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Fish oil, polyphenols, and physical performance

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SPORTO MOKSLAS / 2015, Nr. 4(82), ISSN 1392-1401 / eISSN 2424-39492
ĮVADAS
INTRODUCTION
Sporto mokslas
 
Fish oil, polyphenols, and physical performance
Dr. Paul R. Clayton1, Dr. Linda Saga2, Ola Eide2
Institute of Food, Brain & Behavior, United Kingdom1, BioActive Foods AS, Norway2
Summary
Due to dietary changes since 1900, including reduced intakes of oily sh and the commoditisation of plant oils,
Omega 6/3 ratios rose consistently from around 1-2:1 and now the average is 15:1 in the United Kingdom and
25:1 in the United States of America. These abnormally high ratios create an increased tendency towards chronic
inammation and provide a signicant cause of chronic degenerative diseases. As chronic inammation involving
skeletal muscle and articular tissues hampers sporting and athletic performance, we identied a Norwegian
professional team of football players, which had a signicant absenteeism rate due to infection and injury, as a
candidate for a pharmaconutritional program designed to reduce the 6:3 ratio. We hypothesised that such a change
would reduce players’ burden of chronic inammation and contribute to various types of performance enhancement.
Initially, we tested the blood of all players in Lillestrøm Sports Club (LSK) and found that their average Omega 6:3
ratio was 12.5:1. Then we implemented a dietary program, which included an Omega-3 / lipophile polyphenol blend
and which was continued over a 6-month period. This duration was necessary as it was already known that changes
in cell membrane lipid populations would take at least 3 months to achieve, due to the slow rate of turnover of the
phosphatidyl phospholipid components in cell membranes.
By the end of the intervention period, we were able to reduce their average Omega 6/3 ratios from 12.5 to
3.5. Rates of absenteeism, due to infection and injury, were reduced by 85 and 57% respectively, contributing to
improved performance, morale, and position in the league. The Omega 3 / lipophile polyphenol pharmaconutritional
intervention provided an extremely cost-effective way of optimising individual and particularly team performance
leading to expressions of interest from many other clubs both in Norway and abroad and from the representatives of
many other team sports.
This initial study has inherent limitations as it was an open design without a control group and as such was
vulnerable to the placebo and Hawthorne effects. It may be argued that the duration of the study is long enough to
minimise such effects but, from a purist perspective, those potential confounders cannot be excluded. Accordingly, we
are planning to follow up this initial study with more rigorously designed trial utilising placebo control and longer
duration, possibly, as long as 12 months. We hope to be able to report on this trial in Q1 2017.
Keywords: ω3, ω6, polyphenols, lipophile, performance, chronic inammation.
Introduction

  
      

    
      
     

      
    






     

      

       
        





   


       
        

3SPORT SCIENCE / No. 4(82), 2015, ISSN 1392-1401 / E-ISSN 2424-3949
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        

        

    


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

    
     
      



         
      
        
      

      



        

       
      
    

   
      
    
 

   
    
       


    
       






     
        

    

Materials and methods
        
      
       
     
      
    
 
       

Preventative Health at Lillestrøm Sports Club
(LSK), Norway

  
       
     
      








   



Results
       




      

        
        
   
     
      
        

SPORTO MOKSLAS / 2015, Nr. 4(82), ISSN 1392-1401 / eISSN 2424-39494

      
       
      

        
 
    



Fig. 1.

Fig. 2.
          

Fig. 3.
Discussion

       



    
       
       
      




      

         
     





  



       
      
        


     
      
       

      
        


       




         

         




      
      
 
5SPORT SCIENCE / No. 4(82), 2015, ISSN 1392-1401 / E-ISSN 2424-3949






       
   
      

       
   

Conclusion
     

   
     


     
        

    
      
     
        
     
     


     




 Lipids,
       

Fisheries & Aquaculture.

 Lipids, 

 
       
      

Clinical Science,



  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,



  
        European
Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 


. Journal of Membrane Biology, 
155–163.
         
         
  
     
   
Atherosclerosis

. International Journal of Environmental
Research and Public Health

 Journal of the Royal Society of
Medicine
        
     Encephale, 

Personal Communication.

       Forum of
Nutrition



    Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis
and Vascular Biology


        


  International Journal of Environmental
Research and Public Health

       
       
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
          
         
    
       
   Journal of the International Society of
Sports Nutrition,
  



. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology



       

 Annals of Internal Medicine
SPORTO MOKSLAS / 2015, Nr. 4(82), ISSN 1392-1401 / eISSN 2424-39496

       
  
 British Journal of Nutrition
163–173.





Human Molecular Genetics,
   
 Prostaglandins & other
Lipid Mediators,
        
        

      
 Nutrition and Cancer


  

Thrombosis and Haemostasis
          
        

 Journal of Applied Physiology,


  Military Medicine,  
156.
  
. Biomedicine and
Pharmacotherapy
        

    Experimental Biology and
Medicine (Maywood), 



 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 
115–122.
Data on File.
        
        

 Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry

       
       

 
Free Radical Research
435.

 
Journal of Thrombosis and
Haemostasis,

Dr. Paul R. Clayton1, Dr. Linda Saga2, Ola Eide2
Maisto, smegenų ir elgesio institutas1, Oksfordas, JK, Bioaktyvieji maisto produktai2, Norvegija

       



     
      


  




     






      
Lillestrom
  



 
     
   
 

  
      




   


7SPORT SCIENCE / No. 4(82), 2015, ISSN 1392-1401 / E-ISSN 2424-3949
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
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    
      
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Raktažodžiai: 
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Article
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While the Inuit diet was highly cardio-protective and consuming oily fish within a Western diet is to a lesser degree, the case for purified fish oil supplements is less convincing. Purification of fish oil removes lipophilic polyphenols which likely contribute to the health benefits of oily fish; leaving the ω3 highly unsaturated fatty acids exposed and prone to conferring oxidative and inflammatory stress. The authors believe that due to such issues as dietary shift, it may now be inadvisable to prescribe or sell purified ω3 highly unsaturated fatty acids supplements, unless the appropriate co-factors are included.
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The aim of the study was to assess the effect of a polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation on the parameters of body composition, muscle strength and physical performance in elderly people with decreased muscle mass (DMM). Fifty three elderly people with an ALM index (the ratio of appendicular lean mass to squared height) either below (-2SD: low muscle mass-LMM) or between (-1SD and -2SD: the risk of LMM-rLMM) the ALM index for the young Polish reference population were randomly assigned to PUFA-treated groups (LMM-PUFA, rLMM-PUFA) or control groups (LMM-control, rLMM-control). PUFA-treated groups received capsules containing 1.3 g of PUFA and 10 mg of vitamin E, while the control groups received 11 mg of vitamin E daily for 12 weeks. Body composition (BIA analysis), muscle strength (hand grip measured with dynamometer) and physical performance (Timed Up and Go test-TUG) were assessed before and after supplementation. No statistically significant differences were observed either in muscle mass or in the hand grip and TUG in any group. The post-pre difference (mean ± SD) in ALM index was as follows (kg/m²): LMM-PUFA: 0.00 ± 0.30, rLMM-PUFA: 0.00 ± 0.22, LMM-control: 0.03 ± 0.36, rLMM-control: -0.03 ± 0.20. In our study, a 12 week supplementation of PUFA did not affect the evaluated parameters in elderly individuals with DMM.
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Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (N-3) are essential nutrients for human health and integral components of neural tissues. There is evidence that N-3 supplementation may benefit exercise performance, however, no study has investigated the ergogenic potential of N-3 supplementation. Our objective was to determine the effect of short-term N-3 supplementation on neuromuscular-function and physical-performance in well-trained athletes. Male athletes (n = 30), 25 years (SD 4.6), training 17 h(.)wk(-1) (SD 5) completed this randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-design study. At baseline a blood sample was collected, maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) with electromyography (EMG) recordings were measured, and participants underwent various performance tests including a Wingate test and 250 kJ time trial (TT) followed by repeated MVC and EMG measurement. Participants were then randomly assigned to receive N-3 (5 ml seal oil, 375 mg EPA, 230 mg DPA, 510 mg DHA) or placebo (5 ml olive oil) for 21-days after which baseline testing was repeated. The magnitude-based inference approach was used to estimate the probability that N-3 had a beneficial effect on neuromuscular-function and performance of at least ±1 %. Data are shown as mean ± 90 % confidence-interval. Plasma EPA was higher on N-3 than placebo (p = 0.004) but the increases in DPA and DHA were not significant (p = 0.087, p = 0.058). N-3 supplementation had an unclear effect on MVC force (4.1 ± 6.6 %) but increased vastus lateralis EMG by 20 ± 18 % vs placebo (very likely beneficial). N-3 supplementation reduced Wingate percent power drop by 4.76 ± 3.4 % vs placebo (very likely beneficial), but the difference in TT performance was unclear (-1.9 ± 4.8 %). Our data indicates N-3 PUFA supplementation improved peripheral neuromuscular function and aspects of fatigue with an unclear effect on central neuromuscular function. Clinical trial registration NCT0201433.
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The consumption of omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) essential fatty acids in Western diets is thought to have changed markedly during the 20th century. We sought to quantify changes in the apparent consumption of essential fatty acids in the United States from 1909 to 1999. We calculated the estimated per capita consumption of food commodities and availability of essential fatty acids from 373 food commodities by using economic disappearance data for each year from 1909 to 1999. Nutrient compositions for 1909 were modeled by using current foods (1909-C) and foods produced by traditional early 20th century practices (1909-T). The estimated per capita consumption of soybean oil increased >1000-fold from 1909 to 1999. The availability of linoleic acid (LA) increased from 2.79% to 7.21% of energy (P < 0.000001), whereas the availability of α-linolenic acid (ALA) increased from 0.39% to 0.72% of energy by using 1909-C modeling. By using 1909-T modeling, LA was 2.23% of energy, and ALA was 0.35% of energy. The ratio of LA to ALA increased from 6.4 in 1909 to 10.0 in 1999. The 1909-T but not the 1909-C data showed substantial declines in dietary availability (percentage of energy) of n-6 arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Predicted net effects of these dietary changes included declines in tissue n--3 highly unsaturated fatty acid status (36.81%, 1909-T; 31.28%, 1909-C; 22.95%, 1999) and declines in the estimated omega-3 index (8.28, 1909-T; 6.51, 1909-C; 3.84, 1999). The apparent increased consumption of LA, which was primarily from soybean oil, has likely decreased tissue concentrations of EPA and DHA during the 20th century.
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Supplementation with fish oils, rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, modifies cardiovascular risk factors. However, dose-response relationships are poorly defined and whether similar effects are seen in young and older subjects is not known. This study determined the effect of supplementing the diet of young and older male subjects with different amounts of an eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich oil. Healthy young (18-42 years) and older (53-70 years) males were randomized to placebo or 1.35, 2.7 or 4.05 g EPA/day for 12 weeks. There was no effect of EPA on blood pressure or on plasma total, LDL or HDL cholesterol. EPA lowered plasma triacylglycerols, with the maximal effect at the lowest dose. Plasma lipoperoxides decreased in all groups. EPA decreased the lag time of copper-induced lipoprotein peroxidation and the ratio of reduced to total glutathione in the older subjects. The highest dose of EPA increased soluble E-selectin in young subjects, while increasing EPA tended to decrease soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 in young and older subjects. Young and older males will gain cardiovascular benefit from increased intake of EPA. Young males are unlikely to suffer adverse consequences from high EPA intake, whereas older males may have an increased risk of lipoprotein peroxidation.
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Red-meat is an integral part of the Western diet and high consumption is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases. Using a system that simulated the human stomach, red-meat was interacted with different oils (olive/fish) and lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipid peroxides (ROOH). Olive oil decreased meat lipid peroxidation from 121.7±3.1µM to 48.2±1.3µM and from 327.1±9.5µM to 77.3±6.0µM as assessed by MDA and ROOH, respectively. The inhibitory effect of olive oil was attributed to oleic acid rather than its polyphenol content. In contrast, fish oils from tuna or an ω-3 supplement dramatically increased meat lipid peroxidation from 96.2±3.6µM to 514.2±6.7µM MDA. Vitamin E inhibited meat lipid peroxidation in the presence of olive oil but paradoxically increased peroxidation in the presence of fish oil. The inhibitory properties of oleic acid may play a key role in the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet.
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Age-associated declines in muscle mass and function are major risk factors for an impaired ability to carry out activities of daily living, falls, prolonged recovery time after hospitalization, and mortality in older adults. New strategies that can slow the age-related loss of muscle mass and function are needed to help older adults maintain adequate performance status to reduce these risks and maintain independence. We evaluated the efficacy of fish oil-derived n-3 (ω-3) PUFA therapy to slow the age-associated loss of muscle mass and function. Sixty healthy 60-85-y-old men and women were randomly assigned to receive n-3 PUFA (n = 40) or corn oil (n = 20) therapy for 6 mo. Thigh muscle volume, handgrip strength, one-repetition maximum (1-RM) lower- and upper-body strength, and average power during isokinetic leg exercises were evaluated before and after treatment. Forty-four subjects completed the study [29 subjects (73%) in the n-3 PUFA group; 15 subjects (75%) in the control group]. Compared with the control group, 6 mo of n-3 PUFA therapy increased thigh muscle volume (3.6%; 95% CI: 0.2%, 7.0%), handgrip strength (2.3 kg; 95% CI: 0.8, 3.7 kg), 1-RM muscle strength (4.0%; 95% CI: 0.8%, 7.3%) (all P < 0.05), and tended to increase average isokinetic power (5.6%; 95% CI: -0.6%, 11.7%; P = 0.075). Fish oil-derived n-3 PUFA therapy slows the normal decline in muscle mass and function in older adults and should be considered a therapeutic approach for preventing sarcopenia and maintaining physical independence in older adults. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01308957. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Article
A clinical study was undertaken to evaluate the associations between the tissue levels of omega-3 (N3), also known as the Omega-3 Index (N3 Index), on various clinical and quality of life outcomes in healthy young adults after heavy eccentric exercise.. To ensure an adequate number of participants with an elevated N3 index would be available for comparison to those with a lower N3 Index, a subgroup of the study participants received N3 dietary supplementation (2.7 g·d(-1)) for 30 days prior to the performance of the heavy eccentric exercise. The remaining participants received a placebo supplement for the same 30-day period. After 30 days of supplementation, participants performed an eccentric exercise routine and were then measured at baseline (time 0), 24-, 48-, 72-, and 96 hours respectively on the following outcomes; C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase. Blood lactate levels were analyzed immediately after the exercise. Functional measurements of delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), extension and torque were also analyzed. Quality of life (QOL) was measured by the quantitative questionnaire, the Profile of Mood States Questionnaire (POMS). Safety monitoring and analysis of adverse events was continuous throughout the study. Differences as demonstrated by a reduction in pain following eccentric exercise was experienced at both 72 and 96 hour time points in subjects with a higher N3 Index however there were no differences in extension or strength between the two groups. There was a significant difference in blood lactate levels (p = 0.0309) and improved emotional stability, reflected by the POMS questionnaire, in subjects with a higher N3 Index level. There was a statistically significant difference in CRP levels in subjects with a higher N3 Index level at 24 hours and a trend toward significance over 96 hours. There were no significant differences in creatine kinase levels and no reported adverse events. Subjects with a higher Omega-3 (N3) Index reported less pain related to DOMS following heavy exercise at 72 and 96 hours post-exercise. Reduced pain in the higher N3 Index Group may be due to an increased concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in the muscle cell walls, thus triggering a higher elasticity, flexibility and lower risk of physical damage to muscle tissue during exercise. Serum levels of blood lactate were lower in subjects with a high N3 Index, CRP was reduced at 24 hours and POMS scores were improved in high N3 Index subjects demonstrating better QOL. No serious adverse events were reported further supporting that omega-3 dietary supplementation is safe, bio-available and may improve athletic performance and well being in healthy young adults. Key PointsOmega-3 index (N3) is elevated after supplementation versus placebo in healthy young adultsSubjects with higher N3 index demonstrated reduced DOMS after heavy exerciseSubjects with higher N3 index reported better quality of life.
Article
Chinese translation Long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5ω-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (22:5ω-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6ω-3), have been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk, but effects on cause-specific and total mortality and potential dose-responses remain controversial. Most observational studies have assessed self-reported dietary intake and most randomized trials have tested effects of adding supplements to dietary intake and evaluated secondary prevention, thus limiting inference for dietary ω3-PUFAs or primary prevention. To investigate associations of plasma phospholipid EPA, DPA, DHA, and total ω3-PUFA levels with total and cause-specific mortality among healthy older adults not receiving supplements. Prospective cohort study. 4 U.S. communities. 2692 U.S. adults aged 74 years (±5 years) without prevalent coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, or heart failure at baseline. Phospholipid fatty acid levels and cardiovascular risk factors were measured in 1992. Relationships with total and cause-specific mortality and incident fatal or nonfatal CHD and stroke through 2008 were assessed. During 30 829 person-years, 1625 deaths (including 570 cardiovascular deaths), 359 fatal and 371 nonfatal CHD events, and 130 fatal and 276 nonfatal strokes occurred. After adjustment, higher plasma levels of ω3-PUFA biomarkers were associated with lower total mortality, with extreme-quintile hazard ratios of 0.83 for EPA (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.98; P for trend = 0.005), 0.77 for DPA (CI, 0.66 to 0.90; P for trend = 0.008), 0.80 for DHA (CI, 0.67 to 0.94; P for trend = 0.006), and 0.73 for total ω3-PUFAs (CI, 0.61 to 0.86; P for trend < 0.001). Lower risk was largely attributable to fewer cardiovascular than noncardiovascular deaths. Individuals in the highest quintile of phospholipid ω3-PUFA level lived an average of 2.22 more years (CI, 0.75 to 3.13 years) after age 65 years than did those in the lowest quintile. Temporal changes in fatty acid levels and misclassification of causes of death may have resulted in underestimated associations, and unmeasured or imperfectly measured covariates may have caused residual confounding. Higher circulating individual and total ω3-PUFA levels are associated with lower total mortality, especially CHD death, in older adults. National Institutes of Health.
Article
The Omega-3 Index has been defined as eicosapentaenoic plus docosahexaenoic acids in erythrocytes. Integral part of the definition is a standardized analytical procedure, which conforms to the standards of Clinical Chemistry. This resulted in more than 90 collaborative research projects, concluded and ongoing, and 64 publications so far. The Omega-3 Index is emerging as a risk factor for fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. This standardized analysis of fatty acid patterns adds incremental information to standard risk factor algorithms, and it correctly reclassifies persons from intermediate to high or low risk. Circumstantial evidence indicates that determining the Omega-3 Index has a therapeutic consequence. Thus, the Omega-3 Index fulfils important criteria for novel biomarkers, set forth by the American Heart Association and others, and compares well to other novel biomarkers. Future results will add precision to the value of the Omega-3 Index in cardiology, and probably expand its application to other areas, like psychiatry and pregnancy.