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Collective mind in organisations: heedful relating on flight decks

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...  Risks are evaluated through individual judgement and feelings  There may be variation in the individual perception of risk  Rational side of risks  Behavioural theory (Cyert & March, 1963)  Cognitive approach (McNamara & Bromiley, 1997, March & Shapira, 1992  Cultural theory (Douglas & Wildavsky, 1983)  Sensemaking (Weick, 1995)  Collective mind (Weick & Roberts, 1993) Risk and Society (Beck, 1992) Societal representations that encode and classify human abstraction about: ...
... Vakkur et al. (2010) confirm that companies opt for centralization as a form of control in order to reduce institutional uncertainty as seen in the Sarbanes Oxley Act. On the other hand, Power et al. (2013) argue for increasing the information share related to risk that will lead to interactive risk culture, arising from the idea of a « collective mind » (Weick, 1993). We find these opposing views interesting because they also represent the two sides of risk culture from formal (Vakkur et al., 2010) and informal perspectives (Power et al., 2013). ...
... What we learn from informal communication is that there are individually driven projects and initiatives that create a « collective mind » (Weick & Roberts, 1993). The main factor to observe in the informal aspects of communication is awareness. ...
Thesis
This thesis studies risk culture in the context of a multinational company. The explanation of the key concepts of risk culture is what helped us to define our research subject, which is still in its infancy. The concept is also difficult to research because it represents multiple ambiguities, we were however able to find a solution to that problem. To reduce the impact of the ambiguousness of the subject, we based our research on organizational theories, and we defined two organizational aspects: formal and informal. Therefore, we approach risk culture by formal and informal aspects and by its manageability. In order to answer to our research question, we adopt the methodology based on one case study. Indeed, our thesis studies one multinational Canadian company where we spent 18 months in the field at its headquarters. We performed 45 interviews with presidents, vice presidents and directors, additionally we participated in risk assessment workshops and we worked with multiple functions related to risk management activities. Our results emphasize that risk culture needs an equilibrium between formal and informal aspects. We also show two different ways how risk mangers influence risk culture creation inside the company. Our thesis encourages future research on risk culture and on the development of that research subject.
... Since the features of HROs were first described by Roberts (1989; see also Weick & Roberts, 1993;Weick & Sutcliffe, 2001, research and practive have come to have a largely descriptive focus on the question of whether or not a particular organisation has achieved, or is moving towards, a state of high-reliability. To this end, research has centred largely on the development of procedures and tools (e.g., checklists) designed to detect the presence (or absence) of features that are diagnostic of HRO status. ...
... To do so, we build upon and expand one of Weick and Roberts' (1993) key observationsnamely that collective mind is critical for the functioning of HROs. More specifically, we argue that a sense of shared social identity (in which the self is defined as 'us' not just 'me') is essential for members of teams and organisations to work together in ways that build group-level coordination and resilience, and promote safety and reliability. ...
... At the same time, we note that this focus on collective process is largely absent from contemporary HRO research. This is problematic because, as we clarify below, the strength of the analysis provided by Weick and Roberts (1993) was precisely that it made a compelling case for understanding HROs as a collective-level achievement. To answer the question of how HROs are created and sustained, we therefore argue that it is essential to bring this key insight back to the front and centre of both theory and practice. ...
Article
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This paper explains how contemporary psychological theorising can be brought to bear on the challenges of creating and sustaining high-reliability organisations (HROs). Building on a large body of theory and evidence in the social identity tradition, we argue that social identity processes are critical to the creation of HROs. In particular, (a) the psychology of organisational members needs to be informed by a sense of shared social identity (a sense of “us-ness”) such that their actions are underpinned by collective mind in ways discussed by Weick and Roberts (1993), (b) social identities need to be aligned across the organisation, and (c) the content of social identities needs to be informed by a sense that high-reliability behaviours are central to “who we are” and “what we do”. In light of this, we argue that HROs are created by identity leadership which allows organisations to narrow the gap between “who we are” and “who want to be” through the pursuit of high-reliability goals. Critically, identity leadership serves to inspire the engaged followership necessary to achieve these goals, whilst also being sensitive to structural affordances and barriers. These insights are integrated within a Social Identity Model of HROs (SIM-HRO) which provides an integrative framework to inform theory and practice in the field.
... Here the whole development team seems to have adopted a consistent reference for documenting development activity. There are similarities here with the concept of co/Zecfzve (Weick 1993: Weick and, Roberts 1993: 'Collective mind (.y (Weick and Roberts 1993, p365). There may be scope for this /Mmcf behaviour to be consistent with prospect theory. ...
... Indeed, the social interaction strongly supports the firequent work interactions: within this team it is easy and quick to solicit needed information from a colleague to address an uncertain/inconsistent/problem situation. This is consistent with the concept of mzW (Weick and Roberts 1993;Weick 1993) discussed in section 8.8. The case study shows much 'heedfur interaction with good communication structures: 'TTze mrgr^g/af^mg q/an acfzvzYy /.y A^gvgZopgcf morg C(^a6/g q/ mfgZ/zggM/ ac/zoM rAg mofg Aggt^//}" rAa/ mrg^rg/arzMg zj ' (Weick and Roberts 1993, p365) and 'aj' /zggc^zZ zMfgmcrzoM oW co/M^/'g/zgMj'zoM zMcrgoj'gj', orgoMZj'arzoMa/ g/'ror.y ...
... However, closer inspection shows the two-phase process to be limited in scope; not all the decision-making processes are addressed, particularly the consideration of possible meta rules and the pre and post decision states. Chapters 8 and 10 show that group decision-making activity are consistent with the concept of a /MfW (Weick and Roberts 1993;Weick 1993), which requires mindful interaction. This mindful interaction is also outside the scope of prospect theory. ...
Thesis
p>Information systems development is complex, involving relationships between distinct groups of people (e.g. users, analysts, designers and system owners), development rituals (e.g. methods and techniques) and dynamic environmental influences. This thesis develops a fuller picture of how uncertainty is addressed in this complex development environment. This is of relevance to the information systems field as many information systems projects involve much uncertainty and the uncertainty is likely to affect the success of these projects. The main theoretical tool used in this thesis is prospect theory (Kahneman and Tversky 1979, Tversky and Kahneman 1992), which is described as a descriptive model of decision-making under risk. The main characteristics of prospect theory are the 'framing effect', a hypothetical 'S' shaped value function with corresponding weighting function and a two-phase decision process. These have been collaborated with a wealth of empirical studies and are likely to represent some fundamental decision-making behaviour: generally, people are influenced by how a decision situation is represented (framing effect) and, people are risk averse in situations of gains and risk seeking in situations of losses (as described by the value function). However, existing research is inconclusive on the applicability of prospect theory to complex real-life situations. Complex real-life decision environments are likely to involve uncertainty rather than risk and are likely to be conducted in a group context rather than an individual one. This thesis maps the applicability of prospect theory to the complex real-life arena of information systems development. While mapping the applicability of prospect theory, this thesis develops a model of dealing with uncertainty, consisting of an iterative process, application of meta rules, group involvement and the identification of coping strategies. In addition, the model identifies the main influences on decision-making including the influences that are likely to be dominant. Where individual and framing influences dominate, then prospect theory seems appropriate. Where group and cultural influences dominate, then prospect theory is less appropriate.</p
... In contrast, in settings where task interdependence is high there is ample opportunity to engage in interaction, to influence each others understanding of work tasks, and to develop shared interpretations. In fact, in work contexts characterized by high interdependence, developing a shared understanding or representation of the joint task is a necessary condition for effective performance (Weick & Roberts, 1993). ...
... Heedful interrelating consists of three interdependent processes -contribution, representation, and subordination (Weick & Roberts, 1993). First, people enact their actions as contributions to a system as if they are "under the direction of a single organizing center" (Asch, 1952: 251) even though no such center exists, rather than as stand-alone activities. ...
... The third characteristic of heedful interrelating is subordinating idiosyncratic intentions to the effective functioning of the system (i.e., looking out for one another). When contribution, representation, and subordination are done heedfully it increases the alertness and intelligence of action mobilized to deal with the unexpected (Weick & Roberts, 1993). ...
Thesis
Prior research in strategic human resource management has consistently shown a positive relationship between high performance human resource (HPHR) practices and organizational performance. However, this research has left the cognitive and behavioral mechanisms underlying this relationship both largely unexplored. I argue that the mechanisms previously proposed (employee skills, commitment, and effort) are necessary and sufficient only when one makes overly restrictive assumptions about employees (effort averse), work (routine and decomposable), and organizational performance (equal to the sum of individual performances). When these assumptions are relaxed, collective sensemaking and coordination become equally critical sources of high performance. In theorizing the HPHR practice---organizational performance relationship I assert that HPHR practices are sensegiving structures by which managers attempt to influence employee sensemaking and behavior. HPHR practices specifically define both the employment relationship and work practice. In defining the employment relationship, HPHR practices signal a strong and long-term investment in employees that engenders employee commitment and discretionary effort. HPHR practices also define expectations for how employees are to carry out their work and to the extent these practice signal an interpersonally safe work climate, they increases the richness of interactions, the system-awareness of action, and the mindfulness of ongoing processes. I empirically test my hypotheses by surveying registered nurses and nurse managers in 99 acute-care hospital nursing units. In analyzing these data I found that HPHR practices are positively associated with respectful interaction, but not with commitment. The cognitive mechanisms were also positively associated with their corresponding behavioral mechanisms and the behavioral mechanisms influenced performance, but not entirely as predicted. Discretionary effort was positively associated with quality of care while mindful organizing was not. Mindful organizing, however, was associated with significantly lower levels of errors and falls, while discretionary effort actually increased medication errors and patient falls. This suggests that in dynamic and interdependent knowledge work, discretionary effort may actually compromise performance when it distracts employees from their core tasks. In sum, my study demonstrates a much more nuanced relationship between HPHR practices and performance than anticipated by the prior literature that depends on the work setting studied and the performance measure examined.
... The US Constitution has not only been subject to a series of amendments but has continuously been interpreted and re-interpreted to reflect changes in society. Thus, Weick (1993) proposes that the emphasis should be placed on planning and designing, i. e., the dynamic verbs rather than the static nouns. Organizations are construed in a constant state of redesign: "Repetitive cycles of texts, conversation, and agents define and modify one another and jointly organize everyday life" (2006: 1725). ...
... Continuing with systems thinking, Weick and Roberts (1993) discussed the ideas of collective mind and heedful interrelating on aircraft carrier flight decks. Collective mind refers to individuals acting as though they are a group. ...
... Heedfulness refers to the degree to which individuals act carefully and mindfully. Weick and Roberts (1993) viewed the heedful interrelating process as the mechanism by which members act out their collective understanding of the organizational system. ...
... The dimensions of Seeman (1959) and Blauner (1964) represent just such a perspective. Regardless of the approach, avoiding alienation is about perceiving oneself as part of the company's collective mind (Weick and Roberts 1993). ...
... The close co-operation between the unions and the management generally and the work through the party-based democratic bodies in the company have probably contributed to pulling in the opposite direction of alienation, through information, discussions, and continuous focus on improvement work. What, on the other hand, seems to be crucial for development is the access to relevant information to be able to produce products, see oneself in the total workflow, and be part of the yard's collective mind (Weick and Roberts 1993). ...
Article
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In this paper, the aim is to study how the work organization in one specific company for one specific trade has changed over time and with these changes, the presence and absence of alienation of employees in this trade. Blauner’s U-shaped alienation development trend has been a reference in discussions on alienation. It displays a connection between the degree of alienation and technological development. The findings from this study verify the trend and the connection in the case company. However, although the development trend may look similar to that of Blauner’s model, it is differently founded. Where previous studies highlight the production system, including technology, as crucial to the presence of alienation, this study documents that external conditions outside or partly outside the company’s control—such as digital information availability, product complexity, and quality requirements—will determine the presence of alienation. Thus, researchers should adjust the content of the concept of alienation accordingly.
... Les pratiques peuvent être organisationnelles, financières ou logistiques, par exemples. Dans notre cas, la grille d'évaluation des compétences techniques que nous étudierons peut s'apparenter à une pratique organisationnelle (Schatzki et al., 2001(Schatzki et al., , 2006Feldman & Orlikowski, 2011 (Giddens, 1984 ;Dutton & Dukerich, 1991 ;Weick & Roberts, 1993). ...
... La section 1. va présenter cette trilogie d'approches des pratiques organisationnelles, tandis que la section 2. détaillera l'approche par les pratiques en management accounting (Ahrens & Chapman, 2007 (Giddens, 1984). Enfin, Weick et Roberts (1993) ...
Thesis
Les organisations hybrides (ex. : entreprises sociales) sont en tension permanente entre une logique sociale et commerciale. Battilana et Dorado (2010) disent qu’une identité organisationnelle homogène permet de réduire ces tensions et ces conflits identitaires. Notre recherche montre que la mise en place d’un outil de mesure de la performance permet de diminuer les tensions et les conflits identitaires. A partir de l’approche par les pratiques (Ahrens, Chapman, 2007), nous avons mené une étude qualitative de cas en profondeur de l’entreprise d’insertion ARES. Nous avons étudié l’installation d’un système de mesure de la performance sociale, de 1991 à 2013. Nos résultats montrent que la diminution des aides publiques contraint les organisations hybrides à importer progressivement des outils traditionnels de gestion. Cette standardisation de mesure de la performance sociale (tableaux de bord, indicateurs et une division des tâches adaptée), permet aux salariés de ARES d’atteindre leurs objectifs d’insertion professionnelle et de réduire ainsi leurs conflits identitaires. Notre thèse contribue d’une part, à une meilleure compréhension du processus d’identité organisationnelle homogène dans les organisations hybrides. D’autre part, notre recherche contribue en contrôle de gestion, en montrant comment l’hybridation de logiques permet un meilleur alignement entre stratégie et outils de mesure de la performance.
... [125][126][127][128][129] These organisations also exhibit collective mindfulness, which is indicated by a focus on failure, sensitivity to operations, a commitment to resilience, expert-led decision making and a reluctance to simplify interpretations of risk. 96,128,130 In contrast to the pessimistic approach in Perrow's Normal Accident Theory, which tends to position accidents as normal and unpredictable events in complex socio-technical systems, HRT argues that high reliability organisations can function safely despite inherent hazards embedded in complex systems, with a particular role for learning from past failures. [131][132][133] At the heart of this focus on organisational learning are event analysis techniques such as RCA. ...
... In their collection of case studies on organisational learning following major industrial accidents, Hale et al. propose that past incidents can be seen as gifts95 offering valuable insights into unsafe operations. They create opportunities for mindful reflection,96 to foster conversations around risk among relevant stakeholders and thereby bring improvements to technology, mental models and the organisation's and the overall sector's behaviour.92 Thus, a better understanding of past incidents through well-conducted investigations might allow questioning that would motivate members of an organisation to review and improve working practices or adopt newer models more appropriate to the new reality of the world constructed following the knowledge obtained after an incident.92,97 ...
Thesis
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Improving risk controls following root cause analysis of serious incidents in healthcare- Mohammad Farhad Peerally Background Root cause analysis (RCA) is widely used following healthcare serious incidents, but does not necessarily lead to robust risk controls. This research aimed to examine current practices and to inform an understanding of what good looks like in formulating and implementing risk controls to improve patient safety. Methods First, I undertook a content analysis of 126 RCA reports over a three-year period from an acute NHS trust, with the goals of characterising (i)the contributory factors identified in investigations and (ii)the risk controls proposed in the action plans. Second, I conducted a narrative review of the academic literature on improving risk control practices in safety-critical industries, including but not limited to healthcare. Finally, I undertook a qualitative study involving 52 semi-structured interviews with expert stakeholders in post-incident management, analysed using the framework method. Results: Content analysis of serious incident investigation reports identified the preoccupation of RCAs with identifying proximate errors at the sharp end of care, neglecting wider contexts and structures. Most (74%) risk controls proposed could be characterised as weak and were poorly aligned with identified contributory factors. Together, the narrative review and the findings of the interview study suggested eleven features essential to addressing these problems: systems-based investigations; a participatory approach, skilled and independent investigators; clear and shared language; including patients’ views; allocating time and space to risk control formulation; adding structure to risk control formulation; sustainable risk controls mapped to identified problems; purposeful implementation and better tracking of risk controls; a collaborative approach to quality assurance and improved organisational learning. Discussion and conclusion: RCAs as currently conducted, and the action plans that arise from them, are often flawed. The eleven features identified will be important in improving risk control formulation and implementation. To operationalise these features, there is a need for: professional and independent investigations, risk controls based on a sound theory of change, and improved cultures and structures for organisational learning.
... Other authors emphasize the safety issues that stem from organizational complexity. Indeed, normal accident theory (NAT) (Perrow, 2011) and theory about high reliability organizations (HROs) (Weick & Roberts, 1993) show how major accidents can be caused by complexity. NAT demonstrates that complex and tightly coupled systems, such as in nuclear power plants, are exposed to a high level of risk and will inevitably have accidents. ...
... Indeed, according to high reliability theorists, the success of HROs in ensuring continuous high levels of safety while constantly experiencing high levels of technological risk and unpredictable events is partly explained by the fact that they have developed a strong organizational safety culture and strategy (Milch & Laumann, 2016). Weick and Roberts (1993) emphasize the roles of individual mindfulness and heedful interacting as pillars of resilience in highly disturbed contexts. More recently, Weick and Sutcliffe (2015) put forward a set of principles that support high reliability through anticipating the unexpected events and reacting to them once they have occurred. ...
Chapter
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This chapter discusses the organizational and occupational dimensions of resilience in temporary organizing contexts and how these contribute to sustained reliable performance. When dealing with issues related to high levels of safety in complex settings, longstanding organizations with strong organizational routines are often described as the most appropriate forms of organizing. However, temporary forms of organizing are developing and little is known on how actors engaged in such contexts can enhance and sustain resilience when facing uncertainty in safety-critical contexts. This chapter addresses this gap in the literature by demonstrating that temporary organizations, such as project-based ones, can also deal with major safety issues, and that temporary forms of organizing can help complex projects to be efficiently and safely carried out. We examine this proposition by studying the case of an inter-organizational and safety-critical project: the construction by a shipyard of a series of ships. Looking at the meso-level, i.e. the occupational groups involved in the project, we show how temporary forms of organizing and occupational groups together contribute to the resilience of the whole project. We highlight that the ability of the project to coordinate temporary organizing forms is key in achieving (safe) performance.
... Il constate au contraire que la faible fréquence des accidents affectants les installations nucléaires montre qu'elles arrivent à surmonter le paradoxe de la centralisation/ décentralisation simultanée. Les portesavions de la Navy en sont l'exemple archétypal : une ligne hiérarchique très centralisée et formalisée se combine à des formes d'auto-organisations temporaires pour faire face à tous types d'imprévus (Weick et Roberts, 1993). Ce courant s'efforce de dégager les principes de cette haute fiabilité (Weick et Sutcliffe, 2001) : priorisation de la sûreté sur les autres considérations (notamment économiques), subsidiarité (prima de l'expertise sur la hiérarchie, attention aux activités réelles de premiers niveaux plutôt qu'aux procédures), amélioration continue (retours d'expérience), pluralisme des regards (ne pas sur-simplifier les problèmes), entraînement à la résilience. ...
Article
La conduite d’installations complexes exposant nos sociétés à des risques majeurs fait du nucléaire un terrain stimulant. L’objectif de cet article est de mieux comprendre les principes et pratiques de gouvernance interorganisationnels qui contribuent à la sûreté d’un système complexe à travers l’exemple de la régulation de l’industrie électrique nucléaire. Les auteurs montrent en particulier comment et pourquoi un cadre ternaire favorise un dialogue réflexif qui est une manière d’adopter une pensée complexe en essayant d’échapper aux réductionnismes et simplifications dangereux.
... Relationships and communication are the most important elements of the cognitivist epistemology (Varela, Thompson & Rosch, 1992). Knowledge emerges and resides not only in the brains of each organizational member but also in the connections among members through the rules of heedful interrelating: each member knows what needs to be done in relation to what the others are doing (Weick & Roberts, 1993). ...
Article
An increasing focus on emotion in consumer and sensory research has led to the development of many instruments to capture consumers’ emotions elicited by food, with a growing interest in the use of emoji in recent years. While emoji are considered a suitable tool to assess food-evoked emotions, it is still unclear to what extent consumers’ emotional state impacts the measurements. This study explored product-emotion associations within a single product category (dark chocolate) and assessed the effect of emotional state on the emotional profiling of chocolate using 33 facial emoji with RATA questions. The study involved 146 adult participants (mean age: 25.5 ± 5.4). Emotional state influenced the emotional conceptualization of some chocolate samples. Use of positive emoji was associated with a positive emotional state, and a similar positive correlation was found between negative/neutral emotional state and the valence related to emoji use. Nevertheless, it should be mentioned that the emotional state only impacted emotional responses of the same valence, e.g. a positive emotional state was only correlated with positive emotions and a positive emotional state was not able to decrease negative emotional responses evoked by chocolate. Further, only 5 out of 33 emoji discriminated significantly among the dark chocolate samples. This study showcases that including a measurement of emotional state when using emoji for emotional profiling can be of interest for framing the results and illustrates that emoji can discriminate between (equally-liked) products within the same product category.
... 1-24, © 2021 The Author(s) more significant errors (Vaughan 1996). Locally shared interpretations and practices, such as understandings of what is safe and how safety is to be performed, circulate through ongoing practical engagement, primarily learned through mimicry, extensive collective storytelling, and mindful reflexive interactions (Weick and Roberts 1993;Gherardi and Nicolini 2000a, b;Wicks 2001). Through humor and informal conversation, members of local cultures indicate what is acceptable, even honorable and praiseworthy, and what calls forth not only rebuke but denigration and accusations of deviance (Shearing and Ericson 1991;Gherardi and Nicolini 2000a, b;Desmond 2007). ...
Article
The governance of front-line professionals is a persistent organizational problem. Regulations designed to make professional work more legible and responsive to both organizational and public expectations depend on these professionals’ willing implementation. This paper examines the important question of how professional control shapes regulatory compliance. Drawing on a seventeen-month ethnographic study of a bioscience laboratory, we show how professionals deploy their discretionary judgment to assemble environmental, health, and safety regulations with their own expert practices, explaining frequently observed differential rates of regulatory compliance. We find that professional scientists selectively implement and blend formal regulations with expert practice to respond to risks the law acknowledges (to workers’ bodies and the environment) and to risks the law does not acknowledge but professionals recognize as critical (to work tasks and collegiality). Some regulations are followed absolutely, others are adapted on a case-by-case basis; in other instances, new practices are produced to control threats not addressed by regulations. Such selective compliance, adaptation and invention enact professional expertise: interpretations of hazard and risk. The discretionary enactment of regulations, at a distance from formal agents, becomes part of the technical, practical, and tacit assemblage of situated practices. Thus, paradoxically, professional expert control is maintained and sometimes enhanced as professionals blend externally imposed regulations with expert practices. In essence, regulation is co-opted in the service of professional control. This research contributes to studies of professional expertise, the legal governance of professionals in organizations, regulatory compliance, and safety cultures.
... From this perspective, resilience consists of the ability to detect the novelty that can be triggering adversities; as such, it is an ability that is essentially undetermined and ill-defined, as Perrow (1999) and Wildavsky (1988) revealed. Weick developed this conceptualization further by reframing adversities as 'the unexpected', namely, in terms of what is not expected and not thought, given the present approach to giving sense to the world known as 'sensemaking' (Weick, 1993;Weick & Roberts, 1993;Weick & Sutcliffe, 2001). Through this lens, resilience is also 'less deterministic' (Linnenluecke, 2017, p. 8) and highly dependent on the moment and the context in which resilience is enacted. ...
Chapter
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Organizational resilience is traditionally associated with the ability to understand and to respond to the ongoing situation, even under unusual conditions. The capability to detect novel and unexpected situations plays a fundamental role in this process. Following (Simon‚ 1991), we believe that decision premises affect the problem representation and, ultimately, the possibility to detect, interpret and respond to novel situations, thus enhancing resilience. From this perspective, the ability to expand the perceptual limits of observation and to conceive a novel representation of the problem requires revising the initial decision premises. This theory of how organizations learn how to solve novel problems provides the foundation to introduce a role designed to legitimately challenge the decision premises and, ultimately, the spectrum of alternatives that are taken into consideration as possible solutions. To illustrate our proposal to increase organizational resilience, we introduce an exemplary real case stemming from the practice of the emergency management organizations under scrutiny of our research team; this case is reconstructed as a conversational narrative of the two key participants.
... Among these four processes, integrating and institutionalizing contribute to the development of shared mental models. Integrating is 'through the continuing conversation among members of the community and through shared practice (Seely- that shared understanding or collective mind (Weick & Roberts, 1993) develops and mutual adjustment and negotiated action (Simons, 1991) take place' (528). Institutionalizing 'sets organizational learning apart from individual or ad hoc group learning' (529). ...
Thesis
p>This study aims to gain a deeper understanding of middle managers’ roles in Chinese enterprises’ strategic change through the use of two related perspectives: the learning perspective and the power perspective. This understanding is particularly significant for managing successful strategic changes in Chinese enterprises, and for assisting Western enterprise to succeed in the Chinese market. In order to achieve the research aim, an interpretive paradigm (Burrell and Morgan, 1993; Easterby-Smith et al. 1991 and 2002) and a multiple case study method (Eisenhardt, 1989; Yin, 1994) were employed to guide the whole research process. Data were collected through interviews, observations and document studies in three Chinese enterprises over a period of more than 2 years. Miles and Huberman’s (1994) methods were used to analyse the qualitative data. The research revealed two roles, ‘strategists in the middle’ and ‘implementers’, played by middle managers in the three cases. Two theoretical models, a communication model and an interpretation model, were constructed to explain both roles. Finally, a ‘guanxi’-centred explanation network was developed to explain the differences in middle managers’ roles across cases. It was argued that middle managers could only become ‘strategists in the middle’ by actively exploring the interactions of knowledge and power. Formal and informal communication was widely employed by ‘strategists in the middle’. A trust and balanced ‘guanxi’ between middle mangers and senior managers was critical for middle managers to play a proactive role. These findings contribute to remedying the current lack of knowledge about middle managers’ roles in strategic change. They also enhance our insights into the relationship between organizational learning and power. Relevant implications for strategic change management are also provided for both Chinese enterprises and Western enterprises.</p
... Corporal abilities enacted in face-to-face situations thus become more important. One example is Karl Weick's 'disposition to heed' (Weick and Roberts, 1993). In high-reliability organizationsbut not only there -strictly working according to the letter will not do. ...
Chapter
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Man muss nicht gleich auf sogenannte totale Institutionen – besser: Organisationen – wie Gefängnisse, Armeen, Psychiatrien und Klöster oder auf Organhandel und Transplantationsskandale zu sprechen kommen, wenn man namhaft machen möchte, dass Körper und Organisation in enger Beziehung stehen. Aber es hilft, um klar zu machen, dass das Themenfeld mehr beinhaltet als betriebliches Gesundheitsmanagement, Neuroenhancement oder Schönheitschirurgie. Es geht nicht nur um die Umgestaltung und Disziplinierung, also die Reorganisation des Körpers.
... Mindful awareness of failed experiences and transiency also contributes to the temporal nature of management (Hernes and Irgens, 2013). Through the continuity of the unlearning or learning process in organizations, managers show a willingness to explore and examine broader implications of activities (Weick and Roberts, 1993) and re-interpret and learn from past experiences. ...
Article
Crises trigger both learning and unlearning at both intra-organizational and inter-organizational levels. This article stresses the need to facilitate unlearning for effective crisis management and shows how we could use mindfulness practice to enhance unlearning and transformative learning in a crisis. This study proposes the conceptualization of mindful unlearning in crisis with different mechanisms to foster unlearning in three stages of crisis (pre-crisis, during-crisis, and post-crisis). These mechanisms include mindful awareness of impermanence and sensual processing (pre-crisis stage), mindful awareness of interdependence and right intention (crisis management stage), and mindful awareness of transiency and past experiences (post-crisis stage).
... Prior research on mindful organizing has focused on professionally homogenous groups at one hierarchical level, such as aircraft carrier flight decks [65] ; airline cockpit crews [66] ; wildland firefighting crews [ 41 , 67 ]. Other researchers, such as Ray et al. [29] , examined mindfulness related to the strategic issues faced by an organization's top administrators. ...
Article
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There seems to be a paucity in extant literature that assesses the relationship between Safety Management Systems (SMS) and High Reliability Theory (HRT) behavior process of Mindful Organizing (MO) among aerospace organizations. There could be benefits for organizational safety by exploring this relationship in high-reliability organizations (HROs) like the aerospace industry. Using a modified Safety Organizing Scale (SOS) by Vogus and Sutcliffe (2007) and a validated SMS scale, the relationship between SMS and MO was measured. The perceptions of a cross-section of respondents from commercial airlines with SMS and commercial space licensees without SMS in the United States (U.S) was assessed. A four-factor model of MO had acceptable fit. A model showing the relationship between SMS and MO had good fit and showed a high significant strength of relationship (r = .82, p =.000) with a big effect size. There were also significant differences in mean responses among management personnel and non-management personnel on the MO factor “sensitivity to operations” and the result suggests managers were better at identifying personnel with skills and knowledge to ensure safer task accomplishment than non-management personnel. The study results suggest that the SMS requirements for commercial airlines in the U.S. can enrich the identification and understanding of MO factors and it may be beneficial for the commercial space industry to formally adopt SMS. Future research studies may include direct comparisons in multiple aerospace organizations using a larger sample size to determine the overall understanding of MO factors and how it affects SMS.
... The concept of distributed sensemaking is introduced within the mainstream organisation science literature in an agenda-setting paper to understand situations where 'new meaning is induced when information is distributed among numerous parties' (Weick et al., 2005, p. 417). Here distributed sensemaking is closely related to similar concepts that describe the importance of group cognitive processes for aligning work, such as 'distributed cognition' (Hutchins, 1995) and 'heedful interrelating' (Weick & Roberts, 1993). By conceptualising the process of bringing together distributed information as a sensemaking processes, Weick (2005) adds to these concepts the idea that action and interpretation become interwoven through enactment, where people reproduce the setting they are interpreting. ...
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On Monday morning March 18, 2019 a terrorist opened fire inside a tram in the middle of the city of Utrecht. A key challenge in the Utrecht attack was making sense of the situation and organizing a coherent response in a distributed command and control structure. This is a recurrent challenge in crisis management. As command structures expand, sensemaking becomes distributed when groups at different locations develop partial images of a complex environment. While most sensemaking studies focus on how specific groups attempt to collectively construct a plausible representation of the situation, few accounts of distributed sensemaking have appeared. This study explains how crisis managers made sense of the volatile situation across different command structures. Twenty-five crisis managers from different teams were interviewed by making use of the critical decision methodology. The analysis points to five factors that influence the quality of distributed sensemaking: type of interdependence, sensitivity to operations, plausibility, hierarchy, and identity. It signals that updating one's sensemaking does not only require noticing dis-crepant cues but is especially related to key social-cognitive and organisational processes that stimulate doubt, questioning, and a plurality of perspectives.
... The principles of mindful organising originate from case studies of stable and welldefined organisations such as aircraft carriers [17] and nuclear power plants [11] and mainstream organisations such as business schools [10] and hospitals [19]. All these studies have in common that they focus on mindful behaviour within an integrated organisational unit that is defined by clear boundaries. ...
Chapter
This study uses the utility construction sector as a case to build the argument that specialisation, transience and price competition impede the reliable functioning of supply chains. These three contracting qualities obstruct the establishment of antecedents of mindfulness and the adherence to mindful organising principles. We offer three solution directions to improve contracting practice.
... Thus, a driver of stakeholder economies is that the acquiring firm's stakeholder orientation can unlock a cycle of value creation among the acquired firm stakeholders who get rewarded for behaviors viewed as consistent with the justice norm and punished for behaviors that violate that norm. The parent firm must behave consistently so the acquired firm managers learn new action-consequence patterns as experienced by themselves as well as others (Weick and Roberts, 1993). ...
... Similarly, Weick and Roberts (1993) highlight narratives as a fabric that holds groups together as they improvise their ways through difficult situations. The social fabric of innovation provides the necessary coherence and flexibility required to promote and sustain innovations (Tushman & O'Reilly, 1996). ...
... Thus, CI refers to skills and interactions and embraces the abilities, the capacities, and the possibilities that citizens have individually to achieve collective aims. CI has been studied by other researchers using other terms such as "Collective Intelligence" [4,5], "group intelligence" [6], "wisdom of crowds" [7], "vox populi" [8], "collective mind" [9] or "organization mind" [10]. In [11], a new definition of CI is provided as a small group's general ability to perform a wide variety of tasks. ...
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Collective intelligence and Knowledge Exploration (CI and KE) have been adopted to solve many problems. They are particularly used by companies as a support for innovation to efficiently obtain usable results. CI is usually defined as a group ability to perform consistently well across a wide variety of tasks, and it has to be combined with KD to ensure processes optimization, efficient management process, participative management, leadership, continuous teamwork, and so on. The importance of innovation grows the same way as the importance of mixing CI and KE, ensuring the successful exploitation of knowledge. Here, we present a quick review of current knowledge-oriented CI developments and applications. It aims at showing some observations about what's currently missing. Our editorial presents some recent interesting studies that we have gathered after a tight selection process. It also concludes by proposing avenue challenges to continue pushing CI and KE research forward, particularly regarding knowledge exploration.
... Easterby-Smith et al. (2002: 15) describe a "responsive" supervisory approach and emphasize being available and mutually committed as a student evolves through different learning process stages. Reynolds and Vince (2004) highlighted methods of "organizing reflection" and how a heedful (Weick and Roberts, 1993) assessment of performance often continues learning for oneself and others we are engaged with, reframing positions, and stimulating self-examination. Mark's constructive critical guidance, authenticity and generosity of time, and care prompted examination of my own character. ...
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This collective essay was born out of a desire to honor and remember Professor Mark Easterby-Smith, a founder of the Management Learning community. To do this, we invited community members to share their experiences of working with Mark. The resulting narratives remember Mark as a co-author, co-researcher, project manager, conference organizer, research leader, PhD supervisor, and much more. The memories cover many different aspects of Mark’s academic spectrum: from evaluation to research methods to cross-cultural management, to dynamic capabilities, naming but a few. This space for remembrance however developed into a space of reflection and conceptualization. Inspired by the range and extent of Mark’s interests, skills, experiences, and personal qualities, this essay became conceptual as well as personal as we turned the spotlight on academic careers and consider alternative paths for Management Learning scholarship today. Using the collective representations of Mark’s career as a starting point, we develop, the concept of holistic scholarship, which embraces certain attitudes and orientations in navigating the dialectical spaces and transcending tensions in academic life. We reflect on how such holistic scholarship can be practised in our contemporary and challenging times and what inspiration and lessons we can draw from Mark’s legacy.
... Nelson & Winter (1982) considered patterns of activity or routines entailing both individuals and groups. Collective mobilization of knowledge have been documented, using different terms such as "collective mind" by Weick & Roberts (1993), "collective memory" by Olick (1999), "collective competence" by Boreham (2004), "collective learning" by MacKinnon et al. (2002), "organizational schemas" by Labianca et al. (2000), "organizational memory" by Walsh & Ungson (1991), and "organizational cognition" by Alavi & Leidner (2001). In the specific field of ACAP, the majority of studies used an organizational unit of analysis like Szulanski (1996) for instance studying multiple firms, followed by Ferreras-Méndez et al. (2016), Heil & Enkel (2015) and Ritala & Hurmelinna-Laukkanen (2013) among others. ...
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This monograph investigates the involvement of firms in strategic alliances and the interplay with organizational absorptive capacity and organizational ambidexterity. The theoretical work highlights the positive aspects, as well as the negative aspects, for firms engaging in strategic alliances. The main contribution relates to the evaluation of both positive and negative outcomes of various types of strategic alliances. This monograph presents different avenues for firms regarding how to benefit from strategic alliances in terms of innovation, while avoiding threats such as unintended knowledge spillovers.
... A significant benefit of organizational routines is their capacity to generate shared understandings among participants (Cohen & Bacdayan, 1994;Feldman & Rafaeli, 2002;Hutchins, 1995;Weick & Roberts, 1993). By fostering connections among individuals engaged in joint organizational tasks, routines help people develop shared understandings about what actions will be taken and how these actions relate to broader organizational goals (Feldman & Rafaeli, 2002). ...
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This chapter reviews four projects that reflect the principles of design-based implementation research (DBIR) in an effort to highlight a range of relevant theoretical and methodological perspectives and tools that can inform future work associated with DBIR.
... Collective Leadership (Weick & Roberts, 1993), Distributed Leadership (Gronn, 2002;Brown & Gioia, 2002), Relational Leadership (Drath, 2001) and Adaptive Leadership (Heifetz & Linsky, 2017 Uhl-Bien and Arena (2018) A common response to this is to look back to existing well-rehearsed models of leadership, attaching Transactional Leadership and Transformational Leadership to each of the above (Avolio, Bass & Jung, 1999). Lichtenstein et al (2006) challenge this typology for being over simplified in a highly complex world. ...
Conference Paper
Given the pace and complexity of change for schools globally, this study investigates how leaders of international schools are navigating the future for the organisations they lead. The research draws on two pieces of existing literature, firstly that of Adaptive Leadership Theory which has mainly evolved outside the education sector and secondly literature related to the School as a Learning Organisation (SLO) which has not specifically been defined within the international school context. This study explores how relevant and applicable these two concepts are for international schools and investigates what the relationship is between the two concepts. This study is qualitative, using eleven semi-structured interviews with educational leaders working in the international school sector. The participants within this study defined, with a strong degree of consistency, their view of schools as adaptive organisations and of adaptive leadership, identifying three overarching themes: openness, strong sense of identity and empowerment. Participants also defined a set of adaptive leadership behaviours which they viewed as essential for growing adaptive capacity in international school leaders. From the data analysed within this study, the SLO concept is relevant and applicable to an international school context. This research contributes to a gap in the knowledge base relating to adaptivity in the education context, specifically in relation to international schools. Detail is provided on the characteristics of an adaptive international school and adaptive international school leadership. The research provides confidence for the applicability of the SLO model in international schools and defines the interrelationship between this and the concept of adaptivity.
... While related constructs such as safety organizing (Vogus et al., 2014), relational coordination (Gittell, 2003), heedful interrelating (Druskat & Pescosolido, 2002;Weick & Roberts, 1993), and mindfulness at team (Yu & Zellmer-Bruhn, 2018) and organizational (Vogus & Sutcliffe, 2012) levels have been discussed in the literature, they differ from mindful relating in two important ways. First, the level of analysis and conceptualization of these constructs differ in that they exist as properties of groups or organizations, rather than explicating how individual mindfulness impacts other individuals. ...
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Integrating theorizing on mindfulness and work relationships, we build a multilevel model of how mindfulness shapes interpersonal interactions and work relationship trajectories over time. Our framework of mindful relating yields three approaches an individual may utilize during an interpersonal interaction at work, based on the extent to which they incorporate the mindful qualities of attention and decentering. We theorize how the extent to which interaction partners are (in)congruent in their mindful relating approaches associates with interaction quality (positive, ambivalent, indifferent, and negative) – and how over time, this shapes the trajectory of a work relationship. We further posit that empathy, response flexibility, and emotional regulation transmit the effects of mindful relating and drive interaction quality. From a contextual perspective, we explore the roles of power dynamics and negative shock events as factors likely to impact how interactions over time collectively inform the trajectory of relationships. Finally, we explicate how our theory‐building can guide future work and make specific recommendations for theoretical and empirical advancement. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... Since the mindful organizing scale helps to identify the prevalence of mindfulness amongst team members, thus managers can utilize this construct not only for safety improvements but for general performance improvements as well. Organizations can also observe through this social construct the nature of social interaction amongst their team, as to how much they are heedful and cohesive when performing tasks in the group(35). Mindful organizing also relies upon the respectful interaction of employees as it helps them involve in mindful organizing,[17] thus opting for mindful organizing may yield interesting insights about this social interaction aspect amongst employees. Mindful organizing is the higher-order construct that emerged from the principles of high-reliability organization (HROs), that can be distinctively and separately measured.[19] ...
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AIM: This study tested the reliability and validity of the 9-item Mindful organizing scale and safety performance scale in the sample of private hospital nurses in different states of Malaysia. METHODS: Mindful Organizing scale and safety behavior scale were translated into Bahasa Malaya. To accomplish this task, the survey was conducted of 475 registered nursing staff in different states of Malaysia in 2020 through a self-administered questionnaire. For convergent and discriminant validity of our research variables, we used the Structural equation modeling (SEM) technique with the help of SPSS AMOS 21. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), reliability analysis, and analysis of aggregation through intra-class correlation coefficients indices were also carried out. RESULTS: Our results testified the unidimensional structure of the mindful organizing scale as well as for safety performance both indicators and exhibited satisfactory internal consistency for both mindful organizing and safety performance. Also, the aggregation of scores to the team level was well under the prescribed limit. CONCLUSIONS: We are confident to establish that the Malay version of the mindful organizing and safety performance scales has shown to be a reliable and valid measure that can measure collective mindfulness and safety behavior amongst nursing staff. Our translated version can be used in other high-reliability organizations (HROs) in this cultural context and other industries that also want to achieve reliability in their operational performance.
... Self-governing workforces that are interconnected, attentive and possess new levels of skill and competence underpin the deliberative capabilities of organizations (Weick & Roberts, 1993). In the case study, we elaborate on and analyze how such features operate. ...
... By this definition, the unique dimensions of proactive behavior are differentiated from other behaviors in two aspects-proactive behavior is acting in advance and has specific intended impact (Grant and Ashford, 2008). Proactive behavior is future-focused (Frese and Fay, 2001), mindful (Langer, 1989;Sternberg, 2000;Weick and Roberts, 1993), and change-oriented (Bateman and Crant, 1993;Crant, 2000). The phases of the proactivity process are shown in Figure 2. ...
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This study aims to develop a theoretical model of how a supervisor's cultural differences moderate the relationship between the proactive behavior of employees and the supervisor's favorable evaluations. We first review the literature and define the constructs. Then, we describe how the relationship between proactive behavior of an employee and the supervisor's favorable assessment level could be moderated by the differences between the models of independent or individualistic culture vs. interdependent or collectivistic culture and the cultural tightness-looseness of the supervisor. The conceptual framework and theoretical models of this relationship and moderating effects are proposed. The theoretical model of this study contributes to the organizational and strategic management literature by proposing the moderating effects of supervisor's cultural differences in assessing different aspects of employee's proactive behavior.
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In 2010, a new research stream began on collective intelligence, defined as a group's general ability to perform consistently well across a wide variety of tasks. Subsequent empirical evidence presents a mixed picture. Some studies have found groups to exhibit collective intelligence while others have not. To resolve these disparate results, we compare 21 experimental studies to understand what influences whether groups exhibit collective intelligence. We find that task structure is a boundary condition for collective intelligence in that groups exhibit collective intelligence across well-structured tasks but not across ill-structured tasks. For ill-structured tasks, collective intelligence has a more nuanced set of multiple factors that may be interpreted as different facets of collective intelligence. This research extends our understanding of collective intelligence by suggesting that the original definition of collective intelligence was too all-encompassing. Collective intelligence should be reconceptualized as a multi-dimensional phenomenon, similar to research on individual intelligence. We highlight avenues for future research to continue to move collective intelligence research forward, particularly regarding ill-structured tasks. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Chapter
Innovationen und Katastrophen sind verflochtene Phänomene. Die Sozialwissenschaften nähern sich diesem Zusammenhang jedoch skeptisch: Haben Katastrophen wirklich mit Innovation zu tun – oder sind sie nur nützliche Komplizen? Aktuelle Untersuchungen zur Gesellschaft als Labor begegnen experimentellen Praktiken nicht mit diesem symbolpolitischen Verdacht, sondern unterziehen sie ethnografischen Analysen und darauf gestützten Vergleichen. Dabei lösen sie sich von Perspektiven, die immer nur eine große Zäsur zwischen organisiert-modernen und anderen Formen des Umgangs mit Katastrophen sehen.
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This paper purposes to emphasize on a phenomena cybernetic meta-framework. It is used to coherently connect so far loosely related micro-niche areas of organization theory in a general platform. Because of the rising of global capitalism produced a self-referential political class. It has been more concerned with establishing links with wealthy business interests. Moreover, nowadays, an organizational change is the act of moving the company from where it is now to where it wants to be due to external and internal environment influences. Hence, organization theory is in crisis, due to its incapacity to create coherent platforms for the cacophony of narratives being delivered by often incommensurable, niche and micro-niche schema. This has the potential to embrace a variety of independent micro niche schema. There is an illustration which is provided by through two major variations: corporate personality and bridging the gap between cross cultural and organizational studies.
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en The exponential increase of research on corporate mindfulness in recent years is representative of growing global interest for this topic. However, past research is often presented as conflicting and contradictory. In this paper, we develop an integrative model of corporate mindfulness that establishes links between different streams of research on mindfulness while preserving their differences. To this end, we conducted a systematic literature review of research on corporate mindfulness in management journals published between 1999 and January 2020 in EBSCO Business Source Premier. A final list of 157 articles was analyzed for this review. Results reveal four types of links at the construct level among studies that are part of the different approaches to corporate mindfulness. Résumé fr L'augmentation exponentielle des recherches sur la méditation de pleine conscience en entreprise ces dernières années est représentative de l'intérêt mondial croissant pour ce sujet. Cependant, les recherches antérieures sont souvent présentées comme conflictuelles et contradictoires. Dans cet article, nous développons un modèle intégratif de la méditation de pleine conscience en entreprise qui établit des liens entre différents courants de recherche sur la méditation de pleine conscience tout en préservant leurs différences. À cette fin, nous avons mené une revue systématique de la littérature sur les recherches sur la méditation de pleine conscience en entreprise dans des revues de gestion publiées entre 1999 et janvier 2020 dans la base de données EBSCO Business Source Premier. Une liste finale de 157 articles a été analysée pour cette revue de littérature. Les résultats révèlent quatre types de liens conceptuels parmi les études qui font partie des différentes approches de la méditation de pleine conscience en entreprise.
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High Reliability Organizations (HRO) need to devise and implement organizational processes aimed to minimize the risk of failure, facing high risks and high stakes. In this paper, we look at the case of military HRO operating under Mission Command principles. Mission Command is a doctrine born to address unexpected circumstances through diffused leadership. Nonetheless, digital enabled Command and Control (C2) systems may challenge this doctrine. Remote-control technologies, automatic arms systems and tracking tools have seen a widespread application in modern warfare. Such advancements may favor purely vertical approaches whereby commanders can monitor and control the battlefield from afar. We investigate the tensions between digital enabled Mission Command and Control systems and the centripetal force of purely vertical C2 structures. This scenario contrasts with Mission Command as leaders may veer to more task-oriented approaches, which in turn may lead to a progressive decrease in accountability of subordinates. This is problematic for the entire command pyramid. We contribute to the HRO literature by shedding light on the paradoxical role of digital technologies in mission-oriented organizing.
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Healthcare information technologies (HIT) have shown great potential for improving the effectiveness and quality of healthcare services. However, the inequal ability of older adults to use HIT may limit their exploitation of these benefits. To narrow the age‐based “digital divide”, this research further develops the concept of digital capability and emphasises the link between older adults and their social context. Based on a qualitative inductive study of 33 participants, who included Chinese patients and their family members, we generate a novel theoretical model for understanding the process by which social activities may shape older adults' digital capabilities. Based on the model, we suggest two strategies that might encourage older adults to engage with HIT. This research contributes to the information systems (IS) literature by strengthening digital capability as a conceptual lens to investigate individuals' engagement with information communication technologies (ICTs). It also extends research on the social context for ICT use by revealing how social processes at multiple levels influence digital capability development. Finally, this study offers practical implications for governments and private sectors to encourage and promote ICT use by older adults.
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Healthcare organizations are systems open to their environment, which make them particularly sensitive to external influences. In healthcare systems, and in particular within certain hospital services (emergencies, surgery, etc.), resilience is ubiquitous throughout medical practice, it is a central element of clinical work. In healthcare systems, resilience is a phenomenon that can be observed on a daily basis. In this chapter, the authors aim to better understand how resilience is created, what mechanisms maintain and strengthen it, and what causes its degradation. To understand the dynamics of resilience at the level of healthcare teams, they conduct two case studies in December 2019 and January 2020, in two cardiology Intensive Care Units of two large hospitals located in Paris: Pitie Salpetriere and Bichat. The authors identify three phases for the implementation of resilience within healthcare teams: detection, adaptation process and results of the collective action.
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Over time mindfulness research and practice has taken on diverse basic assumptions and theoretical traditions, and the pseudo‐scientific use of the term has become more prevalent. Given the ubiquitousness of both personal and professional applications of mindfulness, the need for a thorough understanding of its theoretical cornerstones is necessary. In this review, we use bibliometric techniques to uncover the field's intellectual roots (Study 1), and document bibliographic coupling analysis to illuminate current research avenues across management disciplines (Study 2). Our bibliometric process covers 48 references for co‐citation and 238 articles for bibliographic coupling analyses, respectively, published between 2012 and 2020. Co‐citation analysis reveals a shift of focus from the past two historical mindfulness schools of thought (Eastern and Western) to a novel intellectual structure of the mindfulness field articulated around three distinct yet overlapping research streams. We propose integrative ways to advance mindfulness research by unpacking mindfulness processes, dimensions and development, arguing that the integration of these three main foci is necessary to advance understanding of mindfulness. Bibliometric coupling analysis identifies eight management‐related mindfulness research themes. We discuss the extent to which these eight themes have comparably explored the three foci (mindfulness processes, dimensions and development) highlighted in our model. Lastly, we use our theory‐driven review to draw on under‐developed areas of research, identifying profitable directions for future research on mindfulness in the workplace and beyond.
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In order to describe the research context of organizational resilience and explore the hot topics of current research on organizational resilience, this article reviewed 382 closely correlated literature on organizational resilience from 1992 to 2020 in Web of Science Core Collection. With the help of HistCite and VOSviewer visual tools, we drew a chronological citation graph of organizational resilience and Map of Research Subject Words Convergence. We found five subject research streams in existing research: individual resilience, team resilience, strategic resilience, environmental resilience, and supply chain resilience. Further, we pointed out seven hot topics with research value: supply chain management and shock response, agility operation and strategic flexibility, leadership traits and self-transcendence, positive psychology and emotional management, value management and organizational commitment, stakeholders, and community governance, entrepreneurial resilience, and social capital. This research provides references for the topic selection and framework construction of organizational resilience and puts forward future research suggestions.
Technical Report
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This research report summarizes the results and implications of three participative methods, which we applied and evaluated in nuclear maintenance in the PARSA project in 2019–2021. We aimed to assess whether these methods are applicable and whether they add value to participative orientation in nuclear safety improvement. The nuclear industry is highly proceduralized and technology intensive, which sets special demands for bottom-up and human-centred approaches. The changes facing the nuclear industry are ageing personnel and technology, modernization, and new ways of organizing work in nuclear power plants. This situation emphasizes the relevance of participative development (PD). New ways to commit and motivate personnel, and to develop competence, work practices and new learning through human contribution are necessary to maintain high safety levels in the nuclear domain. As an approach, PD is embedded in the art and practice of human factors (HF), which is regarded as mandatory in the nuclear energy industry. HF strives towards improved system performance, safety, and well-being. The three methods evaluated in the PARSA project were video-based reflection of workplace learning, collaborative work process analysis of maintenance work phases, and nuclear-specific human performance (HU) tools, especially pre-job briefings and post-job review. These methods are considered to improve learning and work practices, work process knowledge and mutual co-operation across organizational levels and units. This research report introduces the aims and needs of three evaluated methods as approaches to PD in the nuclear energy industry and summarizes the findings and the implications of our project. The final results of the PARSA project will be published in the end of 2022. PARSA is funded by the SAFIR2022 research programme (2019–2022), funded by the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment of Finland.
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This essay is based on theory of process modeling and the case study conducted in a Finnish nation-wide health care service organization where 112 processes were defined and modeled by 59 employees in 102 workshops. The case organization has totally more than 500 employees. Health care organizations can be regarded as high-reliability organizations, which must continuously perform in a near error-free manner despite their complex, unpredictable and dangerous operating environments. Therefore, high-quality descriptions of the processes will in particular help the activities of such organisations. Published on TALK by STUDENT Journal on 8 th of June, 2022: https://talkbystudents.turkuamk.fi/master-school/challenges-of-process-modelling-in-theory- and-practice
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Although risk is an essential element of the business landscape and one of the more widely researched topics in business, there is noticeably less scholarship on strategic risk. Business risk literature tends to only delineate characteristics of risk that are operational rather than strategic in nature. The current operational risk paradigm focuses primarily on only two dimensions of risk: the probability of its occurrence and the severity of its outcomes. In contrast, literature in the natural and social sciences exhibits greater dimensionality in the risk lexicon, including temporal risk dimensions absent from academic business discussions. Additionally, descriptions of operational risk included minimal linkage to strategic outcomes that could constrain or enable resources, markets, or competition. When working with a multidimensional model of risk, one can adjust the process of environmental scanning and risk assessment in ways that were potentially more measurable. Given the temporal dimensions of risk, risk management cannot always function proactively. In risk environments with short risk horizons, rapid risk acceleration, or limited risk reaction time, firms must utilize dynamic capabilities.
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Chapter 1 is an overview by the editor of the collection of papers in which the authors deal with various aspects of crisis management. Chapter 2 is a case study on a church fire in Grue in 1822. The majority of those killed in the fire was women and children because they were bloced from getting out. The case suggests how a crisis hits differently due to social class and power. The author relates actual topics in crisis management to the case. In chapter 24 the author discuss the role of time in crisis management, and the flood in South-East Norway in 1995 serves as a case. The result of analysis reveals that those responsible for the waterways ground the preparedness on a cost-benifit reasoning. Floods will occur due to limited capacity of hydro-power installations in the waterways. The Norwegian Parliament made decisions on the hydro-power installations more than 20 years ago. The politicians' main concern was a reduced capicity due to the public costs involved. Politicians and experts og today pay limited attention to these facts, however more on the human sufferings of those who are affected by the flood. Chapter 25 is the final chapter in the collection of papers and the editor points to implications for research and practice of crisis management. The author sheds light on a blind spot in the research literature, notably the role of power. Most researchers do not pay attention to the power of leaders, political decision-making, state building, New Public Management and communication.
Thesis
p>The definition of what constitutes advanced Purchasing and Supply Management practice has been well researched over the past twenty years. However, little contribution to this has been made by the contemporaneous research on methods used by business change leaders. This research addresses this gap by identifying the key change dynamics that enable the implementation of successful Purchasing and Supply Management development programmes. The design research is pluralistic. Action research is used to develop an organising framework while collective case study is used to identify and develop the content of the framework. The approach is qualitative in nature. The revealed implementation dynamics are organised within four distinct groups that are dependent on both the maturity and objectives of the organisation. The dynamics themselves identify enabling actions that appear to address both technical and behavioural inhibitors. This research codifies the methods that can be used to overcome barriers to change and may thus be used to support the implementation of development programmes. The value of this research is in its potential to replace the commonplace reliance on intuitive behaviour with explicit and knowledge-based applications of change management. Key Words Purchasing, Supply Management, Development, Implementation, Dynamics.</p
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Zusammenfassung Psychologische Sicherheit und Kollektive Intelligenz sind zwei Konzepte, die sich bislang in der Erforschung von Gruppenlernen und Kollaboration als förderlich erwiesen haben. Ersteres steht für ein gutes Teamklima, in dem sich jeder einzubringen vermag, Letzteres steht für die Fähigkeit einer Gruppe, in immer wieder neuen Umfeldern Lösungen und Lernen hervorzubringen. Überraschenderweise besitzen beide keinen förderlichen Einfluss aufeinander. Sie wirken auf die Arbeits- und Lernfähigkeit von Gruppen über zwei unterschiedliche Pfade, die einander kompensieren, aber nicht stärken können. Beide verlangen einen Reifeprozess in der menschlichen Interaktion, jedoch aus zwei unterschiedlichen Perspektiven: einer ich-zentrierten und einer situations-zentrierten bzw. selbst-transzendierenden Perspektive.
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