Hoodia gordonii: An overview of biological and botanical characteristics: Part 1

Article · January 2006with 13 Reads
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    Hoodia gordonii (family: Apocynaceae) is used traditionally by the Khoi-San tribes to control hunger. It has become extremely popular and has triggered commercial interest due to its appetite suppressant property. The present study was undertaken to investigate the appetite regulatory mechanism and associated metabolic changes induced by the herb. Effect of organic solvent extract of H. gordonii on food intake and body weight of male Sprague Dawley rats was monitored at three different doses 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight, given orally for five days. Subsequently, the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight was selected for further studies on the regulatory hormones and biochemical variables. Dose-dependent reduction in food intake (12-26%) was observed at a dose of 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight (p<0.05). Appetite suppression persisted for 6 h and food intake was restored within 24 h after stopping of the treatment. There was an increase in liver glycogen stores, activity of mitochondrial CPT-1 and thyroid hormones in treated animals. The circulating levels of NPY and IGF-1 were decreased with marginal increase in leptin and CCK, in case of treated rats. There was no change in blood glucose and insulin levels were not affected significantly. The hormonal and metabolic changes due to treatment with the H. gordonii extract may be responsible for its anorectic activity.
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    Hoodia gordonii is a supplement of natural origin which is known for its appetite suppressant activity. Owing to its anorectic activity, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of H. gordonii supplementation on metabolic changes and appetite regulatory peptides during calorie restriction. Male albino rats were divided into three groups (n = 12 in each) - Control, Calorie Restricted (CR, 25% for 5 days), Calorie Restricted and H. gordonii supplemented (CR + HG, organic solvent extract given orally for 5 days at a dose of 100 mg/kg bwt.). The regulatory peptides i.e. ghrelin, leptin, CCK, NPY, insulin, IGF-1, corticosterone, thyroid hormones, adiponectin, serotonin were determined. On comparison with CR rats, modulations were noticed in the appetite regulatory peptides and biochemical variables of the CR + HG rats. A significant decline in ghrelin and increase in CCK was observed. The CR group exhibited a significant decrease in leptin, IGF-1, plasma and whole brain serotonin with a significant increase in the ghrelin and thyroxin levels. These changes indicate altered metabolic responses and hunger suppression which seem to be caused by H. gordonii with CR along with the changes occurring due to CR itself. It is concluded that H. gordonii can modulate hunger during CR and may be used for better adherence to dietary restriction regime. (c) 2014 SAAB. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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    Abstract Background: Until recent times, being obese was considered to be an evidence of wealth in the South-Western part of Nigeria. As a result of a combination of wrong attitudes, ignorance and carefree lifestyle, a sizeable percentage of the population has become predisposed to obesity an emerging problem in developing economies of the world. Objective: To identify and document medicinal plants used in ethno-medical management of obesity in selected rural and urban communities within Ibadan metropolis. This is with the aim of contributing to a database of plants for future systematic biological and chemical evaluation for possible source of anti-obesity agents and drug leads. Materials and methods: An inventory of plant species/natural remedies used in folk medicine to manage obesity in two Local Government Areas of Oyo State was undertaken. Interviews using semi-structured questionnaires and open-ended conversations were conducted among eighty (80) respondents (30% men and 70% women) aged 25 years and above to obtain relevant information.. Results: A total of fifteen (15) plants belonging to twelve (12) genera and twelve (12) families were identified. The usage profiles of the plants were quantified by the quotation frequency/mention index. Respondents from the urban rely more on finished products from local and foreign blends which are mostly multi-component remedies. Conclusion: The study revealed that Ibadan is a rich source of plants indicated in management of obesity. More scientific work especially biological studies are needed to ascertain the efficacy, toxicity, safety and appropriate dosage regimen of these ethno-medicinal remedies. Keywords; Obesity, Citrullus lanatus, Overweight
  • Article
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    Hoodia gordonii is a spiny succulent plant popularly consumed for its purported anti-obesity effect. Traditionally used by the Khoi-San of South Africa and Namibia as a hunger and thirst suppressant while on long hunting trips, the commercialisation of this plant has been highly controversial due to intellectual property rights and benefit sharing issues, as well as the fact that several prominent pharmaceutical companies involved in its development have withdrawn their interest. Quality control has been the main focus of scientific studies as the supply of H. gordonii plant material is limited due to its sparse geographical distribution, slow maturation rate, need for a permit to cultivate or export material as well as high public demand, contributing to adulteration of a large amount of products. Despite the isolation of numerous steroidal glycosides from H. gordonii, the main focus has been on the pregnane glycoside P57, considered to be the active ingredient and marker molecule to determine quality of raw material and products. Publications based on scientific studies of key aspects such as in vivo biopharmaceutics, the biological activity of all chemical constituents, clinical efficacy, and especially safety are insufficient or completely absent causing great concern as H. gordonii is one of the most widely consumed anti-obesity products of natural origin. This review offers an up-to-date overview of all the current available knowledge pertaining to H. gordonii achieved by systematic analysis of the available literature.
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    Calorie restriction can occur as a consequence of food shortage due to natural calamities, war like situations or voluntarily for health benefits. This state of negative energy balance leads to decrease in performance and increase in feeling of hunger. A normal individual can sustain himself on stored energy in form of body fat for a period of time. It was hypothesised that use of an appetite suppressant like Hoodia gordonii along with L-carnintine, which helps in fat oxidation can be used as strategy for coping adverse situation without compromising physical performance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the combined effect of H. gordonii and L-carnitine supplementation on metabolic changes and appetite regulatory peptides during calorie restriction. Male albino rats were divided into two groups (n=12 in each) i.e. control (without treatment) and treated (H. gordonii organic solvent extract and L-carnitine, orally for 5 days at a dose of 100 mg/kg under 25 per cent calorie restriction). Biochemical variables including regulatory peptides were estimated along with physical efficiency tests. Significant changes in ghrelin, leptin, corticosterone and thyroid hormones were observed in comparison to control. While blood glucose, AMP kinase decreased significantly in the treated group, an increase in CPT-1 activity was observed compared with controls. It is concluded that approach could be practically suitable and effective in emergency situations of combat or food shortage.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 66, No. 1, January 2016, pp. 11-18, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.66.9178
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    This systematic review compares pregnancy outcomes and maternal satisfaction for women in group prenatal care versus those in traditional prenatal care. Keyword searches in multiple databases identified 12 studies that compared pregnancy outcomes and/or maternal satisfaction between prenatal group care and traditional care. In 11 of the 12 studies reviewed, women receiving group care had equivalent or improved pregnancy outcomes compared with traditional care, including decreased incidence of preterm birth, increased birth weight, improved weight gain during pregnancy, increased adequacy of prenatal care and greater prenatal knowledge. Maternal satisfaction with group prenatal care was high in all but one study.
  • Article
    Pregnane glycosides appear to modulate food intake by possibly affecting the hypothalamic feeding circuits, however the mechanisms of the appetite-regulating effect of pregnane glycosides remain obscure. Here we show that pregnane glycoside-enriched extract from swamp milkweed Asclepias incarnata at 25-100 mg/kg daily attenuated food intake (up to 47.1±8.5% less than controls) and body weight gain in rats (10% for males and 9% for females, respectively) by activating melanocortin signaling and inhibiting gastric emptying. The major milkweed pregnane glycoside, ikemagenin, exerted its appetite-regulating effect by decreasing levels of agouti-related protein (0.6 fold) but not NPY satiety peptides. Ikemagenin treatment also increased secretion of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) downstream of melanocortin receptors in the hypothalamus (1.4 fold) and in the C6 rat glioma cell culture in vitro (up to 6 fold). These results support the multimodal effects of pregnane glycosides on feeding regulation, which depends on the activity of melanocortin signaling pathway and BDNF.
  • Article
    Obesity is a major health concern of modern times and should be considered a global epidemic. Conventional or allopathic medicines used to treat obesity have high abuse potential and frequently exhibit side effects. Few botanicals included in natural weight loss products have been thoroughly researched on a basic and clinical level and it is imperative that this be done to validate their widespread consumption for weight management. Many natural weight loss products are sold and used globally with no (or very little) proof of efficacy or quality, and concerns regarding safety have surfaced with good reason. The continued search for new therapies has revealed multiple targets to combat obesity and highly complex plant extracts are ideally suited to fulfil a multi-targeted approach. This review explores targets for anti-obesity treatment and contains a comprehensive, yet succinct, overview of the phytochemistry and scientific evidence collated for 50 commercially important plants that have been investigated in vivo and/or clinically for their anti-obesity effects.
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