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The current situation of protection and conservation of the colônia impact crater, são paulo, Brazil

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Nature conservation, sustainable development and the consequences of environmental degradation are central themes in debates about the future of humanity. From a sustainability perspective, reconciling the tense relationship between economic growth, quality of life and ecosystem preservation is becoming increasingly difficult. This paper presents a holistic approach to the socio-environmental problems of the Colônia impact crater. The efficiency of environmental protection measures, the feasibility of management programs and the political platform for sustainable development are the main issues discussed. The data reveal a high risk of increasing environmental degradation and worsening regional disparities. The implementation of geotourism, mainly via educational trails, landscape photography and agro-tourism, is one of the most favourable alternatives for social and economic development in the region. Such a project should be developed with broad participation from the local community and with an active and permanent policy management.
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Térreo, CEP: 04103-000, São Paulo, Brasil, e-mail: janiorferreira@prefeitura.sp.gov.br
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Secretary of Environment, Geological Institute, Rua Joaquim Távora, 822, Vila Mariana,
CEP 04015-011, São Paulo, Brasil, e-mail: wsallun@gmail.com
Abstract: Nature conservation, sustainable development and the consequences of
environmental degradation are central themes in debates about the future of
humanity. From a sustainability perspective, reconciling the tense relationship
* Corresponding author
Victor Fernandez VELÁZQUEZ, Julianna COLONNA, Gabriela Ananda Rodrigues da SILVA,
Oswaldo LANDGRAF JUNIOR, Jânio Marcos Rodrigues FERREIRA,
José Maria AZEVEDO SOBRINHO, Alethéa Eranandes Martins SALLUN, William SALLUN FILHO
8
between economic growth, quality of life and ecosystem preservation is becoming
increasingly difficult. This paper presents a holistic approach to the socio-
environmental problems of the Colônia impact crater. The efficiency of
environmental protection measures, the feasibility of management programs and the
political platform for sustainable development are the main issues discussed. The
data reveal a high risk of increasing environmental degradation and worsening
regional disparities. The implementation of geotourism, mainly via educational trails,
landscape photography and agro-tourism, is one of the most favourable alternatives
for social and economic development in the region. Such a project should be
developed with broad participation from the local community and with an active and
permanent policy management.
Key words: Colônia impact crater, Nature preservation, Sustainable development
* * * * * *
INTRODUCTION
The Colônia impact crater lies in the southern zone of the São Paulo Metropolitan
Region and covers an area with a large number of water catchments at the south-
western edge of the Billings hydrographic basin (Figure 1). This prominent ring-like
structure has attracted the attention of many researchers over the last several decades
(Kollert et al., 1961; Riccomini et al., 1989; Neves, 1989). Apart from its extraordinary
scientific relevance for geological, biological, palaeoclimatic and palaeoecological
research, the natural elements of the crater provide favourable conditions for a wi de
range of educational activities that could be developed with students of different
academic levels (Velázquez et al., 2006; 2008). The crater is also a stunning site for the
practice of geotourism, and the community may undertake diverse outdoor leisure
activities in a pleasant tropical climate provided by the remaining Atlantic Forest
(Souza & Velázquez, 2008; Valderrama, 2010).
It is worth mentioning that Ries, in Germany, and Colônia, in Brazil, are the only
two peopled craters of 188 impact structures catalogued in the Earth Impact Database
(PAASC, 2015). The Ries crater is the site of the first geopark in Bavaria; the geopark
covers 1800 km2 and includes five different counties with 53 communities, making it the
world's most populous geopark (Stöffler et al., 2008).
The Colônia crater occupies an area of approximately 10.2 km2 and was declared a
Geological Monument by the Council of Geological Monuments of the São Paulo State
(CoMGeo-SP) in 2009. The crater currently has approximately 45,000 residents,
including besiegers, smallholders and an extensive, irregular urban settlement. The
accelerated growth of urbanization and the expansion of agriculture in the region have led
to a considerable reduction in vegetation.
Given the need to put an effective preservation program into practice in the
crater region, conducting a detailed analysis of the current environmental situation to
produce a document that provides simple, useful measures to reduce the risks of
degradation was considered appropriate.
The scope of this process also included encouraging the local community to be an
active participant in programs that prioritize economic growth and social equality without
endangering local geological and biological diversity. Conservation of this region’s
NATURAL HERITAGE is strongly recommended to ensure the continuity of several
studies and optimize its use in education and tourism (Velázquez et al., 2014a).
The Current Situation of Protection
and Conservation of the Colônia Impact
Crater, São Paulo, Brazil
9
Figure 1. The Colônia impact crater within the Billings hydrographic basin. Inset: the South
American illustration of the Arid Ocean Map (source: adapted from Velázquez et al., 2014a)
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS
In the traditional approach of nature conservation, the biological diversity has
usually received more attention to the importance of sustainable management. The
geological records, however, are indispensable elements that should also be brought into
account where the theme includes environmental planning and sustainable development
(Brilha, 2005). In this context, since the early 90s, the International Union of Geological
Sciences (IUGS) and UNESCO have been promoting a systematic cataloguing of
geological with particular interest. This initiative has as main objective to promote an
exceptionally broad disclosure of the geological features, which bring together a high
potentiality for science, teaching activity and leisure time (ProGEO, 2011). In recent
times, it is remarkable the significant increase in the number of research groups that
devote their activities to this new investigation segment in Brazil.
Nevertheless, terms such as geodiversity, geological heritage, geoconservation,
geopark and geotourism, highly widespread in northern hemisphere countries (Newsome
& Dowling, 2010; Farsani et al., 2012, Adriansyah et al., 2015), have not been fully
integrated into the national academic literature. Likewise, the factual benefits of
conservation programmes are still very isolated and, sometimes, geological sites that have
been duly recognized not receive the deserved care (Barroso, 2013). As previously pointed
out by some authors, geological elements are natural heritage and should also be
capitalized as the archaeological and cultural patrimonies, considering that these records
are the lasting memory of the long evolutionary story of our planet (Sharples, 2002;
Brilha, 2005; Brocx & Semeniuk, 2007; ProGeo, 2011). In this sense, geotourism has
often been cited as a possible option to improve the usage of geological sites and
encourage the practice of environmental preservation (Hose, 1995). Although the term
Victor Fernandez VELÁZQUEZ, Julianna COLONNA, Gabriela Ananda Rodrigues da SILVA,
Oswaldo LANDGRAF JUNIOR, Jânio Marcos Rodrigues FERREIRA,
José Maria AZEVEDO SOBRINHO, Alethéa Eranandes Martins SALLUN, William SALLUN FILHO
10
―geotuorism‖ has provoked controversy regarding to the definition (c.f. Arouca
Declaration in https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/36358978/News/Declaration_
Arouca_%5BEN%5D.pdf), the environmental and social benefits arising from this new
modality of tourism for the local community are unquestionable. As empathised by
Lazzari & Alloia (2014), this tourist activity, when it is well-planned and organised, can
to facilitate public interest in geotourism, geoscientists, government agencies,
communities, and other stakeholders must collaborate to sensitize the public, develop,
and preserve these national patrimony/heritage sites for teaching, training, research,
sustainable development, job creation, environmental conservation, and exploration of
alternatives to traditional exploitation/uses.
This innovative way of tourism able of harnessing the geological peculiarities of a
region, promoting sustainable development through actions that encourage the practice
of environmental and social responsibility, it was the main reason to perform the
research in the Colônia impact crater region. On the basis of the proposals suggested by
Dowling, 2011 and Crawfo & Black, 2012, this article provides a holistic evaluation
considering the following aspects: a) geological and geomorpholocal features, b) vegetal
cover distribution, c) environmental protection laws, d) dynamics of urbanisation and
e) strategic plan for preservation.
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE REGION
A careful examination of the physical environmental components of the Colônia
impact crater is indispensable to understanding the natural processes that could
potentially increase the risk and vulnerability of the region. Although several
elements should be taken into account in the evaluation of a substrate’s physical
properties, according to Gissoti & Zarlenga (2004), two are often quoted as essential:
a) a comprehensive understanding of the landscape particularities from a
morphological viewpoint and b) a general summary focusing on the regional and local
distribution of the main lithological units.
The crater has an area of approximately 10.2 km2 and possesses distinct
geological and geomorphological characteristics. With a 3.6 km rim-to-rim diameter,
the Colônia crater can be easily identified on a satellite image. The uplifted rim is
composed of several flat-topped hills arranged in a ring, a typical residual landform that
is markedly different from the central area. This topographical feature was generated
through a multistage cratering process, resulting in a significant contrast in the
altitudes of the rim and floor of the crater (Figure 2). This contrast reaches 120 m in
some places. Unlike the ring, which displays steep hillsides, the internal area is an
extensive, flat surface with minor local variation. The surface drainage pattern is similar
to a bowl-shaped basin, in which most watercourses drain toward the centre. The
Ribeirão Vermelho River is the only runoff channel flowing in an easterly direction to
discharge its waters in the Billings hydrographic basin.
The most common rock-stratigraphic units in the region are those from the
crystalline basement, Embu Domain (Sadowski, 1974), which are part of an orogenic zone
complex of the Neoproterozoic Era named the Ribeira Fold Belt by Hasui et al., 1975. An
exhaustive geological survey was carried out by Coutinho (1972). The region of Colônia
was as a terrain composed essentially of Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks,
Tertiary sediments and Quaternary deposits. Mica schist, gneiss, quartzite, migmatite and
quartz diorite are the oldest rocks sustaining the crater rim (Coutinho, 1980) (Figure 3).
The outcrops are not exposed continuously and are often covered by an extensive layer of
deeply weathered rock and dense vegetation. A long, narrow strip of remaining Paleogene
The Current Situation of Protection
and Conservation of the Colônia Impact
Crater, São Paulo, Brazil
11
deposits from the São Paulo Basin, correlated with the Resende Formation (Riccomini et
al., 1992), occurs in the southern and south-eastern segments of the crater’s inner rim.
Figure 2. Circular topographical feature of the Colônia impact crater showing a clear altitude
difference between rim and floor. Digital elevation model from SRTM data.
The A-B transect indicates the position of the sketch shown in Figure 4
Figure 3. Main lithological associations of the outcropping in the Colônia impact crater region.
The Billings hydrographic basin is indicated by the white dotted line (source: Coutinho, 1980)
Victor Fernandez VELÁZQUEZ, Julianna COLONNA, Gabriela Ananda Rodrigues da SILVA,
Oswaldo LANDGRAF JUNIOR, Jânio Marcos Rodrigues FERREIRA,
José Maria AZEVEDO SOBRINHO, Alethéa Eranandes Martins SALLUN, William SALLUN FILHO
12
Climate, relief, soil permeability and soil types are all natural conditions that
strongly influence plant species distribution throughout the crater. Although the region
does not present significant variations in terms of altitude, field observations suggest that
the effects of slope gradient and the saturation zone of groundwater are the principal
factors controlling the spatial distribution of vegetation on the site (Figure 4). In general,
it is possible to note a clear difference between the vegetation in the most erosive zone,
the crater rim, which is composed of large trees serving as habitat for a rich array of fauna
including birds, mammals and reptiles (Marçon, 2009), and the sedimentation zone, the
crater centre, where a mosaic of marshy vegetation and other types of herbaceous plant
species gradually begin to prevail (Velázquez et al., 2006; Marçon, 2009).
Figure 4. Schematic illustration of the slope gradient effect and the
saturation zone of groundwater on the spatial distribution of vegetation
The sediments that fill the crater are still undergoing compaction and consolidation
processes. As a result of this very particular situation, the layers are highly permeable and
exhibit behaviour similar to an unconfined aquifer. In this type of aquifer, the water table
is extremely close to the surface, and the downward movement of contaminants becomes
an imminent danger, particularly during periods of intense rain, when groundwater
recharge occurs across the entire surface. This area is particularly susceptible to pollution
and requires stronger environmental protection measures. Therefore, all potentially
polluting activities should be rigorously forbidden.
The Current Situation of Protection
and Conservation of the Colônia Impact
Crater, São Paulo, Brazil
13
The risks of landslides and flooding are also severe problems in the crater, and both
processes are markedly worsened by unplanned urbanization. In areas with steep slopes
and little or no vegetation, rainwater penetrates to deeper layers. In such circumstances,
erosion operates efficiently, removing the weathered rock materials without major
impediments. This is the main mechanism responsible for structural failures in civil
engineering works, generating instability in buildings along hillsides and increasing the
possibility of a general collapse. Residences situated in topographically low regions, and,
in particular, very close to the Ribeirão Vermelho River, have also been subject to
frequent, episodic flooding, which has endangered the physical integrity of many families.
LEGAL PROTECTION MEASURES
A large number of environmental rules have been established to preserve the
Colônia crater region (Figure 5). The first concerns State Legislation around the
Watershed Protection Area of the São Paulo Metropolitan Region. Since its promulgation
in 1975, this law has organized and guaranteed the supply of drinking water to the
population. To further ensure the watershed protection and to reinforce local
preservation, the Environmental Protection Area of Capivari-Monos was created in 2001.
This resolution was issued by the municipal government to safeguard an area of 251 km2
that, until then, had received little to no attention. The region contains important native
vegetation of the Atlantic Forest, several wildlife and flora species, and numerous
waterfalls (SMVA, 2011). Similar to other areas of large size, the main problems faced in
this region relate to management and efficient supervision.
Figure 5. This chart summarizes the main environmental measures that have been
instituted to protect the Colônia impact crater region (sources: data from SMVA, 2012; SMA, 2013)
A few years after the formation of the Environmental Protection Area, the Defence
Council of Historical, Archaeological, Artistic and Tourism of the State of São Paulo
(CONDEPHAAT), after a comprehensive analysis and through the application of specific
legislation, declared dominion of public power and natural heritage over the region
occupied by crater. With the advancement of research, the relevance of the crater be came
widely accepted by the scientific community. Based on an exhaustive bibliographical
review conducted by Riccomini et al. (2005), the Brazilian Commission of Geological and
Palaeobiological Sites took the initiative to add Colônia in its database. Two years after
the addition, a small area located further to the south of the crater was officially decreed
Victor Fernandez VELÁZQUEZ, Julianna COLONNA, Gabriela Ananda Rodrigues da SILVA,
Oswaldo LANDGRAF JUNIOR, Jânio Marcos Rodrigues FERREIRA,
José Maria AZEVEDO SOBRINHO, Alethéa Eranandes Martins SALLUN, William SALLUN FILHO
14
Municipal Natural Park of the Colônia Crater. A total area of 52.8 hectares was slated for
the development of research activities, environmental education, ecotourism,
maintenance and integral protection of the area’s ecosystems (SMVA, 2012). The most
recent decision made by the Secretary of State of the Environment, through the Council of
Geological Monuments of the São Paulo State (CoMGeo-SP) conceded the title of
Geological Monument to the Colônia impact crater (SMA, 2013).
Despite preventive measures and the efforts of various social and institutional actors
(community leaders, environmental NGOs, local entrepreneurs and governmental
authorities) to prevent abuse, the practices of deforestation and burning; hunt, capture and
unlawful sale of wildlife; and the predatory extraction of palmettos, bromeliads and orchids
are still common in the region. In view of this unsatisfactory situation, adoption of a
strategy to conserve the crater should be a priority, not only for its direct impact on the life
quality of the local community, but because of the intrinsic value of its natural diversity.
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF HUMAN OCCUPATION
There is very little information available on human settlement of the region prior
to the arrival of German immigrants in 1827. An analysis of historical data indicates to a
sporadic presence of Indians and mestizos scattered throughout the region. According
to Ribeiro (1997), the "Colônia Alemã" neighbourhood, later referred to as "Colônia
Paulista", is one of the oldest settlements formed by foreign residents. Since the time of
its establishment in 1827, ―Colônia Paulista‖ has been a neighbourhood with little
inclination toward development. In spite of being an economically disadvantaged
region, the trajectory of German immigrants in the area has been documented by
historical sites such as a meeting house and cemetery (ACEMPRO, 2008). After the
Second World War, several Japanese families occupied the area. With a firm and
determined attitude toward cultivating the land, these immigrants concentrated their
activities on floriculture and horticulture. Although agricultural activities can negatively
affect the environment, the boundary of the cultivated land area has remained relatively
steady (SMVA, 2012). The most significant transformation occurred with the
foundation of the Vargem Grande neighbourhood in 1989. Encroachment was
promoted by the Union of the Slum Dwellers of Grajaú (UNIFAG). With approximately
1,200 families, the occupation started on the northern rim and spread there after
towards the centre of the crater, until it neared the floodplain of the Ribeirão Vermelho
River (SMVA, 2012). According to the Community Housing Association of Vargem
Grande, there are currently almost 45,000 residents in the neighbourhood, and over
half of the population lives without access to basic sanitation systems (Figure 6).
Another cause for concern is the Penal Establishment Agent of Security Penitentiary
Joaquim Fonseca Lopes. Inaugurated in 1987, this prison operates atover two times the
maximum capacity, maintaining a population of 1,392 detainees (SAP, 2013).
The natural conditions of the crater steep slopes, active floodplain and large
areas with loose soils are usually considered unfavourable for urbanization.
Unfortunately, the adverse conditions of this site have not been sufficient to impede the
obstinate determination of foreign immigrants in exploring unknown lands, on the one
hand, and the legitimate necessity of a disadvantaged social class with no other options
to establish a place to live on the other hand. With a little technical knowledge, a
minimum of infrastructure (drinking water and electric power), and without
appropriate planning, the crater region was transformed into a typical example of illegal
land ownership. Today, the landscape of the crater is a mosaic comprising fragment of
Atlantic forest, floodplains, agricultural lands and homesteads, a natural park, a
The Current Situation of Protection
and Conservation of the Colônia Impact
Crater, São Paulo, Brazil
15
penitentiary and the Vargem Grande neighbourhood. The chaotic pattern of urban
growth inside the crater, as well as the expansion of agricultural areas, has severely
impacted the environment (Figure 6), directly directly resulting in significant loss of
vegetation cover, reduction in the permeability of the upper sedimentary layer,
increases in soil erosion processes and the silting up of superficial drainage networks.
Figure 6. Panoramic views of the Vargem Grande neighbourhood located
at the northern rim of the Colônia impact crater. In the background
can be seen the southern rim partly occupied by besiegers and smallholders
STRATEGIC ACTION PLANS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
The Parelheiros district has the most extensive vegetation cover of the Metropolitan
Region of São Paulo, is one of ten districts with better environmental quality, and it also
possesses the second largest rural area in the Region. However, this promising scenery is
under continuous anthropogenic pressure, which represents a risk for environmental
protection. Such a threat confirms the need for an integral action program that takes into
consideration all aspect of the current problem (Colonna & Velázquez, 2012).
The first proposal for territorial planning in and around the Colônia impact crater
was included in the Regional Strategic Plan of the Parelheiros Subprefecture, launched in
August 2004, in which were summarized the main guidelines for the use and occupation
of the land and the measures for environmental preservation. As pointed out by Alcarde
(2010), the recommendations are only an incentive for the elaboration of a local
management plan, because legal actions that should have put into practice the programs
were seriously compromised. Research driven by Paiva Junior (2012) also shows the
importance of incorporating alternative parameters that, in certain situations, could
prove advantageous for the process of preservation and sustainable development.
For this author, the most relevant aspects of successful program planning are: a)
the selection of appropriate indicators at different strategic levels, b) an efficient method
for the collection and interpretation of data and c) the active participation of the local
community to be benefited. Obviously, this type of approach involves a series of changes
to the traditional urban planning model. The first step requires the acquisition of new
Victor Fernandez VELÁZQUEZ, Julianna COLONNA, Gabriela Ananda Rodrigues da SILVA,
Oswaldo LANDGRAF JUNIOR, Jânio Marcos Rodrigues FERREIRA,
José Maria AZEVEDO SOBRINHO, Alethéa Eranandes Martins SALLUN, William SALLUN FILHO
16
data to develop an accurate diagnosis of the current situation and provide appropriate
guidance for participatory decision making.
The Municipal Natural Park of the Colônia Crater Management Plan is another
document that focuses on the crater region (SMVA, 2012). After being approved by the
Management Council of the Environmental Protection AreaCapivari-Monos and the
Municipal Council of the Environment and Sustainable Development, the plan was
officially released in 2012. With the purpose of protecting an area of 52.8 hectares located
on the extreme southern edge of the crater, the management plan aims to establish
guidelines and define the actions that should be performed to ensure the execution of
environmental preservation, monitored visits, research and leisure activities on site.
Furthermore, it provides a legal framework outlining the main laws and processes that
govern the enforcement of management programs and the protection of the park.
Although it is still in the implementation stage, this document offers the tools required to
overcome the challenges of planning, management and conservation.
Figure 7. The main environmental, social and economic benefits
arising from the implementation of a geotourism program
The action plans proposed by the public authorities are clearly intended to preserve
the crater region. However, transformational processes demand rigorous attention and
periodic assessment through the use of accurate technical studies. The execution of
programs and activities that motivate the participation of the local community are also
extremely important. Aside from ensuring the means of implementation, infrastructure
and human and financial resources, programs should give higher priority to the more
ambitious proposals, those that take into account the possibility of broad societal
involvement (Figure 7). An initiative of this nature should not be limited only to the
interests of the best organized social groups. It should create opportunities to involve as
many people from the local community as possible.
FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
The natural elements that comprise the Colônia impact crater can be used in
education to illustrate diverse aspects of the geological and biological sciences. The
The Current Situation of Protection
and Conservation of the Colônia Impact
Crater, São Paulo, Brazil
17
mineralogical and textural features of the metamorphic, magmatic and sedimentary
rocks present several types of transformational processes that have occurred from the
earliest times to the present in the Earth's crust. Important information about the
region’s palaeoclimatical evolution can be obtained from sediments within the crater. In
a similar way, palaeoweathering of the surface provides essential information about the
process of soil formation and allows scientists to diagnose areas at greater risk of
landslide. The crater also has a rich biota that includes a wide variety of animals and
plants. Due to its privileged geographical position and easy access, the crater region
provides favourable conditions for geotourism, where students of various educational
institutions, with different levels of schooling, could have the opportunity to develop
integrated activities using the scientific method and pedagogical techniques. It is also
an important recreational area with several trails and an extensive space for sports,
walking and cycling (Velázquez et al., 2014a).
The accelerated process of urbanization is certainly one of the major factors
responsible for the transformation of the natural landscape and its consequent
environmental degradation. For this reason, nature preservation and the planning and
territorial management of natural areas continue to be very difficult tasks for local
authorities. However, the municipal government and the local community have already
entered into negotiations to address some specific needs. The dialogue focuses on two
priorities: a) accommodating the families that live in at-risk areas elsewhere and b)
establishing a landscape project for the remodelling of the Vargem Grande
neighbourhood and the recovery of degraded areas. Current decisions fall far below
expectations. The lack of consensus between the parties involved concerning the
redefinition and reformulation of the primary objectives has caused a certain tension in
the negotiations of the agreements and, in some cases, has jeopardized the execution of
the projects. Nevertheless, the management program to be implemented in the region
requires an integrated strategy that incorporates environmental preservation principles,
economic growth and sustainable urban development.
In light of the points outlined above, it is possible to verify that the programs and
negotiations in progress, although very well formulated in technical and political terms,
are as yet insufficient to address the problems of urbanization, agricultural expansion
and nature preservation. For an adverse situation such as this, sustainable tourism is an
excellent alternative. Such a program should take into account the totality of the
resources available: (i) landscape tourism, which provides opportunities for the
appreciation of the amazing feature of a hypervelocity impact, (ii) nature tourism,
where people observe the diversity of flora and fauna via trails and (iii) permaculture
tourism, which allows tourists to learn about a system of family farming adapted to the
local conditions without agrochemicals (Velázquez et al., 2014b). Ecotourism as a tool
for socioeconomic development in environmental protection areas is doubly
advantageous. The activities can be diversified into several segments, generating new
employment opportunities for the local community. Another benefit derived from this
experience is the possibility to show the potentiality and value of the region's natural
resources, encouraging the community in general to develop actions that involve
environmental preservation.
The Colônia impact crater region has all of the attributes to become an attractive
place for tourism (Figure 8). However, a detailed study should be conducted on the social
and environmental problems surrounding the crater to ensure a promising future. As
mentioned by Ruiz de León (2010), the transformation of natural resources into quality
tourism services for a region will only be possible with the active participation of the local
Victor Fernandez VELÁZQUEZ, Julianna COLONNA, Gabriela Ananda Rodrigues da SILVA,
Oswaldo LANDGRAF JUNIOR, Jânio Marcos Rodrigues FERREIRA,
José Maria AZEVEDO SOBRINHO, Alethéa Eranandes Martins SALLUN, William SALLUN FILHO
18
community. From this principle, the geotourism is proposed as a feasible opportunity to
promote the valorization of the region’s natural resources while encouraging the
participation of the community in environmentally sound tourism programs.
Figure 8. Contextualisation of the resources available and the main activities that
can be performed to ensure the preservation, sustainable development,
continuity of research, teaching practice and leisure for the population
Acknowledgments
Successful completion of this paper was made easier with the help of many people,
companies and agencies. Special thanks go to Sebastião Carmo Silva for his excellent
technical assistance during fieldwork. A. E. M. Sallun and W. Sallun Filho are researchers
with Productivity Grants of CNPq, Brazil. And, the PEP-USP and PIBIC-CNPq programs,
via the scholarship granted, respectively, to Silva, G.A.R and Pletsch, M.A.J.S. We would
like to register our sincere gratitude to the anonymous referees who substantially
improved the quality of this manuscript. This study has been supported by the FAPESP
foundation, Proc. No. 2006/59046-6, 2011/50987-0 and 2012/50042-9.
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Submitted:
Revised:
Accepted and published online
28.04.2014
11.12.2015
14.12.2015
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La geologia ambientale consiste nell'applicazione delle informazioni geologiche alla conoscenza e alla soluzione dei problemi ambientali, derivati dall'influenza sia dell'uomo sull'ambiente (come inquinamento e vari dissesti idrogeologici) che dell'ambiente sull'uomo ( come terremoti ed eruzioni vulcaniche). La materia pertanto valuta contemporaneamente: - i rischi geologici sugli insediamenti umani; - i limiti dello sfruttamento delle georisorse. Questo volume unisce all'elevato rigore scientifico della trattazione teorica la capacità di affrontare in modo pratico le diverse problematiche con esempi concreti di applicazione delle metodologie di volta in volta proposte. La trattazione viene affrontata in sei differenti capitoli, per consentire una analisi equilibrata e sistematica delle singole problematiche: 1. Introduzione. Approccio ai concetti di base di geologia ambientale, geologia urbana, sviluppo sostenibile applicato alle georisorse e principio di precauzione 2. Risorse geologiche. Situazione delle risorse idriche, energetiche, minerarie, del suolo, del paesaggio geologico (geositi) e dello spazio sotterraneo 3. Impatto dello sviluppo sull’ambiente geologico. L'uomo come agente geologico, modello DPSIR. Attività estrattiva, gallerie, prelievo delle acque sotterranee, emissioni, scarichi. I loro effetti ambientali: inquinamento delle georisorse, subsidenza indotta 4. Lo scarico dei rifiuti e le modifiche dell’uso del suolo. Confinamento geologico dei rifiuti (urbani, industriali, radioattivi) e della CO2; attività agricole e industriali. I loro effetti ambientali: degradazione del suolo e desertificazione, modifiche della dinamica fluviale. Geologia urbana 5. Pericolosità geologica. Valutazione dei rischi geologici: terremoti, attività vulcanica, dissesto idrogeologico. L’analisi e la gestione del rischio 6. Il ruolo delle scienze della terra nella pianificazione territoriale. L’educazione, l’informazione e la formazione geoambientale. L’ottimizzazione dell’uso delle risorse. Il controllo dei pericoli naturali e di quelli indotti dall’uomo. Le gestione del conflitto di interessi e la pianificazione del riuso. La creazione del consenso
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The Parelheiros district, located at the extreme southern end of the São Paulo metropolitan region, is histor-ically famous for the occurrence of an unusual circular de-pression, denominated in the geological literature as Colônia Crater. This prominent geomorphological structure, with a 3.6-km diameter, formed by impact cratering, represents one of the few records of a violent and devastating geological process that shaped the Earth's surface in the past. The crater lies within an environmental protection area and displays a remarkable landscape, as well as a rich and singular fauna and flora. With a wide geological and biological diversity, the Colônia impact crater is an extraordinary natural heritage and must be rigorously preserved to: (a) conserve its excep-tional natural wealth in order to provide continuity to various scientific researches, (b) implement suitable land use and occupation programmes to maintain the crater as an environ-mental preservation area and (c) encourage the local community's participation in the development of sustainable tourism in the region.