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A Literature Review of Pineapple Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites

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Abstract

A literature review of the development, mechanical properties and uses of pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) reinforced polymer composites is presented in this paper. The mechanical properties of PALF composites as determined by various researchers are discussed, together with chemical, thermal and physical properties. Both thermosetting and thermoplastic resins have been used as matrices for PALF composites. Most of the work surveyed used short PALF. Manufacturing methods such as injection moulding, hand lay up and compression moulding were usually employed for making composite samples.

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... There are a number of works done on natural fiberreinforced composites using fibers such as kenaf, oil palm, bamboo, jute, sisal, coconut, and pineapple leaf fibers as shown in Figure 1 [14]. Pineapple leaves are waste agricultural materials and can be used as a source of fibers [15]. Both the thermosets and thermoplastic resins have been used as matrices with these natural fibers. ...
... The development, mechanical properties, and uses of pineapple leaf fiber-(PALF-) reinforced polymer composites have been reviewed [15,16]. George et al. studied the mechanical properties of short PALF-reinforced LDPE composites prepared by melt mixing and solution mixing [17]. ...
Article
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Plastic has been a dominant material for packaging in recent years but due to its nonbiodegradability, it is causing environmental pollution. Among the plastics used, low-density polyethylene is used abundantly. These plastics can be removed from the environment by recycling into useful products through reinforcing it with natural textile fibers into composite materials. Natural fiber-based composites are ecofriendly and low cost. This research is aimed at manufacturing composite wall tiles from recycled low-density polyethylene reinforced with pineapple leaf fibers (PALF). The PALF was extracted by the retting process followed by mechanical scratching and treated with 5% NaOH to improve the fiber-matrix interaction. The composites were manufactured by the melt-mixing method followed by compression molding. The effects of fiber length and fiber weight proportion on composite properties were investigated using tensile, flexural, impact, and water absorption tests. The study showed that the optimum fiber weight proportion and fiber length for the optimal properties of the composite were achieved at 30% fiber weight proportion and 30 mm fiber length. The maximum tensile strength of 1562 N/mm2, flexural strength of 454.9 N/mm2, and impact strength of 225.2 J/mm2 were obtained. Water absorption of the tiles increased with the increase in both the fiber weight proportion and the fiber length.
... Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is the third most important tropical fruit in the world after banana and citrus. S.M.Sapuan et.al [3] reviewed the importance of pineapple leaf fiber by stating that PALF is the least studied natural fiber, especially for reinforcing composites. The article presented a survey of research works carried out on PALF and PALF-reinforced composites. ...
... 3 shows the variation of maximum bending stress for different orientation of fibers in the composite. ...
Article
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Mankind has been aware of composite materials since several hundred years before Christ and applied innovation to improve the quality of life. Although it is not clear has to how man understood the fact that mud bricks made sturdier houses if lined with straw, he used them to make buildings that lasted. In recent years natural fibers appear to be the outstanding materials which are abundant and come as viable substitute for the expensive and nonrenewable synthetic fiber. Natural fibers like sisal, banana, jute, oil palm, kenaf and coir has been used as reinforcement in thermoset composite for applications in consumer goods, furniture, low cost housing and civil structures. Pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) is one of them that have also good potential as reinforcement in thermoset composite. The objective of the present work is to explore the potential of using PALF as reinforcement and investigate the effect of fiber orientation on the flexural properties of PALF reinforced Bisphenol composite. From this experimental study, it was observed that the fiber orientation greatly influences the flexural properties of reinforced composites. A higher flexural strength of 105.5754Mpa was obtained for inclined orientated fibers compared to that of Uni-directional & Bi-directional oriented fibers.
... [4][5][6][7][8] (i.e. plant stems, such as flax, hemp [9,10] and jute [11,12]), leaves (pineapple [13] and sisal), fruit and seeds (coir, cotton and palm [14]) or wood possess good reinforcing capability when properly compounded with polymers. These natural fibre-reinforced composites find a wide array of applications in the building and construction industry [15] and are suitable for eco-design. ...
Article
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For buildings applications, an optimum material solution would have the essential structural properties of concrete but with lower thermal conductivity. The reduced thermal conductivity provides a better thermal insulation system that consumes less energy for cooling and heating in the use phase. In the present study, thermal conductivity analysis and environmental analysis were carried out for various materials that are intended for use as external walls for buildings. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of four different proposed systems. An eco-sandwich material containing cork, flax fibres and bio-based epoxy resin as natural materials was manufactured and tested in order to evaluate the thermal conductivity. The use of the eco-sandwich in building structure seems to bring several advantages in terms of innovation, good insulation properties and light-weight structures. The LCA results show that when the eco-sandwich is used, the environmental performance is lower compared to other traditional materials, in the manufacture phase. Nevertheless, impacts due to material transportation and installation could be lowered due to the light weight and handling of the eco-sandwich.
... Very few tropical fruits are as essential as pineapple (Ananas comosus). Pineapple fruit has an important commercial value, and the leaves of pineapple are waste material which yields natural fibers [34]. It is chemically composed of 70-82% holocellulose, 5-12% lignin and 1.1% ash. ...
Article
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In this study, a fabric was manufactured consisting of 50% pineapple, 25% jute and 25% cotton fibers by weight, to make composites using polypropylene (PP) as a matrix material. We used compression molding technique, which kept 30% of the fabric content by total weight as the composite. The tensile strength (TS), tensile modulus (TM), elongation break (Eb%), bending strength (BS) and bending modulus (BM) were investigated. From analyzed data, it was found that the composite values of TS, TM, Eb%, BS and BM were 58 MPa, 867 MPa, 22.38%, 42 MPa and 495 MPa, respectively. The TS, TM, Eb%, BS and BM of the neat polypropylene sheet were 28 MPa, 338 MPa, 75%, 20 MPa and 230 MPa, respectively. Due to fabric reinforcement, composite values for TS, TM, BS and BM increased 107%, 156%, 110% and 115%, respectively in comparison with a polypropylene sheet. A water absorption test was performed by dipping the composite samples in deionized water and it was noticed that water absorption was lower for PP-based composites. For investigating the effect of alkali, we sunk the composites in a solution containing 3%, 5% and 7% sodium hydroxide alkali solutions by weight, for 60 min after which their mechanical properties were investigated. A degradation test was carried out by putting the samples in soil for six months and it was noticed that the mechanical properties of fabric/PP composites degraded slowly.
... Besides, with higher PF concentration, its Young's modulus increases since there is an additional raw material to reinforce the gel structure formed during gelation. PALF have been used widely in several kinds of polymer matrix such as PALF reinforced composite with different bases of polyethylene [59], polyester [60], polypropylene [61], and PALF-based hybrid composites due to its high Young's modulus of 4.405 GPa [62]. The excellent mechanical properties of PF are attributed to the high content of cellulose and low microfibrillar angle [63]. ...
Article
Given the harmful effects of agricultural waste residues on the environment and the abundance of pineapple byproducts after harvest, converting pineapple waste into a high-engineering value product for practical applications is one of the solutions toward sustainable development in developing countries. For the first time, flexible cellulose aerogels from raw pineapple-leave fibers (PALF) are developed successfully by using an adhesive agent, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and deionized (DI) water as a solvent, followed by a freeze-drying process. The effects of the pineapple fiber (PF) concentration on the heat and acoustic insulation properties are also investigated. The PF aerogels show high porosities of nearly 99%, ultra-low densities of (0.013–0.033) g/cm³, and a microporous structure which are determined by FE-SEM, BET and XRD analysis. They have very low thermal conductivities of (0.030–0.034) W/mK, indicating their excellent suitability for heat insulation applications. Indeed, the thermal jacket using a PF aerogel as filler wrapped around a water bottle can maintain the water temperature below 0 °C for 6 h (initial temperature of −3 °C), and above 40 °C for 2.5 h (initial temperature of 90 °C). The heat insulation capacity of the thermal jacket is about three times better than that of a commercially available product. With the same thickness, the noise reduction coefficient of 2.0 wt% PF aerogel samples is greater than that of a commercial absorber Basmel, which demonstrates their potential in acoustic insulation applications.
... PALF is inexpensive, biocompatibility ensuring better properties (high strength and rigidity), and therefore being used in fabricating parts in various industries-such as agricultural industry, thermal insulation, automotive, medical and biomedical, building and non-structural applications [65][66][67]. Such applications are reliant upon properties of composite materials [65]. ...
Article
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The development of the best properties in polyester composite from pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) as a reinforcing material is a subject of interest. The properties of PALF are reliant upon fiber length, wherein technical difficulties in production of long fibers and processing for better characteristics in polyester composites possess inherent challenges. The PALFs are subjected to silane treatment for altering fiber properties. This research attempts to analyze the impact of silane-treated PALF with varying fiber lengths (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mm) on the performance of natural fiber composites (NFC) properties. Open mold and hand lay-up techniques were employed to develop the polyester composites. The prepared PALF-based polyester composites were examined for different properties (impact, flexural, tensile strength, and wear rate). Coefficient of friction and wear studies are performed on the prepared composites subjected to different loads (10, 20, and 30 N) via a pin on disc test rig. Polymer composite fracture surfaces were analyzed to observe the interfacial bonding between fibers and matrix via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM results showed that the application of silane treatment resulted in better surface topography (fiber length of 5–10 mm showed smooth surface resulted in crack proliferation possessing low fracture toughness of 15–32 MPa; whereas a 15–20 mm fiber length resulted in better fiber–matrix bonding, improving the fracture toughness from 42–55 MPa) as a result of change in chemical structure in PALF. The 20 mm length of PALF resulted in better properties (flexural, tensile, impact, and wear resistance) which are attributed to fiber–matrix interfacial bonding. These properties ensure the developed polymer composites can be applied to walls, building insulation, and artificial ceilings.
... After banana and citrus fruit, pineapple (Ananas comosus) is one of the most essential tropical fruits in the world. The PALF contains of holocellulose (70-82%), ash (1.1%) and lignin (5-12%) [21,22]. Nowadays, pineapple fiber has been used in several applications because of its good mechanical properties, lightweight material, reinforcing capability, high strength-to-weight ratio, and stiffness properties. ...
Article
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In this experimental studies, three types of fabric such as Jute, Okra and Pineapple Leaf Fiber (PALF) were selected and matrix material such as polypropylene (PP) was selected to manufacture composites. Jute/PP, Okra/PP, and PALF/PP based composites were prepared successfully by a conventional compression molding technique. The objective of this study is to compare the mechanical such as tensile strength (TS), tensile modulus (TM), bending strength (BS), bending modulus (BM), elongation at break (Eb%), Impact strength (IS) and interfacial properties of the composites. Jute fiber (hessian cloth)-reinforced polypropylene matrix composites (45wt% fiber) were fabricated by compression molding. TS, TM, Eb% BS, BM, and IS of the composites were found to be 45 MPa, 2.2 GPa, 11%, 54 MPa, 4.1 GPa, and 16 kJ/m2, respectively. Then Okra and PALF fiber reinforced polypropylene-based composites (45 wt% fiber) were fabricated and the mechanical properties were compared with those of the jute-based composites. The result revealed that mechanical properties of PALF composite higher than jute and Okra fiber reinforced composites. Water absorption and elongation percentage at break showed different scenario and it was noticed from the experimental study that water absorption and elongation at break (%) of jute fabric was higher than other composites. Fracture sides of the composites were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the results revealed poor fiber-matrix adhesion for jute fiber-based composites compared to that of the other fiber-based composites (OF/PP and PALF/PP).
... Precisely, natural plant fibers could also be classified according to their location in the plant. For example, bast fibers as flax, hemp or jute (Summerscales, 2010) are extracted from the stem of the plant whereas other fibers could be extracted from seeds (cotton) (Chand, 1988), fruit (coconut, pineapple) (Arib, 2004) or even the leaves of the plant (sisal) (Li, 2000). Table 1 presents the world production of the natural fibers. ...
... As a matrix material, polypropylene has been extensively used with natural fiber in composite preparation [1,2]. After banana and citrus fruit, pineapple (Ananas comosus) is one of the most essential tropical fruits in the world [3]. Hence leaves of pineapple can be used for producing natural fibers, which necessarily are considered as waste materials. ...
Article
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Pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites were prepared by compression molding. The fiber content varied from 25% to 45% by weight. Water uptake percentages of the composites containing various wt% of fiber were measured. All the composites demonstrated lower water uptake percentages and maximum of 1.93% for 45 wt% PALF/PP composite treated with 7(w/v)% NaOH. Tensile Strength (TS), Tensile Modulus (TM), Elongation at Break (Eb %), Bending Strength (BS), Bending Modulus (BM), and Impact Strength (IS) were evaluated for various fiber content. The 45 wt% PALF/PP composite exhibited an increase of 210% TS, 412% TM, 155% BS, 265% BM, and 140% IS compared to PP matrix. Moreover, with the increasing of fiber content, all the mechanical properties increase significantly; for example, 45 wt% fiber loading exhibited the best mechanical property. Fibers were also treated with different concentration of NaOH and the effects of alkali concentrations were observed. The composite treated with 7 (w/v)% NaOH exhibited an increase of 25.35% TS, 43.45% TM, 15.78% BS, and 52% BM but 23.11% decrease of IS compared to untreated composite. Alkali treatment improved the adhesive characteristics of fiber surface by removing natural impurities, hence improving the mechanical properties. However, over 7% NaOH concentration of the tensile strength of the composite reduced slightly due to overexposure of fibers to NaOH.
... Pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) is one of the waste materials in agriculture sector. After banana and citrus, pineapple (Ananas comosus) is one of the most essential tropical fruits in the world [4]. Commercially pineapple fruits are very important and leaves are considered as waste materials of fruit that is being used for producing natural fibres. ...
Article
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Investigations were carried out to study the effect of treated pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) on the mechanical properties and water absorption behaviour of reinforced polyester composites. PALF was extracted from pineapple plant using wet retting method. Chemical treatment was carried out on it to hinder water content and enhances good adhesion between fibre and matrix. Both the matrix and the fibre were compounded using hand lay-up method at room temperature. The samples were prepared for tensile test, flexural test, hardness test and water absorption test. It was observed that as the fibre content increases within the matrix, there is corresponding increase in the ultimate tensile strength and modulus of elasticity while there was decrease in the elongation at break. Flexural strength, flexural modulus and hardness properties of the developed composites increase linearly from 10 wt% to 30 wt% fibre loading and begin to decrease from 40 wt% fibre loading. The results of the water absorption test showed that the amount of water absorbed by the composite increased with increase in fibre loading. Mechanical properties and water absorption behaviour of treated pineapple leaf fibre reinforced polyester matrix composites Oluyemi O. DARAMOLA, Adeolu A. ADEDIRAN, Benjamin O. ADEWUYI, and Olamigoke ADEWOLE 16
... Pineapple leaf fiber (PALF), as a natural fiber, is one of the waste materials in agriculture sector. After banana and citrus fruit, pineapple (Ananas comosus) is one of the most essential tropical fruits in the world [18]. Commercially, pineapple fruits are very important and leaves are considered as waste material of fruit, which is being used for producing natural fibers. ...
Article
Pineapple Leaf Fiber (PALF)-reinforced polypropylene (PP) based composites were prepared successfully by conventional compression molding technique. Different percentages (25,30,35, 40 and 405% by weight) of fiber were used to prepare composites. Tensile Strength (TS), Tensile Modulus (TM), Elongation at Break (Eb %), Bending Strength (BS), Bending Modulus (BM) and Impact Strength (IS) were evaluated. The 45 wt% PALF/PP composite exhibited an increase of 132% TS, 412% TM, 155% BS, 265% BM, and 140% IS with respect to the matrix material (PP). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy was employed for functional group analysis of PALF/PP composites. For all percentages of fiber, the composites demonstrated lower water uptake. The fabricated composites were immersed in alkali solution (Sodium hydroxide solution, 3%, 5% and 7% by weight) for 60 min and showed low TS, TM and Eb% compared to control composites.
... In addition, natural fibres like banana, sisal, hemp and flax, jute, coconut, local fibres and oil palm have attracted technologist and scientist in consumer goods, low costs housing and other civil structures [2]. There are many plant fibres available which has potential to be applied in industries as raw materials such as pineapple leaf fibre, kenaf, coir, abaca, sisal, cotton, jute, bamboo, banana, Palmyra, talipot, hemp, and flex [3]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Investigations were carried out to study the effect of treated pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) on the mechanical properties and water absorption behaviour of reinforced polyester composites. PALF was extracted from pineapple plant using wet retting method. Chemical treatment was carried out on it to hinder water content and enhances good adhesion between fibre and matrix. Both the matrix and the fibre were compounded using hand lay-up method at room temperature. The samples were prepared for tensile test, flexural test, hardness test and water absorption test. It was observed that as the fibre content increases within the matrix, there is corresponding increase in the ultimate tensile strength and modulus of elasticity while there was decrease in the elongation at break. Flexural strength, flexural modulus and hardness properties of the developed composites increase linearly from 10 wt% to 30 wt% fibre loading and begin to decrease from 40 wt% fibre loading. The results of the water absorption test showed that the amount of water absorbed by the composite increased with increase in fibre loading. Keywords Adhesion, Composites; Mechanical behaviour; Fibre; Miscibility; Hand lay-up method
... Among the different natural fibers, pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) contains higher cellulose content which exhibits superior mechanical properties (70-82%) and comparatively low microfibrillar angle [3]. PALF are come from the leaves of the plant Ananas comosus (Bromeliaceae family) is one of the most essential tropical fruits in the world after banana and citrus [4]. Pineapple ranked 2nd among all the fruits produced in Bangladesh in terms of total cropping area (67842 acres). ...
Conference Paper
Searching for new type of materials from different renewable resources are increasing day by day. Pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) is relatively new member in this group and drawn the significant attention because of its low cost, light weight and non-toxicity. In this experiment, PALF/polyester composite was prepared by hand layup process. Chemical treatment was performed on the surface of PALF to enhance the quality of the composite. Different mechanical properties such as tensile strength, tensile modulus, and elongation at break percentage of the fabricated composite were evaluated as a function of PALF content. The results revealed that PALF content improves the composite performance significantly. Higher mechanical properties were reported for 30% PALF content. Tensile strength and tensile modulus increases about 131% and 172% respectively compared to neat polyester. Furthermore, chemical treatment proposed on fiber surface also increased the mechanical properties of the composite.
... Pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) is one of the waste materials in agriculture sector, which is widely grown in Malaysia as well as Asia. After banana and citrus, pineapple (Ananas comosus) is one of the most essential tropical fruits in the world [22]. Commercially pineapple fruits are very important and leaves are considered as waste materials of fruit which is being used for producing natural fibres. ...
Article
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Malaysia is one of the biggest producers of palm oil in the world but the oil palm wood is considered as waste after final harvesting. A huge and inexpensive availability of oil palm trunk (OPT) can be a sustainable source of alternative wood for various structural applications, if it can be utilized. The objective of this work was to prepare a steamed treated compressed OPT lumber and evaluate the physical, chemical and biological properties of modified wood. In this technique OPT samples were steamed at temperature 130 °C for 2 h before being compressed at high temperature. Wettability of the steam compressed OPT was analysed by contact angle method and observed it was reduced as compared to simply compressed OPT. Samples were exposed to outdoor conditions to evaluate their resistance against biological deterioration. Microscope and X-ray diffraction analyses of the samples were also carried out. Steamed compressed OPTs exhibited improved resistance against biodegradation probably due to the increase of extractives in it, as compared to simply compressed OPTs. It seems that steaming in combination of compressing at high temperature would enhance the properties of OPTs.
... Pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) is one of the waste materials in agriculture sector, which is widely grown in Malaysia as well as Asia. After banana and citrus, pineapple (Ananas comosus) is one of the most essential tropical fruits in the world [22]. Commercially pineapple fruits are very important and leaves are considered as waste materials of fruit which is being used for producing natural fibres. ...
Article
Full-text available
Natural fibre based composites are under intensive study due to their eco-friendly nature and peculiar properties. The advantage of natural fibres is their continuous supply, easy and safe handling and biodegradable nature. Although natural fibres exhibit admirable physical and mechanical properties, it varies with the plant source, species, geography etc. Pineapple leave fibre (PALF) is one of the abundantly available wastes materials of Malaysia, has not been studied yet as it is required. A detailed study of chemical, physical and mechanical properties will bring out a logical and reasonable utilization of PALF for various applications. From the socio-economic prospective, PALF can be a new source of raw material to the industries and can be potential replacement of the expensive and non-renewable synthetic fibre. However, few study on PALF have been done describing the interfacial adhesion between fibres and reinforcement compatibility of fibre but a detail study on PALF properties is not available. In this review, author covered the basic information of PALF and compared the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties with other natural fibres. Furthermore, it summarizes the recent work reported on physical, mechanical and thermal properties of PALF reinforced polymer composites with its potential applications.
... As can be seen in Figure 1, plant fibers could also be classified according to their location in the plant. For example, bast fibers as flax, hemp or jute (Mohanty and Misra, 1995;Summerscales et al., 2010) are extracted from the stem of the plant whereas other fibers could be extracted from seeds (cotton) (Chand et al., 1988), fruit (coconut, pineapple), (Arib et al., 2004) or even the leaves of the plant (sisal) (Mukherjee and Satyanarayana, 1984;Li et al., 2000). The origins and properties of these different fibers have been described in a detailed review paper by (Faruk et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Environmental concern has resulted in a renewed interest in bio-based materials. Among them, plant fibers are perceived as an environmentally friendly substitute to glass fibers for the reinforcement of composites, particularly in automotive engineering. Due to their wide availability, low cost, low density, high-specific mechanical properties, and eco-friendly image, they are increasingly being employed as reinforcements in polymer matrix composites. Indeed, their complex microstructure as a composite material makes plant fiber a really interesting and challenging subject to study. Research subjects about such fibers are abundant because there are always some issues to prevent their use at large scale (poor adhesion, variability, low thermal resistance, hydrophilic behavior). The choice of natural fibers rather than glass fibers as filler yields a change of the final properties of the composite. One of the most relevant differences between the two kinds of fiber is their response to humidity. Actually, glass fibers are considered as hydrophobic whereas plant fibers have a pronounced hydrophilic behavior. Composite materials are often submitted to variable climatic conditions during their lifetime, including unsteady hygroscopic conditions. However, in humid conditions, strong hydrophilic behavior of such reinforcing fibers leads to high level of moisture absorption in wet environments. This results in the structural modification of the fibers and an evolution of their mechanical properties together with the composites in which they are fitted in. Thereby, the understanding of these moisture absorption mechanisms as well as the influence of water on the final properties of these fibers and their composites is of great interest to get a better control of such new biomaterials. This is the topic of this review paper.
... Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a common fruit that exists in abundance in tropical regions. According to Arib et al. [4], pineapple is the most essential tropical fruits globally, after banana and citrus fruits. As a waste after the collection of pineapple fruits, the pineapple leaves could be used for the extraction of fibers. ...
Chapter
Pineapple leaf fibers (PALF) are very suitable to act as reinforcing composite matrixes. Nevertheless, PALF is highly susceptible to the risk of fire hazard. Therefore, priority is often being placed in order to improve the fire retardancy of the PALF and its composite products. This chapter discusses the behavior of natural fibers in fire and various fire properties testing methods that can evaluate the fire performance of natural fibers. Different conventional fire retardant additives and its effects to the PALF fibers and its resultant composites are also been reviewed. Aluminum trihydroxide is the most popular flame retardant in the world. However, due to the prohibition of halogenated retardants, phosphorus-based flame retardants are expected to witness a gratifying market gains in the next few years. Flame retardants that are commonly used in improving flame retardancy of a material could be divided into reactive retardants, active fillers, and inert fillers. It also can be categorized based on their chemical nature, namely phosphorus-, halogen-, silicon-, and mineral-based flame retardants as well as nanometric particles. Different types of flame retardants have different mode of action and, therefore, is also functioned differently, where the mode of action of a flame retardant can be conveniently classified into physical action and chemical action.
... Natural fillers offer potential advantages such as low cost, low density, low energy consumption and biodegradability [14,15]. Chestnut is one of the resources that can be exploited by the Amazonian communities. ...
Article
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Biocomposites based on potato starch and reinforced with chestnut husks, a lignocellulosic agroforestry waste, were developed by incorporating 2.5 wt%, 5 wt% and 7.5 wt% of chestnut husks via an extrusion molding procedure. The effect of the filler on the morphology and thermos-mechanical properties were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Chestnut husks were homogeneously dispersed within the plasticized starch matrix as shown by SEM images. FTIR results shows that the peaks of pure starch samples in the 500–1500 cm⁻¹ region vanished as chestnut husks was incorporated, suggesting an interaction between starch and chestnut. The glass transition temperature was found to decrease at higher filler content, which indicates an improvement in segmental mobility of starch molecules. DMA tests revealed the presence of two relaxation processes. The α relaxation was associated with the cooperative segmental motion of starch chains while the β relaxation was assigned to the segmental mobility of glycerol-rich phases.
... Some researchers have carried out their work on pineapple leaf fiber (PALF)-reinforced polymer composites also and studied their chemical, thermal, and physical properties. [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. ...
Article
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In the present study, a natural fiber, i.e., sisal fiber, is chosen to prepare composite samples of different compositions. The other materials taken for the preparation of composite are glass fiber and epoxy. After preparations, samples are subjected to different tests such as tensile strength and three-point bend test to assess their mechanical strength. Then, samples are immersed in seawater for 30 days. Again, their mechanical property assessed to know how these composites behave in a saline environment and compared with previous results. It is seen that sisal fiber composites show positive results in the seawater environment.
... Natural fibers have been used as reinforcement in the development of biopolymer composites Manickavasagam et al., 2018;Thyavihalli Girijappa et al., 2019). They are widely available and offer certain advantages, such as biodegradability, low cost, and low energy consumption during processing (Arib et al., 2004). Natural fibers can be extracted from natural resources, including agricultural subproducts, forest resources, and wastes (Mazur et al., 2020). ...
Article
Amidst the global plastic pollution crisis, bio-based polymers have been proposed as a potential substitute to tackle this issue. Owed to their biodegradability, biopolymers are generally regarded as eco-friendly during the post-consumer (disposal) stage. However, the environmental burden of the many production processes biopolymers and their components undergo better reflect the sustainable nature of these materials. Previous studies evaluating the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of starch-based composites have focused on commercially available starches, although other non-conventional starches can also be used to produce biopolymers. To address this knowledge gap, in the present study we evaluated the LCA of starch-Brazil nut fiber biocomposites prepared with starch from three different sources, Andean potato, corn, and sweet potato, and applying two different plasticizers, glycerol and sorbitol. Results indicated that the starch-based biocomposites were less impacting than conventional PLA-Brazil nut fiber and PP-glass fiber composites. The type of starch and plasticizer significantly influenced the environmental load of the production of the composites. The main drivers of these differences were the multiple agricultural practices, such as irrigation and fertilization, and the crop efficiency for starch extraction. Sorbitol was found to be many times more impacting than glycerol in most categories, which is due to the complex processing of sorbitol and high content in biocomposites with similar mechanical properties than glycerol. Additionally, Brazil nut fibers are presented as an eco-friendly and low-burden natural filler due to their easy processing and agricultural waste origin. The limitations, applications, and significance of the results were discussed.
... Hardness properties are studied by Applying normal indentation load to fibre diameter and length regular to fibre. In general, fibres which increase the module of composites add to the hardness of the composite [25][26][27]. ...
Article
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Get access Share icon Skip to Main Content Log in | Register Search in: Advances in Materials and Processing Technologies Latest Articles 28 Views 1 CrossRef citations to date 0 Altmetric Research Article Physical and mechanical properties, morphological behaviour of pineapple leaf fibre reinforced polyester resin composites Praveena B a,Balachandra P Shetty,Sachin B,Shiv Pratap Singh Yadav &Avinash L Accepted 17 Nov 2020, Published online: 30 Nov 2020 Download citation https://doi.org/10.1080/2374068X.2020.1853498 CrossMark LogoCrossMark ABSTRACT The article focuses on the study of the physical, mechanical, and SEM of pineapple leaf fibre reinforced polyester composites. An investigation has been carried out in this relation to allow better use of PALF to manufacture value-added goods. Normal composites made from fibre are under intensive research because of their environmentally friendly nature and peculiar character. Their continuous supply is beneficial for natural fibres, simple to handle and naturally biodegradable. In this research, the hand lay up process was used to manufacture composites. SEM was used to clarify the topography of fibre, matrix adhesion, fibre breakage, and failure. Related with additional regular fibre composites based on cellulose, the PALF polyester composites have greater mechanical properties. It was also experiential that as the fibre content increase young’s modulus and tensile strength also increases and it was found to be 2545 MPa and 66 MPa, respectively, at 40 Wt. %. Even compression strength & hardness values also increase with an increase in the fibre content at 40 Wt. %. The compression strength of 23 MPa and hardness of 83 was recorded. This was observed with SEM where fibres and matrix have exposed well miscibility at 40 wt. % of PALF.
... The primary producers of pineapple are South America (Costa Rica and Brazil), Asia (Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, India and China) and Africa (Nigeria and South Africa). Pineapple leaf fibers are used as reinforcements in polymer composites due to their high crystallinity and high cellulose content of 70-80% (George et al. 1995;Lobo and Paull 2017;Supriya Mishra et al. 2004;Arib et al. 2004;M. Asim et al. 2015). ...
Article
There is a remarkable increase in natural fiber-reinforced composites research over the last three decades due to their abundance, less density, biodegradability, renewable sources, and low cost. The fabrication of natural fiber composites require less energy when compared with synthetic fiber composites. Various natural fibers are available globally and have been used as reinforcements in polymer composites. These fibers provide comparable properties and can be considered as a substitute for synthetic fiber composites. The objective of this review is to analyze the various types of natural fibers used in composite fabrication along with their physical, chemical, mechanical, thermal, and tribological properties. Other important aspects such as fiber extraction, chemical treatments, manufacturing methods, hybridization, interfacial adhesion, and applications for different natural fiber composites are also discussed. The review also establishes the scope of natural fiber composites for future needs in various applications by understanding their merits and demerits.
... Among the natural fibres that have been used for reinforcement in composite boards include; bagasse fibre [5], Rattan [6], oil palm [7], sisal fibres [8], coconut coir [9], pineapple leaves [10] etc. Each of the researchers reported significant improvement to the properties of the composites formed. ...
Article
The effects of wood and non-wood fibres reinforcement on the properties of Plaster of Paris were evaluated. The woody and non woody residues were varied in 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 % of the whole mix while the Plaster of Paris used was in the ratio 100 (control), 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 %. The mean density of the composite produced is 3250 kg/m3. The mean thickness swelling and water absorption after 2 and 24 hours were 0.84 % and 0.88 %, and 13.8 % and 16.2 % respectively. The MOR and MOE increased with increase in fibre content hence the composite is suitable for indoor applications.
... Dey et al. [5] reported that PALF has better mechanical characteristics with respect to jute fiber. However, the mechanical characteristics of PALFs are highly inconsistent [6][7][8][9][10][11]. Therefore, statistical methods need to be considered to evaluate the tensile strength of PALFs. ...
Article
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Pineapple leave fiber (PALF) can be considered as one of the green materials to the industries, which is the potential to replace the non-renewable synthetic fiber. However, the high disparity in the mechanical properties of PALF becomes an issue in structural composite design. Hence, improved Weibull distribution is utilised to quantify the tensile strength variation of PALF in various gauge lengths. The single fiber tensile test was performed after the fiber surface treatment and fiber diameter scanning. The predicted PALF strength by applying the improved Weibull distribution incorporating with conical frustum model is well compromised with experimental data compared to the traditional Weibull model.
... Generally banana and citrus fruits are available in plenty in the world. Following them, pineapple is the most commonly available fruit in India [9]. As a result, pineapple leaves are being used to produce natural fibres that would otherwise be discarded. ...
Article
Full-text available
Hybrid composites are formed by the combination of natural fibers (pineapple, silk, flax etc.) and synthetic fibers (glass) reinforced polymer or hybrid or natural resin matrix composites which have specific mechanical properties due to contents of renewability, recyclability, and biodegradability compared to synthetic fibers. Lannea coromandelica (LC, Anacardiaceae plant gum) is blended with Epoxy (synthetic polymer matrix resin) to form hybrid Lannea Coromandelica Blender Epoxy matrix (LCE) resin composites for the replacement of epoxy resin to improve the biodegradability and environmental friendly nature. NaOH treated and untreated hybrid Composites (Pineapple (PGP)/Silk (SGS)/Flax (FGF) fiber mats with 2%, 4%, 6% volume fraction of Bentonite nanoclay (BNC) nano filler loading in each composition reinforcement in hybrid LCE resin) and hybrid LCE resin are prepared by Compression hand molding technique method. The maximum mechanical properties are observed for treated P/G/P fiber mats with 2%, 4%, 6% volume fraction BNC filler reinforced LCE resin matrix. Mechanical properties such as tensile properties, flexural properties and impact strength of hybrid composites have improved three to four times compared to hybrid LCE resin. Results of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) show that untreated and treated hybrid composites have the highest storage modulus (stiffness and adsorption energy) and the lowest damping factor (Tan δ) when compared to hybrid LCE resin. Biodegradability testing has revealed that adding 4 percent volume fraction of nano filler to treated P/G/P fiber mats reinforced LCE resin composite resulting in minimal weight loss over a long period of time.
... But in the era of modern science it is thought as a good source of eco-friendly natural fibers. [1]. It is chiefly cultivated in coastal and tropical regions, mainly for its fruits purpose. ...
... Among the different natural fibers, pineapple leaf fiber comprises high alpha-cellulose content which exhibits higher mechanical properties (70-82%) and low microfibrillar angle [9]. PALF is originated from the leaves of the plant Ananas comosus is one of the world's top tropical fruits, other than citrus and banana [10,11]. Pineapple leaves are discarded as agricultural waste which can be obtained easily without any extra cost and can be used for manufacturing natural fibers. ...
Article
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The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation and chemical (NaOH) treatment on the physicomechanical properties of the pineapple/epoxy composites. The manual lay-up process was used here in fabricating pineapple leaf fabric (PALF fabric) reinforced composites. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been exploited for understanding the outward structure of composites. FTIR and EDS analysis recognized the existence of silicon and Si–O–Si/C–O–Si cross-linked configurations on the outward structure of composites. From the experimental results, it was found that gamma irradiation subjected composite sample had significant improvement in mechanical properties in comparison with composites reinforced with chemical treated pineapple leaf fabric and untreated composite. Tensile strength (TS), tensile modulus (TM), bending strength (BS), bending modulus (BM) and impact strength (IS) of gamma irradiated composite increased by approximately 71.26 %, 461.29%, 72.45%, 24.52% and 40.44% respectively compared to untreated composites. Furthermore, Gamma irradiated composite exhibited an increase of 49.98% TS, 40.46% TM, 35.82% BS, 11.21% BM and 12.44% IS compared to chemical treated pineapple leaf fabric composites. The reason for the improved physico-mechanical properties of gamma irradiated sample is due to the formation of crosslink in fiber and matrix molecules. The water absorption behavior of the composites was also tested.
... Three fabric/PE composite specimens (specimen 1, specimen 2, and specimen 3) were tested for water absorption. At 25 degrees Celsius (room temperature), specimens of the mixtures were weightage and placed in glasses with 500 mL of deionized water for an hour [29]. The specimens were then removed from the glass, wiped with paper towels, and reweighed following the time interval. ...
Article
Full-text available
Polyethylene (PE) was used as a composite material to create a fabric containing 40% pineapple, 30% jute, and 30% cotton fibres by weight. The physical characterisation is carried out, like deterioration and water absorption tests. PE-based composites were shown to have a lower water absorption rate when dipped in deionized water to perform an absorption test. Fabric/PE composites decomposed slowly in the soil during the degradation test. Alkali solution of 5 percent, 7 percent, and 9 percent sodium hydroxide by weight for 60 minutes was studied as alkali impact mechanical characteristics: mechanical testing's like tensile strength and modulus, elongation at break, bending strength, and modulus. Data investigation exposed that the tensile strength and modulus, elongation at break, bending strength, and composite modulus values were 64 MPa and 871 MPa, 23.14 percent, 45 MPa, and 512 MPa. There were tensile strength and modulus, elongation at break, bending strength, and modulus of the neat polyethylene sheet that were 32Mpa and 342 MPa, 79 percent, 22 MPa, and 234 MPa, respectively. Compared to a polyethylene sheet, composite values for tensile strength and modulus, bending strength, and modulus raised by 107%, 156%, 110%, and 115% as a result of fabric reinforcing.
Article
Pineapple leaf fibers (PALF) are of little use in Malaysia despite being mechanically and environmentally sound. Untreated and bleached PALF were used to reinforce vinyl ester (VE) utilizing hand lay-up (HLU) and liquid compression molding (LCM). Mechanical properties, water absorption and thermal stability were compared to neat resin and glass fiber-reinforced VE. Adding PALF reduced machinability dramatically while generally enhancing VE mechanical properties. Bleached PALF improved fiber-matrix adhesion compared to untreated PALF. Molding resin and composites with pressure enhanced water resistance by 2 - 3 times. Water absorption increased with increasing PALF while bleached PALF somewhat decreased water absorption due to improved wetting. PALF slightly reduced VE thermal stability although enhancement is expected upon using bleached PALF. Molding pressure has no effect on thermal stability of VE and PALF-reinforced VE. This study indicated that PALF may be used to reinforce VE to produce composites utilizing LCM and inexpensive bleach pretreatment.
Article
This article reports the effective usage of an industrial waste, red mud (RM), as a novel filler in polymer matrix. The hybrid composites has been fabricated with red mud as secondary reinforcement in sisal and pineapple/polyester using compression molding technique. The mechanical properties such as Tensile, Flexural and Impact have been studied with the effect of fiber weight percentage, weight percentage of red mud and chemical treatment of fiber. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies have been performed to carry out the failure analysis in fractured specimen.
Chapter
In this chapter, a background of the importance of natural fibres is presented. The advantages and disadvantages of tropical natural fibres are listed. The chapter elaborates seven types of tropical natural fibres commonly being studied and used. The information about fibre extraction process, the application of fibres and other important topics are discussed.
Article
Vinyl esters combine the best of polyesters and epoxies in terms of properties and processing. Without complicating presence of reinforcing fibres, this study investigated the effects of catalyst amount, preheating time, molding temperature, and pressure on flexural and water absorption properties of cast vinyl ester (VE) using a factorial experiment. Longer preheating time enhanced the stiffness of VE, while higher molding pressure reduced the flexural modulus. All the four factors did not affect the flexural strength and elongation at the break of molded VE significantly. Using a high molding pressure also caused molded VE to have higher water absorption for a long water exposure period. Meanwhile, greater water absorption at bigger amount of catalyst and higher preheating temperature indicate possible interactions between these factors. The results suggest possible negative effects of high molding pressure through the increase in the network of micro-cracks, and thus lowering the integrity of cast VE sheets. Judicious selection of the process parameters was required in order to obtain good quality molded VE sheets and by extension fibre-reinforced VE composites. Molded VE-unsaturated polyester (UP) blend is a significantly different material which is 1.49 times stronger, 2.38 times more flexible, but it is 0.69 less stiff than neat VE and with significantly higher water absorption. The results obtained warrant for a further investigation in process optimization of VE molding and the use of VE-UP blend as a matrix for natural fibre-reinforced composites.
Article
Pineapple leaf fibres were modified with cationic modifier GX-H23 and dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (surfactant 1227) to change their surface electric properties. After modification, the pineapple leaf fibres were dyed separately with CI Reactive Red 15 under traditional and salt-free dyeing conditions. Based on dye uptake analysis, the influence of different modification and dyeing conditions on the dyeing properties of pineapple leaf fibres were evaluated. The results showed that the modified pineapple leaf fibres under salt-free dyeing conditions exhibited superior dye uptake, especially when the cationic modifier GX-H23 was used. The optimum parameters for modification with surfactant 1227 were: 15 g/l of surfactant 1227, 10 g/l of sodium hydroxide, and 90 °C for 30 min; the optimum parameters for modification with cationic modifier GX-H23 were: 15 g/l of cationic modifier GX-H23, 20 g/l of sodium hydroxide, and 60 °C for 40 min.
Conference Paper
Natural fibre based composites are under intensive study due to their eco friendly nature and peculiar properties. The advantage of natural fibres is their continuous supply, easy and safe handling, and biodegradable nature. Although natural fibres exhibit admirable physical and mechanical properties, it varies with the plant source, species, geography, and so forth. Pineapple leave fibre (PALF) is one of the abundantly available waste materials in India and has not been studied yet. The work has been carried out to fabrication and study the mechanical characterization of Pineapple Leaf fiber reinforced Vinylester composites filled with different particulate fillers. These results are compared with those of a similar set of glass fiber reinforced Vinylester composites filled with same particulate fillers. It is evident that the density values for Pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) - Vinylester composites increase with the particulate filler content and void fractions in these composites also increase. The test results show that with the presence of particulate fillers, micro hardness of the PALF-Vinylester composites has improved. Among all the composites under this investigation, the maximum hardness value is recorded for PALF-Vinylester composite filled with 20 wt% alumina. In this investigation the maximum value of ILSS has been recorded for the PALF-Vinylester composite with 20 wt% of Flyash.
Article
Full-text available
Natural cellulose-based fibers offer low cost, low density composite reinforcement with good strength and stiffness. Because of their annual renewability and biodegradability, natural fibers have materialized as environmentally-friendly alternatives to synthetic fibers in the last two decades. They are replacing synthetic materials in some traditional composites in industrial manufacturing sectors such as automotive, construction, furniture, and other consumer goods. In this work, the use of lignocellulosic fibers in green materials engineering, particularly their application as polymeric composite reinforcement and surface treatment via ionizing radiation, are reviewed. Because these cellulose-based materials are intrinsically hydrophilic, they require surface modification to improve their affinity for hydrophobic polymeric matrices, which enhances the strength, durability, and service lifetime of the resulting lignocellulosic fiber-polymer composites. In spite of a long history of using chemical methods in the modification of material surfaces, including the surface of lignocellulosic fibers, recent research leans instead towards application of ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation methods are considered superior to chemical methods, as they are viewed as clean, energy saving, and environmentally friendly. Recent applications of controlled ionizing radiation doses in the formulation of natural fiber – reinforced polymeric composites resulted in products with enhanced fiber-polymer interfacial bonding without affecting the inner structure of lignocellulosic fibers. These applications are critically reviewed in this contribution.
Book
In the field of composites, very limited works are focusing on materials selection, conceptual design and design for sustainability for composites. It is quite easy to determine the contribution of knowledge in this area of research. The major challenges are to find good references and to publish in high impact journals as there are very limited journals, which can accept papers in these areas. Composite can be defined as a material that consist of two or more constituent materials, mainly fiber and matrices reinforcements, bonded together. As a result, better properties are obtained in the final composites compared to the constituent materials. Material selection is the process of selecting the best materials for a specific design and has been performed with help of various tools and techniques (expert system, analytical hierarchy process, neural network, Cambridge engineering selector (CES) and fuzzy logics). Besides that, it is a significant stage in developing new products or improving existing products. It contributes important parts in the products development that are safe, reasonable price for processing, quality, efficient and satisfactory to consumers. Conceptual design is an important activity in the modern design process, in which it is constantly being highlighted that incorrect conceptual design might lead to expansive rework and other problems that might occur after the product is fabricated. Design of composites product, especially during the early product development stage requires three main aspects in product design which are materials, design and manufacturing process to satisfy lower cost, high quality and fast development time requirements in order to ensure successful product launch into the market.
Article
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The progress in the development of composites with natural fibers for various applications in different sectors witnesses remarkable success worldwide in the last decade. Among the various natural fibers existing worldwide, pineapple leaf fibers (PALFs) possess remarkable mechanical properties because of the maximum content of cellulose (∼80%) among all natural fibers. In spite of having few limitations such as hydrophilicity, its advantages such as low cost, low weight, and biodegradability overweigh their limitations. The PALFs are poorly reported in the literature as a reinforcement in epoxy material. Bagasse, wheat straw, and coir have been successfully reinforced with epoxy resin; but inspite of having highest tensile strength among all natural fibers, PALF’s are seldom used. PALF has been characterized chemically, morphologically, and thermally. Using thermal analysis, the models were fitted to calculate its activation energies at different fraction levels using different heating rates. PALF epoxy composites have been prepared using the hand layup method. The effect of fiber loading has also been studied for morphological, chemical, mechanical, and thermal properties of composites. Composites with 10% fiber loading have better mechanical properties in comparison to composites with other fiber loading. Scanning electron microscopic micrographs of fractured surfaces have been analyzed for all fiber loading composites, and the results have been successfully studied linking the stated work of other distinguished researchers of this arena.
Article
Full-text available
There has been substantial growth in the technology of composite manufacturing using the LCM method. The RTM process was robust but was a costly affair for long composites parts due to the two sided mold requirement and also due to the number of fixture required in a RTM process. VARTM or some time also called as VI (Vacuum Infusion) is a cheap and a viable option for the big size composite parts .Vacuum infusion has improved over the last decade due to the focus and ease in operation and its ability to produce long composite parts. This has achieved a good attention of the scientist in the last decade and continues to receive the attention of the world. There are several variants of this process and most of them operate at a compaction pressure of 1 bar. There are several research groups which are involved in the advancement of this method of composite manufacturing. Some codes are now available for the simulation of the process, and some amount of automation has also been applied in this method. As in VI process one sided moulds are used and the other side covered with a plastic bag is always exposed to the atmospheric pressure, there is no solid control on the face exposed, this increases the chances of thickness variation along the length of the infusion. In the absence of proper infusion there is possibility of improper saturation leading to the dry spot formation making the composite weak at the point of dry spot. The strength of the composite manufactured by VI depends a lot on the proper design of the injection point and vents, and online control so that the preform is completely saturated with the resin before it cures. This paper investigates the evolution of this method of composite manufacturing, with the focus on the key issue of saturation of fiber in the Vacuum infusion process.
Article
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This paper presents the study of mechanical properties of short pineapple leaf fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. Pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) is one of them that have also good potential as reinforcement in thermoplastic composite. It is the objective of the current research to characterize the mechanical properties of treated and untreated composites of PALF reinforced polypropylene (PP) composite with four different volume fractions of pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) was fabricated, (5 vol%, 10 vol%, 15 vol% and 20 vol%). The study of this PALF-PP composite demonstrates that bulk density of the composite decrease as the volume fraction increased. From the study about impact strength toward the fibre loadings, impact strength and energy absorbed increase as the volume fraction of fibre increased. Untreated PALF gives greater impact strength than treated PALF. From the experiment conducted on impact test and scanning electron microscopy experiment, untreated fibre produce greater impact and absorbed energy than treated fibre. Until 20% of PALF, result showed strength of the composite still rising to prove that 20% of fibre will fabricate finest fibre loading for the PALF-PP composite was observed from the scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrograph as an evidences on compatibility mechanical properties at the intersectional region of composite.
Article
The Biodegradable fiber- reinforced composites are increasingly developed for energy saving applications in automobile and construction industries with significant ecological advantage. The aim of this study is to explore thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, and thermal diffusivity of Borassus fruit fiber (BFF) reinforced polyester composites. Biodegradable composites were fabricated with the incorporation of Borassus fruit fiber (BFF) in the polyester resin via hand lay-up technique. The thermal conductivity of samples was measured using a guarded heat flow meter as per ASTM E1530 standards. The results revealed that higher content of BFF can contribute to improve the thermal insulation capability of composite. As fiber content increases, the insulation capability of composites increased. The reduction in thermal conductivity of composite at maximum volume fraction was 23.5% compared to unfilled polyester. The thermal conductivity of composites increased with the increase of temperature. Thermal conductivity, heat capacity and diffusivity of composite at maximum fiber content, were 0.186 w/(m.K), 1.64 (kJ/kg.K) and 1.04e-07 mm2/s, respectively. The results propose that the BFF/polyester composites can be a feasible candidate for energy saving applications that require good thermal insulation properties.
Article
The article focuses on the study of the physical, mechanical, and SEM of pineapple leaf fibre reinforced polyester composites. An investigation has been carried out in this relation to allow better use of PALF to manufacture value-added goods. Normal composites made from fibre are under intensive research because of their environmentally friendly nature and peculiar character. Their continuous supply is beneficial for natural fibres, simple to handle and naturally biodegradable. In this research, the hand lay up process was used to manufacture composites. SEM was used to clarify the topography of fibre, matrix adhesion, fibre breakage, and failure. Related with additional regular fibre composites based on cellulose, the PALF polyester composites have greater mechanical properties. It was also experiential that as the fibre content increase young’s modulus and tensile strength also increases and it was found to be 2545 MPa and 66 MPa, respectively, at 40 Wt. %. Even compression strength & hardness values also increase with an increase in the fibre content at 40 Wt. %. The compression strength of 23 MPa and hardness of 83 was recorded. This was observed with SEM where fibres and matrix have exposed well miscibility at 40 wt. % of PALF.
Chapter
The composite parts having holes need to experimentally examined for understanding their behaviour under mechanical loading conditions. So, an initial attempt was made to reinforce the locally available pineapple leaf fibre in as-is condition and after chemical treatment into vinyl ester matrix for preparation of the composites according to ASTM D5766/5766M—07 standard by rolling cum hand lay-up technique. Drilling holes of 3, 6 and 8 mm in diameter was performed slowly and carefully without disturbing the fibres in matrix. Fibres were examined under SEM and its diameter is in the range of 3.12–16.6 µm. Unwanted impurities cum waxy materials washed away from the fibre after alkali treatment and were confirmed from the SEM image. Plain, untreated pineapple leaf fibre composites tensile strength was decreased up to 6 mm hole and thereafter, it was increased. Similar trend was observed after determination of modulus of the composites. However, treated fibre composites tensile strength and modulus were improved beyond the 3 mm hole. Tensile fractured specimens revealed the fibre–matrix interactions.
Chapter
Fibre-reinforced polymer composites (FRPCs) are playing a significant role in manufacturing of goods/products in service for lightweight applications. Among FRPCs, natural fibre-reinforced polymer composites (NFRPCs) are one in forefront and replacing both the conventional and unconventional reinforced composites since they are eco friendly in nature and have several benefits like low price, ease of manufacturing, denseness, biodegradability, etc. In this chapter, a solemn attempt is made to study the pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) bolstered with polymer matrix composites (PMCs). PALFs are rich in cellulose, comparatively cheap and extravagantly available. PALFs reinforced with polymers such as thermoplastic/thermoset matrices are widely used in automotive sectors. PALF-reinforced polymer matrix composites have a wide range of applications in automotive industries, manufacturing of dashboards, package trays, door panels, headliners, seat backs, interior parts and many other parts. This chapter also explores the type of NFRPCs used by several automotive organizations.
Chapter
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Consumers are more aware of environmental impacts and climatic problems, which leads to a greater demand for products with technological innovations. Research has the aim to replace and reduce raw materials from fossil sources to renewable sources, such as the natural fibers. Natural fiber composites result from the blending of two materials: one is the plastic and the other a fiber, from agricultural waste in most of the cases. Compared to polymers from fossil sources, this new material has three main advantages: they have an environmental approved; low cost and its physical and mechanical properties are superior. The cultivation of this fruit is large in many tropical countries. After harvesting, the fruit and shoots are removed, and the rest needs to be cut and removed from the soil. This material, most leaves, becomes waste and goes to disposal. However, the use of pineapple leaf fibers as a raw material for natural fiber composites production helps to reduce the pollution caused by these residues and can increase the income of pineapple producers making a channel to new business. To have success in producing NFC, it is necessary to understand process techniques; to the adhesion between fiber and the polymer; the ratio of polymer and natural fiber; and the market (automotive, construction, etc.). But, after reading this chapter, it will be possible to conclude that there is a huge opportunity to improve the natural fibers market in front of the other reinforcements because of their properties.
Article
Full-text available
In the reported study, two composites, namely sisal-wool hybrid composite (SWHC) and pineapple leaf fibre(PALF)-wool hybrid composite (PWHC) were prepared by mixing natural rubber with equal quantities of wool with sisal/PALF in a two-roll mixing mill. The mixture was subjected to curing at 150 °C inside a 2 mm thick mold, according to the curing time provided by the MDR. The physico-mechanical properties of the compositeviz., the tensile strength, elongation, modulus, areal density, relative density, and hardness were determined and compared in addition to the solvent diffusion and thermal degradation properties. The hybrid composite samples were subjected to accelerated aging, owing to temperature, UV radiation, and soil burial tests. The cross-sectional images of the composites were compared with a scanning electron microscopic analysis at different magnifications. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis was conducted on the hybrid composite to determine the possible chemical interaction of the fibres with the natural rubber matrix.
Article
In this paper we report chemical modifications such as alkali treatment, diazocoupling with aniline, crosslinking with formaldehyde, p-phenylene diamine and combined crosslinking cyanoethylation imparted onto an agrowaste, "pineapple leaf fiber" (PALF). The parent and chemically modified PALF have been characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. The per cent moisture regain, mechanical strength and behavior to common chemical reagents have also been tested. The modified fibers showed significant hydrophobicity, improved mechanical strength and good chemical resistance.
Article
This paper is an attempt to examine the commercial signficance of an agro-waste “Pineapple Leaf Fibre” (PALF) which is rich in cellulose, relatively inexpensive and has the potential for polymer reinforcement. The quality enhancement of PALF has been tried through different surface modifications like dewaxing, alkali treatment, cyanoethylation and grafting of AN onto dewaxed PALF. The present study investigated the mechanical propeties like tensile, flexural and impact behavior of PALF-reinforced polyester composites as a function of fibre loading and fibre surface modification. The mechanical properties are optimum at a fibre loading of 30 wt%. Among all modifications, 10% AN grafted PALF composite exhibited maximum tensile strength (48.36 MPa) whereas cyanoethylated PALF composite exhibited better flexural and impact strength, i.e., 41% and 27% more than the control (detergent washed composite) respectively. Scanning electron microscopic studies were carried out to understand the fibre-matrix adhesion.
Article
Viscoelastic properties of low-density polyethylene reinforced with short pineapple fibers, extracted from pineapple leaves, have been studied as a function of temperature at different fiber orientations. It was found that longitudinally oriented fiber composites show the maximum value of storage modulus. The effects of fiber loading and fiber length on the viscoelastic properties have been assessed.
Article
This paper presents the mechanical and thermal properties of unidirectional, degradable, environment-friendly “green” composites made from pineapple fibers and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate) (PHBV) resin. Tensile and flexural properties of the “green” composites with different fiber contents were measured in both longitudinal and transverse directions. Compared to those of virgin resin, the tensile and flexural strengths of “green” composites are significantly higher in the longitudinal direction while they are lower in the transverse direction. However, the mechanical properties are lower than those predicted by simple models. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photomicrographs of the tensile fracture surfaces demonstrate fibers being pulled out from the matrix, the interfacial failure, fiber fibrillation, and the nonunidirectional nature of the “green” composites. The thermal behavior of the “green” composites, studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), showed that the presence of pineapple fibers does not affect the nonisothermal crystallization kinetics, crystallinity, and thermal decomposition of PHBV resin.
Article
This article highlights chemical modifications like alkali treatment, dinitrophenylation, benzoylation, and benzoylation-acetylation carried out on an pineapple agrowaste leaf fiber (PALF). The parent and chemically modified PALF were characterized by FTIR spectra, pH measurement, and detection of nitrogen. The percent moisture regain (extent of hydrophobicity), mechanical strength, and chemical inertness of parent and chemically modified fibers were evaluated. The modified fibers showed significant hydrophobicity, improved mechanical strength, and moderate chemical resistance. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 64: 2119–2125, 1997
Article
Hemicelluloses were isolated from pineapple-leaf fibers under different conditions. Study of the properties of these hemicelluloses gave direct evidence of some ester linkages between the hemicellulose and the lignin in this fiber. An aldobiouronic acid was isolated from this fiber hemicellulose, and characterized as 2-O-(4-O-methyl-α-d-glucopyranosyluronic acid)-d-xylose. This indicates that the general nature of the hemicellulose is similar to those of jute and other fiber hemicelluloses.
Article
The thermal behaviour of pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) reinforced polyethylene composites was studied by thermogravimetric and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. Fibre treatment was carried out using isocyanate, silane and peroxide to improve the interfacial adhesion between fibre and matrix. The effects of fibre loading and surface modification on the thermal properties were evaluated. It was found that at high temperature PALF degrades before the polyethylene matrix. The storage modulus increased with increase of fibre loading and decreased with increase of temperature. The treated fibre composites impart better properties compared to untreated system. Tan δ showed a distinct peak at low temperature ascribed to the glass transition temperature of polyethylene but no peak was observed for PALF fibre. The relative damping increased with fibre loading. Cole-Cole analysis was made to understand the phase behaviour of the composite samples.
Article
A study of the graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from defatted pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) was carried out in the temperature range 45–55 °C, using a copper sulphate (CuSO4) and potassium periodate (KIO4) combination as initiator in an aqueous medium. Effects of variation of time and temperature, concentration of Cu(II), KIO4 and MMA, the amount of PALF, and also the effects of some inorganic salts and organic solvents on the percentage of graft yield have been investigated. On the basis of experimental findings, a reaction mechanism is proposed. FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy of the original defatted PALF and MMA grafted PALF have been carried out. The thermal stability of PALF is improved through grafting.© 1999 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) onto defatted pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) was studied using a CuSO4 and KIO4 combination as an initiator in an aqueous medium in the temperature range 30–500C. The effects of the concentration of potassium periodate, CuSO4, and monomer on the graft yield were investigated. The effects of time, temperature, amount of some inorganic salts, and organic solvents on the graft yield are also reported. A combination of Cu+2—IO in an aqueous medium with an IO concentration of 0.005 mol L−1 and Cu+2 concentration of 0.002 mol L−1 produced optimum grafting for use of 0.1 g defatted PALF with a fiber-to-liquor ratio of 1:50 at 500C for 2 h. However, KIO4 and CuSO4 failed to induce polymerization of AN in the presence of PALF when used separately. FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis of the defatted and AN-grafted PALF were carried out. Grafting improved the thermal stability of PALF. © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 77: 3035–3043, 2000
Article
Pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) which is rich in cellulose, relatively inexpensive, and abundantly available has the potential for polymer reinforcement. The present study investigated the tensile, flexural, and impact behavior of PALF-reinforced polyester composites as a function of fiber loading, fiber length, and fiber surface modification. The tensile strength and Young's modulus of the composites were found to increase with fiber content in accordance with the rule of mixtures. The elongation at break of the composites exhibits an increase by the introduction of fiber. The mechanical properties are optimum at a fiber length of 30 mm. The flexural stiffness and flexural strength of the composites with a 30% fiber weight fraction are 2.76 GPa and 80.2 MPa, respectively. The specific flexural stiffness of the composite is about 2.3 times greater than that of neat polyester resin. The work of fracture (impact strength) of the composite with 30% fiber content was found to be 24 kJ m−2. Significant improvement in the tensile strength was observed for composites with silane A172-treated fibers. Scanning electron microscopic studies were carried out to understand the fiber-matrix adhesion, fiber breakage, and failure topography. The PALF polyester composites possess superior mechanical properties compared to other cellulose-based natural fiber composites. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 64: 1739–1748, 1997
Article
Short pineapple-leaf-fiber-(PALF)-reinforced low-density polyethylene (LDPE) composites were prepared by melt-mixing and solution-mixing methods. In the melt-mixing technique, a mixing time of 6 min, rotor speed of 60 rpm, and mixing temperature of 130°C were found to be the optimum conditions. Tensile properties of melt-mixed and solution-mixed composites were compared. Solution-mixed composites showed better properties than melt-mixed composites. The influence of fiber length, fiber loading, and orientation on the mechanical properties has also been evaluated. Fiber breakage and damage during processing were analyzed from fiber distribution curve and optical and scanning electron micrographs. Considering the overall mechanical properties and processability characteristics, fiber lenght of 6 mm was found to be the optimum length of pineapple leaf fiber for the reinforcement in LDPE. The mechanical properties were found to be enhanced and elongation at break reduced with increasing fiber loading. Longitudinally oriented composites showed better properties than randomly and transversely oriented composites. Recyclability of the composite was found to be very good. A comparison of the properties of the PALF-reinforced LDPE composites with those of other cellulose-fiber-reinforced LDPE systems indicated superior performance of the PALF–LDPE composites.© 1995 John Wiley & Sons. Inc.
Article
The stress-strain curves for pineapple leaf fibre have been analysed. Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), initial modulus (YM), average modulus (AM) and elongation of fibres have been calculated as functions of fibre diameter test length and test speed. UTS, YM, and elongation lie in the range of 362 to 748 MN m–2, 25 to 36 GN m–2, and 2.0 to 2.8%, respectively for fibres of diameters ranging from 45 to 205m. UTS Was found to decrease with increasing test lengths in the range 15 to 65 mm. Various mechanical parameters show marginal changes with change in speed of testing in the range of 1 to 50 mm min–1. The above results are explained on the basis of structural variables of the fibre. Scanning electron microscope studies of the fibres reveal that the failure of the fibres is mainly due to large defect content of the fibre bo1h along the fibre and through the cross-section, The crack is always initiated by the defective cells and further aggravated by the weak bonding material between the cells.
Article
Little analysis has been made to correlate the impact behavior of natural fiber composites with the fiber properties. It is with this view that the present study on the impact properties of natural fiber composites has been undertaken. Unidirectionally aligned fiber/polyester composites containing ca. 0. 5 volume fraction of sisal, pineapple, banana and coir fibers were prepared from unsaturated polyester prepregs. An attempt has been made to explain the variation in impact properties of various natural fiber composites in terms of microfibrillar angle of the fiber.
Article
The melt theological behaviour of short pineapple fibre reinforced low density polyethylene composite has been studied using a capillary rheometer. The influence of fibre loading, fibre length, and fibre treatment on the theology of composites was investigated. Studies were carried out in the temperature range of 125 to 145°C and shear rate of 016.4 to 5468 s−1. The melt viscosity was found to be increased with fibre loading. Various chemical treatments were made to improve fibre—matrix interfacial adhesion. Treatments based on poly(methylene)—poly(phenyl)isocyanate (PMPPIC), silane and peroxide increased the viscosity of the system due to high fibre—matrix interfacial interaction. Viscosity of the system decreased with increase of temperature. However, in peroxide treated composites viscosity is increased due to the crosslinking of composite at higher temperature. The fibre breakage during extrusion was analysed using optical microscopy. The morphology of the extrudates has been studied by optical and scanning electron microscopies. Master curves were generated using modified viscosity and shear rate functions that contain melt flow index as a parameter.
Article
The influence of water environment on the sorption characteristics of low-density polyethylene composites reinforced with short pineapple-leaf fibers (PALF/LDPE) has been studied by immersion in distilled water at 28, 50 and 70°C. The effects of fiber loading, temperature and chemical treatment on the sorption behavior are also evaluated. Water uptake is found to increase with fiber loading owing to the increased cellulose content. Weight change profiles for the composites at high temperature indicated that the diffusion is close to Fickian. All of the treated composites showed lower uptake than the unmodified composites. Parameters like diffusion, sorption and permeability coefficients were determined and activation energies were calculated. The thermodynamic constants such as entropy, enthalpy and first-order kinetic rate constant have been evaluated. A correlation between theoretical and experimental sorption results was evaluated. The effect of water uptake on uniaxial tensile properties has also been studied. Mechanical properties decreased after exposure to water, depending on time of immersion, fiber loading and chemical treatment. Finally, studies were carried out on the flexural properties of PALF/LDPE composites exposed to ultraviolet radiation.
Properties and processing of plant fiber
  • C Yu
Yu, C., Properties and processing of plant fiber, Proceedings of the New Frontiers in Fibre Science 2001, 23 -25 May 2001, The Fibre Society, USA, 2001.
Short pineapple leaf fibre reinforced rubber composites, Plastic and Rubber Processing and Applications
  • T B Bhattacharyya
  • A K Biswas
Bhattacharyya, T.B., Biswas, A.K., and Chatterjee, J., Short pineapple leaf fibre reinforced rubber composites, Plastic and Rubber Processing and Applications, 6, 1986, 119-125.
Abaca, kenaf and pineapple fibers for nonwoven fabrics
  • I Zenaida
  • D Guzman
  • B Nora
  • Berana
  • M R Antonio
Zenaida, I., Guzman, D., Nora, B., Berana, and Antonio, M.R., Abaca, kenaf and pineapple fibers for nonwoven fabrics, NSTA Technology Journal, 2, 1982, 77-87.
The use of recycled wood and paper in building application
  • J A Youngquist
  • A M Krzysik
  • B W English
  • H N Spelter
  • P Chow
Youngquist, J.A., Krzysik, A.M., English, B.W., Spelter, H.N., and Chow, P., The use of recycled wood and paper in building application, Proceedings of a 1996 Symposium, Forest Products Society, 1996, 123-134.
  • Samal R.K.
Abaca, kenaf and pineapple fibres for nonwoven fabrics
  • Z I Guzman
  • N B Berana
  • A M Reyes
Guzman, Z.I., Berana, N.B., and Reyes, A.M., Abaca, kenaf and pineapple fibres for nonwoven fabrics, NSTA Technology Journal, 2, 1982, 77-87.
Tensile and flexural properties of pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) reinforced polypropylene (PP) laminated composites
  • R M N M Arib
  • S M Sapuan
  • M M H M Hamdan
  • M T Paridah
  • H M D Zaman
Arib, R.M.N.M., Sapuan, S.M., Hamdan, M.M.H.M., Paridah, M.T. and Khairul Zaman, H.M.D., Tensile and flexural properties of pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) reinforced polypropylene (PP) laminated composites, Proceedings of Symposium on Concurrent Engineering Manufacturing System for Polymeric-Based Composites Automotive Components, Serdang, Malaysia, 25 July 2003, 29-41.