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The effects of dance education on motor performance of children

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  • Erzincan Binali Yıldırım University

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This research has been aimed to demonstrate the effects of dance education on preadolescent children. A total of 114 students (56 of whom in dance group/58 in control group) at preadolescent (aged 11±.0 year) and adolescent (aged 14±.0 year) stages participated in the research. Prior to dance classes a variety of tests ranging from motor performance tests, flexibility (sit and reach), dynamic balance (anterior/posterior and medial/lateral), strength (vertical jump and long jump), acceleration (10 m), speed (30 m), coordination (hexagon test) and agility (changing the line test) were conducted. It has been clearly demonstrated that dance education plays an important role on motor development of preadolescent and adolescent children, and comparisons between groups have indicated that children receiving dance education elicit a better line of development.
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Educational Research and Reviews Vol. 6(19), pp. 979-982, 19 November, 2011
Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/ERR
DOI: 10.5897/ERR11.179
ISSN 1990-3839 ©2011 Academic Journals
Full Length Research Paper
The effects of dance education on motor performance
of children
Gülay Yasemin Aldemir, Nusret Ramazanoğlu*, Asiye Filiz Çamlıgüney and Fatih Kaya
Marmara University, Physical Education and Sports Faculty, Cumayolu Cad. Anadolu Hisari, Beykoz, Istanbul-Turkey.
Accepted 30 October, 2011
This research has been aimed to demonstrate the effects of dance education on preadolescent children.
A total of 114 students (56 of whom in dance group/58 in control group) at preadolescent (aged 11±.0
year) and adolescent (aged 14±.0 year) stages participated in the research. Prior to dance classes a
variety of tests ranging from motor performance tests, flexibility (sit and reach), dynamic balance
(anterior/posterior and medial/lateral), strength (vertical jump and long jump), acceleration (10 m),
speed (30 m), coordination (hexagon test) and agility (changing the line test) were conducted. It has
been clearly demonstrated that dance education plays an important role on motor development of
preadolescent and adolescent children, and comparisons between groups have indicated that children
receiving dance education elicit a better line of development.
Key words: Dance, motor education, performance, education, salsa.
INTRODUCTION
Development of children consists of a variety of layers for
example physical, mental, emotional, social each of
which is a part of a whole. Motor development develops
in parallel with mental and emotional development
patterns. The acquisition of coordinative skills, however,
is a result of the learning process (Muratli, 1997). The
first and basic movements of child development cover the
early childhood-adolescent stages. Basic skills are
acquired at this period (Bekman, 2000).
Nowadays trainers state that motor education lessons
must include theater, game, dance and art activities, and
that especially rhythm and dance education to be applied
during Physical Education (P.E.) classes plays a crucial
role in development of motor skills of children (Oktay,
2000). Although the positive contribution of sportive
activities is discovered through researches, the effects of
dance on physical conformity are not known well enough.
Dance trainers are quite conscious about the use of
dance but most of their knowledge is far from being
scientific.
In recent years, there has been an increase in the
*Corresponding author. E-mail:
nramazanoglu@marmara.edu.tr. Tel: +902163085661. Fax:
+902163321620.
number of researches conducted regarding the potential
physiological and psychological benefits (Quin et al.,
2007) The aim of this study is to put forth the positive
effects of dance education on motor development, which
is planned as a part of Physical Education classes for
preadolescent and adolescent children and to develop a
training program to be applied during Physical Education
classes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Participants
A total of 114 preadolescent (aged 11±.0 year, dance group: 15
males, 15 females / control group: 17 males, 13 females) and
adolescent (aged 14±.0 year, dance group: 13 males, 13 females /
control group: 16 males, 12 females) students at 5th and 7th grade
took part in the research. The physical traits of control and
experiment group members have been demonstrated in Table 2.
They gave their informed consent to the experiment procedure as
required by the Helsinki Declaration (1964) and Istanbul University
Medical Faculty Ethics Committee.
Procedures
The members of the dance group participated in the theater, dance
and Physical Education classes for 20 weeks (2 days a week, 2
classes a day: 45 min + 45 min = 90 min). Students in the control
980 Educ. Res. Rev.
Table 1. Dance training program.
1- 2 weeks
Basic rhythm training exercises
3- 4 weeks
Basic rhtythm and dance training exercise
5-6 weeks
Basic stance, balance, rotation and body line work
7-8 weeks
Knowledge of music in Salsa basic step and hand to hand
9-10 weeks
Salsa; mambo, rumba, spot turn, cross body, basic figures types
11-12 weeks
Salsa ,basic figures types, spins and hand to hand.
13-14 weeks
Salsa intermadiate figures; double cross body, double or tripple turns, lifts, drops.
15-16 weeks
Salsa intermadiate, double cross body, double or tripple turns, lifts
17-18 weeks
Salsa advanced combination, double cross body, double or tripple turns, lifts, choreography and studies on the show.
19-20 weeks
Salsa advanced combination, choreography and studies on the show.
Table 2. Data regarding the physical development of preadolescent and adolescent children.
Groups
Age
n
Height (cm)
Weight (kg)
p
Pre-test
Post-test
Pre-test
Post-test
Adolescent
Dance
14
26
153.27±7.52
156.81±8.16
51.08±14.77
53.46±12.31
0.044
Control
14
28
151.39±6.66
155.75±6.28
50.07±12.66
55.04±12.37
Pre- adolescent
Dance
11
30
145.77±8.16
149.20±8.06
39.93±9.04
44.13±9.81
0.001
Control
11
30
142.27±6.63
147.93±5.77
41.03±9.42
43.50±9.75
group followed the Physical Education curriculum in the same
process. It was established that students in both groups do not
participate in extra-curricular activities.
Prior to and following dance classes a variety of tests ranging
from motor performance tests, flexibility (sit and reach), dynamic
balance (anterior/posterior and medial/lateral) (sport expert MED-
SP300 balance platform, Tumer Eng. Ankara, Turkey), strength
(vertical jump and long jump), acceleration (10 m), speed (30 m)
(new test 2000 ,Star Trac-Unisen Inc., U.K.), coordination (hexagon
test) and agility (changing the line test) were conducted during the
same hours of the day from 10:00 to 14:00.
The drama and dance program, which is shown in Table 1, lasted
for 20 weeks (2 days a week, 2 classes a day: 45 min + 45 min =
90 min) and made up of salsa dance practices which is regarded as
the embodiment of all ballroom dances. Tables 3 and 4
During the research a number of different test techniques were
applied for example descriptive statistics for data analysis; paired t
test for evaluating the difference between first test and last test
values of groups; independent t test to compare groups; univariate
analysis of variance to evaluate the joint effect of independent multi
variables. For the total set of analyses SPSS 14.0 program were
applied.
RESULTS
There has been no statistical difference between ante-
and post-test measurements obtained at
anterior/posterior and medial/lateral balance of the children
at preadolescent stage; and the values obtained at
acceleration (10 m) and speed (30 m) tests (p>0.05).
Statistically speaking, the difference is quite meaningful
as to ante-test and post-test values obtained at flexibility
(sit and reach), coordination (hexagon test), acceleration
(10 m), speed (30 m), vertical jump, long jump and agility
(changing the line test) tests for preadolescent children
than those obtained at flexibility (sit and reach),
coordination (hexagon test), vertical jump, long jump and
agility (changing the line test), dynamic balance
(anterior/posterior and medial/lateral) tests for
preadolescent children (p<0.01).
DISCUSSION
The preadolescent and adolescent stages are quite
important in order for children to develop motor skills
thanks to controlled environments (Miller, 2006).
Therefore, the curriculum shaping the first (7 to 12 years)
and second (12 to 15 years) periods play an important
role. Dance unites the body and spirit (Ho, 2005),
bringing about permanent changes in psychological
development of the child (Droege, 2008). It is the poetic
expression of physical movement with the help of musical
rhythm. Dance is a perfect way of developing aesthetic
taste and the feeling of beauty thanks to the rhythm of its
figures (Schmit et al., 2005).
As it is the case with our study, it was stated that the
increase in body weight and body height maintains a
continuous pattern for children between the ages of 10
Aldemir et al. 981
Table 3. Results of pre and post tests for motor performans of pre-adolescent period-children.
Paremeter
Dance group
Control group
Pre-test score
M±SD
Post-test score
M±SD
Pre-test score
M±SD
Post-test score
M±SD
p
Flexibility (Sit and reach)(cm)
23.93±4.03
30.37±3.41
21.40±4.47
24.01±4.33
0.000
Coordination (Hegzagon test) (sn)
18.71±3.93
14.39±2.31
18.43±3.03
16.95±3.98
0.000
Acceleration 10 m(sn)
2.43±.21
1.87±.11
2.28±.21
2.18±.20
0.000
Speed 30 m (sn)
6.60±.65
5.37±.40
6.17±.51
5.78±.49
0.000
Vertical Jump (cm)
21.47±3.66
28.73±2.70
21.37±3.29
22.43±3.34
0.000
Agility (Changing the line test) (sn)
7.13±.54
4.78±.43
7.22±.53
6.78±.61
0.000
Standing long jump (cm)
133.50±17.89
147.97±18.81
124.60±14.84
131.40±15.54
0.003
Dynamic balance (M/L) (degree)
8.82±2.10
6.43±2.16
9.87±1.86
5.85±3.26
p>0.05
Dynamic balance (A/P) (degree)
9.04±2.42
5.19±1.66
9.15±1.66
5.65±3.46
p>0.05
M: mean; S.D. : standard deviation.
Table 4. Results of pre and post tests for motor performans of adolescent period-children.
Paremeter
Dance group
Control group
p
Pre-test score
SD
Post-test score
SD
Pre-test score
SD
Post-test score
SD
Flexibility (Sit and reach)(cm)
22.58±6.12
29.00±5.30
18.75±6.11
23.68±4.48
0.024
Coordination (Hegzagon test) (sn)
16.35±2.03
13.01±1.97
17.67±3.09
15.98±3.39
0.000
Acceleration 10 m (sn)
2.34±.21
2.00±.14
2.45±.26
2.20±.20
p>0.05
Speed 30 m (sn)
6.18±.77
5.30±.44
6.54±.62
5.78±.74
p>0.05
Vertical Jump (cm)
20.96±4.40
25.77±4.72
19.84±3.62
22.89±3.30
0.011
Agility (Changing the line test) (sn)
6.44±.49
4.71±.46
6.62±.56
5.51±.53
0.000
Standing long jump (cm)
129.92±21.52
150.50±20.94
124.60±14.84
131.40±15.54
0.012
Dynamic balance (M/L) (degree)
7.46±2.30
5.19±2.42
9.29±1.43
9.28±2.54
0.006
Dynamic balance (A/P) (degree)
8.22±2.24
3.92±1.38
9.15±1.66
5.65±3.46
0.000
M: mean; S.D. : standard deviation.
and 14 (Arıcı, 2006). Moreover, according to Cosan (2005),
the body height and weight values of children at both age
groups were in line with body height and weight
standards determined for Turkish children.
In a research conducted on 5th grade female children,
it is demonstrated that folk dances have a large impact
on the development of coordination, balance, agility and
power parameters (Srhoj, 2002). In another research by
Srhoj et al. (2006), it is clearly put forth that dance is quite
a useful tool to maintain basic motor skills in addition to
being a unique way of education to develop kinesiology
of female children. The same research also
demonstrated that motor skills play an important role on
performance at folk dances and the dance performance
is in closely related respectively with coordination,
explosive power, and speed (movement frequency). In
Ross and Butterfield’s (1989) studies, it is underlined that
dance/movement training program effects dearly the
development of rough motor skills for example climbing
stairs, running, jumping, hopping etc. as well as
development of physical compatibility.
In our research, at the end of a 20-week dance training
period (2 days a week, 2 h a day, 45 min + 45 min = 90
min), a noteworthy difference were detected between the
dance group and control group of preadolescent children
at values of flexibility, coordination, dynamic balance (M/L
and A/P), vertical jump, agility and long jump. However,
there was no meaningful difference between dynamic
balance (M/L and A/P) values. There were noteworthy
differences between the dance group and control group
of adolescent children at flexibility, coordination,
acceleration (10 m), speed (30 m), vertical jump, agility
and long jump values. However, there was no meaningful
difference between acceleration (10 m) and speed (30 m)
values. In line with the research we conducted, quite
many researchers also indicated that rhythmic skill and
physical activity training programs help adolescent and
preadolescent children to feature better physical performance
982 Educ. Res. Rev.
(Venetsanou and Kambas, 2004), (Strong et al., 2005),
(Twisk et al., 1998), (Quin et al., 2007), (Holmen et.al.,
2002), (Baquet et.al., 2001), (Blair et.al., 2001).
The dance training that students received throughout
the year was successfully staged in the presence of
teachers, students and parents during year-end
ceremonies. It is widely known that such ceremonies help
students to build a better level of self-esteem and self-
respect (Daley and Buchanan, 1999).
Conclusion
It is concluded that dance training classes as a part of the
Physical Education classes were maintained over a 20-
week period to measure flexibility, coordination, dynamic
balance (M/L and A/P), vertical jump, agility, acceleration
(10 m), speed (30 m) and long jump values of
preadolescent and adolescent children and these dance
classes in question have quite a positive effect on
children.
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