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Computational paradigm has been revolving round cloud computing and its offshoots for some time and till we see a breakout resulting in a breakthrough technology driven by advances in microelectronics and material technology. Till we experience a radically efficient technology for computation it is worth juxtaposing the virtues of cloud computing and market‟s longing for offering cost and quality arbitrage to the marketplace. Integration of cloud computing in enterprises has the potential to influence the way business gets carried out by them in the market place. Different reports show that demand for cloud computing products and processes is in an upward growth trajectory. This paper identified the characteristics, drivers and constraints of cloud computing which influence its adaptation and integration in enterprises. We are also examining India specific opportunities and threats of cloud computing tools and cloud driven practices in the context of fierce competition among enterprises to remain competitive in the marketplace by reducing software licensing fees, cost of capital to acquire digital systems and cost of maintenances. New directions in cloud computing are analyzed by using Gartner strategic technologies and trend in research publications. Paper focuses on exploring the research issues which are categorized into technical and business in nature for understanding the evolving fortunes of cloud computing. Number of papers published in IEEE is an indication of the popularity and relevance of the continued research initiatives happening in the area. It is also noticed that that very few researchers are attempting to understand the possibility of remodeling business processes leveraging the new found computational paradigm.
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I.J. Information Technology and Computer Science, 2015, 10, 42-53
Published Online September 2015 in MECS (http://www.mecs-press.org/)
DOI: 10.5815/ijitcs.2015.10.06
Copyright © 2015 MECS I.J. Information Technology and Computer Science, 2015, 10, 42-53
Cloud Computing A market Perspective and
Research Directions
Amol C. Adamuthe, Vikram D. Salunkhe, Seema H. Patil
Rajarambapu Institute of Technology, Sangli, MS, India
E-mail: amol.admuthe@gmail.com
Gopakumaran T. Thampi
Dept. of IT, TSEC, Bandra, Mumbai, MS, India
E-mail: gtthampi@yahoo.com
AbstractComputational paradigm has been revolving
round cloud computing and its offshoots for some time
and till we see a breakout resulting in a breakthrough
technology driven by advances in microelectronics and
material technology. Till we experience a radically
efficient technology for computation it is worth
juxtaposing the virtues of cloud computing and market‟s
longing for offering cost and quality arbitrage to the
marketplace. Integration of cloud computing in
enterprises has the potential to influence the way business
gets carried out by them in the market place. Different
reports show that demand for cloud computing products
and processes is in an upward growth trajectory. This
paper identified the characteristics, drivers and
constraints of cloud computing which influence its
adaptation and integration in enterprises. We are also
examining India specific opportunities and threats of
cloud computing tools and cloud driven practices in the
context of fierce competition among enterprises to remain
competitive in the marketplace by reducing software
licensing fees, cost of capital to acquire digital systems
and cost of maintenances.
New directions in cloud computing are analyzed by
using Gartner strategic technologies and trend in research
publications. Paper focuses on exploring the research
issues which are categorized into technical and business
in nature for understanding the evolving fortunes of cloud
computing. Number of papers published in IEEE is an
indication of the popularity and relevance of the
continued research initiatives happening in the area. It is
also noticed that that very few researchers are attempting
to understand the possibility of remodeling business
processes leveraging the new found computational
paradigm.
Index TermsCloud computing, market perspective,
drivers, constraints.
I. INTRODUCTION
Cloud computing can be thought of as the successor of
grid computing. In reality, it embodies aspects of
mainframe, cluster and grid computing [1]. Cloud
computing is a shifting of paradigm from old mainframe
environment to the thin client based architecture [2].
Computing clouds are developed on large datacenters
hosted by a single organization that provides services to
others. These services are flexible, on demand and on a
pay-per-use basis.
Cloud computing has received increasing interest from
enterprises since its inception [3]. Recently cloud service
providers are offering a wide range of solutions to
businesses. Enterprise businesses are moving their IT
services, applications and infrastructure to cloud-based
architecture. According to IHS Technology, the market
revenue in this segment will rise rapidly by a factor of
three from 2011 to 2017 [4]. Cloud computing markets at
$36 billion in 2008 are expected to reach $160.2 billion
by 2015 [5]. Ovum Research forecasted the global cloud
services market will reach revenues of $66 billion in 2016,
with an annual growth rate of almost 30 per cent [6].
Research firm Forrester has projected public cloud
services worth $14.7 billion in 2010 will generate a six-
fold increase in revenue for cloud vendors of $94.1
billion by 2015 [6]. According to paper [7] wide adoption
of cloud computing in a near future is unavoidable. The
forecasted results from various reports show that cloud
computing is growing rapidly.
Table 1 indicates the number of research publications
in IEEE Xplore and ScienceDirect searched using
keyword “Cloud Computing”. This data is collected from
the year 2006 to year 2014. The data is accessed in
November 2014. The trend of number of papers
published in IEEE Xplore and ScienceDirect is increasing.
Table 1. Research Publications (from 2006 to 2014) in IEEE Xplore and
ScienceDirect for the “Cloud computing”.
Year
IEEE Xplore
ScienceDirect
2006
0
1
2007
0
0
2008
205
10
2009
1103
104
2010
2824
293
2011
4650
618
2012
6844
864
2013
7576
1335
2014
3969
1677
Cloud computing has received attention by both
industry professionals and researchers. Increasing interest
Cloud Computing A market Perspective and Research Directions 43
Copyright © 2015 MECS I.J. Information Technology and Computer Science, 2015, 10, 42-53
of enterprises in cloud computing adoption creates need
for analysis of cloud computing. This paper focus on
cloud computing analysis by identifying internal
characteristics and external factors. The analysis method
is similar to strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and
threats analysis. SWOT analysis was developed as a
planning tool to understand strengths weaknesses,
opportunities and threats involved in a project or business.
In literature, primarily SWOT analysis is used to analyze
the current situation of a technology, but the opportunities
and threats can be used for technology forecasting [8].
Objective of this paper are
i) Explore cloud computing‟s capacity to offer cost
and quality arbitrage to enterprises.
ii) Identify factors affecting cloud computing growth
trajectory.
iii) Identify the opportunities and threats to cloud
computing in India.
iv) Explores the new trends in cloud computing.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section II
is about related work. Cloud computing definitions and
layered architecture is described in section III. Section IV
of this paper illustrates market perspective of cloud
computing. Section V is about opportunities and threats
to cloud commuting in India. Cloud computing research
directions are presented in section VI. Finally, the
conclusions of our study are outlined in Section VII.
II. RELATED WORK
This section presents SWOT analysis / forecasting of
various technologies.
Lobo and Khanna in [9], say that cloud model solution
needs appropriate focus and opportunity in the Indian
market. The research aims at examining the notion of
cloud computing using SWOT analysis of the cloud
computing services namely, SaaS, PaaS and IaaS.
Marston et al. in [10], identified the strengths,
weaknesses, opportunities and threats for the cloud
computing industry. According to authors, the biggest
factor that impedes the adoption of the cloud computing
paradigm is regulation at the local, national and
international level. Cloud computing demands a
coordinated response from governmental agencies.
Cole et al. in [11], assessed the strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities and threats of various energy storage
systems and discussed their applications on the
generation and transaction level. SWOT analysis with
respect to pumped hydro, CAES (Compressed Air Energy
Storage), BES (Battery Energy storage), flywheels, SAES
(Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) and
supercapacitors. According to this research, pumped
hydro, CAES and BES are technically and economically
feasible.
Jandebeur et al. in [12], addressed the strengths,
weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the near field
communication (NFC) technology. This technology has a
potential to be adopted in various industry sectors. For
the customers, authors examined if the benefits of
convenience and security are really worth the price of an
NFC-enabled device. For the service provider, author
examined if the benefits of convenience and security are
worth the cost to set up the infrastructure for those
devices to be used. According to authors the NFC-
equipped devices will replace the commonly used plastic
card for convenience and security. NFC-enabled device
will be used for all identification and financial
transactions. Authors believe that companies can improve
their efficiency and customer confidence by using NFC
technology.
III. CLOUD COMPUTING
Perception of different experts, providers and
professionals about cloud computing is slightly differs.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology
(NIST) defined cloud computing as a “model for enabling
ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a
shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g.,
networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that
can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal
management effort or service provider interaction” [13].
“Clouds are essentially large distributed computing
facilities that make available their services to third parties
on demand” [1].
Cloud hides the complex architecture on which it relies
upon and provides to its users a single interface. Clouds
are usually referred to as a large pool of computing and
storage resources. These resources are abstract to end
user. Fig. 1 shows the four layer architecture proposed in
[14]. The fabric layer contains the raw hardware level
resources, such as computing, storage and network.
Unified resource layer virtualized the resources so that
they can be exposed to upper layer and end users as
integrated resources. The platform layer adds on a
collection of specialized tools, middleware and services
on top of the unified resources to provide a development
and deployment platform. The application layer includes
the applications that would run in the clouds [14].
Fig.1. Four-layer architecture [14].
Different cloud computing service models are present
such as Infrastructure as a Service IaaS, Platform as a
Service PaaS, Software as a Service SaaS,
Management & Monitoring as a Services MMaaS,
Testing as a Service TaaS, Storage & Database as a
44 Cloud Computing A market Perspective and Research Directions
Copyright © 2015 MECS I.J. Information Technology and Computer Science, 2015, 10, 42-53
Service SDaaS, Security as a ServiceSeaaS, Integration
as a Service InaaS etc. Infrastructure as a Service,
Platform as a Service and Software as a Service are three
important service models. Cloud computing ontology
proposed by [15] is depicted as five layers and shown in
Fig. 2. This layered architecture represents the inter-
dependency between the different layers in the Cloud.
Fig.2. Cloud computing ontology [15].
IV. CLOUD COMPUTING A MARKET PERSPECTIVE
In recent years cloud computing has a significant
impact on all aspects of life. Enterprises require cloud
computing for improvement in productivity and revenues.
So, it is important for organizations to have insight into
cloud computing technology and factors affecting on it‟s
growth. This section illustrates cloud computing analysis
based on market perspectives carried out using research
papers, survey reports, white papers and case studies.
A. Cloud Computing’s Capacity to offer Cost and
Quality Arbitrage in Real time Enterprise
Table 2. Reasons of Cloud Computing Adoption.
Drivers
References
Business agility
[16, 17, 18]
Improving business processes and tasks
[19]
Ability to replace existing solutions
[20]
Reducing IT infrastructure investment
[16, 17, 20]
Reducing IT management and maintenance
resources
[16, 20]
Reduce IT staff, Reduce IT risk
[20]
Operational cost savings
[21]
Increased productivity of IT
[16]
Improving IT control
[16, 20]
Increased capacity/availability (data center,
storage etc.)
[16, 20]
Ability to obtain new resources quickly,
Ability to scale up and down quickly
[20, 21]
Pricing flexibility
[20, 21]
Disaster recovery / business continuity
[16, 17]
Resource optimization
[17]
Energy efficiency, lower carbon footprint
[20]
Enterprises adopt cloud computing adoption as per
company requirements. Few of the reasons of cloud
computing adoption are summarized in Table 2. Many of
the reasons are related with financial issues. Challenges
in cloud computing adoption are summarized in Table 3.
Challenges are technical, business related, market related
and legal.
Table 3. Challenges in Cloud Computing Adoption.
Constraints
No clear standards or lack of standards
Market and technology immaturity
Integration with existing systems
No clear procurement rules for
implementation, Difficulty in measuring ROI
of cloud solutions
Comfort level of IT staff with cloud
Risk of losing governance or control
Lack of clear value propositions, Complexity,
Reliability and high availability,
Unclear licensing
Legal issues
Interoperability i.e. difficulty in integrating
cloud solutions
Risk of vendor lock-in,
Insufficient data availability
Cloud solutions are not secure enough
i) Technical and economical strengths of cloud
computing
Elasticity, On-demand services, Pay-per-use
pricing model, Flexibility [24].
Availability of a host of software systems on a
„pay for what you use‟ basis [7, 25, 26].
Elastic and scalable computing infrastructure
available „on-demand‟ [7, 25, 26, 27]. The users
can in practice access the cloud for services
anytime from anywhere [7, 25].
Cost effective, Flexible and innovative, Round the
clock access, Simplified cost and consumption
model, Faster provisioning of systems and
application, Secured infrastructure, Compliant
facilities, Flexible and resilient in disaster recovery,
Reduces maintenance cost [28].
Cloud computing has the possibilities to share
software, hardware, information technological
infrastructure through the virtualization [2]. The
resources shared across multiple applications
hosted in the cloud reduces it‟s cost [25, 27, 29].
Reduction in capital expense of organizations as
they need not invest in large computer
infrastructure and repeatedly invest as computers
become obsolete. Shifting CapEx to OpEx [7, 26,
27, 29].
High availability Applications can take
advantage of a high availability architecture that
minimizes or eliminates planned and unplanned
downtime, improving user service levels and
business continuity [27].
Assured quality of service (QoS) based on service
level agreements (SLA) which organizations can
sign with providers [26].
Backup and Recovery Organizations can use
cloud infrastructure to automatically back up their
important data. This will allow quick recovery if
Cloud Computing A market Perspective and Research Directions 45
Copyright © 2015 MECS I.J. Information Technology and Computer Science, 2015, 10, 42-53
data is corrupted [25, 26, 29].
Ease of maintenance The service provider takes
care of the software maintenance [27, 29].
Reduction in IT staffing cost [29].
Platform diversity Cloud infrastructure offers
support for a wide range of client platforms and
operating systems [29].
Faster development - Cloud can provide the basic
infrastructure, operating systems and tools on-
demand, thereby accelerating the development
cycle, whereas we would spend a significant
amount of time in setting up the basics in a
traditional infrastructure [25, 27, 29].
Almost unlimited storage Storing information in
the cloud gives you almost unlimited storage
capacity [25].
Advantages of Software as a Service
Global availability of SaaS applications through
Internet.
As most of the people are familiar with using the
Internet, SaaS tends to have high adoption rates
with lower learning curve [30, 31].
Lower initial costs: Unlike traditional software
application, SaaS applications are not purchased.
SaaS applications are based on subscription. No
license fees therefore, lower IT costs including
hardware, software, and the persons needed to
manage it [30].
No burden of upgrades on customers: The
traditional model for business applications
required an upgrade and new investment in
underlying technology and IT resources to take
advantages of new features [31]. Because the SaaS
provider manages all updates, there are no patches
for customers to download and install [30]. This
also removes the version compatibility that is
found in traditional software that gets deployed on
servers.
Multitenant architecture: SaaS vendors with true
multitenant architectures can scale indefinitely to
meet customer demand [30].
Advantages of Platform as a Service
Pre-built infrastructure The infrastructure to run
applications will be over the Internet. Developers
do not need to worry about the storage and hosting
and can focus on innovation and development.
Faster development PaaS vendors provide the
pre-built functionality through APIs and user
interfaces, so that users can avoid building
everything from scratch. Hence, time to develop
gets reduced.
Richer functionality Developers can enhance the
overall functionality of the application by
including the pre-integrated functionality such as
search, analytics and reporting etc [32].
Broad delivery option PaaS solutions can be
built to enable SaaS delivery to multiple OSs and
devices such as mobile environments with little or
no custom coding [32].
Low budget Building on-premise or traditional
applications have always been expensive and
complicated. PaaS is offered on demand with pay-
as-you-go pricing. Customers are not required to
do the capital investment.
Scalability of applications Deployed applications
can scale over many thousands of users without
any changes to the application.
ii) Weaknesses or challenges of cloud computing
Data lock-in, Data segregation, Scaling resources,
Data security and confidentiality, Data location,
Deletion of data, Recovery and back-up, “Offline
cloud” [33].
On-demand access, Simplified application
acceleration, scalability, Efficient resource
allocation, Dynamic provisioning, Scalability,
Fault tolerance, Trust [1].
Need of expertise or training required in the field
of cloud computing, Time and wealth constraints,
Structure and environment, Adopting cloud based
services means outsourcing, which may not be
recommended for example, for library profession,
Increases dependency, High speed Internet
connection is required to connect to cloud,
Integration with local hardware and software is
difficult, Cloud computing needs adequate
financial resources [28].
Data transfer bottlenecks [34].
Cloud service providers are not able to guarantee
the location of a company's information on
specified set of servers in a specified location [10].
No clear common legal issues across nations and
continents with respect to cloud computing data
transfer.
Most of cloud computing standards are under
development [35, 36].
Pricing schemes are different for various service
providers [37]. No standard policies for defining
the pricing for cloud services.
B. Factors which boost up Cloud Computing Growth
Trajectory
According to reports published by McKinsey Global
Institute, KPMG and NASSCOM, IDC, Gartner etc cloud
computing will make a huge impact on enterprise,
communities and societies in recent years. This
subsection lists the factors which boost up cloud
computing growth trajectory. The factors are categorized
in technology development, market maturity, industry
growth, government support, market need etc.
iii) Current state of Cloud Computing in Hype-cycle
The hype cycle model was developed by Jackie Fenn
of Gartner. Hype cycle model express the level of the
technology‟s maturity and the degree of its adoption and
commercialization. Fig. 3 shows cloud computing hype-
cycle based on Gartner Hype-cycle. Peoples expectations
describe the bell shape curve which shows the initial
46 Cloud Computing A market Perspective and Research Directions
Copyright © 2015 MECS I.J. Information Technology and Computer Science, 2015, 10, 42-53
enthusiasm and disappointment arrived by positive and
negative hype. In year 2013 and 2014 cloud technology is
in trough of disillusionment phase. Cloud computing is
moving fast through hype-cycle stages.
Fig.3. Cloud computing hype-cycle based on Gartner hype-cycle.
Source: (Gartner hype-cycle of cloud computing 2009, 2010, 2011 and
2012), (Gartner hype-cycle for emerging technology 2008, 2013 and
2014)
iv) Relating Cloud Computing Hype-cycle and Life cycle
Fig. 4 shows news articles, papers and patents of cloud
computing. The term „cloud computing‟ is used as
keywords in the field of title to find out number of news
article in Google trends, papers published in IEEE and
ScienceDirect and patents filed in U.S. patents office and
Espacenet. Increase in number of papers and patents
indicates that engineering and business knowledge in
cloud computing is increasing very fast. This increases
the probability of success of cloud computing in market
place.
Fig.4. Cloud computing hype-cycle and lifecycle.
v) Cloud computing Industry Evolution
Fig. 5 shows the increase in number of cloud service
providers. Increasing number of providers shall lead to
increase in market competition. Market competition will
lead to product innovations and cost reductions.
Fig.5. Cloud computing providers.
vi) “S curve” of Computational Technologies
Fig. 6 shows the actual cumulative IEEE Papers for
selected computational technologies. Mainframes and
minicomputers are relatively older technologies in
computational technology family. Their growth is slow.
Autonomic computing, cluster computing, grid
computing and cloud computing are newer technologies.
Very few historical data is available for these
technologies. Progress rate of grid computing and cloud
computing is much higher than other technologies.
Fig.6. Actual Cumulative IEEE Papers for computational technologies.
1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
16000
18000
Cummulative number of IEEE Papers
Year
mainframe
minicomputers
cluster computing
grid computing
autonimic computing
cloud computing
2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
Year
News Articles
Patent
Paper
2008 2010 2012 2014
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
Year
Infrastructure As A Service
Platform As A Service
Software As A Service
Cloud Computing A market Perspective and Research Directions 47
Copyright © 2015 MECS I.J. Information Technology and Computer Science, 2015, 10, 42-53
vii) Government Support
Governments such as US, UK, Japan and Australia
are encouraging for cloud computing adoption and
development.
In the recent years, the interest in cloud computing
in the Asia Pacific region has grown exponentially.
Cloud computing technology enables the
governments and local firms to benefit from the
effective use of information technology [10].
viii) Market Growth
Giant enterprise such as Google, Amazon,
Microsoft, Adobe, Oracle, RedHat etc. are making
investment in cloud computing.
Collaborations and acquisitions are happing
between cloud providers and vendors.
Many big enterprises are using cloud computing
services for their business such as Coca-Cola
Enterprises, Times newspaper, Mogulus TV
channels, Animoto etc.
Increasing support from hardware and software
vendors to cloud computing.
ix) Prerequisite for Cloud Adoption
Rising computer penetration, Improvement in
bandwidth availability, Innovations in commodity
server market, Improvements in storage
technology [38].
Different survey reports shows that user attitude
towards cloud computing adoption is increasing.
x) Cloud Computing Technology Improvement
Modern information services can be offered
through cloud computing [28, 34].
All time availability is possible through cloud
computing [2].
Adaptive to future needs [28, 34].
High-technology work environment [28, 34].
Strong experience and involvement in
standardization efforts / process [28].
Increase in knowledge base (patents and papers).
Clouds computing architectures, service models,
deployment models, security models are evolving
very fast.
xi) Market Need
Increasing, variable and quick demand for storage
and computations from different applications and
enterprises.
Good opportunity for SMEs for making progress
without worrying about the upfront investments
[34].
Increasing maintenance cost in traditional IT
department of an enterprise. According to IDC
report approximately 70 percent of an IT budget is
spent on maintaining current IT infrastructures
versus adding new capabilities.
Need to increase utilization of hardware resources
in distributed systems.
Need of eco-friendly systems. Solution to
minimize the use of servers due to it‟s high energy
consumption.
Marketplace enhancement in terms of functionality,
innovation and price [34].
Need of non-monopolistic business system.
Cloud computing is suitable for big data and
analytics.
C. Factors which adding up bottlneckness leading to
resistance in breakthrough success of CC
Heavy investment by enterprise in existing systems.
Users of Internet are increasing tremendously
which will lead to the data transfer bottlenecks and
the available Internet bandwidth constraint issue
may arise. Therefore large Internet bandwidth is
big requirement.
Third party service provider dependency is
required for cloud computing [2].
Lack of specific standard regulations (local,
national and international) [34].
Migration from one to another platform is difficult
[28, 34].
Hidden cost (backup, system recovery and
problem solving) [28, 34].
Many of the threats listed above can be minimized by
initiatives by researchers, providers and governments.
Threat from inventions form physics, micro-
electronics and material science. Technologies in
research such as quantum computing, autonomic
computing and edge computing [39].
Open source software movement can be threat for
software as service.
V. OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS FOR CLOUD
COMPUTING IN INDIA
Worldwide cloud computing adoption in increasing
very rapidly. India is not an exception for this. “In India,
cloud services revenue is projected to have a five-year
projected compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 33.2
percent from 2012 through 2017 across all segments of
the cloud computing market. Segments such as software
as a service (SaaS) and infrastructure as a service (IaaS)
have even higher projected CAGR growth rates of 34.4
percent and 39.8 percent,” said Ed Anderson, research
director at Gartner [40]. The research by IDC titled
“Indian Cloud Market Overview 2011-2016” provides
estimates that Indian cloud market will grow over 70%
from 2014. This section illustrates the opportunities and
threats for cloud computing in India.
A. Opportunities
The Indian government‟s Digital India project
provides potential opportunities for cloud adoption
at a cost of $19 billion between 2014-2018.
48 Cloud Computing A market Perspective and Research Directions
Copyright © 2015 MECS I.J. Information Technology and Computer Science, 2015, 10, 42-53
The Government of India is embracing cloud
computing technology for expanding its e-
governance initiatives throughout the country [41].
Indian manufacturing sector has come a long way
and the use of IT in manufacturing can be found
since last over two decades. Since 2010, CIOs in
Indian manufacturing have started adopting cloud
models and this is highlighted in many research
studies and industry circles [41].
Government of India has embarked upon an
ambitious initiative called GI Cloud also named
MeghRaj. This decision has been taken to utilize
and harness the benefits of cloud computing. The
focus of this initiative is to accelerate delivery of
e-services in the country while optimizing ICT
spending of the government [42].
Microsoft to invest Rs 1,400 crore in India cloud
data centers. Microsoft Launches Cloud
Accelerator Program for Indian Enterprises &
Government. TCS involved in putting data centers
in India.
Increased number of IT companies and ISPs in
India.
The key drivers for IT growth in India is
highlighted by the growing acceptance of cloud
based solutions, embracing merging technologies
like Internet of Things (IoT), Big Data, mobile
technologies (3G, 4G) and fuelled by Indian
government‟s initiatives for a digital India.
B. Threats
Data transfer bottlenecks and therefore the
available network bandwidth constraint issue may
arise.
Poor connectivity [43] degrades the quality of
service.
Although the government of India has initiated the
movement of using the cloud for e-governance
applications, no common legal issues across India
for cloud services.
India is not yet economically strong therefore
direct service cost and hidden cost (backup, system
recovery and problem solving) [28, 34] may affect
the adoption of cloud.
No clear procurement rules for cloud
implementation in India.
VI. NEW DIRECTIONS IN CLOUD COMPUTING
This section discusses new directions in cloud
computing based on trend in research publications in
IEEE and Gartner strategic technologies.
A. Research Publication Trend
Although cloud computing can be thought of as a
business model, this domain has too many research issues
that need to be solved. Otherwise they may affect the
adoption decision of cloud computing by the
organizations.
As shown in the Fig. 7, the cloud computing research
areas are classified into two categories namely, Technical
Aspects and Business Aspects.
Fig.7. Classification of cloud computing research areas.
The research issues in cloud computing under technical
aspects category are given in Table 4. This category of
research areas includes the areas, which concentrates on
the technical characteristics or attributes of cloud
computing.
Research trends of cloud computing - technical aspects
in IEEE are shown in Fig. 8. These trends indicate
number of publications happed in each research area
coming under the technical aspects category.
Table 4. Research issues in Cloud Computing - Technical Aspects.
Technical Aspects
References
Security
[1, 44, 45, 46, 47, ,48,
49, 50, 51, 52, 53,
54, 55, 56, 57, 58]
Privacy
[1, 44, 47, 57, 59, 60]
Availability
[33,50,57]
Reliability
[44]
Virtualization
[51, 53, 61,62, 63]
Architecture
[64]
Optimization
[61, 65,66,64]
Comparative study of Cloud with
previous technologies
[54]
Multi-tenancy
[65, 67]
Mobile Cloud computing
[68, 69, 70, 71,72]
Performance
[33, 50,56, 73]
Energy management /
Energy efficiency
[1, 64, 65, 74]
Interoperability
[1, 54,61, 75]
Technical loss of control
[1, 56]
Data Portability / Integration,
Software Compatibility
[56]
Open Source Usage,
Confidentiality,
Cloud Provider Malfeasance
[57]
Cloud Computing A market Perspective and Research Directions 49
Copyright © 2015 MECS I.J. Information Technology and Computer Science, 2015, 10, 42-53
Fig.8. Research trend of Cloud Computing - Technical Aspects in IEEE
Xplore.
The research issues in cloud computing under business
aspects category are given in Table 5.
Table 5. Research trend of Cloud Computing - Business Aspects
Business Aspects
References
Service level agreement (SLA)
[44, 53, 56, 57, 76,77]
Licensing issues
[44,53,57]
Billing / Pricing models
[1, 78,79]
Broker issues
[80]
Standards and Cloud policies
[54]
Total cost of ownership (TCO)
[81]
Energy management
[64,65, 74]
Adoption
[3, 7, 61, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86,
87, 88]
Organizational loss of control
[56]
Lock-In Challenges
[56, 57]
Legislation
[1]
Privilege abuse
[33]
Cost Efficiency
[57, 58]
Research trends of cloud computing - business aspects
in IEEE are shown in Fig. 9. These trends indicate for
each year, number of publications happed in each
research area coming under the business aspects category.
Table 6 illustrates the percentage of cloud computing
research studies (IEEE Xplore publications) carried out in
the technical and business aspects categories. Percentage
ratios from 2008 to 2014 (November end) indicate that
the technical research dominates the business research.
Fig.9. Research trend of Cloud Computing - Business Aspects in IEEE
Xplore.
Table 6. Comparison between Technical and Business Aspects Research
Studies (IEEE Xplore Publications)
Year
Technical Aspects
(% of Study)
Business Aspects
(% of Study)
2008
88.89
11.11
2009
89.53
10.47
2010
89.54
10.46
2011
86.30
13.70
2012
84.75
15.25
2013
85.18
14.82
2014
88.77
11.23
B. Gartner Startegic Technology List
Gartner group is an icon to its corporate clients
however it has only limited attention by academics. Every
year Gartner publishes list of top 10 strategic
technologies available at [89]. The strategic technology
list is prepared based on hype-cycles, surveys, client
inquiries and ongoing research. Trend of cloud
computing is analyzed using Gartner strategic
technologies from year 2004 to 2014.
Cloud computing and/or it‟s enablers are present 33
times out of 110 in Gartner strategic technology list from
year 2004 to 2014.
In 2005 and 2008 Gartner strategic technology list
contains two technologies whose name is not cloud
computing but the underlying philosophy is similar to
cloud.
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
IEEE Xplore Publications
Year
SLA
Licensing issues
Pricing/Billing/Costing models
Broker issues
Standards & Cloud policies
TCO
Energy management
Cloud computing adoption
2008 2010 2012 2014
-100
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
IEEE Xplore Publications
Year
Security
Privacy
Availability
Reliability
Virtualization
Architecture
Optimization
Comparative study of Cloud computing
Multi-tenancy
Mobile Cloud computing
Performance
Energy management
Interoperability
50 Cloud Computing A market Perspective and Research Directions
Copyright © 2015 MECS I.J. Information Technology and Computer Science, 2015, 10, 42-53
Static and Unshared Island, Real-Time Enterprise
(RTE) Infrastructure (2005)
Web Platform & WOA (2008)
Year 2013 and 2014 shows cloud computing
technology in different forms.
Personal Cloud (2013) The personal cloud will
entail the unique collection of services, Web
destinations and connectivity that will become the
home of their computing and communication
activities. Users will see it as a portable, always-
available place where they go for all their digital
needs.
The Era of Personal Cloud (2014) The personal
cloud era will mark a power shift away from
devices toward services.
Hybrid IT and Cloud Computing / Hybrid Cloud
and IT as Service Broker (2013, 2014) Emerging
as IT organizations to help improve the
provisioning and consumption of inherently
distributed heterogeneous and often complex cloud
services for their internal users and external
business partners.
Cloud/Client Architecture (2014) In the
cloud/client architecture, the client is a rich
application running on an Internet-connected
device and the server is a set of application
services hosted in an increasingly elastically
scalable cloud computing platform. The client
environment may be a native application or
browser-based; the increasing power of the
browser is available to many client devices, mobile
and desktop alike.
Web Scale IT (2014) Web-scale IT is a pattern of
global-class computing that delivers the
capabilities of large cloud service providers within
an enterprise IT setting by rethinking positions
across several dimensions.
VII. CONCLUSIONS
Cloud computing is one of the transformational
technology in the computing world. Cloud computing
driven data centers and services helping organizations to
leverage multiple business attributes like cost, reliability,
ease of acquiring and maintaining technology systems are
in ascend.
This paper forecast cloud computing technology and
cloud computing industry in India using strengths,
weaknesses, opportunities and threats as a tool. Cloud
computing provides good solutions to increase
productivity of organization in many respects such as cost
effectiveness, reduction in efforts and time etc. The major
limitations reported by many researchers are regarding
security, privacy, compatibility and interoperability. The
research trends in IEEE Xplore show that many
researchers are working on weakness and threats arise
from technical problems. Results show that increasing
efforts are required to improve the business issues from
different aspects such as service level agreement,
licensing issues, adoption framework, pricing and billing
issues etc.
Cloud computing technology has received very good
support from governments, giant software and hardware
companies, researchers and customers. This analysis
shows that cloud computing has upwards trend and it will
influence enterprises in coming years.
Cloud technology is changing rapidly due to market
competition and in near future it shall metamorphosis into
personal cloud, cloud/client architecture, hybrid cloud
computing and IT. We also envisage newer solutions will
be emerging in securing information in cloud computing
enabled Data Centre‟s through virtualization.
Future work need to be investigating to identifying
best fit of cloud computing technologies in E-governance
and business sectors like, Energy, Education, Micro
finance and Health care.
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Authors’ Profiles
Amol C. Adamuthe received Master of
Technology in Computer Engineering from Dr.
B. A. Technological University, Lonere, MS,
India in 2008. He is currently an Assistant
Professor at Rajarambapu Institute of
Technology, Sakharale, Sangli, MS, India. His
technical fields today are technology
forecasting, cloud computing.
Vikram D. Salunkhe is pursuing his M.Tech
at the Department of Computer Science and
Engineering at Rajarambapu Institute of
Technology, Maharashtra (India). His
research interests include cloud computing
and technology forecasting.
Seema H. Patil is pursuing her M.Tech at the
Department of Computer Science and
Engineering at Rajarambapu Institute of
Technology, Maharashtra (India).Her research
interests include cloud computing and
technology forecasting.
Gopakumaran T. Thampi received the
degree of Ph.D. in Technology from Mumbai
University, MS, India in 2004. He is currently
a Professor and Principal at Thadomal Shahani
Engineering College, Mumbai, MS, India. His
area of interests are related to business process
re-engineering in the realm of engineering education,
integration of enterprise softwares like ERP, CRM & cloud
technology and integration of hardware & software technology
in enterprise setting for cost and quality arbitrage in global
market. He is author of three books. He has guided 6 Ph.D., 8 M.
Phil and more than 20 M.E. students.
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p>Information is the power and Technology is the driving force for the development of all the facets. Information Science and Technology as a field of study and professional practice is therefore responsible for providing information and technology solutions to different organizations, institutions, sectors, fields, and even to individuals. Information Science and Technology is an emerging field and interdisciplinary in nature that has already been gathered from previous sources and chapters. Information Science and Technology is very diverse and treated in different perspectives viz. information, technological solutions, domain-specific solutions, and so on. Regarding the technologies, it also holds wider coverage in tools, techniques, systems, and technologies. Though Information Science and Technology is available with different names there are certain reasons for the development of each nomenclature/ subject. This paper has discussed the issues and suggestions regarding Information Science in its educational and technological context. </p
... Cloud Computing as a branch of Information Technology is rapidly growing and this is very close with the main components of Information Technology viz. Database Technology, Network Technology, Web Technology, Multimedia Technology, Software Technology, etc case to case basis; depending upon the requirement [1], [5], [15]. The market of Virtualization Technology is growing in recent past and many companies are doing well in promoting and offering cloud markets and within this segment, the popular are IBM Cloud, Amazon Web Services, Microsoft, Dell, VMW are, etc. ...
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Cloud computing is one of the emerging areas and components within the Information Technology space. Cloud Computing is a kind of virtualization techniques which is achieved by the internet and similar services. Cloud Computing is growing rapidly within Information Technology. This is responsible for the creation of a healthy virtual information technology infrastructure. Cloud Computing is very much important for distributing IT Infrastructure for the concerned organizations and its branches or sister organizations. Cloud Computing is rapidly moving towards the government and public sectors as well due to its benefits and opportunities. Cloud Computing is also called as Virtualization Technology. Within the support of Cloud Computing, there are many service models and types that are emerging viz. Software, Applications, Platforms and Operating Systems, Hardware and infrastructure, Contents and Information, etc. The emerging other technologies are also increasing and many of them relate to the Cloud Computing viz. Big Data, Analytics, Internet of Things (IoT), etc. The market of the cloud also depends on various other things and it is important to note that, apart from the existing established IT organizations and companies, there are many new specially dedicated cloud service providers also emerging rapidly. Cloud Computing Services and its emergence including the current market scenario is provided in this paper including some of the companies and their basic services as well.
... Cloud is an outstanding technical solution that allows the business to be successful in a constantly evolving climate (Ahmed and Abduallah, 2017). It helps the organization exploit different market characteristics, such as stability, expense and performance (Adamuthe et al., 2015). The hypothesis of cloud computing is to supply a virtual computing environment or meet clients' demands (Kaufman, 2009). ...
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... System can be concentrated on different areas viz. environment, natural systems, structure, health, Geospatial, etc. [1], [13], [20]. The study of systems theory and studies on any part viz. ...
... [17] Perception of different experts, providers and professionals about cloud computing is slightly differs. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) defined cloud computing as a "model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction" [11]. The relationship between big data and the cloud computing is based on integration, in which cloud represents the storehouse and the big data represents the product that will be stored in the storehouse, since it is not possible to create storehouses without storing any product in them [13]. ...
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