius Scenarios 2030: 42 GtCO 2 -eq/yr "Thus, the INDCs clearly do not put the world on a least-cost path towards limiting warming to well below 2 C." (Rogelj et al. (2016) Sources for above quotes: Rogelj et al. (2016). Paris Agreement climate proposals need a boost to keep warming well below 2 o C. Nature, 534, 631-639, doi: 10.1038/nature18307
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