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The uneven development and achieved degree of economy have negative consequences on the quality of the environment in Smederevo. The most endangered area is the industrial area of "Zelezara Smederevo" which directly threatens the city of Smederevo and a few settlements nearby, like Radinac, Ralja and Vranovo. Using a mathematical pattern the maximum low concentration of SO2 exhausted from the blast furnace of "Zelezara Smederevo" was calculated. The data from health statistics about prescribed medicine, the structure of diseases and the current information about the degree of endangered environment were used to illustrate the cause and effect relation between health condition and the influence of certain pollutants existing in the environment.
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S. Miladinović et al. Utjecaj "Željezare Smederevo" na kvalitetu okoliša i mogućnost njezinog poboljšanja pomoću sustava nadzora
ISSN 1330-3651 (Print), ISSN 1848-6339 (Online)
UDC/UDK 502.36:504.3.054(497.11Smederevo)
THE INFLUENCE OF "ZELEZARA SMEDEREVO" ON THE QUALITY OF THE
ENVIRONMENT AND ITS ABILITY TO IMPROVE THROUGH THE MONITORING SYSTEM
Slobodan Miladinović, Stevo Jaćimovski, Željko Nikač, Dalibor Kekić
Original scientific paper
The uneven development and achieved degree of economy have negative consequences on the quality of the environment in Smederevo. The most
endangered area is the industrial area of "Zelezara Smederevo" which directly threatens the city of Smederevo and a few settlements nearby, like Radinac,
Ralja and Vranovo. Using a mathematical pattern the maximum low concentration of SO2 exhausted from the blast furnace of "Zelezara Smederevo" was
calculated. The data from health statistics about prescribed medicine, the structure of diseases and the current information about the degree of endangered
environment were used to illustrate the cause and effect relation between health condition and the influence of certain pollutants existing in the
environment.
Keywords: air pollution, ingredient concentration, the quality of air, Zelezara Smederevo
Utjecaj "Željezare Smederevo" na kvalitetu okoliša i mogućnost njezinog poboljšanja pomoću sustava nadzora
Izvorni znanstveni članak
Neujednačen razvoj i postignut stupanj ekonomije imaju negativne posljedice na kvalitetu okoliša u Smederevu. Najugroženije područje je industrijsko
područje "Željezare Smederevo" koja izravno ugrožava grad Smederevo i nekoliko naselja u blizini, kao što su Radinac, Ralja i Vranovo. Uporabom
matematičkog modela izračunata je maksimalna niska koncentracija SO2 potekla iz visoke peći "Željezare Smederevo". Podaci iz zdravstvene statistike o
propisanim lijekovima, strukturi bolesti i informacija o trenutačnom stupnju ugroženosti okoliša rabljene su za ilustraciju odnosa uzroka i posljedica
između zdravstvenog stanja i utjecaja pojedinih onečišćujućih tvari koje postoje u okolišu.
Ključne riječi: kvaliteta zraka, onečišćenje zraka, sastojak koncentracije, Željezara Smederevo
1 Introduction
City of Smederevo is in a mildly rolled lowland area
of the southern edge of the Pannonian Basin, on far north-
eastern part of Sumadija. The territory of Smederevo has
an area of 481,7 km2 and regionally belongs to the
District of Podunavlje and Donje Veliko Pomoravlje. The
area of the City of Smederevo consists of an urban
settlement Smederevo and 27 rural and semi-urban
settlements. With an average density of 229,6 inhabitants
per km2, Smederevo is one of the most densely populated
cities in the Republic of Serbia. Existing conditions and
environmental quality of the City of Smederevo and its
environment are defined according to the results of
measurements of environmental elements performed by
authorized organization, existing planning documents,
performed research studies, available technical and
scientific literature, and direct insight into the situation on
the field. Irregular development and achieved level of
economic development had a negative impact on
environmental quality in Smederevo. High concentration
of population, industry and transport as well as
agricultural production, caused the increased degree of
degradation and pollution of land, air and water. The most
endangered areas can be identified in industrial zone of
Steel Plant in Smederevo, which directly threatens the
City of Smederevo and its nearby villages, such as
Radinac, Ralja and Vranovo, then the Smederevo
industrial zone, which occupies an area of 260 hectares,
where the majority of the industry (metal manufacturing
and engineering industry) is placed, and which was built
and developed without proper planning and
environmental standards [1]. Ecologically, much
endangered area is the river Ralja, where the Smederevo
Steel Plant wastewater, without prior treatment, is
released [2].
2 Air quality
The Smederevo Steel Plant is an industrial complex
located 7 miles southeast of Smederevo on 350 hectares.
It represents the most important part of Smederevo’s
development (74 % of total production and 97 % of
exports) in the field of black metallurgy, manufacture of
iron and steel. It is characterized by high techno-
economic and spatial characteristics regarding water
consumption, waste water discharges, power
consumption, large-scale transport, with stressed
production link in intra- regional (Republican) and trans-
regional spatial dimension. In the same area there is a
company named "Messer Tehnogas" which produces
medical and specialty gases. This factory wields modern
facilities and equipment in 8 cities of Serbia, of which the
largest are in Smederevo and Nis. Specific types, large
amount and production methods create major
environmental pressure on all elements of the
environment which contribute to the highest level of
environmental hazard in this area. With the production of
2,2 million tons per year, over 70 billion m3 of waste
gases is emitted into the atmosphere (approximately
32.000 m3 per ton of processed steel, or 8,2 million m3 per
hour). In the Smederevo Steel Plant 89 emitters are
registered: 34 in Sintering Plant, 8 in Blast Furnace 1 and
2, 32 in Steelshop, 4 in Hot Strip Mill, 10 in Cold Rolling
Mill and 1 in Power Plant [1]. Besides them, The Steel
Plant has 5 ore and raw materials landfills which are
specific contaminants, actually, surface emitters of large
amounts of dust that pollutes the air of villages nearby.
According to the Regulations on limit values of
Tehnički vjesnik 20, 2(2013), 237-246 237
The influence of "Zelezara Smederevo" on the quality of the environment and its ability to improve through the monitoring system S. Miladinović et al.
emissions, of these 89 listed emitters, at 18 of them
continuous measurements are required, at 55 of them
individual measurements are required, while 10 emitters
require no measuring emissions of pollutants. Until the
year 2005 continual measurements had not been done in
the Steel Plant but only individual measurements on
individual emitters. Measurements were conducted by the
Institute "1 Maj" from Nis. At the end of year 2005, "U.
S. Steel Serbia" started the measurements in accordance
with the Regulations on limit values of emissions, the
method and terms of measuring and data recording.
Measurement was carried out by the Department of Public
Health "Pomoravlje" from Cuprija.
Table 1 View of the emitters given by the Steel Plant units where the limit values of the emission of powder substances were exceeded (measurements
were performed in September ÷ October 2010.
Unit Emitter Emitter title Purifier type
Measured values,
mg/m
3
Limit value of
emission, mg/m
3
Emitted quantities,
kg/h
Sintering plant
E2-22 Central stack
Battery cyclone
Ven. scrubber
71 ÷ 82 50 31
E2-25
Dedusting freezer
system
Scrubber 100 ÷ 105 50 3
E2-27
Electric filter No 2
Electric filter
87 ÷ 96
50
4
E2-28
Cooling
Multi cyclone
91 ÷ 98
50
36
Blast Furnace
1 and 2
E3-1
Object No 2350
Exit No 3
- 94 ÷ 99 50 43
Steel shop
E4-1
Emitter of the Drier
Battery cyclone
104 ÷ 112
50
1
E4-2
Emitter of bunker
dedusting
Battery cyclone 138 ÷ 147 50 2
E4-3
Emitter of
desulphurization
- 730 ÷ 810 50 40
E4-15
Dedusting system of
angle conveyor and
reversible transport
Baggy filter 132 ÷ 140 50 1
Cold rolling mill E6-7
Emitter of
continuous
annealing line
- 9,7 ÷ 11,3 5
The amount of powder matter emitted into the
atmosphere of the primary emission, calculated based on
the gas flow through the flue is also large scale, not only
on the emitter where the emission limit values were
exceeded, but also on the other emitters. Additional air
pollution, which comes from the powder matter, occurs
by the so called secondary emission, during outpouring
iron and steel, and cannot be measured. By activating
Blast Furnace number 2 and parallel operation of both
furnaces, there was significant excess of limit values of
powder matter emission which is why existing filters built
on the emitters do not provide the necessary air protection
measures.
Table 2 Annual statistics of hourly values of polluting matters SO2, NO2
and suspended particles PM10, between 1.1.2011 ÷ 31.12.2011 at the
measuring point Radinac [3]
Parameter
SO
2
µg/m
3
NO
2
µg/m
3
PM
10
µg/m
3
Annual statistics of daily values
Limit Values - LV
125
85
50
Minimum
8,1
2,6
17,1
Maximum
131,8
53,1
354,8
Number of days > LV
1
0
255
Annual statistics of daily values
Limit Values - LV
350
150
Minimum
6,9
0,0
4,7
Maximum
602,9
132,9
1063,7
Number of days > LV
7
0
Since 2007, three automatic analysers for monitoring
air quality were placed in Smederevo, one in the centre of
the town, and two nearby the Steel Plant (Radinac and
Ralja). This is how the comprehensive study of the quality
of environment and its impact on public health began.
Table 3 Annual statistics of hourly values of polluting matters SO2, NO2
and suspended particles PM10, between 1.1.2011 ÷ 31.12.2011 at the
measuring point Ralja [3]
Parameter
SO
2
µg/m
3
NO
2
µg/m
3
PM
10
µg/m
3
Annual statistics of daily values
Limit values - LV
125
85
50
Minimum
9,1
3,9
16,2
Maximum
130,7
52,9
251,3
Number of days > LV
1
0
205
Annual statistics of daily values
Limit values - LV
350
150
Minimum
6,8
0,9
3,2
Maximum
618,0
131,1
1174,1
Number of days > LV
5
0
Besides these listed pollution matters, there is most of
the carbon monoxide (CO) in flue gases, about 25.000
tons. In waste gas there are about 10.000 tons of sulphur
dioxide (SO2) and approximately 1500 tons of nitrous
oxide (NOx). Waste gas contains dust, whose amount
depends on the quality of raw material and production
process. It was calculated that the production and
processing of one ton of iron, produces about 100 ÷ 120
kg of dust, sludge and scale, which means that during the
production of 2,2 million tons of iron, 200.000 tons of
dust is released into the atmosphere every year. Besides
the dust, in Blast Furnace gas, there is 30 % of carbon
monoxide, which is burnt after the purifying on so called
"fluyere" before going into the atmosphere. In year 2005,
238 Technical Gazette 20, 2(2013), 237-246
S. Miladinović et al. Utjecaj "Željezare Smederevo" na kvalitetu okoliša i mogućnost njezinog poboljšanja pomoću sustava nadzora
the accident occurred due to no burning and an
uncontrolled release into the atmosphere. How dangerous
the situation was, can be illustrated by the fact that the CO
concentration of 0,4 % in the air is practically fatal. Since
then, the other "fluyere" for burning Blast Furnace gas
was mounted. However, all emitters do not have
multistage purification, because the waste gases are not
used, but released into the atmosphere. If there is
purification, its efficiency depends on the type of device
and physical-chemical characteristics of dust particles. If
their size is below 10 μm, existing device cannot
segregate them. Such particles are coal dust particles. In
the atmosphere, along with the waste gas, 7000 ÷ 10.000
tons of different physical and chemical composition of
dust is emitted [1]. Besides those sources, in the Steel
Plant there are six different landfills of raw materials and
by-products. They represent specific particulate dust
pollutants, so called linear surface sources. Raw material
landfill (of ore, coke and limestone) is located right next
to the houses of Radinac and Vranovo inhabitants. In
times of huge pyramids of raw materials formation or
their taking for the production process, especially in
adverse weather conditions (weather with no rainfall
during the Kosava- cold, very squally south-eastern wind
found in Serbia and some nearby countries) heavy air
pollution by dust particles that are larger in diameter
occurs. A rapid deposition in the immediate vicinity of the
village occurs, so residents do not even open the windows
on their houses. Crops also suffer extensive damage
which cannot be seen by direct observation. More than
twenty years ago, the projects for reducing dust emissions
from landfills by wetting or lime milk pouring were
conceived, but none of those projects were ever realized.
Air control program identified the measuring points
for measuring the content of heavy metals (lead, arsenic,
cadmium, nickel, chromium, manganese and iron) in
suspended particles PM10, and content of polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in suspended particles
PM10 (pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene). One measuring point
is located in the centre of the Town of Smederevo, the
other one in Ralja, nearby Smederevo Steel Plant.
Measurements are done once a week by the City Institute
of Public Health from Belgrade. Daily analysis of
measurement results in observed one-year period, lead us
to the following conclusion: average 24 hour
concentration of total suspended particles of PM10
exceeded the limit value (50 µg/m3) in 23 of 114
measurements in total. The maximum recorded
concentration was 22 µg/m3 in November. Average 24-
hour concentration of total suspended particles of PM10
exceeded the tolerable value (75 µg/m3) in 26 of 114
measurements in total. In suspended particles up to 10 μm
(PM10) the concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and
heavy metals As, Cd, Hr, Mn and Pb were investigated.
Concentrations exceeding BaP were registered in 55
measurements. Target value (TV) for tested heavy metals
were exceeded for Arsenic (As) in 24 measurements and
Nickel (Ni) in 10 measurements. Other heavy metals for
which the prescribed target value exists were within the
values or below them. High values of benzo(a)pyrene
were observed during the heating season (October ÷
March), and in the period from April to October these
values were significantly lower and periodical. According
to the reported results of measurements we have tried to
present the exceeding of measuring parameters in the air
in the city of Smederevo, for the period from November
2010 to December 2011 in Tab. 4.
Table 4 Monthly average concentrations of heavy metals in suspended
particles PM1 0 in 2011, for measuring point "Centar za kulturu" in
Smederevo (City Institute of Public Health from Belgrade).
Month
3
3
Cr
ng/m
3
Fe
ng/m
3
Mn
ng/m
3
3
3
I
12,2
1240,2
14,3
II
8,9
687,4
12,2
III
7,1
697
16,2
IV
12,6
687,4
12,2
V
4,6
2043,9
32,9
VI
5,6
1573,2
29,4
VII
2,6
1700,6
28,7
VIII
3,7
1493,7
46,7
IX
3,5
1958,7
32,1
X
4,2
770,9
41,8
XI
2,1
654,0
16,8
XII
4,2
1114,1
15,7
Value above the limit
Table 5 Monthly average concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene and
suspended particles of PM10 in 2011, for measuring point "Centar za
kulturu" in Smederevo (City Institute of Public Health from Belgrade).
Month
benzo(a)pyrene
ng/m
3
PM
10
µg/m
3
I
3,9
50,4
II
6,4
95,6
III
3,1
72,1
IV
0,2
33,8
V
0,2
40,3
VI
0,3
38,2
VII
0,3
31
VIII
0,1
39,9
IX
0,4
49,3
X
5,3
65,0
XI
9,8
126,4
XII
7,5
98,7
Value above the limit
Table 6 Exceeding the measuring parameters in the air in the City of
Smederevo for the period from November 2010 to December 2011
Parameter
PM
10
BaP As Ni
Total
number of
measurement
LV TV LV VT VT
% over
LV
21,92
%
22,80
%
48,24
%
21,05
%
8,77
%
114
Limit
values
50
µg/m
3
75
µg/m
3
1,0
ng/m
3
6,0
ng/m
3
20,0
ng/m
3
LV - Limit value, TV - Tolerant value, VT - Value target
The percentage of exceeding limit and tolerant values
for suspended particles matter PM10, benzo(a)pyrene and
heavy metals in suspended particles up to 10 µm, exceeds
the prescribed values given in the Regulation on the
conditions for monitoring and requirements of air quality
("Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia", No. 11/2010
and 75/2010).
Average 24 hour concentration of suspended particles
of PM10, exceeded the limit value of 50 µg/m3,) in over
42,98 % of measurements. The concentration of
benzo(a)pyrene was over limit value of 1 µg/m3 in 48,24
Tehnički vjesnik 20, 2(2013), 237-246 239
The influence of "Zelezara Smederevo" on the quality of the environment and its ability to improve through the monitoring system S. Miladinović et al.
% of the measurement. Arsenic concentrations exceeded
the target value in 21,05 % of measurements, and target
values for Nickel are exceeded in 8,77 % of
measurements. According to recommendations of World
Health Organization, exceeding of these parameters in the
ambient air must not be more than 10 % for measurement
period of one year. The obtained values of pollutants in
the City of Smederevo show that the air quality is more
threatened during the winter period, while some
parameters such as suspended particles threaten the air
quality through the whole year. The consequences of
polluted air also are the "acid rains" falling down even up
to nine months a year. In addition to these factors, a pier
located in the city core near the Smederevo Fortress also
has an adverse effect on air quality. In this area, the coast
has been in the function of trade in goods, building
materials, metallurgical material (ore and coke), grains,
fertilizers, liquid fuels and others. Annual ship loading
and unloading is approximately 800 and these ships carry
million tons of goods. Pollution occurs as a result of
material transport and transport equipment [4].
If we assume that the total quantity of gas and dust
emissions was retained in the space of the City of
Smederevo and evenly disposed, in one year the entire
surface up to a height of 150 meters would be found in the
exhaust gas and dust, so all residents would have to
breathe only gas and dust. However, fortunately for the
inhabitants, the advantages of geographical position and
movement of the atmosphere, the emitted gas and dust
spread out in much larger space, which significantly
reduces the percentage of pollutants. By the Wind rose
analysis we can conclude that the south and south-east
wind, formally known as the Kosava, predominates in
Smederevo. The prevailing circulation of air masses in the
north south direction is the result of orographic factors,
actually spreading from the Velika Morava valley. Since
the Steel Plant is southeast of Smederevo, such
movements of air masses present mitigating
circumstances, especially if we know that the Kosava is a
winter wind, and we pointed out that gas emissions are
increased in winter. Movements of air depression and
anticyclones across Pannonia and northern parts of Velika
Morava, slightly reduce air pollution in Smederevo.
Nevertheless, we can say, based on all those things, that
the air in Smederevo is a third category, excessively
polluted air.
3 Calculation model for maximum concentrations of air
pollution
Determining the condition of air pollution by
applying a mathematical model of distribution of air
pollution allows the simulation of spreading of harmful
substances for different assumed emission intensities in
known topological, urban and meteorological situation.
Using a mathematical model one can get the real picture
of the events related to the dispersion of pollutants, which
can be used as a basis for assessing the potential risks and
resolving technical protection systems. Sulphur dioxide is
an obligatory component of air pollution, especially in
urban areas. It is a product of fossil and other fuels
combustion, especially those rich in sulphur. It also
occurs in the processing of mineral ores that contain
sulphur in their composition (in obtaining iron and other
metals which contain sulphide compounds). During the
work, we tried using a mathematical model to calculate
the distribution of SO2 in case of the Smederevo Steel
Plant, actually Blast Furnace as an emitter, in the well-
known topological and meteorological situation. Using
this model, we assume that all the air pollution is emitted
from the furnace chimney and we have calculated at
which distance from the chimney of the forge is the
maximum concentration of SO2 and what is its value. The
procedure for finding ground concentrations of harmful
gaseous substances, listed in this section, is part of the
standards which are used in engineering practice during
the facility designing with emissions of harmful
substances. The goal of the standard is that for the
appropriate installed power (and other characteristics of
the source) the emissions of harmful gases and their
accordance with the legislation are estimated. The
procedure is performed in accordance with the empirical
and theoretical models used in the field of air pollution
[5].
The maximum value of ground-level concentrations
of pollutants in (mg/m3) in the case of the exhaust of
gaseous substances from a single point source with a
round opening, in the event of adverse weather
conditions, at the distance xM (m) from the source is:
,
31
2
M
TVH
nmFMA
c
=
η
(1)
where A is a coefficient which depends on the
temperature stratification of the atmosphere; F is a
dimensionless factor, which reflects the speed of
deposition of pollutants in the atmosphere; M (g/s) is the
mass of ejected harmful substances into the atmosphere
per unit of time, m and n are the coefficients
characterizing the conditions of the release of harmful
substances from the opening of the source; H (m) is the
height of the source of pollutants above the earth's
surface, η is a dimensionless factor which characterizes
the influence of terrain on harmful substances spreading,
ΔT (°C) is the temperature difference between the gas
mixture coming from the source and the ambient air
temperature; V1 (m3/s) gases expense determined by the
formula
,
4
π
0
2
1
v
D
V
=
(2)
where D (m) is diameter of opening at the source, v0 (m/s)
average speed discharge of harmful substances in the
gaseous form from opening at the source.
,
Δ
1000
2
2
0
TH
Dv
f
=
(3)
.
Δ
650
31
M
H
TV
,v
=
(4)
240 Technical Gazette 20, 2(2013), 237-246
S. Miladinović et al. Utjecaj "Željezare Smederevo" na kvalitetu okoliša i mogućnost njezinog poboljšanja pomoću sustava nadzora
Dangerous wind speed uM (m/s) at the central stack
level which gives the highest value of ground
concentration of harmful matter is:
2,
);
120
1(
M
MM
>
+
=v
f,
v
u
(5)
,31
0
M
H
Dv
,'v
=
(6)
,
800
3
M
e
'
vf =
(7)
,
100
;
34010
67
0
1
3
<
+
+
=f
f,f
,,
m
(8)
,2
;1
M
=vn
(9)
,
4
5
M
Hd
F
x
=
(10)
2. );2801
(7
M
3eM
>
+= vf,vd
(11)
The maximum value of the concentration of harmful
substances in bad weather conditions at wind speed u
(m/s) is:
,
MM
crc
u
(12)
where
.
1
;
34
11,67
67
0
M
3
M
2
MM
+
=u
u
u
u
,
u
u
u
u
,r
(13)
Dimensionless
.250 ;3 ;
M
MM
,
u
u
pxpx
u
==
(14)
is the distance at which at wind speed u (m/s) ground
concentrations of harmful substances have the highest
value; p is a dimensionless parameter. Measured gas
concentrations applied to time period of 24 hours after
emission from the stack.
The Smederevo Steel Plant stack height is 150,2 m,
the width of the stack at the top is 6,5 m. Steel Plant is
located 7 miles southeast of Smederevo. Average height
above the sea level of the city territory is 120,7 m; the
lowest point has a height of 69 m, and the highest has 273
m. Adopted values of the parameters required for the
calculation of the maximum ground concentration of SO2
and the corresponding distances are:
g/s.8326m/s;5;1
C; 15m;530;1;160
0,Mv
T,HFA
==
=
°====
η
Using Eqs. (1) ÷ (14) we find that the maximum
ground concentrations of SO2 cM = 0,139 mg/m3 and it is
located at a distance xM = 2992 m from the source. Since
the most frequent wind is south wind at the average speed
of about 2,6 m/s, then we can say that the concentration of
SO2 cMu = 0,0147 mg/m3 and it is realized at the distance
of xMu = 8979 m from the source.
For Arsenic is obtained:
g/s
6
10
79
1m/s;
5
;
1
C;
150
m;
530
;2
;
160
0
×
==
=
°
==
=
=
,M
v
T
,H
F
A
η
3
M
ng/m
5418,c =
; xM = 5984 m;
m. 952 17 ;ng/m 961
M
3
M
==
uu
x,c
According to the Regulations on limit values,
emission measuring methods, criteria for establishing the
monitoring points and data records (Official Gazette of
the Republic of Serbia, No. 54/92, 30/00 and 19/2006)
permitted emission limit of sulphur dioxide is 0,15
mg/m3, and Arsenic 6 ng/m3.
Based on the theoretical calculation of sulphur
dioxide emission limit values and permitted emission
limits, we can conclude that Steel Plant with its emissions
of SO2 in normal weather conditions is mostly near or
below limits for sulphur dioxide emissions.
Systematic measurements of air quality in the
measuring point "High School" in Smederevo, was
performed by the Department of Public Health Pozarevac.
At this measuring point, 24-hour measurements of
sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, soot and sediment
substances, where heavy metals were determined, were
performed in 2011. The choice of measuring point,
sampling, and methods used for identification of
pollutants were created in accordance with the Law on
Air Protection ("Official Gazette of the Republic of
Serbia", No. 36/2009) and with the Decree on conditions
and requirements for monitoring of air quality ("Official
Gazette of the Republic of Serbia "No. 11/2010 and
75/2010).
Evaluation of air quality, at High school in
Smederevo, based on automatic monitoring may be
performed on the basis of the adopted criteria for quality
evaluation based on domestic regulation, which takes into
account the frequency of exceeding of LVI and
determination of temporary air quality index.
Figure 1 Air quality in 2011 at the measuring point High school in
Smederevo
4 The influence air quality on malignancy
During the 2011 by evaluation of average sulphur
dioxide values, the air was excellent in 75 % of cases and
good in 25 % of cases. In observed one-year period
during only one day, twenty-four hour limit value and
sulphur dioxide level tolerant value was exceeded. But the
presence of NO2 had completely different relations; the
presence of this pollutant is completely within the range
Tehnički vjesnik 20, 2(2013), 237-246 241
The influence of "Zelezara Smederevo" on the quality of the environment and its ability to improve through the monitoring system S. Miladinović et al.
44 ÷ 85 mg/m3, actually acceptable by its quality, which
means just below the pollution limit. During the 42 days
in total, twenty-four hour limit value of nitrogen dioxide
is exceeded, and in one day, twenty-four hour tolerance
value is exceeded too. The LVI was exceeded each month,
the highest one in February for 10 days. The presence of
soot is increased in winter months when the values are
above the LVI, from October to March, mainly because of
the heating. In 50 % of cases, the presence of soot
contributes that air pollution is at the pollution limit
(33,33 %) or polluted (16,66 %) and 50 % of it is of good
quality. During the 46 days in total, during the year,
twenty-four hour limit value of soot level was exceeded,
including 4 days when the twenty-four hours tolerant
value was exceeded. Overdrafts are common in the winter
period.
Table 7 Results of automatic monitoring of air quality parameters at the measuring point Smederevo - High school during 2011 [6]
SO2 / µg/m3
NO2 / µg/m3
Soot / µg/m3
Month
Parameter
Number of measuring
by day
Average value
Maximum daily value
LVI > 150
Number of measuring
Average value
Maximum daily value
LVI > 85
Number of measuring
Average value
Maximum daily value
Number of days above
LVI > 50
I
31
42,5
96,0
0
31
55,3
94,0
1
31
42,4
126,0
10
II
28
46,2
111,0
0
28
72,8
105,0
10
28
56,1
204,0
8
III
31
43,1
131,0
0
31
63,8
95,0
4
31
31,2
127,0
4
IV
30
19,8
44,0
0
30
58,9
91,0
2
30
16,8
33,0
0
V
31
16,9
39,0
0
31
63,7
106,0
2
31
13,1
48,0
0
VI
30
15,2
57,0
0
30
66,6
98,0
5
30
10,8
20,0
0
VII
31
8,5
17,0
0
31
61,2
92,0
1
31
13,3
24,0
0
VIII
31
12,9
57,0
0
31
66,9
67,0
5
31
16,5
20,0
0
IX
30
14,8
51,0
0
30
70,4
120,0
8
30
17,8
41,0
0
X
31
23,6
64,0
0
31
48,2
89,0
1
31
30,8
99,0
5
XI
30
28,7
74,0
0
30
57,7
99,0
2
30
59,3
161,0
13
XII
31
35,2
79,0
0
30
50,9
178,0
1
31
34,3
90,0
6
Year - 25,6 68,33 0 - 61,36 102,8 3,5 - 28,53 82,7 38,3
The connection between public health of the
population and environmental conditions is not direct,
because there are many other factors that affect human
health. However, among many factors that determine the
health status of the population, environmental factor is
highly ranked, besides heritage and individual
characteristics, lifestyle and the availability and
effectiveness of health services. It is common thinking
that the air quality in urban areas has a greater impact on
the health of the population than other environmental
factors, and that the ambient air pollutants represents one
of the most important causes of health problems in
general. According to the estimation of World Health
Organization, each increase of 10 μg of fine particles in
the air means that the risk of premature death increases
from 11 % to 17 %. Numerous epidemiological studies
clearly show that the air pollution as respiratory particles
is related to increased morbidity and mortality from
respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The increase in
certain diseases (cardiovascular diseases and
hypertension, respiratory diseases, malignant diseases,
infectious and parasitic diseases) can be the result of
modern lifestyles, but also the result of environmental
pollution. Carcinogenic effects of many contaminants
were also determined. These are the polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons, primarily the most widely benzopyrene,
tetraethyl, asbestos, soot and carbon sediments. Some of
them, such as lead compounds, change their ways of
entering the body, because one can consume them
through the soil and vegetation. CO, NOx and SO2 and
soot are "classic polluters", the most common measured
pollutants, and both in the world and in our country, alone
or together with the other pollutants they can cause
serious health problems. The most important effect of
these pollutants on health of the population is expressed
in the respiratory tract. They affect the appearance of
respiratory diseases and lead to changes in the pulmonary
defence system. Besides respiratory diseases, the presence
of these pollutants affects the decrease of immune system
and the occurrence of cancer [7]. The reactions of people
to the polluted air exposure, depends on the concentration
level of the contamination matter, exposure time and
persons current health condition, as well as the weather
conditions. Certain segments of the population such as
children, women at childbearing age, elderly and
chronically ill persons, are more sensitive and they
manifest symptoms of disease even at low concentrations
of the pollutant in the air. Pollutants present in the
ambient air, especially respirable particles (particulate
matter - PM) because of their negative effects on human
health, drew attention of experts, regulators and general
public. The most recent researches of experts of the
European Union warn that due to air pollution, life had
lost at least 3,6 million people. Air pollution by
suspended matter consists of very small particles in liquid
or solid state of matter. Among them are especially
important the ones that can reach the deepest parts of the
lungs. These particles have a diameter less than 10 μm or
in descriptive terms; their diameter is smaller than 1/7
thickness of a human hair. About 99 % of inhaled
242 Technical Gazette 20, 2(2013), 237-246
S. Miladinović et al. Utjecaj "Željezare Smederevo" na kvalitetu okoliša i mogućnost njezinog poboljšanja pomoću sustava nadzora
suspended particles from the air are instantly eliminated
from the body by exhalation, because they are mostly
retained in the upper parts of the respiratory tract. The
remaining 1 % of the particles are retained in the
organism, come to the trachea and go to the lungs.
Particles hazardous to human respiratory organs are those
smaller than 10 µm. Such small particles have the
tendency to deposit in the alveoli. Which part of the
inhaled particles will remain in the respiratory tract and
which depth they will reach before they deposit, depends
on their size as the most important factor that determines
the risk of inhalation of particles. If the particles reach the
lungs, they slow down the exchange of oxygen and
carbon dioxide, reducing breath. This leads to greater
heart straining, which needs increased effort to
compensate reduced oxygen intake. Usually, people who
are sensitive to these harsh conditions suffer from
respiratory diseases such as Emphysema, Bronchitis,
Asthma and heart problems [8]. Particles, as well as the
matters in liquid or gaseous state which are brought
together with the absorbed or inhaled particles and which
are toxic, contribute to the damage of organs, such as
kidneys and liver. Although PM10 attack the entire human
population, population categories (children, pregnant
women, the elderly and ill) are particularly endangered.
Besides their contribution to health damage, PM10 reduce
visibility during the day because they create visible
effects which are similar to mist, and often recognized as
smog.
Not only long-term exposure studies fall within
research on health effects of exposure to respirable
particles. Even before the beginning of the studies on the
health effects, air pollution and prolonged exposure, the
studies were done on mortality related to ambient
concentrations exposure to respirable particles during the
same or during several previous days,. Based on the study
implemented in 90 U.S. cities, it is determined that total
mortality is increased by 0,27 % and cardiopulmonary
mortality by 0,69 % with PM10 concentration increase by
10 µg/m3. In a broad European study, which is based on
data from 29 cities, the estimated increase of total
mortality was 0,6 % while the estimated increase of
cardiovascular mortality was 0,76 % for PM10
concentrations increase by 10 μg/m3 [9].
According to the air quality which depends on
sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, soot,
powder matter and other emissions, Smederevo is among
ten most polluted cities in Serbia. The relation between
the degree of environmental quality and the health of
residents in the city area of Smederevo has not been
studied thoroughly. Based on data from the health
statistics on issued medicaments, disease structure and
existing database of environmental threats, we attempted
to find causal relationship. General picture of health
condition and general disease symptoms can be related to
the impact of certain pollutants recorded in the
environment.
Table 8 Movement of malignant disease in Smederevo and rural localities in 1997 ÷ 2011
Settlement
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Smederevo
89
77
49
111
221
205
186
151
271
248
260
260
235
250
278
Mihajlovac
5
2
4
11
16
8
14
4
11
7
5
10
12
12
4
Skobalj
2
2
1
2
10
2
6
5
5
7
1
9
12
6
5
Vrbovac
-
-
1
-
6
-
3
3
2
2
5
5
1
5
1
Lipe
4
6
4
4
20
11
8
5
9
6
5
8
6
13
4
Osipaonica
2
-
3
5
17
10
14
8
9
5
13
10
10
4
13
Landol
-
1
-
-
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
4
1
Vodanj
2
1
1
2
9
4
6
3
4
1
9
3
4
4
5
Radinac
8
7
2
5
16
11
9
14
23
15
23
15
10
12
13
Ralja
-
-
2
1
2
2
1
2
4
4
6
4
6
3
4
Vranovo
2
1
2
5
12
7
9
6
4
5
9
6
10
7
8
Dobri Do
1
3
1
1
4
4
-
1
3
1
5
6
3
3
6
Lugavčina
2
2
-
4
6
10
8
9
11
6
8
13
7
6
10
Seone
2
1
1
1
3
2
4
3
0
2
4
5
2
4
2
Vučak
1
-
1
3
4
5
2
2
7
3
5
5
1
2
6
Drugovac
1
1
1
4
8
6
5
6
9
8
11
6
5
5
6
Udovice
3
1
1
2
6
4
4
3
3
4
2
7
3
4
8
M. Krsna
3
1
2
2
6
6
2
10
10
4
6
6
8
6
8
Binovac
1
-
1
-
6
1
2
2
4
0
-
1
3
2
2
Šalinac
-
1
2
-
3
4
1
1
1
1
5
2
1
2
3
Suvodol
2
-
2
-
1
5
3
-
5
3
-
6
4
3
-
Saraorci
1
3
1
1
7
5
6
3
6
6
10
3
7
6
4
Petrijevo
-
1
-
1
1
3
-
3
4
0
3
2
3
5
-
M. Orašje
-
1
-
2
3
1
-
1
3
0
4
1
1
3
2
Kolari
-
2
-
2
8
4
5
6
3
3
7
6
3
8
5
Lunjevac
-
1
2
1
1
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
Badljevica
1
1
-
-
2
-
-
1
0
3
1
2
1
Kulič
-
-
-
1
1
4
3
-
0
0
1
1
1
2
1
Total
132
115
83
172
401
327
305
357
415
350
412
406
364
383
400
Report of the Health Center "Sveti Luka" Hospital in Smederevo
Tehnički vjesnik 20, 2(2013), 237-246 243
The influence of "Zelezara Smederevo" on the quality of the environment and its ability to improve through the monitoring system S. Miladinović et al.
We analyzed health statistics of issued medicaments.
"Apotekarska ustanova" supplies the City of Smederevo
with medicaments and this institution has 14 pharmacies.
Based on 5484 drug prescriptions, these pharmacies
issued 1.080.491 medicaments in 2011. Our attention was
focused on segregation of drugs used in the treatment of
respiratory diseases: Emphysema, Bronchitis, Asthma,
Lung cancer and infectious diseases. In collaboration with
physicians and specialists for lung and respiratory organ
treatment, we specifically marked antibiotics used in lung
treatment and strengthening lung defence system, pumps
that facilitate breathing to asthmatics and people suffering
from obstructive bronchitis, drugs used to treat Lung
cancer, Tuberculosis, allergies, cough medicines and
fungal diseases. We also marked drugs used for pain
which are used to soothe the pain related to Lung cancer
in advanced stages. We found that 48 kinds of antibiotics
with a total of 68.822 units were issued in 2011, which is
6,4 % of total issued drugs. 11 types of pumps are also
issued with 17.216 units, commonly used by children and
chronically ill persons. The total number of marked drugs
used in the treatment of respiratory diseases is 123.600
which is more than 10 % of total issued drugs.
From the shown Tab. 8 one can see that the number
of malignant diseases is on the rise. The increase since
2001 and its holding until 2011 is particularly significant.
The number of patients is alarmingly increased almost
three times. This situation cannot be fully explained by
environmental pollution, but some facts can lead to the
problem of the environment. As a matter of fact, the
Smederevo Steel Plant, previously known as "Sartid", was
privatized in 2003 by the American company U.S. Steel.
The production beat every record and grew to the historic
record of 2,2 million tons per year, and that was the first
time that both Blast Furnaces worked together. Since then
only one Blast Furnace has been in operation, and the
other has been repaired. This production was inevitably
reflected in increased environmental pollution of the
surroundings, which certainly had an effect on the health
of the population. From our previous representation of the
environment one can see that almost all of the parameters
endangering the environment were, in this period, over
GVI. In this observed period, Radinac, a village in the
Steel Plant neighbourhood, had the highest number of
patients (183), which is clearly the result of environment
violated at a large scale. Settlements located on Sumadija
hills, more than 100 meters above the sea level, where the
atmospheric circulation is much higher, had a
significantly smaller number of ill people (dark lines) than
the number of patients in the settlements located in the
Velika Morava valley, below 100 m above sea level.
Data from Tab. 9 can also point to a causal relation of
the quality of environment and growth of malignant
diseases.
Table 9 Malignant diseases according to location and sex in the City of Smederevo
Malignant
diseases
Age 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Oral mouth
pharynx
00÷14
m
3
22
10
9
3
6
10
13
8
4
11
8
f
2
3
4
3
0
2
4
3
2
5
1
Gastrointestinal
tract
15÷29
m
14 46 39 44 24 39 38 33 42 28 28 19
f
10
33
36
25
20
25
12
26
19
22
22
23
Respiratory
system and
thoracic cavity
30÷39
m
13
106
76
73
59
82
82
89
71
63
75
89
f 25 23 11 16 14 13 14 22 14 22 22
Bones and joint
cartilage
40÷42
m
3
1
1
2
f
1
1
1
1
1
Melanoma and
other skin
cancers
43÷44
m
20
20
19
27
30
22
21
22
31
22
27
34
f 11 18 20 10 15 26 32 33 28 25 32 31
Lipoma
45÷49
m
1
3
2
1
2
2
1
f
1
3
2
3
2
2
Breast cancer
50
m
1
1
1
1
f
49
55
33
52
38
67
46
42
41
52
37
58
Genital tumors
51÷63
m 4 3 3 6 6 22 13 39 62 42 43 43
f
22
43
28
15
22
45
32
49
27
43
35
32
Tumors of
urinary system
64÷68
m
6
5
7
6
1
25
13
14
20
13
17
17
f
1
1
2
2
3
8
2
7
4
7
6
5
Eye, brain
tumors
69÷72
m
4
2
2
5
1
4
3
4
2
3
3
2
f
1
2
4
3
2
4
1
2
2
1
1
Endocrine
glands tumors
73÷80
m
3
4
2
3
7
11
8
2
4
2
4
f
1 7 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 12 4
Tumors of the
lymphoid,
blood and
related tissues
81÷96
m
6
3
8
5
5
4
3
2
7
4
4
f 4 4 4 1 10 2 5 9 5 1
Total
m
72
213
171
179
133
212
198
224
246
185
210
223
f
100 188 156 126 124 203 152 188 160 179 173 177
Total
m + f
172
401
327
305
257
415
350
412
406
364
383
400
Report of the Health Center "Sveti Luka" Hospital in Smederevo
244 Technical Gazette 20, 2(2013), 237-246
S. Miladinović et al. Utjecaj "Željezare Smederevo" na kvalitetu okoliša i mogućnost njezinog poboljšanja pomoću sustava nadzora
Figure 2 Movement of malignant diseases in the City of Smederevo
1997 ÷ 2011
We can conclude that air pollution is directly related
to respiratory and malignant diseases. In that sense, we
can relate the large number of patients suffering from
cancer of the respiratory system and thoracic cavity
(1074), which represent 25,87 % of the total cancer
patients. We notice considerably higher number of male
patients (878) than women patients (196), which can be
explained by working conditions in the Steel Plant. In
production, where pollution is the highest, male labour
force is mainly employed, while women mostly work in
administration. If we add to that number the patients with
cancer of the oral, mouth and pharynx (135), followed by
melanoma and skin cancer (576), for which we can also
assume that they are closely related to air pollution, this
percentage is 43 %, which is nearly half of the patients.
Carcinogenic effects of benzopirene, soot and carbon
sediments, Arsenic heavy metal compounds, and nickel
have great credit for the other malignant diseases such as
tumours of endocrine glands, lymphoid and blood tissue.
Arsenic concentration in the immediate vicinity of
steelworks, in Ralja, reaches up to 18,54 ng/m3, and
nickel to 49,4 ng/m3, which is almost twice of the
allowable values. The effects of heavy metal pollution,
which make up 1 % of the total pollution, include organ
damages (kidney, liver, brain, etc.), brain damage and
nervous system (seizures, mental retardation, behavioural
problems, memory problems etc…), the heart and
cardiovascular system (hypertension, heart failure) and so
on. Mass of chronic non-communicable diseases
(cardiovascular diseases, malignant tumours, obstructive
lung disease, injuries, mental health disorders, etc.), for
decades dominate the national pathology in Serbia [10].
5 Conclusion
Based on the reported values of substances that make
up the quality of the environment, we can conclude that
the City of Smederevo is a settlement with highly polluted
environment. This conclusion especially applies to the
polluted air, where the values of certain pollutants exceed
limits several times. It is evident that there is a real risk of
their seriously endangering human health. Without taking
specific measures, we cannot expect significant
improvement and enhancement of environmental quality.
The main priority that would contribute to reducing air
pollution by typical and polluting matters and their
elimination from the air, is setting of air polluter cadastres
in the city of Smederevo. In this way an insight can be
provided into the air quality condition in the whole area at
any time. This especially applies to the Smederevo Steel
Plant, which is a dominant source of air pollution. Based
on the cadastre one can make a meteorological diffusive
model of pollution for the entire territory of the city,
based on which the procedures in case of accidents and
excessive pollution can be defined. Also, air protection
from the harmful effects of pollutants is achieved through
control over facilities and equipment which can
contaminate the air and emission limitation is included to
the limits stipulated by the Regulations on limit values,
the method and terms of measuring and recording data,
taking technological and other necessary measures for
emissions reduction, as well as monitoring the impact of
air pollution on human health and the environment. In
order to improve the quality of the environment,
additional measures such as the implementation of the
project of gasification and central heating are needed.
Existing boiler houses on liquid and solid fuels should be,
in the future, converted in the boilers that use gas as a
fuel. Diversion of transit and freight traffic on a circular
road around the city would reduce air pollution in the city
centre. This requires a study of the City and its vicinity
transport mode, renewal, maintenance of existing and
erection of new green spaces in the city and protection of
low and medium green foliage of long growing period in
the vicinity of major pollutants [11]. The city of
Smederevo in its further development must rely on an
ecological component and the general principle of
sustainable development, because in this way it can be
closer to the European standards, which can create
opportunities and access to the EU funds and
development loans.
Acknowledgement
This paper is partly financed by the Ministry of
Education and Science of Republic of Serbia, Projects TR
34019.
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Authors' addresses
dr Slobodan Miladinović
Academy of Criminalistic and Police Studies, Belgrade
Cara Dušana 196
11080 Zemun, Serbia
slobodan.miladinovic@kpa.edu.rs
dr Stevo Jaćimovski
Academy of Criminalistic and Police Studies, Belgrade
Cara Dušana 196
11080 Zemun, Serbia
stevo.jacimovski@kpoa.edu.rs
prof. dr Željko Nikač
Academy of Criminalistic and Police Studies, Belgrade
Cara Dušana 196
11080 Zemun, Serbia
zeljko.nikac@kpa.edu.rs
dr Dalibor Kekić
Academy of Criminalistic and Police Studies, Belgrade
Cara Dušana 196
11080 Zemun, Serbia
dalibor.kekic@kpa.edu.rs
246 Technical Gazette 20, 2(2013), 237-246
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Article
The authors studied the association between long-term exposure (i.e., > 10 y) to outdoor air pollution and the severity of obstructive pulmonary disease and prevalence of bronchial hyperreactivity to beta2 agonists in two groups of adult patients who were of similar ages and who had similar smoking habits. The subjects lived in downtown districts or in the outer suburbs of Marseilles, the neighborhood that contained air samplers. The regions were similar with respect to sulfur dioxide levels, but levels of nitric oxides and particulate matter (10 millimeters or less) were higher in the downtown area than the suburbs. The authors assessed airway obstruction, as determined by a decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s, mean forced expiratory flow measured between 25% and 75% of vital capacity, and an elevated value of central airway resistance. The authors tested the changes in these variables induced by inhalation of a beta2 agonist. Baseline lung function was altered more significantly in both male and female patients who lived in downtown Marseilles than in those who resided in the suburbs, and the differences persisted regardless of the season during which the study occurred. Prevalence of bronchial hyperreactivity and symptoms of asthma (but not of rhinitis) were higher in the downtown than suburban male subjects. The results of this study suggest that an association exists between actual environmental exposure to outdoor air pollution (i.e., nitrogen oxides and/or particulate matter of 10 millimeters or less) and respiratory effects in sensitive adults represented by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma.
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