Article

Crab spiders from Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China (Araneae, Thomisidae)

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Abstract

The crab spiders (Araneae: Thomisidae) collected from Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China are studied. A total of 34 genera and 62 species are reported, including 2 new genera and 23 new species: Micromisumenops gen. nov. of the tribe Misumenini Simon, 1895 (type species Misumenops xiushanensis Song and Chai, 1990), Spilosynema gen. nov. of the tribe Talaini Simon, 1895 (type species S. ansatum sp. nov.); Heriaeus concavus sp. nov., H. convexus sp. nov., Indoxysticus lumbricus sp. nov., Lycopus cha sp. nov., L. tabulatus sp. nov., Massuria bandian sp. nov., M. ovalis sp. nov., Mastira serrula sp. nov., Ozyptila imbrex sp. nov., Paraborboropactus canalis sp. nov., Phrynarachne brevis sp. nov., P. lancea sp. nov., Pistius rotundus sp. nov., Smodicinodes yaoi sp. nov., Spilosynema ansatum sp. nov., S. comminum sp. nov., S. mancum sp. nov., S. ravum sp. nov., Synema revolutum sp. nov., Takachihoa lamellaris sp. nov., T. tumida sp. nov., Talaus sulcus sp. nov., Tmarus gladiatus sp. nov. Male Epidius bazarus (Tikader, 1970), male Paraborboropactus rhombus Tang and Li, 2009, female Smodicinodes schwendingeri Benjamin, 2002 are described for the first time.

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... Fertilization duct transverse. Tang and Li (2010 Etymology. The species is named after Dreepy, a fictional character from Pokémon Sword and Shield, who has a triangular head that is reminiscent of the opisthosoma of the new species; noun (name) in apposition. ...
... Male. See Tang and Li (2010). ...
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Four new species of the genus Phrynarachne Thorell, 1869 from China are described: P. dreepy Lin & S. Li, sp. nov. (♂♀), P. xuxiake Lin & S. Li, sp. nov. (♀), P. yunhui Lin & S. Li, sp. nov. (♀), and P. zhengzhongi Lin & S. Li, sp. nov. (♀). The unknown sexes of P. brevis Tang & S. Li, 2010 (♂), P. huangshanensis Li et al., 1985 (♀), P. lancea Tang & S. Li, 2010 (♂), and P. mammillata Song, 1990 (♀) are described for the first time. Phrynarachne sinensis Peng, Yin & Kim is treated as a nomen dubium.
... Distinguished from known congeners by the short MA and RTA. Females are distinguished by the large pointed medial projections (pointed towards the median line) of the epigynum (arrow in Figure 1(e)) and by larger size (Tikader 1970;Tang et al. 2009;Tang and Li 2010). Tang and Li (2010, p. 8) also note the large body size and the 'medially shrunken' cymbium. ...
... See Tikader (1970), Tang et al. (2009) and Tang and Li (2010). ...
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Distributional and taxonomic data are provided for six species of crab spiders of the genus Epidius Thorell, 1877 of which five species, E. coloratus sp. nov., E. elongatus sp. nov. (male), E. floreni sp. nov. (male/female), E. longimanus sp. nov. (male/female) and E. mahavira sp. nov. (male/female), are newly described. Evidence is provided to demonstrate that Pothaeus Thorell, 1895 (type species Pothaeus armatu is a junior synonym of Epidius. Epidius bazarus is shown to be a junior synonym of E. armatus comb. nov. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:15B56D3E-69FB-46CD-8AFE-34919B844D14
... The biodiversity of ground-dwelling spider in these 6 forest types has been analysed (Zheng et al. 2009). And several spider groups collected have well studied Tang & Li 2010). ...
... All measurements are in millimetres. The distribution map of materials examined here refers to that of and Tang & Li (2010). Specimens are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (IZCAS). ...
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Spiders of the family Hahniidae from the rainforest area of Xishuangbanna are examined. Totally 7 species, including 5 new species are reported: Alistra annulata sp. nov. (male), A. hippocampa sp. nov. (male, female), Hahnia saccata sp. nov. (male, female), H. submaginii sp. nov. (male, female) and H. senaria sp. nov. (male, female). Two known species, Hahnia flagellifera Zhu, Chen & Sha, 1989 (male, female) and H. himalayaensis Hu & Zhang, 1990 (male, female) are firstly recorded from Yunnan Province and redescribed here. The genus Alistra is firstly recorded from China. Morphological descriptions, illustrations and photos of all species are given. All specimens are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing (IZCAS).
... Four out of six Phrynarachne species are distributed in rain forests in Menglun Town (mainly in Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanic Garden and its surrounding areas), Mengla County, Yunnan Province. In addition, despite not being sampled in this study, a few more Phrynarachne species are also reported in the same areas (Tang and Li, 2010;Zhang and Wang, 2017;Lin et al., 2022). Thus, inclusion of more Phrynarachne species from Yunnan, other sites in China, and other regions of its distribution will shed light on the diversification of this group of crab spiders, thereby improving our understanding of the evolution of bird dropping masquerading behavior in these spiders. ...
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Evolutionary biologists have long been fascinated by the striking resemblance to bird droppings of the sit-and-wait crab spiders of the genus Phrynarachne. In doing so, species of Phrynarachne have evolved not to avoid detection, but rather, to cause predators to misidentify them as inedible and/or inanimate bird droppings. However, the lack of a phylogeny for Phrynarachne impedes our understanding of the evolution of this trait in the genus. Here we explore species boundaries in species of Phrynarachne from China using single- and multi-locus species delimitation approaches based on 30 Phrynarachne samples. All species delimitation approaches supported six species of Phrynarachne in China. We further present the first phylogenetic analysis of the genus Phrynarachne and estimate divergence times using two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes. All of our phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of Phrynarachne in China, with the genus still included within the higher ‘Thomisus group’ based on our results. Our dating analyses place the crown age of Phrynarachne in China to the middle Miocene. Taken together, our study provides a time-calibrated phylogeny of the genus Phrynarachne in China for testing hypotheses regarding the evolution of the lineage and bird dropping masquerade.
... For the dissections of epigynum, stretching of legs and chelicerae CZM6 stereomicroscope was used. Legs (femur, patella + tibia, metatarsus, tarsus), eyes and body length were measured following Tang and Li (2010) [6] . The materials are deposited at the Andaman and Nicobar Regional Centre, Zoological Survey of India, Port Blair. ...
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A female of Borboropactus bituberculatus Simon, 1884 has been reported from Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India for the first time. Diagnostic characters are provided for the species, as well as new photographs or illustrations of the genital organs of the species.
... For the dissections of epigynum, stretching of legs and chelicerae CZM6 stereomicroscope was used. Legs (femur, patella + tibia, metatarsus, tarsus), eyes and body length were measured following Tang and Li (2010) [6]. The materials are deposited at the Andaman and Nicobar Regional Centre, Zoological Survey of India, Port Blair. ...
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Description of Phrynarachne ceylonica (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1884) female from Andaman and Nicobar islands after a long gap of 124 years has been provided through the collections of the fresh specimen in and around these islands. The selection of habitat and the range expansion are discussed. The distribution records of the species are mapped.
... Xishuangbanna is one of the five tropical regions in Southern China (Li 2007). Tang & Li (2010) provide a brief account of the geography, natural history and the decreasing tropical forests of Xishuangbanna. The diversity of crab spiders from Xishuangbanna, Yunnan was recently reported (Tang & Li 2009a, b, c, Tang & Li 2010). ...
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The lynx spiders (Araneae: Oxyopidae) from the tropical forests of Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China were studied. A total of three genera and 16 species were examined and studied, including 10 new species from two genera: Hamataliwa foveata sp. nov., H. manca sp. nov., H. menglunensis sp. nov., H. oculata sp. nov., H. pedicula sp. nov., H. pentagona sp. nov., H. pilulifera sp. nov., H. submanca sp. nov., Oxyopes complicatus sp. nov. and O. submirabilis sp. nov. Hamataliwa subhadrae (Tikader, 1970) comb. nov. is transferred from Oxyopes Latreille, 1804. The females of Oxyopes mirabilis Zhang, 2005 and O. tenellus Song, 1991 are described for the first time. Hamadruas hieroglyphica (Thorell, 1887) and Hamataliwa subhadrae (Tikader, 1970) are newly recorded from China. The species Oxyopes bianatinus Xie & Kim, 1996 is considered a junior synonym of Oxyopes fujianicus Song & Zhu, 1993. Oxyopes decorosus Zhang & Zhu, 2005 is recorded from the Yunnan Province, China for the first time.
... Xishuangbanna of southern Yunnan belongs to the transitional zone from tropical southern Asia to subtropical East Asia . Only a small number of linyphiid spiders have been reported from Xishuangbanna in the past studies, in contrast with the large number of spiders of less diverse groups found there (Tang and Li 2010;Gao and Li 2014). In 1995, one new genus Nasoonaria Wunderlich & Song, 1995 from Xishuangbanna, Yunnan was established and two new species were described: Nasoonaria sinensis Wunderlich & Song, 1995 and Batueta similis Wunderlich & Song, 1995, the latter is the first species of genus Batueta Locket, 1982 to be found outside of western Malaysia (Wunderlich and Song 1995), where this genus was originally described. ...
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... Rainforest canopy spiders from China are concerned for the first time. Up to now, a new family (Sinopimoidae), three new genera of Thomisidae, and about 20 new species from rainforest canopy of Xishuangbanna were published (Li & Wunderlich 2008;Lin & Li 2008Tang & Li 2010;Zhang et al. 2011). ...
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A new species, Tmarus songi spec. nov. is described with both sexes from Guangxi Province, China. The condition of genital organ of the new species indicates its close relationship with T. digitiformis Yang, Zhu and Song, 2005. The male Tmarus taiwanus is described and illustrated for the first time.
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The first quantitative phylogenetic analysis of three sequenced genes (16S rRNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, histone 3) of 25 genera of crab spiders and 11 outgroups supports the monophyly of Thomisidae. Four lineages within Thomisidae are recovered. They are informally named here as the Borboropactus clade, Epidius clade, Stephanopis clade and the Thomisus clade, pending detailed morphology based cladistic work. The Thomisus clade is recovered as a strongly supported monophyletic group with a minimal genetic divergence. Philodromidae previously widely considered a subfamily of Thomisidae do not group within thomisids and is excluded from Thomisidae. However, Aphantochilinae previously generally considered as a separate family falls within the Thomisus clade and is included in Thomisidae. The recently proposed new family Borboropactidae is rejected, as it is paraphyletic. © The Willi Hennig Society 2008.
Article
Tree species diversity of four tropical forest vegetation types was investigated in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China. These are: tropical seasonal rain forest, tropical montane rain forest, evergreen broad-leaved forest and monsoon forest over limestone. A total of 17 samples were taken and four species diversity indices were calculated: Shannon-Wiener's H, the complement of Simpson's index, d, Fisher's and evenness index E. The results reveal the long-tailed rank/abundance diagrams of these forests. However, this feature is greatly reduced in the samples of monsoon forest over limestone. Tropical seasonal rain forest shows the highest tree species diversity of all four vegetation types. Owing to the variation of microenvironment, diversity values within the same vegetation type vary between the samples from different patches. The tree species diversity of single-dominant rain forest is not significantly lower than that of mixed rain forest, because the dominant species of some single-dominant rain forests are principally in the emergent layer. This is composed of sparse and huge trees of one species and, consequently, creates a unique canopy architecture and more heterogeneous microenvironments for the more diversified species composition under the emergent layer. The occurrence of tree species with small population sizes, particularly of species represented by only one individual, is highly correlated with the tree species diversity of the local forest vegetation. They are crucial elements in the richness of local biodiversity.
Article
Kyoto University (京都大学) 0048 新制・論文博士 博士(理学) 乙第6388号 論理博第994号 新制/理/585 UT51-63-C122 1988-01-23
Article
Conservationists are far from able to assist all species under threat, if only for lack of funding. This places a premium on priorities: how can we support the most species at the least cost? One way is to identify 'biodiversity hotspots' where exceptional concentrations of endemic species are undergoing exceptional loss of habitat. As many as 44% of all species of vascular plants and 35% of all species in four vertebrate groups are confined to 25 hotspots comprising only 1.4% of the land surface of the Earth. This opens the way for a 'silver bullet' strategy on the part of conservation planners, focusing on these hotspots in proportion to their share of the world's species at risk.
by the long, twisted copulatory ducts. Description. Male (holotype measured): Total length 1.80. Prosoma 0.80 long, 0.85 wide; opisthosoma 1.00 long, 0.90 wide. Dorsal shield of prosoma blackish brown, with densely hairs and several sparse long setae on small tubercles
  • Tang
Etymology. The specific name comes from the Latin word sulcus (furrow, groove), referring to the palp with a tegular groove, noun in apposition. Diagnosis. This new species can be distinguished from other members of this genus by the palpal tegulum with a small U-shaped groove. This species is similar to T. samchi Ono, 2001, but can be separated from the latter by: palp without DTA (a denticle DTA in T. samchi); epigynum with long copulatory ducts (short in T. samchi). The female can also be distinguished from T. niger Tang et al., 2008 by the long, twisted copulatory ducts. Description. Male (holotype measured): Total length 1.80. Prosoma 0.80 long, 0.85 wide; opisthosoma 1.00 long, 0.90 wide. Dorsal shield of prosoma blackish brown, with densely hairs and several sparse long setae on small tubercles. Eye measurements: AME 0.05, ALE 0.12, PME 0.03, PLE 0.06, AME−AME 0.10, AME−ALE 0.21, PME−PME 0.24, PME−PLE 0.22. MOA 0.22 long, front width 0.20, back width 0.30. Chelicerae, gnathocoxae, labium and sternum blackish brown. Femora I−IV black brown, other segments yellow, leg measurements: I: 1.92 (0.60, 0.66, 0.36, 0.30); II: 2.00 (0.64, 0.68, 0.38, 0.30); III: 1.34 (0.40, 0.50, 0.24, 0.20); IV: 1.36 (0.40, 0.50, 0.26, 0.20), leg formula 2143. Opisthosoma dorsally grayish black with long setae, posteriorly grayish yellow; venter grayish yellow. Palp (Figs 71 B-D, 73 A-B). VTA thicker and longer than RTA, tegulum with a prolateral blackish brown Ushaped groove, embolus long filiform. Female (one of the paratypes measured): Total length 2.00. Prosoma 0.80 long, 0.95 wide; opisthosoma 1.20 long, 1.25 wide. Body pigmentation lighter than in male. Eye measurements: AME 0.05, ALE 0.11, PME 0.03, PLE 0.06, AME−AME 0.10, AME−ALE 0.24, PME−PME 0.30, PME−PLE 0.24. MOA 0.22 long, front width 0.24, back width 0.38. Leg measurements: I: 2.22 (0.76, 0.76, 0.40, 0.30);
IV: 1.66 (0.54, 0.60, 0.30, 0.22), leg formula 2143. Material examined. 2 ♀ , CHINA: Yunnan, Xishuangbanna, Mengla County, Menglun Town, Menglun Nature Reserve, Teak plantation (N21º54.770', E101º16.084', 559 m)
II: 2.30 (0.80, 0.76, 0.44, 0.30); legs III 1.58 (0.50, 0.58, 0.30, 0.20); IV: 1.66 (0.54, 0.60, 0.30, 0.22), leg formula 2143. Material examined. 2 ♀ , CHINA: Yunnan, Xishuangbanna, Mengla County, Menglun Town, Menglun Nature Reserve, Teak plantation (N21º54.770', E101º16.084', 559 m), 12 November 2009, G. Tang and Z.Y. Yao (Tang-Yao_No.3). Distribution. China (Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan). , CHINA: Yunnan, Xishuangbanna, Mengla County, Menglun Town, Menglun Nature Reserve, July 1983, no other records. Distribution. China (Yunnan), Vietnam. Remarks. The genus Zametopina Simon, 1909 was erected for a male thomisid, Z. calceata Simon, 1909 from Vietnam. Both sexes of this species were recorded from Xishuangbanna, Yunnan about 100 years later (Tang et al.
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