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Young athletes perceptions of the relationship between coaching behaviors and developmental experiences

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... Some individual level variables that have already been investigated are sex and age (Ntoumanis et al., 2007). Focusing specifically on disadvantaged girls, rather than on disadvantaged youth in general, is important because research shows that girls and boys experience sport differently across a number of constructs (e.g., win orientation, parent's belief in their child's abilities, amount of recognition) (Fredricks & Eccles, 2005;Gould & Carson, 2011). This often results in different developmental experiences (e.g.,Fredricks & Eccles, 2005).Gould and Carson (2011), for example, examined the links between coaching behaviours (e.g., positive and negative coaching rapport) and young athletes' perceived developmental experiences (e.g., effort). ...
... ral, is important because research shows that girls and boys experience sport differently across a number of constructs (e.g., win orientation, parent's belief in their child's abilities, amount of recognition) (Fredricks & Eccles, 2005;Gould & Carson, 2011). This often results in different developmental experiences (e.g.,Fredricks & Eccles, 2005).Gould and Carson (2011), for example, examined the links between coaching behaviours (e.g., positive and negative coaching rapport) and young athletes' perceived developmental experiences (e.g., effort). While positive coaching strategies were related to athletes' perceived developmental experiences, these relationships were significantly stronger for girls. T ...
... This is consistent with previous research related to the motivational climate of young people involved in organised sport in general (Smith et al., 2007) and disadvantaged youngsters in particular (Gould et al., 2012). The results of this study also concur with previous work ofGould and Carson (2011)reporting that coaching actions and behaviours have an important influence on the personal and social development of young people, independently of their socio-economic background. Epstein's TARGET structure is a powerful tool that could help coaches create and enhance the perception that the psychological environment in youth sport is mastery oriented (Epstein, 1989). ...
Article
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The relationship between coach- and peer-created motivational climates and Positive Youth Development is largely unexplored. This is especially true for the latter and in particular with regard to disadvantaged girls. The present study was designed to examine the relationships between perceived coach- and peer-created climates and reported developmental gains among disadvantaged girls participating in sports programmes, and to determine whether these relationships were moderated by personal characteristics. Two hundred young women aged between 12 and 22 completed a questionnaire which included the ‘Youth Experience Survey for Sport’ (MacDonald, Côté, Eys, & Deakin, 2012), the ‘Motivational Climate Scale for Youth Sports’ (Smith, Cumming, & Smoll, 2008), the ‘Peer Motivational Climate in Youth Sport Questionnaire’ (Ntoumanis & Vazou, 2005), and questions regarding participants’ socio-economic characteristics. Multilevel regression analyses were performed to take into account the hierarchical data structure. The analysis revealed that a mastery-oriented coach climate is a very strong predictor of perceived Positive Youth Development. This is based on both the number of developmental domains on which it had a significant impact and the explained variance based on the PRV values of the multi-level models. Unlike previous research on disadvantaged youth in general and disadvantaged girls in particular, the observed interaction effects did not show that disadvantaged girls necessarily gain more from their involvement in organised activities such as sport.
... Combined, these findings suggest there are distinct learning experiences related to different youth activities. However, there have been consistent concerns about the psychometric properties of the YES 2.0, particularly when it is used in sporting contexts [1] [11]. These concerns date back to Hansen and Larson's [5] introduction ...
... Research using the YES 2.0, particularly in sport, has regularly reported issues with the psychometric properties of the scale including the nature of the factor structure and internal reliability. Reported estimates of Cronbach's alphas for scales of the YES 2.0, which should be above 0.70 to indicate acceptable internal consistency, have ranged as low as 0.55 [11] [12]. ...
... The current study should also be understood within the context of the development of a sport-specific instrument to measure PYD. The YES 2.0 was in itself a response to the need of a more psychometrically sound measure than the YES, specifically for research within sport [9] [11]. In addition to the significance of the current study in the continued development of a sport-specific measure of PYD, it is important to recognize both the statistical and applied implications of the short-form YES-S. ...
Article
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Research on Positive Youth Development (PYD) has been hampered by lack of a valid measure for the construct, particularly for research in sport. The Youth Experiences Scale for Sport (YES-S) [1], is a five-factor measure of positive youth outcomes specifically designed for the sport context. The YES-S is a promising instrument that fills an important niche in PYD research, and MacDonald et al. provided support for many of its psychometric properties. However, the factor structure of the scale is currently based on an exploratory factor analysis and has not yet been subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The present study was designed to confirm the five-factor structure of the YES-S. A sample of 350 youth sport athletes (196 male, 153 female) completed the YES-S. A CFA showed that a modified version of the five-factor YES-S had excellent fit of the model to the data. An analysis of invariance showed no differences in responses in terms of gender. It is concluded that this short-form YES-S offers excellent psychometric properties while retaining the original factor structure of the YES-S. The results offer further support for the validity of the factor structure of the YES-S while providing a shorter version of the scale, which may be appealing for research with younger sport participants.
... The preponderance of evidence indicates that engagement in youth sport plays an important positive role in youth personal and life skills development [4,25]. Furthermore, youth players' positive perception about their coach, as well as his or her meaningful sport lessons, leads to reported greater development in emotional regulation and cognitive skills [26]. A positive relationship is described as "the need to feel belongingness and connectedness with others" [27] p. 68. ...
... For instance, Gano-Overway, Newton [5] found that a significant positive relationship existed between youth perceptions of a caring climate and increased prosocial behaviors. Moreover, the coachathlete relationship has a moderate positive correlation with the developmental experiences of young athletes, accounting for a positive rating of the youth sports developmental outcome [26]. The findings of this study are consistent with these results. ...
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This study aims to assess program quality and developmental outcomes of a youth volleyball project in one of the regional states in Ethiopia, and further examine variations between groups across gender and project site zones. We applied a cross-sectional survey design, collecting quantitative data from youth volleyball players (n = 215) with a mean age of 16.18 years (SD = 0.69) through a self-reported questionnaire. The results indicated that young players' perceptions did not vary significantly across gender, except for the mean score of the perceived experience variable for girls (M = 2.68, SD = 0.318) was significantly higher than the mean score of boys (M = 2.58, SD = 0.258). One-way (project site zone) analyses of variance (ANOVAs) identified that youth volleyball projects in the central zone were consistently rated higher than those in the western zone, except for the current practice rating. Moreover, correlation analysis results indicated the presence of a significant relationship, both within and between program quality and developmental outcome variables. Furthermore, the results of regression analysis indicated that the program quality variables together predicted each of the developmental outcomes, accounting for 18.9% to 31.7% of the variances. It is concluded that the quality of the youth volleyball program in Ethiopia varies considerably across the project site zones and the program quality variables significantly relate to the developmental outcomes measured with differential effects. The data from this study reveals several practical applications for Ethiopia and beyond in terms of guiding youth volleyball projects. Moreover, the findings of the study showed that youth sport and the manner in which it is structured and delivered to youth players influences the attainment of positive developmental outcomes. These results suggest that contextual differences really do have an effect on the quality of youth sport program processes and developmental outcomes.
... By differentiating sport contexts, researchers have extended empirical and theoretical explanations for the relationship between sport and outcomes. For instance, Gould and Carson (2011) found that youth in middle and high school who participated in no-contact sports reported significantly greater positive interpersonal relationships than youth in contact sports. Conversely, Baar and Wubbels (2011) found evidence that youth in contact sports demonstrated coercive aggression, whereas youth involved in no-contact sports did not. ...
... For instance, Gould et al. (2012) indicated that, middle and high school boys reported significantly more negative experiences and significantly fewer gains in life skills than girls. Similarly, Gould and Carson (2011) found that junior high and high school females, more so than males, reported that sport provided opportunities to practice identity work, initiative taking, and social skills. Related to the development of life skills (e.g. ...
Article
Rationale/Purpose: Participation in youth sport can lead to positive psychological, social, and physical outcomes. However, youth sport is highly diverse as each specific sport consists of varying contextual factors such as the type of sport, level of sport, and team gender. The current study examines the relationship between contextual factors of youth sport and what youth sport leaders (YSLs) perceive to be prominent issues and topics in their specific sport context. By understanding these relationships, positive youth development-focused coach education can be advanced to meet the diverse needs of YSLs who are charged managing the youth sport context. Design/Methodology/Approach: A brief online survey was used to identify the issues and topics that YSLs perceive to be the most prominent within their specific youth sport context. Findings: YSLs most frequently identified teamwork, parental influence, and sportspersonship. Moreover, communication effectiveness was most likely to be recognized as important for male sport teams and no-contact sport teams, while positive youth development was considered important by no-contact sports and sports with younger participants. Additionally, missed opportunities related to social justice issues that permeate sport and society are discussed. Practical Implications and Research Contribution: Findings from the current exploratory study can be used to advance PYD-focused coach education by not only identifying common issues and topics across youth sport, but also by addressing context-specific needs.
... Similarly, very few studies have addressed the perceptions of female athletes. Gould and Carson (2011) conducted one of the few studies to explore the influence of the gender of athletes in the development of life skills. Their findings indicate that female athletes reported more identity development, initiative taking, social skills, and teamwork than male athletes. ...
... Its mission is to focus not only on high performance but also on values that promote the development of people who contribute to the development and prosperity of figure skating. Second, figure skating is a sport with many coach-athlete interactions, which are central to the development of life skills (Gould and Carson 2011). Third, figure skating is an individual sport practiced in clubs that have been little explored in sport psychology research. ...
Article
Sport coaches play an influential role in facilitating the development and transfer of life skills of their athletes. In individual sports this influence may be particularly prevalent given the frequency and nature of coach-athlete interactions, which are central to the development of life skills. Yet, studies examining the development of life skills have mainly focused on team sports in school settings and with male participants. Thus, examining individual sports in community settings with female coaches and athletes can provide a unique understanding of the development and transfer of life skills within a little explored setting. The purpose of the present study was to examine the experiences of figure skating coaches and their skaters regarding the development and transfer of life skills. A multiple-case study design was used with four cases, each composed of one coach and two of their athletes. The coaches averaged more than 30 years of coaching experience and skaters competed at the provincial or national level, practicing their sport for an average of 12 years. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted with each participant. A content analysis revealed that skaters learned a wide range of life skills, including perseverance, goal setting, emotional regulation, and respect mostly because of their sports’ demands. The transfer of these life skills occurred implicitly through changes in skaters’ personality reinforced by explicit discussions with coaches, parents, and sport psychologists. These findings suggest that the complexity of life skills development and transfer requires an integrative approach between the key actors in the athlete’s sport setting.
... A majority of the sport-related youth studies in the PYD domain have focused on the impact of coaches and coach-participant relationships. Research has been related, for example, to coaching behaviour (Gould & Carson, 2011), motivational climate (Gould, Flett, & Lauer, 2012) and caring climate (Gould et al., 2012). Although it has often been indicated that peers in organised activities (including sport) can be a positive source of influence for youth development compared to other sources (such as coaches and parents), their position has received only moderate attention from researchers (Denault & Poulin, 2007;Holt & Jones, 2008;Holt & Sehn, 2008;Partridge, 2011;Smith, 2003). ...
... Girls who are underserved in the domain of sport often have a migrant background, are in low educational tracks (i.e., technical/vocational programmes) and grow up in single parent households (Sabo & Veliz, 2008;Scheerder, Taks, & Lagae, 2007;Smith, Thurston, Green, & Lamb, 2007). We also specifically focus on female participants because several researchers found that girls and boys experience sport differently across a number of constructs (e.g., win orientation, parents' belief in their child's sporting abilities, amount of recognition from their fellow team members, coaches, school or community for their athletic accomplishment), which could result in different developmental experiences (Fredricks & Eccles, 2005;Gould & Carson, 2011). Despite disadvantaged girls' marginalisation in the domain of sport, researchers assume that this group gains more from their involvement than affluent youth (Blomfield & Barber, 2010;Marsch & Kleitman, 2002). ...
Article
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It has been suggested that group composition can influence the experiences of individual group members in social programmes (Weiss, 1998). The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between peer group composition in sports programmes and positive youth development (PYD) in disadvantaged girls, as well as to determine whether it was moderated by personal characteristics. Two hundred young women aged between 10 and 24 completed a questionnaire including, among others, the “Youth Experience Survey for Sport” (YES-S) (MacDonald, Côté, Eys, & Deakin, 2012) and questions regarding participants’ socio-economic characteristics (i.e., nationality, education, family situation). Multilevel regression analyses were performed to take into account the hierarchical data structure. At the group level, a higher percentage of girls from a low educational track and with a migration background predicted greater PYD, as indicated by higher levels of personal and social skills, cognitive skills and goal setting. Results showed interaction effects between the respondents’ family structures on the participant and team levels. The overall statistical models for the different developmental domains accounted for variance ranging from 14.7% (personal and social skills) to 30.3% (cognitive skills). Results indicated that the extent to which disadvantaged girls derive benefits from their participation in sport also depends on the group composition. The interaction effects between the group composition and individual characteristics suggest that when girls participate in a group of similar peers, those from non-intact families will derive more benefits than their counterparts from intact families.
... Irrespective of one"s view on the role and impact of youth development through sport, the consensus is that positive youth development through participation in organized youth sport is contingent upon a myriad of factors (Coakley, 2011;Holt, 2011). For example, in their recent study of 297 youth sport participants Gould and Carson (2011) found significant differences on athlete reported development outcomes based on variables such as athlete gender and sport type (individual vs. team sport). The one constant across all youth sport experiences, though, is the presence of a coach. ...
... Vella and colleagues (Vella et al., 2011) have shown that youth sport coaches aim to facilitate a broad array of competencies that are consistent with positive youth development, including technical, tactical and performance skills, and life skills such as communication and decision-making skills. A coach-facilitated mastery climate in youth sports is associated with the acquisition of critical developmental and life skills including the development of identity and initiative (Gould & Carson, 2011;Gould, Flett, & Lauer, 2012). Furthermore, non-sport specific promotion of effort and persistence may aid in the generalisation of these key life skills across other domains such as schooling because beliefs about ability are consistent across multiple domains (Fry & Duda, 1997). ...
Book
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The main goal of this volume is to analyze human training to achievement contexts. Using examples of developmental and high performance contexts, topics related to talent development, athletes and teams' training for high performance situations, and leaders' training to maximum professional efficacy (including mainly the cases of sports coaches) are discussed. How to coach individuals, teams, and leaders to high performance is addressed by numerous authors. This is a journey through the complexity of human functioning being assumed in this book; it is a broad and deep perspective of the factors involved in human adaptation, human development, and human training. In summary, this book addresses the fundamental challenge referred to by Kennon M. Sheldon in the Preface of this book, namely, how to make things go right in our lives.
... There is a plethora of evidence from around the globe that highlights the role of coaches in promoting PYD outcomes, particularly life skills. Among coaches in the United States, Gould and Carson (2011) demonstrated that the more coaches spent time coaching life skills and fostering positive rapport with athletes, the more likely their athletes learned and practiced life skills. Within a Canadian context, Camiré et al. (2019) found that coach-athlete relationships and coach supportive behaviors were related to teaching life skills. ...
Background Despite the fact that research supports the positive impact coach education has on increasing the quality of athletes’ developmental experiences in sport, there remains resistance regarding the use of positive youth development (PYD) content within coach education. The purpose of the current study is to explore what scholars, who are often viewed as ‘experts,’ believe is important to include in PYD-focused coach education for high school sport coaches. Methods A set of criteria, which were aligned with the study’s aims, were established to identify potential participants: (a) scholars who studied PYD-focused coach education, sport-based PYD, and/or coach education; (b) scholars who published their work in peer-reviewed journals; and (c) scholars who were aware of the nature of high school sport and/or conducted research focused on this sport context. In total, of 162 scholars from around the world who were recruited, 30 completed the entire questionnaire. Specifically, data were collected using a 20-question online survey as a qualitative research tool to understand scholars’ perceptions of the integration of PYD content in coach education, as well as how coaches may best learn about PYD content. Findings Findings highlight that scholars believe PYD-focused coach education is relevant for high school coaches and should focus on a variety of components, including life skills, social justice, and mental health literacy. Scholars also purport that holistic athlete development may be an effective overarching framework for coach education. Further, scholars believe that coach learning should be maximized through a combination of formal, non-formal, and informal learning situations and should focus on learner-centered pedagogical strategies. Implications PYD-focused coach education should help coaches consider technical, tactical, physical, and life skill development as equally important pursuits.
... Gould & Carson, 2008;Newman & Anderson-Butcher, in press), the scoping review illustrated coaches believed discussing and teaching life skills were critical for life skill development. For instance, research by Gould and Carson (2011) indicated that coaching life skill behaviorsincluding emphasizing hard work and insisting athletes act as good representatives of their schoolwere significantly related to initiative and social skills. Additionally, Lee et al. (2017) emphasized the importance of using specific teaching strategies, including translating the meaning of life skills into the age-appropriate language, providing simple and clear definitions of life skills, and using sport-related metaphors and stories to teach life skills. ...
Article
Research demonstrates support for life skill development and in some instances the life skill transfer. However, coaching practices used to teach life skills are still being understood. This scoping review was designed to identify (a) the facilitative coaching practices related to the development and/or transfer of life skills in youth sport settings and (b) theories used to ground our understanding of coaching of life skills. As a secondary study purpose and way to promote social justice in youth sport, this scoping review was designed to highlight the inclusion of youth populations who are recognized as being socially vulnerable. In total, 51 articles were reviewed, including 25 articles that were guided by a specific theoretical orientation and 19 articles related to socially vulnerable populations. Findings identified implicit and explicit coaching practices for coaching life skills. Implicit coaching practices included developing a PYD-focused coaching philosophy, using a strength-based approach, establishing a prosocial team culture, fostering positive relationships, and supporting youth autonomy. Explicit coaching practices included discussing and teaching life skills, creating opportunities to practice life skills in sport, supplying direct feedback related to using life skills, debriefing sport experiences to enhance life skill transfer, and providing opportunities to transfer outside of sport.
... Several studies (e.g., Camiré, Trudel, & Forneris, 2009;MacDonald, Côté, & Deakin, 2010) have examined how coaches' behaviors (e.g., coaching strategies, objectives, activities) influence athletes' developmental experiences in sport. For instance, Gould and Carson (2011) conducted a study examining 297 young athletes' perceptions of their coaches' behaviors and their own developmental experiences. Findings showed that the act of coaching was a significant predictor of youth's positive experiences in sport. ...
Article
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The purpose of the present study was to explore the lived experiences of one male Paralympic athlete who maintained a longstanding relationship with his coach. This case provides insight into how a coach can serve as a key supportive agent in enabling an athlete to thrive both in sport and in life. The athlete was interviewed on two separate occasions and an interpretative phenomenological analysis was conducted. The athlete discussed the consequences of an acute bout of meningitis experienced at four years of age that left him impaired. During adolescence and adulthood, the athlete experienced the death of his mother and sister as well as the challenges associated with him assuming his homosexuality. Throughout these ordeals, his coach acted as a constant support figure. The athlete attributed much weight to his coach’s trust, respect, and empathy in explaining the significant success he attained on the international stage. The recommendations offered focus on how coaches can support athletes when athletes are navigating tough challenges.
... Staff and parents/ caregivers are important adult figures who can positively influence life skill and transfer of learning outcomes of underserved urban youth of color. The positive impact of both staff and parents/caregivers are important to document as previous studies also have demonstrated the negative impact that both key adult figures can have on youth PYD outcomes (Gould & Carson, 2011;S anchez-Miguel et al., 2013). To more effectively promote PYD outcomes, community sport-based PYD programs should be intentional in their programming. ...
Article
Youth participation in sport is associated with positive developmental outcomes. The development of life skills is especially important for urban youth of color who are often underserved and face poor long-term outcomes. To service the needs of underserved youth, community youth sport programs have begun to utilize sport-based positive youth development (PYD). Through this approach, key adult figures such as sport program staff and parents/caregivers have been identified as important mechanisms for life skill development and the transfer of learning. The aim of the current study sought to better understand how key adult figures influence life skill outcomes of urban youth of color involved in a community sport-based PYD program. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to examine the independent and interactive effects of staff support and parent/caregiver support on youth life skill and transfer of learning outcomes. Results indicated that staff support and parent/caregiver support predicted youth life skill and transfer of learning outcomes, both independently and, in some cases, interactively.
... The ability to promote PYD outcomes involved in intrapersonal and interpersonal development is at the heart of many sport-based PYD initiatives (Anderson-Butcher, Riley, Amorose, Iachini, & Wade-Mdivanian, 2014;Camire, Trudel, & Bernard, 2013;Weiss, Stuntz, Bhalla, Bolter, & Price, 2013). In addition to building positive rapport with youth, YSL coaching practices such as teaching, modeling, and reinforcing important skills have been found to significantly predict PYD outcomes such as prosocial behavior and life skill development Gould & Carson, 2011). Research has further indicated that such YSL coaching practices are positively associated with youth PYD outcomes such as self-control (Riley et al., 2016), prosocial school behaviors (Anderson-Butcher et al., 2004), leadership skills (Gould & Voelker, 2010), and the transfer of learning from sport to other areas of their life (Kendellen & Camire, 2015;Weiss et al., 2013). ...
Article
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When utilizing youth sport as a social intervention to promote positive youth development (PYD) outcomes, the programming and practices of the youth sport leader (YSL) are critical. However, many YSLs lack the education and knowledge to effectively facilitate sport towards desired PYD outcomes such as intrapersonal and interpersonal life skill development and the transfer of learning. To help guide the intentional programming and facilitative coaching practices of YSLs, Newman and Alvarez (2015) developed the Coaching on the Wave model. However, the current version of the Coaching on the Wave model lacks a clear pedagogical approach with explicit practices, strategies, and techniques that would allow practitioners to fully access its benefits. To further enhance the Coaching on the Wave model, the current paper proposes the integration of key adventure pedagogy tenets into a revised and adapted model. Through the use of the updated Coaching on the Wave model, YSLs will be better equipped to develop facilitative coaching practices to intentionally facilitate sport towards PYD.
... The relationship between perceived coaches' social support, sport achievement motivation, development and sport commitment in various sports has been the subject of extensive investigation across both genders, and particularly in relation to a generally young population (e.g. Black & Weiss, 1992, Hollembeak & Amorose, 2005, Shen, Sun & Rukavina, 2010, Gould & Carson 2011, Mazyari, Kashef, Ameri, Araghi, 2012, Williams, 2013. However no study has examined such relationships when the individual is coached exclusively by the same gender. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: To examine the relationship between the perception of same gender coaches by male and female Iranian skaters and their sport achievement motivation and commitment. Participants: Fifty two female and forty two male skaters, age range 13 to 18 years, from the province of Isfahan in Iran. Materials: The following 3 questionnaires, tested for reliability and validity for the Iranian population and adapted for Farsi, were used: i) Pelletier, Fortier, Vallerand and Briere (2001) Interpersonal Behaviour Scale to measure social support of trainers, ii) Gill and Deeter (1988) Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ) to measure achievement motivation, and iii) Scanlan, Simons, Carpenter, Schmidt and Keeler (1993) Sport Commitment Model to measure sport commitment. Procedure: The questionnaires were administered to participants in person by the first author after training sessions in sport stadiums. Results: There was a significant positive correlation between perceived coaches' social support and sport achievement motivation and commitment for both male and female participants. However, on all of the above measures females scored significantly more positive ratings than their male counterparts. Results of regression analyses conducted separately for males and females showed that relatedness support is the strongest predictor for sport achievement motivation and commitment for males, whereas autonomy support was the strongest predictor for sport commitment amongst females. Implications: These findings are of particular interest in understanding the impact of perceived coaching support for young male and female athletes, especially if coached exclusively by the same gender. Keywords: Same gender, coaches social support, achievement motivation, sport commitment, skating
... The purpose of this study was to establish whether coaches develop more effectively Findings revealed that effort should be valued more than outcome, reflecting a 6 mastery climate that fosters athlete's competencies, enjoyment and involvement in sport 7 ( Weiss et al., 2009). Similarly, the coaching role requires coaches' to develop mental 8 preparation, performance strategies, goal setting and promoting effort and perseverance 9 (Gould & Carson, 2011). ...
... Findings revealed that effort should be valued more than outcome, reflecting a 6 mastery climate that fosters athlete's competencies, enjoyment and involvement in sport 7 ( Weiss et al., 2009). Similarly, the coaching role requires coaches' to develop mental 8 preparation, performance strategies, goal setting and promoting effort and perseverance 9 (Gould & Carson, 2011). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to establish whether coaches from a multi-sport context develop most effectively through coach education programmes and whether formal learning is fostering coach effectiveness. A sample of eight qualified male multi-sports’ coaches participated with an age range of 24 to 52 years (M = 32.6, ± = 8.9) and 9 to 18 years coaching experience (M = 12.6, ± = 3.8). Qualitative semi structured interviews were employed, lasting approximately 30 to 60 minutes. The data then underwent a thematic analysis process reducing the data into six overarching themes: values of the coach; the coach’s role on athlete development; forms of learning; barriers regarding coach education; role of governing bodies; coaches career pathway. The findings of the study indicated coaches access a wide range of sources to enhance their practice, but informal learning was preferred (interacting with other coaches and learning by doing). This resulted from numerous barriers experienced surrounding the delivery, cost and access to coach education programmes preventing coaches from progressing through the pathway. However, coaches in the study feel coach education should be a mandatory process for every coach. The findings have implications for policymakers and sport organisations in developing their coach education structure.
... However, they were required to trim a significant number of items 85 to satisfy model fit criteria, resulting in a 22-item short form YES-S. All research that has examined YES based outcomes in sport has looked at adolescent populations (e.g., Gould & Carson, 2011;Wilkes & Côté, 2010) or younger (e.g., 90 MacDonald et al., 2012Sullivan et al., 2015), with no research focusing on the assessment of developmental outcomes and experiences in emerging adults. Spanning from 18 to 25 years of age, emerging adulthood coincides with the typical age range of university athletes and is 95 characterized as a time period where emerging adults gain independence from parents and explore new opportunities and possible identities (Arnett, 2000(Arnett, , 2006. ...
Article
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Limited tools assess positive development through university sport. Such a tool was validated in this investigation using two independent samples of Canadian university athletes. In Study one, 605 athletes completed 99 survey items drawn from the YES 2.0. Separate a priori measurement models were evaluated (i.e., 99 items, YES 2.0, YES-S). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM) results indicated issues with model fit. Post-hoc modifications improved fit, resulting in a 46 item, 9-factor model with five positive and four negative dimensions. In Study two, 511 athletes completed the same items. The resultant model was confirmed using both CFA (CFI = .911, SRMR = .056, RMSEA = .040) and ESEM (CFI = .956, SRMR = .023, RMSEA = .034). The resultant University Sport Experience Survey provides a reliable and factorially-valid instrument for measuring development in university sport.
... Researchers have found that coaches serve as primary sources for positive youth development. 34 Along with a strong link between young athletes' positive experiences with coaches and life skill development, 35,36 studies have also examined life skill development from a coaches' standpoint, identifying characteristics of and strategies used by coaches who are effective at developing life skills. [37][38][39] With previous research in South Africa looking at the development of life skills from the perspective of teachers and youth participants, 40,41 research that specifically includes the viewpoint of coaches could especially add to the literature. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines life skills taught by sport coaches working with children and youth in underserved areas in South Africa. A total of 19 coaches participated in five focus groups with coaches discussing the life skills they teach along with the strategies they use to teach these life skills. Twenty higher order themes emerged from the inductive content analysis related to life skills taught (e.g., self-regulation, work ethic, emotional control, substance use, and disease prevention) and strategies for teaching life skills (e.g., intentionality, group discussions, modeling, and self-exploration). Findings are discussed relative to life skill development through sport literature. Specifically, coaches’ investment in teaching life skills combined with their in-depth knowledge of their players and community are discussed as strengths directly influencing their life skills teaching. Practical implications for coaches are also explored.
... The relationship between perceived coaches' social support, sport achievement motivation, development and sport commitment in various sports has been the subject of extensive investigation across both genders, and particularly in relation to a generally young population (e.g. Black & Weiss, 1992, Hollembeak & Amorose, 2005, Shen, Sun & Rukavina, 2010, Gould & Carson 2011, Mazyari, Kashef, Ameri, Araghi, 2012, Williams, 2013. However no study has examined such relationships when the individual is coached exclusively by the same gender. ...
Article
Aim: To examine the relationship between the perception of same gender coaches by male and female Iranian skaters and their sport achievement motivation and commitment. Participants: Fifty two female and forty two male skaters, age range 13 to 18 years, from the province of Isfahan in Iran. Materials: The following 3 questionnaires, tested for reliability and validity for the Iranian population and adapted for Farsi, were used: i) Pelletier, Fortier, Vallerand and Briere (2001) Interpersonal Behaviour Scale to measure social support of trainers, ii) Gill and Deeter (1988) Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ) to measure achievement motivation, and iii) Scanlan, Simons, Carpenter, Schmidt and Keeler (1993) Sport Commitment Model to measure sport commitment. Procedure: The questionnaires were administered to participants in person by the first author after training sessions in sport stadiums. Results: There was a significant positive correlation between perceived coaches' social support and sport achievement motivation and commitment for both male and female participants. However, on all of the above measures females scored significantly more positive ratings than their male counterparts. Results of regression analyses conducted separately for males and females showed that relatedness support is the strongest predictor for sport achievement motivation and commitment for males, whereas autonomy support was the strongest predictor for sport commitment amongst females. Implications: These findings are of particular interest in understanding the impact of perceived coaching support for young male and female athletes, especially if coached exclusively by the same gender.
... High school sport coaches can be key adult figures for adolescent athletes (Gould & Carson, 2011) and highly influential on the athletes' sport experience (Stebbings, Taylor, Spray, & Ntoumanis, 2012). Based on Petitpas, Cornelius, Van Raalte, and Jones's (2005) positive youth development framework, youth sport coaches can serve as an external asset to athletes (Forneris, Camire, & Trudel, 2012). ...
Chapter
The purpose of this study was to consider predictors of happiness and well-being of high school coaches in their role as athletic coach. The study considered both the Full Life model of happiness (Seligman, 2002) and the PERMA Well-Being model (Seligman, 2011). Data was drawn from a mixed method study exploring high school coach values and happiness. Data was gathered via an open-ended anonymous on-line survey. Based on linear regression analysis, support for the Full Life model emerged: The overall regression model was significant (p < .001) and the coefficient of determination (R2) was .111. There also was support for three of the five PERMA model components. The overall linear model remaining significant (p < .0001) and the coefficient of determination (R2) a low level of predictive power at .148, as predictor of happiness/satisfaction with coaching. Positive relationships and meaning were not significant predictors of satisfaction in the role of athletic coach, whereas positive emotion, engagement and accomplishment were significant (p < .001). Implications from this study will be considered for athletic administrators, coach educators and for the coaches.
... In short, the youth sport coaches in the present study perceived themselves as using behaviors that focused on teaching proper athletic techniques, praising good performance, and considering individual circumstances. As a result, the use of positive reinforcement and encouragement behaviors has been found to create positive, sporting environments (Fraser-Thomas & Côté, 2006;Fraser-Thomas et al., 2005;Gould & Carson, 2011). Although the current study examined only the coaches' perceived behaviors, these perceptions offer distinct concepts that suggest important information for youth sport coaching (Horn, 2008). ...
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The purpose of the study was to examine coaching behaviors based on youth sport context and coaching certification. Sixty-three coaches, equally divided among three coaching contexts in Canada, and with varying degrees of certification, each completed the Revised Leadership Scale for Sport (Zhang, Jensen, and Mann, 1997). Results showed no significant interactions or main effects for context or possession of certification, which suggested that Canadian youth sport coaches exhibited similar perceived coaching behaviors regardless of context. These perceived behaviors were mostly positive, with high occurrences of training and instruction, positive feedback, and consideration behaviors. The perceived focus on positive and supportive coaching behaviors, regardless of the contextual stream or formal coaching educationmay help create environments that foster positive psychosocial development of youth sport athletes in Canada.
... In short, the youth sport coaches in the present study perceived themselves as using behaviors that focused on teaching proper athletic techniques, praising good performance, and considering individual circumstances. As a result, the use of positive reinforcement and encouragement behaviors has been found to create positive, sporting environments (Fraser- Thomas & Côté, 2006;Fraser-Thomas et al., 2005;Gould & Carson, 2011). Although the current study examined only the coaches' perceived behaviors, these perceptions offer distinct concepts that suggest important information for youth sport coaching (Horn, 2008). ...
... Future studies of longitudinal relations between youth sports, extracurricular activity participation, and positive outcomes across different ethnic groups would help increase understanding of these relationships and the specific mechanisms linking them (Bartko & Eccles, 2003). Future research might also move beyond mere participation assessments to measure the extent to which youth are engaged in physical activities-and to consider the quality of coaching or climates created by coaches, as these have been linked to positive youth development in several studies (e.g., Gould & Carson;Gould, Flett, & Lauer, 2012;Zarrett et al., 2007). ...
Article
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine relations among sports participation and positive correlates across African American, Latino, and white girls. Positive correlate variables were self-perceptions (self-worth, body attractiveness, athletic competence), less depression, and participation in extracurricular activities. Methods: The sample comprised 372 girls (mean age = 12.03 years). Data were analyzed using multiple-sample structural equation models, controlling for age and income. Results: Across all ethnic groups, greater sports participation was significantly related to higher self-worth, body attractiveness, and athletic competence, and to more extracurricular activity. Among Latino and white girls only, greater sports participation also was related to less depression. There were significant age and income influences on the positive correlates. Conclusions: Findings confirm the existence of significant relationships between organized sports participation and positive correlates among early adolescent African American, Latino, and white girls. Despite a few ethnic differences in relationships, the current study revealed more similarities than differences.
... Nos últimos anos, temos assistido a um interesse crescente em perceber até que ponto as atividades em que os jovens se envolvem podem contribuir para a promoção de experiências de desenvolvimento positivo (Dias, 2011;Gomes, 2010;Gould & Carson, 2011). Neste caso, procura-se perceber de que modo as situações e contextos onde o jovem se encontra são passíveis de representar experiências desenvolvimentais, constituindo as atividades extracurriculares uma ótima oportunidade para ajudar os mais novos a treinar competências tão diversas como saber assumir a iniciativa, aprender a desenvolver a capacidade de controle emocional e desenvolver relações positivas com os outros (Hansen, Larson, & Dworkin, 2003). ...
... Desde longa data que o sucesso na prática desportiva dos jovens parece depender da motivação e satisfação que estes demonstram durante as tarefas do treino (Martens, 1987), sendo que um conjunto alargado da investigação refere que os comportamentos do treinador têm um papel significativo na satisfação e bem-estar das crianças e jovens (e.g., Chelladurai, 1984;Riemer & Chelladurai, 1995;Riemer & Toon, 2001). De facto, as experiências desportivas dos atletas são influenciadas pelas percepções que os próprios têm do meio social envolvente e, por sua vez, influenciam os seus comportamentos (e.g., Gould & Carson, 2011). Adicionalmente, as teorias sociocognitivas têm suportado a ideia que esta associação entre a perceção do meio social e os comportamentos é ainda mediada pelas crenças motivacionais (e.g., Ames, 1992). ...
Article
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The purpose of the study was to evaluate the simultaneous influence of perceptions of the coach behavior and motivational beliefs about adolescents' satisfaction with sports. Participants were 573 young athletes (n boys = 387, n girls = 186) aged between 13 and 18 years. For data analysis, a two-step procedure was followed. First, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed factorial validity, ie, convergent and discriminant validity, and a composite reliability of variables in the measurement model. Second, the analyzes of the structural model, revealed mediating effects of motivational beliefs (ie, mastery goals, sporting self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation) on the relationship between perceptions of the coach behavior - training-education, social, and reinforcement support, and satisfaction - with young athletes sport participation. In general, the results of this study seem to broaden the knowledge of relationship between coach-athlete, highlighting the mediating role of motivational beliefs.
... Desde longa data que o sucesso na prática desportiva dos jovens parece depender da motivação e satisfação que estes demonstram durante as tarefas do treino (Martens, 1987), sendo que um conjunto alargado da investigação refere que os comportamentos do treinador têm um papel significativo na satisfação e bem-estar das crianças e jovens (e.g., Chelladurai, 1984;Riemer & Chelladurai, 1995;Riemer & Toon, 2001). De facto, as experiências desportivas dos atletas são influenciadas pelas percepções que os próprios têm do meio social envolvente e, por sua vez, influenciam os seus comportamentos (e.g., Gould & Carson, 2011). Adicionalmente, as teorias sociocognitivas têm suportado a ideia que esta associação entre a perceção do meio social e os comportamentos é ainda mediada pelas crenças motivacionais (e.g., Ames, 1992 ...
Article
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Declaração: Os autores abaixo-assinados transferem a propriedade de direitos de autor para a Unidade de Investigação do Instituto Politécnico de Santarém, que publicará um número especial com artigos sobre as comunicações apresentadas durante o Congresso. Os autores afirmam que o artigo é original, não tendo sido submetido para publicação noutras revistas, nem publicado no todo ou em parte. Afirmam que são os responsáveis pela investigação concebida e realizada; que participaram na elaboração e revisão do manuscrito submetido, cujo conteúdo foi aprovado. No caso de estudos realizados em seres humanos, os autores confirmam que o estudo foi aprovado pelo comitê de ética e que os pacientes deram seu consentimento informado. Também afirmam que a pesquisa relatada no jornal foi realizada em conformidade com a Declaração de Helsinki e os princípios internacionais que regem a pesquisa com animais. Concordam em informar Edizioni Minerva Medica de qualquer conflito de interesse que possa surgir, particularmente, quaisquer acordos financeiros que possam ter com as empresas farmacêuticas ou biomédicas, cujos produtos são pertinentes ao assunto tratado no artigo.
... Sports participation is also associated with the development of social skills and positive peer relationships (15), which may underpin increases in HRQOL. There may also be differences by type of sports participation, with team sports shown to be more strongly associated with psychosocial health among youth sport participants when compared with individual sports (13,16). Furthermore, team sports have been shown to have greater impact on quality of life in adult females than individual sports 11 . ...
Article
To investigate the longitudinal association between sports participation and parent-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children. Cohort study that used data drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children in waves 3 (2008) and 4 (2010). Participants were a nationally representative sample of 4042 Australian children ages 8.25 (SD = 0.44) years at baseline and followed-up 24 months later. After we adjusted for multiple covariates, children who continued to participate in sports between the ages of 8 and 10 years had greater parent-reported HRQOL at age 10 (Eta(2) = .02) compared with children who did not participate in sports (P ≤ .001), children who commenced participation after 8 years of age (P = .004), and children who dropped out of sports before reaching 10 years of age (P = .04). Children who participated in both team and individual sports (P = .02) or team sports alone (P = .04) had greater HRQOL compared with children who participated in individual sports alone (Eta(2) = .01). The benefits of sports participation were strongest for girls (P < .05; Eta(2) = .003). Children's participation in developmentally appropriate team sports helps to protect HRQOL and should be encouraged at an early age and maintained for as long as possible.
... In short, the youth sport coaches in the present study perceived themselves as using behaviors that focused on teaching proper athletic techniques, praising good performance, and considering individual circumstances. As a result, the use of positive reinforcement and encouragement behaviors has been found to create positive, sporting environments (Fraser-Thomas & Côté, 2006;Fraser-Thomas et al., 2005;Gould & Carson, 2011). Although the current study examined only the coaches' perceived behaviors, these perceptions offer distinct concepts that suggest important information for youth sport coaching (Horn, 2008). ...
Article
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Evidence suggests athletes will try to regulate pre-competition emotions to a state that helps goal pursuit (Hanin, 2003) and supposedly unpleasant emotions such as anger and tension have been found to associate with successful performance. The present study focused on emotional states associated with optimal performance. Male athletes (N = 222) were asked to recall an optimal sport performance and then completed the Brunel Mood Scale (Terry, Lane, and Fogarty, 2003) to assess pre-competition emotion. Emotion data were dichotomized into either a depression group (that is whether participants reported a score of 1 or more for either confusion or depression on the BRUMS) or no-symptoms of depression group (a score of zero for confusion and depression, see Lane and Terry, 2000). Results indicated participants in the depression group reported high scores of anger and tension and lower scores of pleasant emotions. Among such participants, happiness inversely related to tension. By contrast, among the no symptoms of unpleasant emotions group, participants reported higher scores of calmness, happiness, and vigor along with lower scores of anger and tension. Among such participants, happiness correlated positively with anger and tension, a finding. Findings lend support to the notion that.
... Other studies have investigated adolescents' interpretation and importance of life skills (Camire et al. 2009, Jones andLavallee 2009), perceptions of coaching behaviours and developmental experiences (e.g. Gould and Carson 2011), the relationship between internal assets (e.g. positive identity) and enjoyment and burnout (Strachan et al. 2009) and perceptions of the social climate and youth outcomes (e.g. ...
Article
This manuscript introduces our long-term project and provides Year 1 data on evaluating the effectiveness of The First Tee life skills programme in promoting positive youth development. To set up subsequent articles on this multi-phase project, we provide: (a) a review of the positive youth development theoretical framework and studies in the physical domain, (b) an in-depth description of The First Tee, a sport-based youth development programme, (c) overall project purposes and research design, (d) Year 1 samples, methodology, procedures and evaluation methods and (e) Year 1 findings for learning and transferring interpersonal and self-management skills that were taught in the programme. Findings provide initial data-based evidence that The First Tee is having a positive impact on promoting youth development in the golf context and in the transfer of life skills to other domains.
Conference Paper
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Recreational classes are one of the forms of leisure activites and teaching work that is recilized in nature. Educators point out that room and the nature of schools is of great importance for mental and physical development of each child. The aim of this work was to determine the effects of the program recreational classes versatile development of a students, first and second grade of primary school, aged 7 to 8 years. Recreational education program was implemented in Kopaonik for a period of seven days. During recreational classes students are actively involved in all activities. Program recreational classes consisted of a large number of educational and recreational activities and entertainment. Data collection method was used survey. Interviewing was conducted on the last day of the pilot simple of 40 students. The interview we get the folloving results: 38 students responded that the program recreational alasses or physical activity is very important, while two students responded that they did not. On the basis of these results, we can conclude that the program recreational classes of great importance to broad development of students.
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Models of positive youth development suggest that athletes may be influenced by parent education programmes; however, there is little research examining the impact of such programmes on athlete outcomes. This study examined the impact of the Respect in Sport Parent Program on athlete outcomes among minor hockey players over three years. This study consisted of cross-sectional and longitudinal online surveys measuring athletes’ positive and negative developmental experiences, prosocial and antisocial behaviours, parental support and pressure, and sport enjoyment and commitment. Athletes completed at least one online survey during the study period (N = 366; 84.2% males; 14–19 years of age; M = 15.4 years), and 83 athletes completed multiple surveys for longitudinal analyses. Cross-sectional results comparing athletes in leagues adopting the programme at different time points indicated significant differences in prosocial behaviours towards teammates. Multilevel longitudinal analyses revealed improvements in athletes’ antisocial behaviours towards opponents, initiative, goal setting, and cognitive skills over time, regardless of whether they were in a league that implemented the programme. However, athletes in leagues that implemented the programme during the study reported greater improvements in antisocial behaviours towards opponents, and there were trends with respect to improved personal and social skills. These findings provide suggestions to improve the delivery and impact of parent education programmes in youth sport.
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Despite cultural and statutory changes, including significant investment in Welsh medium education, latest census data show a drop in the percentage of Welsh speakers. Moreover there is a concern that many of those who are able to speak Welsh are not using it – the language is not ‘alive’. The Welsh Language Commissioner has identified sport as a space where Welsh can be used, encouraged and promoted. The aim of this study was to investigate whether community sport clubs can provide a space to encourage the use of Welsh. Using qualitative methods we found that strategies to promote Welsh in sports clubs are potentially divisive. The dominant and ‘operational’ language of many community sport clubs is English. Increasing the use of Welsh in these clubs risks excluding non-Welsh speakers, but ignoring the language denies Welsh speakers the opportunity to participate in Welsh.
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Context: Typically, athletic trainers rely on clinician-centered measures to evaluate athletes' return-to-play status. However, clinician-centered measures do not provide information regarding patients' perceptions. Objective: To determine whether clinically important changes in patient-reported outcomes were observed from the time of lower extremity injury to the time of return to play in adolescent athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) program has captured injury and treatment data in 31 sports from 147 secondary schools across 26 states. A subsample of 24 schools participated in the outcomes study arm during the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 academic years. Patients or other participants: To be included in this report, student-athletes must have sustained a knee, lower leg, ankle, or foot injury that restricted participation from sport for at least 3 days. A total of 76 initial assessments were started by athletes; for 69 of those, return-to-play surveys were completed and analyzed. Main outcome measure(s): All student-athletes completed generic patient-reported outcome measures (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System [PROMIS] survey, Global Rating of Change scale, and Numeric Pain Rating Scale) and, depending on body region, completed an additional region-specific measure (Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score or Foot and Ankle Ability Measure). All applicable surveys were completed at both the initial and return-to-play time points. Means and standard deviations for the total scores of each patient-reported outcome measure at each time point were calculated. Change scores that reflected the difference from the initial to the return-to-play time points were calculated for each participant and compared with established benchmarks for change. Results: The greatest improvement in patient-reported outcomes was in the region-specific forms, with scores ranging from 9.92 to 37.73 on the different region-specific subscales (Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score or Foot and Ankle Ability Measure; scores range from 0-100). The region-specific subscales on average still showed a 21.8- to 37.5-point deficit in reported health at return to play. The PROMIS Lower Extremity score increased on average by 13 points; all other PROMIS scales were within normative values after injury. Conclusions: Adolescent athletes who were injured at a high school with an athletic trainer may have shown improvement in patient-reported outcomes over time, but when they returned to play, their outcome scores remained lower than norms from comparable athlete groups.
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Over the past decades, research related to youth´s positive development through sport has advanced significantly. The objective of the present study was to systematically review the literature regarding the coaches´ role in promoting positive youth development through sport. Thirty articles, published in specialized magazines portraying this issue between 2000 and 2016 were selected. Most studies analyzed the perceptions of coaches, using qualitative methodologies. However, there are few that aimed at a deeper understanding of coaches' practices. In the future, it would be important to use methodologies that address the observation of personal and social responsibility behaviors promoted by these sports agents, which would allow to understand how these concepts are shared with youth.
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The growing field of sport-based youth development has explored the role of coaches in fostering athletes’ lifelong skills to deal with stressors and challenges they encounter as they transition into adulthood. However, the contribution of sport psychologists in implementing programs has received little attention and could provide a beneficial catalyst in facilitating youth development given their training and expertise. In addition, the use of resilience-related life skills could support adolescents in overcoming adversity beyond sport. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to provide a narrative on the experiences of a trainee sport psychologist in designing and delivering a resilience-based life skills program.
Chapter
This chapter examines the mental development of young tennis players. Sport and exercise psychology is defined as the need for developmentally appropriate tennis discussed, stages or athletic development delineated, and psychosocial characteristics of children at various chronological stages summarized. Key topics pertaining to the development of the young player are discussed and include motivation for participation and withdrawal, stress and burnout effects, and best coaching and sport-parenting practices. Lastly, psychological skills development for young athletes is discussed.
Chapter
This chapter examines the research on using sport to promote life skills in children and youth and, based on this literature, derives implications for guiding practice. Specifically, the research and theory on factors associated with positive youth development across all out of school or after school activity program contexts is discussed. Next, the sport psychological research on promoting life skills through sport is reviewed. Example programs designed to promote life skills in children and youth through sport participation are discussed, as are theoretical explanations for how life skills are developed and influence young people. Finally, specific strategies and policies that can be used to promote life skills in children and youth through sport are examined. It is concluded that sport and physical activity contexts are wonderful places for promoting life skills. However, the development of life skills only occurs when these skills are systematically fostered and taught by caring, competent adults who use both direct and indirect strategies for doing so.
Chapter
Youth sport settings can, and should, be viewed as principle settings for nurturing a wide range of positive developmental outcomes. Coaches are increasingly being called upon to assume this responsibility. The purpose of this chapter is to provide positive youth development guidelines for youth sport coaches and coach educators. The guidelines are based on a comprehensive review of conceptual and empirical literature related to positive youth development in sport and across youth development settings. The Social Cognitive Theory of Achievement Motivation (Dweck, 1999), and implicit beliefs about ability in particular, provides the conceptual framework for our positive youth development guidelines. Insights gleaned from this framework are used to make recommendations for youth sport coaching practice and coach education design. More specifically, six instructional strategies designed to facilitate positive youth development through sport are discussed: (1) a focus on effort and persistence, (2) promoting challenge, (3) promoting the value of failure, (4) defining success as giving your best effort, (5) promoting learning, and, (6) providing high performance expectations. In order to best equip coaches to facilitate positive developmental outcomes a blended approach to coach training has been outlined. According to this approach, foundational training designed to impart generic and sport-specific professional and interpersonal knowledge should be supplemented by opportunities for formal and guided reflection to increase self-awareness.
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This article presents the results of a scoping review of the sport literature (2000-2014) on psychological and social outcomes relevant to youth alcohol and illicit drug use. Prior reviews report that sport is related to increased alcohol use and reduced illicit drug use among youth, yet provide little guidance regarding the mechanisms that can explain this relationship. We reviewed the literature on sport participation and psychological and social outcomes to identify factors that could help explain this link. Psychological and social factors were selected as they play a paramount role in understanding youth alcohol and drug use. Fifty-nine articles were identified and included in the review. The literature generally supported connections between sport and positive psychological and social outcomes, including self-esteem, self-regulation, general life skills, and pro-social behaviour. Yet limitations in the methods and measures limit the ability to draw conclusions from the literature. In addition, the diversity of youth and sport was generally ignored in the literature. This article suggests a number of directions for future research that might improve our understanding of how sport impacts psychological and social outcomes along with alcohol and illicit drug use.
Article
Objectives This study was designed to assess developmental outcomes underserved youth report from their sports participation; identify perceptions of the sports climate their coaches create; and, measure the relationships between participants reported gains and perceptions of the psychosocial sports climate.Method Participants were 239 urban youth sports participants from an underserved community who completed the Youth Experiences Scale (YES-2), Sport Motivational Climate Scale, Caring Climate Scale and measures of the importance their coaches placed on life skills.ResultsMultivariate analyses revealed a number of significant relationships between YES-2 outcomes and motivation and caring climate predictor variables, which clearly show that the more coaches create caring, mastery-oriented environments, the more likely positive developmental gains result.Conclusion These findings are consistent with the previous motivational (Smith, Smoll, & Cumming, 2007) and caring climate (Fry & Gano-Overway, 2010) research and shows that coaching actions and climates have an important influence on personal and social development of young people.
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