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The effects of dance education on motor performance of children

  • Erzincan Binali Yıldırım University

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This research has been aimed to demonstrate the effects of dance education on preadolescent children. A total of 114 students (56 of whom in dance group/58 in control group) at preadolescent (aged 11±.0 year) and adolescent (aged 14±.0 year) stages participated in the research. Prior to dance classes a variety of tests ranging from motor performance tests, flexibility (sit and reach), dynamic balance (anterior/posterior and medial/lateral), strength (vertical jump and long jump), acceleration (10 m), speed (30 m), coordination (hexagon test) and agility (changing the line test) were conducted. It has been clearly demonstrated that dance education plays an important role on motor development of preadolescent and adolescent children, and comparisons between groups have indicated that children receiving dance education elicit a better line of development.
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Educational Research and Reviews Vol. 6(19), pp. 979-982, 19 November, 2011
Available online at
DOI: 10.5897/ERR11.179
ISSN 1990-3839 ©2011 Academic Journals
Full Length Research Paper
The effects of dance education on motor performance
of children
Gülay Yasemin Aldemir, Nusret Ramazanoğlu*, Asiye Filiz Çamlıgüney and Fatih Kaya
Marmara University, Physical Education and Sports Faculty, Cumayolu Cad. Anadolu Hisari, Beykoz, Istanbul-Turkey.
Accepted 30 October, 2011
This research has been aimed to demonstrate the effects of dance education on preadolescent children.
A total of 114 students (56 of whom in dance group/58 in control group) at preadolescent (aged 11±.0
year) and adolescent (aged 14±.0 year) stages participated in the research. Prior to dance classes a
variety of tests ranging from motor performance tests, flexibility (sit and reach), dynamic balance
(anterior/posterior and medial/lateral), strength (vertical jump and long jump), acceleration (10 m),
speed (30 m), coordination (hexagon test) and agility (changing the line test) were conducted. It has
been clearly demonstrated that dance education plays an important role on motor development of
preadolescent and adolescent children, and comparisons between groups have indicated that children
receiving dance education elicit a better line of development.
Key words: Dance, motor education, performance, education, salsa.
Development of children consists of a variety of layers for
example physical, mental, emotional, social each of
which is a part of a whole. Motor development develops
in parallel with mental and emotional development
patterns. The acquisition of coordinative skills, however,
is a result of the learning process (Muratli, 1997). The
first and basic movements of child development cover the
early childhood-adolescent stages. Basic skills are
acquired at this period (Bekman, 2000).
Nowadays trainers state that motor education lessons
must include theater, game, dance and art activities, and
that especially rhythm and dance education to be applied
during Physical Education (P.E.) classes plays a crucial
role in development of motor skills of children (Oktay,
2000). Although the positive contribution of sportive
activities is discovered through researches, the effects of
dance on physical conformity are not known well enough.
Dance trainers are quite conscious about the use of
dance but most of their knowledge is far from being
In recent years, there has been an increase in the
*Corresponding author. E-mail: Tel: +902163085661. Fax:
number of researches conducted regarding the potential
physiological and psychological benefits (Quin et al.,
2007) The aim of this study is to put forth the positive
effects of dance education on motor development, which
is planned as a part of Physical Education classes for
preadolescent and adolescent children and to develop a
training program to be applied during Physical Education
A total of 114 preadolescent (aged 11±.0 year, dance group: 15
males, 15 females / control group: 17 males, 13 females) and
adolescent (aged 14±.0 year, dance group: 13 males, 13 females /
control group: 16 males, 12 females) students at 5th and 7th grade
took part in the research. The physical traits of control and
experiment group members have been demonstrated in Table 2.
They gave their informed consent to the experiment procedure as
required by the Helsinki Declaration (1964) and Istanbul University
Medical Faculty Ethics Committee.
The members of the dance group participated in the theater, dance
and Physical Education classes for 20 weeks (2 days a week, 2
classes a day: 45 min + 45 min = 90 min). Students in the control
980 Educ. Res. Rev.
Table 1. Dance training program.
1- 2 weeks
Basic rhythm training exercises
3- 4 weeks
Basic rhtythm and dance training exercise
5-6 weeks
Basic stance, balance, rotation and body line work
7-8 weeks
Knowledge of music in Salsa basic step and hand to hand
9-10 weeks
Salsa; mambo, rumba, spot turn, cross body, basic figures types
11-12 weeks
Salsa ,basic figures types, spins and hand to hand.
13-14 weeks
Salsa intermadiate figures; double cross body, double or tripple turns, lifts, drops.
15-16 weeks
Salsa intermadiate, double cross body, double or tripple turns, lifts
17-18 weeks
Salsa advanced combination, double cross body, double or tripple turns, lifts, choreography and studies on the show.
19-20 weeks
Salsa advanced combination, choreography and studies on the show.
Table 2. Data regarding the physical development of preadolescent and adolescent children.
Height (cm)
Weight (kg)
Pre- adolescent
group followed the Physical Education curriculum in the same
process. It was established that students in both groups do not
participate in extra-curricular activities.
Prior to and following dance classes a variety of tests ranging
from motor performance tests, flexibility (sit and reach), dynamic
balance (anterior/posterior and medial/lateral) (sport expert MED-
SP300 balance platform, Tumer Eng. Ankara, Turkey), strength
(vertical jump and long jump), acceleration (10 m), speed (30 m)
(new test 2000 ,Star Trac-Unisen Inc., U.K.), coordination (hexagon
test) and agility (changing the line test) were conducted during the
same hours of the day from 10:00 to 14:00.
The drama and dance program, which is shown in Table 1, lasted
for 20 weeks (2 days a week, 2 classes a day: 45 min + 45 min =
90 min) and made up of salsa dance practices which is regarded as
the embodiment of all ballroom dances. Tables 3 and 4
During the research a number of different test techniques were
applied for example descriptive statistics for data analysis; paired t
test for evaluating the difference between first test and last test
values of groups; independent t test to compare groups; univariate
analysis of variance to evaluate the joint effect of independent multi
variables. For the total set of analyses SPSS 14.0 program were
There has been no statistical difference between ante-
and post-test measurements obtained at
anterior/posterior and medial/lateral balance of the children
at preadolescent stage; and the values obtained at
acceleration (10 m) and speed (30 m) tests (p>0.05).
Statistically speaking, the difference is quite meaningful
as to ante-test and post-test values obtained at flexibility
(sit and reach), coordination (hexagon test), acceleration
(10 m), speed (30 m), vertical jump, long jump and agility
(changing the line test) tests for preadolescent children
than those obtained at flexibility (sit and reach),
coordination (hexagon test), vertical jump, long jump and
agility (changing the line test), dynamic balance
(anterior/posterior and medial/lateral) tests for
preadolescent children (p<0.01).
The preadolescent and adolescent stages are quite
important in order for children to develop motor skills
thanks to controlled environments (Miller, 2006).
Therefore, the curriculum shaping the first (7 to 12 years)
and second (12 to 15 years) periods play an important
role. Dance unites the body and spirit (Ho, 2005),
bringing about permanent changes in psychological
development of the child (Droege, 2008). It is the poetic
expression of physical movement with the help of musical
rhythm. Dance is a perfect way of developing aesthetic
taste and the feeling of beauty thanks to the rhythm of its
figures (Schmit et al., 2005).
As it is the case with our study, it was stated that the
increase in body weight and body height maintains a
continuous pattern for children between the ages of 10
Aldemir et al. 981
Table 3. Results of pre and post tests for motor performans of pre-adolescent period-children.
Dance group
Control group
Pre-test score
Post-test score
Pre-test score
Post-test score
Flexibility (Sit and reach)(cm)
Coordination (Hegzagon test) (sn)
Acceleration 10 m(sn)
Speed 30 m (sn)
Vertical Jump (cm)
Agility (Changing the line test) (sn)
Standing long jump (cm)
Dynamic balance (M/L) (degree)
Dynamic balance (A/P) (degree)
M: mean; S.D. : standard deviation.
Table 4. Results of pre and post tests for motor performans of adolescent period-children.
Dance group
Control group
Pre-test score
Post-test score
Pre-test score
Post-test score
Flexibility (Sit and reach)(cm)
Coordination (Hegzagon test) (sn)
Acceleration 10 m (sn)
Speed 30 m (sn)
Vertical Jump (cm)
Agility (Changing the line test) (sn)
Standing long jump (cm)
Dynamic balance (M/L) (degree)
Dynamic balance (A/P) (degree)
M: mean; S.D. : standard deviation.
and 14 (Arıcı, 2006). Moreover, according to Cosan (2005),
the body height and weight values of children at both age
groups were in line with body height and weight
standards determined for Turkish children.
In a research conducted on 5th grade female children,
it is demonstrated that folk dances have a large impact
on the development of coordination, balance, agility and
power parameters (Srhoj, 2002). In another research by
Srhoj et al. (2006), it is clearly put forth that dance is quite
a useful tool to maintain basic motor skills in addition to
being a unique way of education to develop kinesiology
of female children. The same research also
demonstrated that motor skills play an important role on
performance at folk dances and the dance performance
is in closely related respectively with coordination,
explosive power, and speed (movement frequency). In
Ross and Butterfield’s (1989) studies, it is underlined that
dance/movement training program effects dearly the
development of rough motor skills for example climbing
stairs, running, jumping, hopping etc. as well as
development of physical compatibility.
In our research, at the end of a 20-week dance training
period (2 days a week, 2 h a day, 45 min + 45 min = 90
min), a noteworthy difference were detected between the
dance group and control group of preadolescent children
at values of flexibility, coordination, dynamic balance (M/L
and A/P), vertical jump, agility and long jump. However,
there was no meaningful difference between dynamic
balance (M/L and A/P) values. There were noteworthy
differences between the dance group and control group
of adolescent children at flexibility, coordination,
acceleration (10 m), speed (30 m), vertical jump, agility
and long jump values. However, there was no meaningful
difference between acceleration (10 m) and speed (30 m)
values. In line with the research we conducted, quite
many researchers also indicated that rhythmic skill and
physical activity training programs help adolescent and
preadolescent children to feature better physical performance
982 Educ. Res. Rev.
(Venetsanou and Kambas, 2004), (Strong et al., 2005),
(Twisk et al., 1998), (Quin et al., 2007), (Holmen,
2002), (Baquet, 2001), (Blair, 2001).
The dance training that students received throughout
the year was successfully staged in the presence of
teachers, students and parents during year-end
ceremonies. It is widely known that such ceremonies help
students to build a better level of self-esteem and self-
respect (Daley and Buchanan, 1999).
It is concluded that dance training classes as a part of the
Physical Education classes were maintained over a 20-
week period to measure flexibility, coordination, dynamic
balance (M/L and A/P), vertical jump, agility, acceleration
(10 m), speed (30 m) and long jump values of
preadolescent and adolescent children and these dance
classes in question have quite a positive effect on
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... A separate group is formed by studies in which the effects of using regular dance as a factor stimulating the physical development of children and adolescents were verified (Nowak 1994;Stanišić et al. 2008;Aldemir et al. 2011;Madarić et al. 2018). ...
... The development of children comprises a variety of layers, for example, physical, mental, emotional and social, each of which is part of a whole (Aldemir et al. 2011). Motor development is genetically determined, but is also susceptible to environmental influence. ...
... This is confirmed by the results of numerous scientific studies. Aldemir et al. (2011), who compared the effect of dance education on motor performance in children (girls and boys), showed that under the influence of a 20-week dance training programme, 11-year-old children reached a higher level of flexibility, coordination, balance, agility and dynamic LL strength (expressed in jumping tests) than nondancing peers. ...
This study aims the evaluation of the level, dynamics and direction of changes in the development of motor skills among early-school aged girls under the influence of a regularly practiced dance. The study involved 357 girls aged 7–10. The experimental group consisted of 192 girls attending dance classes at schools and children’s dance groups. The physical fitness level was assessed by seven trials from the Eurofit test battery that allowed to determine the level of balance, speed of upper limb movement, flexibility, explosive strength of the lower limbs, static hand strength, strength endurance of the abdominal muscles and agility. Measurements were carried out twice with a 9-month interval during one school year. Test scores were used to determine profiles of motor skill levels for a group of dancing girls, standardised against the control group. The dynamics of changes were determined on the basis of percentage indicators for relative increments. The frequency of changes between measurements was expressed as the number of subjects in percentages. The dancing girls presented a higher level in six motor skills and changes in their physical fitness were more dynamic. Statistically, significant increases were found for balance, flexibility, static hand strength and agility.
... Ovakvi rezultati su u ravni s mnogim drugim istraživanjima utjecaja muzike i plesa kod čujuće djece. Istraživanje utjecaja plesa na motoričke sposobnosti čujuće djece u predadolescentskom periodu (Aldemir et al., 2011) provedeno je na uzorku od 114 djece. U petomjesečnom plesnom programu je učestvovalo 56 učenika, dok je ostatak učenika (58) činio kontrolnu grupu. ...
... The fact that the abductor muscles in the lower extremities are more active isometrically could explain the improvement of balance in the M/L plane. Studies conducted in various branches with repeated specific trainings report that sports branchspecific trainings (for football, dancing, gymnastics, basketball, etc.) and specific balance exercises are effective in achieving postural control and dynamic balance in the M/L and A/P planes (Biec and Kuczyn, 2010;Aldemir et al., 2011;Bressel et al., 2007). ...
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Skiing is a sport where balance and strength are critical and which can be practiced actively especially from early years to old age. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a 5-day training of skiing skills on dynamic balance performance and development of vertical jump strength in adolescents. Sixteen adolescent volunteers who do not regularly exercise enrolled in the study (age 13.8±.5 years, height 160±8.5 cm, weight 56.6±10.9 kg and body mass index (BMI) 22±3.1 kg/m2). The subjects participated in an intensive ski training program for 5 days for a total of 20 h (4 h of training and 2 h of free exercise). Their dynamic balance performance (on a Sport Expert MED-SP 300 balance platform) and vertical jump (strength) (New Test 2000) were measured before and after the training program. Our study shows that medial/lateral (M/L) balance improved after a 5-day ski training (p<0.05). However, no positive development was observed in postural balance in the anterior/posterior (A/P) plane. This study shows that repeating short-term trainings in sports branches such as skiing could have a more pronounced effect on the improvement of balance and strength.
Although interventional studies have suggested that dance-based training may reduce fall risk for older adults based on unperturbed assessments, it remains unknown whether dance (particularly ballet) enhances recovery from an external perturbation. This preliminary study sought to test if and how ballet dancers respond differently to a standing-slip perturbation relative to non-dancers. Ten young professional ballet dancers and 10 age/sex-matched non-dancers were exposed to an unannounced slip while standing on the treadmill. Their reactions to the slip, characterized by dynamic gait stability (primary outcome), and the recovery stepping and trunk movements (secondary outcomes), were compared between groups. No significant group difference in dynamic gait stability was found at slip onset and recovery step liftoff, but dancers were more stable than non-dancers at touchdown (p=0.042). Compared to non-dancers, dancers took a longer (p=0.049) and faster (p=0.007) backward recovery step and exhibited a less backward leaned trunk at all instants (p≤0.026). Our study suggests that professional ballet dancers are more stable after a novel standing-slip than non-dancers. This better slip-related fall resistance among dancers could result from their more effective recovery stepping strategy and better trunk movement control after the slip. Both reactions may be attributed to ballet training, which requires frequent backward stepping and an upright trunk. Our findings could potentially provide preliminary evidence for applying ballet training to reduce balance losses and falls in people at a high fall risk. More studies are needed to examine ballet training’s effects among other populations with elevated fall risk in real-life situations.
In the current study, we examined the effect of an aerobic dance program as part of physical education (PE) classes on aspects of primary school children’s executive functions (EFs) (inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility). Participants were 41 children (21 boys and 20 girls; M age =10.30, SD = 0.50 years, M height = 134.09, SD= 3.9 cm; M weight = 35.61, SD = 7.85 kg) who were divided into an experimental group (EG) and a no-PE control group (CG). The EG followed an aerobic dance intervention as part of their PE program (45 minute sessions two days per week over eight weeks). Participants in both groups performed EF tests before and after the intervention period to evaluate their mental flexibility, inhibition, and working memory. A two-way mixed model repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant effect of the aerobic dance program on participants’ cognitive flexibility (i.e., on Trails Making Tests B-A times and committed errors) ( p <0.001), and on Stroop measures of inhibition (corrected number of words and corrected errors) ( p <0.001 and p <0.01, respectively), with post-hoc analyses showing an improved performance by the EG in working memory (digit recall score) from pre-test to post-test and in comparsion to the CG ( p < 0.001). Thus, this 8-week aerobic dance program promoted EF development among primary school children.
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a dance aerobic intervention program on intrinsic motivation and perceived motivation climate in 7th grade middle school students. The sample of the study consisted of 160 healthy students, of the first grade of middle school. Of these, 91 students was the experimental group and the remaining 69 was the control. The experimental group followed an aerobic dance intervention program for ten weeks, three times per week, with 45-minute sessions while the control group only followed the typical physical education program of the school. In order to conduct the study the following instruments were used: a) the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (ΙΜΙ-McAuley, Duncan & Tammen, 1989) and the Perceived Oriented Climate (LAPOPECQ; Papaioannou, 1998).
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The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of a high-intensity aerobic training program on different components of physical fitness in adolescents aged 11 to 16 years. The subjects were divided into a high intensity (HI) group (243 girls and 260 boys) and a control (C) group (21 girls and 27 boys). HI and C completed a weekly 3 hour physical education (PE) session. Before and after a 10-week period, the two groups performed the European physical fitness test battery (EUROFIT). During these 10 weeks HI spent one hour out of three at a specific PE session. These specific sessions consisted of short intermittent exercises (10 seconds) at 100 to 120% of maximal aerobic speed. They showed a significant influence on standing broad jump (2.9 %, P<0.05, F=4.85), 20 meter shuttle run (3.8%, p0.001, F=23.21) and on the maximal distance covered over 7 min (7.6 %, P< 0.001, F= 14.48). For C there was no improvement in EUROFIT performances. It was concluded that training at high intensity improves not only children's aerobic fitness but also performance of standing broad jump. Well-monitored, adequate intensive training is necessary for a more desirable functional development.
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The purpose of this article is to investigate the effect of an introductory traditional Greek dances programme on the motor proficiency development of pre‐school‐age children. The sample of this research consisted of 66 students (36 boys and 30 girls) attending public kindergarten in Argolida prefecture (Greece), aged 4–6 years (X = 59.79 ± 6.40 months). For the assessment of motor proficiency the ‘Test for children 4–6 years of age’ (Motoriktest für vier‐bis sechsjährige Kinder, MOT 4–6, Zimmer & Volkamer, 1987) was used. The children of the experimental group (n = 28) attended the intervention programme for 20 weeks, participating in two sessions a week, while the children of the control group (n = 38) did not participate regularly in any organized physical activity programme. A two‐way ANOVA model for repeated measures was used for data analysis. From the results, while both groups displayed an improvement in their performance, the experimental group surpassed statistically significantly the control group in the post‐test. From the results it was observed that an introductory traditional Greek dances programme can notably improve children’s motor proficiency.
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The purpose of this study was to analyse tracking (i.e. relative stability over time/predictability of future values by early measurements) of lung function parameters and their longitudinal relationship with lifestyle (smoking, alcohol consumption, daily physical activity, neuromotor and cardiopulmonary fitness, and dietary intake of retinol and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)). Data were obtained from the observational Amsterdam Growth and Health Study, a longitudinal study with six repeated measurements between ages 13-27 yrs (n=167). The statistical analyses were carried out with generalized estimating equations. The following "stability" coefficients were found: for forced vital capacity (FVC) in males 0.66 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.54-0.77) and in females 0.51 (95% CI: 0.43-0.60); for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in males 0.65 (95% CI: 0.50-0.80), in females 0.53 (95% CI 0.46-0.60); for peak expiratory flow (PEF) in both males and females 0.41 (95% CI: 0.31-0.51). Positive relationships were found between alcohol consumption and FVC and FEV1 and between neuromotor fitness and PEF and (only for males) with FVC and FEV1. Physical activity was inversely related to PEF and the intake of PUFA positively related to FVC and FEV1. Smoking was related to a decrease in FVC and FEV1; changes in physical activity positively correlated to changes in FVC. In conclusion, high to moderate stability/tracking was observed for forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second; for peak expiratory flow it was slightly lower. Preventive strategies regarding improvements of lung function should focus on smoking cessation and improving daily physical activity.
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Associations between adolescent smoking habits and exercise, particularly participation in sports and lung function were studied. All students aged 13-19 yrs in Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway, 1995-1997, were invited to join a cross-sectional study. Information on smoking habits and exercise was obtained by self-administered questionnaire. Spirometry was performed in accordance with American Thoracic Society standards. Of the 6,811 students (aged 13-18 yrs, without asthma), 2,993 (44%) reported never-smoking, and 1,342 (20%) reported current smoking (90% daily). Frequency of physical exercise was inversely associated with smoking, but participants in individual sports with lesser endurance, especially body-building and fighting sports, were more likely to be daily smokers than nonparticipants. Both daily (53%) and occasional smokers (43%) were more likely to have quit sports than never-smokers (26%)). Never-smokers showed a positive dose-response between physical exercise and lung function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second, adjusted for age and height). No similar significant association was observed in daily smokers. These data suggest that smoking habits in different sports should be considered when promoting physical activity as smoking prevention, and sports organizations should include smoking prevention programmes. Adolescents with better lung function may self-select into sports; this possibility needs to be studied in a longitudinal design.
The effects of a dance/movement education (D/ME) program on children's fitness and gross motor development is reported. Fifty-four girls and 66 boys received 36 weeks of D/ME in conjunction with the school's regular physical education program. The D/ME intervention used in this study was based on Laban's basic movement themes of force, space, time and flow. Pre and posttests were administered to determine the extent of changes in the children's motor behavior which may have occurred as a result of this programming. Several statistically significant improvements were observed for boys and girls on a wide range of fitness and gross motor skills. Recent investigations have supported the long held belief that childrens' intellectual and emotional devel­ opment are enhanced through participation in the movement arts (Breckenridge, 1965;Duggan, 1978;Fisher, 1980; King, 1968; Zirulnik and Young, 1979; Riordan and Fitt, 1980; and Sharpe, 1979). Some writers have even reported relationships between movement abilities and reading readiness (King, 1973). The effective use of dance/movement education (D/ME) for the benefit of special populations has also been documented. For instance, participation in D/ME has been attributed to improved body image and self concept of children with learning disabilities(Fisher, 1980; Polk, 1979)and deafness (Polk, 1979). Polk further observed that D/MEprograms can provide appropriate outlets for childrens' aggressive behaviors. Dance/movement has been successfully employed with children who have a limited capacity for movement. Duggan (1978) found that children with cerebral palsy who received regular movement experiences improved their muscle tone, range of motion and joint stability as well as increased respiratory and renal functioning.
Dance movement therapy (DMT) is predicated on the belief that body movement reflects and affects psychological states. For most cancer patients, the treatment procedures are traumatic. The surgical removal of body parts, nausea, loss of hair, and fatigue from radiotherapy and chemotherapy internally assault the physical body, causing suffering and pain. Psychological and physical problems often appear after the medical treatment. Dance movement therapy, which acts directly on the body, may then have a profound effect on the healing process in cancer patients. Where a more in-depth approach such as authentic movement has been used, dance movement therapy has helped significantly to increase participants' energy and reduce fatigue. Objective and self-perceived subjective improvements have also been found to patients' mood, body image, and self-esteem. Participants indicated that they have increased sense of hope, ease, strength and social support, while negative mood and worry about future was decreased. Although DMT is a completely new modality of psychotherapy for most Hong Kong people, the high participation rate and the positive feedback from participants indicated that the program was well-received by Chinese cancer patents. A significant reduction in perceived stress, and a positive change in self-esteem, also demonstrated the beneficial effect of the program. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
We addressed three questions: 1) Is there a dose-response relation between physical activity and health? 2) Is there a dose-response relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and health? 3) If both activity and fitness have a dose-response relation to health, is it possible to determine which exposure is more important? We identified articles by PubMed search (restricted from 1/1/90 to 8/25/00) using keywords related to physical activity, physical fitness, and health. An author scanned titles and abstracts of 9831 identified articles. We included for thorough review articles that included three or more categories of activity or fitness and a health outcome and excluded articles on clinical trials, review papers, comments, letters, case reports, and nonhuman studies. We used an evidence-based approach to evaluate the quality of the published data. We summarized results from 67 articles meeting final selection criteria. There is good consensus across studies with most showing an inverse dose-response gradient across both activity and fitness categories for morbidity from coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, cardiovascular disease (CVD), or cancer; and for CVD, cancer, or all-cause mortality. All studies reviewed were prospective observational investigations; thus, conclusions are based on Evidence Category C. 1) There is a consistent gradient across activity groups indicating greater longevity and reduced risk of CHD, CVD, stroke, and colon cancer in more active individuals. 2) Studies are compelling in the consistency and steepness of the gradient across fitness groups. Most show a curvilinear gradient, with a steep slope at low levels of fitness and an asymptote in the upper part of the fitness distribution. 3) It is not possible to conclude whether activity or fitness is more important for health. Future studies should define more precisely the shape of the dose-response gradient across activity or fitness groups, evaluate the role of musculoskeletal fitness, and investigate additional health outcomes.
A battery of 21 motor tests as predictor variables and evaluation of motor performance of cicilion, a Croatian folk dance from the island of Hvar as a criterion variable, were used in a sample of 101 female fifth-grade students aged 11 years. Regression analysis showed the changed group of motor variables to be a good predictor of success in performing the cicilion folk dance with multiple correlation of 0.63. The flexibility variable of astride trunk bending forwards and frequency variable of hand tapping had greatest impact on the criterion. A considerable favorable impact was also recorded for the variables for assessment of rhythmic coordination, balance, agility on ground, and repetitive strength of the trunk.